Federal Security AgencySocial Security Building, Fourth Street and Independence Avenue SW.
EXecutive 6500, Branch 2321
OFFICIALS Administrator Paul V. McNutt Assistant Administrator Watson B. Miller Executive Assistant to the Administrator Leo L. Miller General Counsel Jack B. Tate Administrative Consultant James C. Penman Assistant to the Administrator Mary E. Switzer Assistant to the Administrator Harry N. Rosenfield Director of Personnel Arthur B. McLean Budget Officer Marion A. Stephens Director of Research Thomas J. Woofter Director of Information Zilpha C. Franklin Assistant General Counsel Robert C. Ayers Assistant General Counsel Earle Simrell Assistant General Counsel Patrick D. Cronin Assistant General Counsel Gladys Harrison Assistant General Counsel A. Delafield Smith Assistant General Counsel Alanson W. Willcox Director, Service Operations Taylor H. McCauley Office of Community War Services: Director Mark A. McCloskey Executive Officer, Field Operations Dean Snyder Director of Recreation Sherwood Gates Director of Social Protection Thomas Devine Committee on Physical Fitness: Chairman John B. Kelly Executive Officer Harlan Metcalf Health and Medical Committee: Chairman Dr. Irvin Abell
Creation and Authority.--The Federal Security Agency was created by the President's Reorganization Plan I, dated April 25, 1939, in accordance with the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1939 (53 Stat. 561; 5 U.S.C. 133). The agencies grouped in the Federal Security Agency under the first plan were the Civilian Conservation Corps (substantially liquidated), National Youth Administration (substantially liquidated), the Office of Education, the Public Health Service, the Social Security Board ,and the United States Employment Service (transferred to War Manpower Commission by Executive Order 9247, dated September 17, 1942).
The second plan on Government reorganization transferred to the Federal Security Agency, for administration in the Office of Education, the Film and Radio Services of the former National Emergency Council. (These services were terminated June 30, 1940.) Federal participation in the work of the American Printing House for the Blind was also transferred to the Federal Security Agency.
The fourth plan on Government reorganization transferred to the Federal Security Agency the Food and Drug Administration from the Department of Agriculture, and St. Elizabeths Hospital, Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University, and Columbia Institution for the Deaf from the Department of the Interior.
Executive Order 9338, dated April 29, 1943, transferred to the Federal Security Agency from the Office for Emergency Management the functions of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. Under this order, and a Federal Security Agency order implementing it, the Office of Community War Services and a Committee on Physical Fitness were established as integral parts of the Office of the Administrator, Federal Security Agency. Executive Order 9338 also transferred to the Federal Security Agency the Health and Medical Committee and the other advisory and subcommittees appointed pursuant to the establishment of the former Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. This Committee also functions in the Office of the Administrator.
A new Office of Vocational Rehabilitation was established within the Federal Security Agency to administer the expanded program of vocational rehabilitation under the Barden-La Follette Act of July 6, 1943.
Purposes.--The Federal Security Agency was established to carry out the purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939, which are:
- To reduce expenditures.
- To increase efficiency.
- To consolidate agencies according to major purposes.
- To reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions and by abolishing such as may not be necessary.
- To eliminate overlapping and duplication of effort.
Grouped in the Federal Security Agency are those agencies of the Government the major purposes of which are to promote social and economic security, educational opportunity, and the health of the citizens of the Nation.
The general responsibility of the Office of Community War Services is to serve as a center for the coordination of health and welfare services for the Nation as a whole during the war emergency. Its particular duty is to focus attention on unmet needs in localities expanded or otherwise affected by the War Program and to help in marshaling the public and private resources of Federal, State, and local agencies so that the needed services are provided. Its coordinating authority covers all health, medical, welfare, recreation, and related wartime activities, including those aspects of education under the Federal Security Agency.
The Committee on Physical Fitness is successor to the Division of Physical Fitness, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. The general objective of this Committee, through its Subcommittees on State and Community Organization, Schools and Colleges, and Institutional Organization, is to promote among individuals of all ages an interest in the improvement of their health and physical condition.
The coordination of wartime health and medical programs and the mobilization of health and medical resources is facilitated by the advisory Health and Medical Committee, with special Subcommittees on Medical Education, Hospitals, Dentistry, Nursing, Industrial Health and Medicine, and Negro Health.
Organization.--In addition to the Administrator's Office, with its continuing and emergency functions, the Agency, as presently constituted, includes the following constituent units: the Public Health Service, under which is Freedmens' Hospital; St. Elizabeths Hospital;
the Office of Education; the Social Security Board; the Food and Drug Administration; and the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. It also represents Federal participation in the work of Howard University, Columbia Institution for the Deaf, and the American Printing House for the Blind.
The affairs of the Federal Security Agency are under the direction and supervision of the Federal Security Administrator. He is assisted by the Assistant Administrator, who acts as Administrator in his absence, and by a staff of administrative, special, and technical assistants who aid in the activities and correlation of the different units of the Agency.
To coordinate work in the field, the Regional Directors and the regional offices of the Social Security Board serve the Office of Community War Services in a regional capacity.
Paul V. McNutt
United States Office of EducationTemporary Building M, Twenty-sixth Street and Constitution Avenue NW.
EXecutive 6500, Branch 3208
OFFICIALS Commissioner John W. Studebaker Assistant Commissioner Bess Goodykoontz Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education John C. Wright Deputy Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education Jerry R. Hawke Assistant to the Commissioner C.F.Kinefelter Special Assistant to the Commissioner Rall I. Grigsby Administrative Officer Marie E. Schutt Librarian Willard O. Mishoff, Acting Director, Vocational Training for War Production Workers L.S. Hawkins Director, Engineering, Science, and Management War Training George W. Case Director, Food Production War Training W.T. Spanton
Creation and Authority.--The United States Office of Education was established by an act of Congress approved March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 434; 20 U.S.C. 1), "for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the several States and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems, and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country." Since the passage of this organic act the functions of the office have been expanded by further legislation and Executive orders to include (1) the administration of funds appropriated as aids to education,
and (2) the conduct of special studies and the operation of specified programs.
The Federal Board for Vocational Education was created by the Smith Hughes Act, of February 23, 1917 (39 Stat. 929; 20 U.S.C. 11-28). This act makes continuing appropriations to be expended in the States under State plans for the promotion of vocational education. The work has been expanded and appropriations increased through the George-Reed Act, the George-Ellzey Act, and the George-Deen Act.
Under Executive Order 6166, of June 10, 1933, the functions of the Federal Board for Vocational Education were transferred to the Department of the Interior. These functions were assigned to the Commissioner of Education on October 10, 1933.
The United States Office of Education, with all of its functions, was transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Security Agency, effective July 1, 1939, in accordance with the provisions of the President's Reorganization Plan I.
The legislation which established the United States Office of Education made it the agency of the Federal Government for educational matters. The Office (1) collects educational statistics and other forms of information on schools and school systems, colleges and universities, libraries, and programs of instruction and administrative procedures; (2) makes and reports studies on problems for which research is needed to guide educational practices; (3) serves in an advisory and consultative capacity to State and local school officials, to the administrative and professional staffs of colleges and universities, to representatives of foreign countries, and to students of education; and (4) administers (a) funds as grants in aid to education, and (b) special programs.
The Office administers the acts for the promotion of vocational education, including agricultural, trade and industrial, home economics, and business education, compiling information and cooperating with and assisting the States in all such matters.
It administers all other functions originally assigned to the Federal Board for Vocational Education, including investigations to determine whether the States are properly utilizing their Federal grants, examination and approval of State plans, cooperation with public and private institutions, and the compilation of information and reports to aid local authorities in this work.
The Office of Education publishes documents based upon research, studies, and other activities in practically all educational fields and for all educational levels.
It supervises the administration of funds appropriated for land-grant colleges.
It makes a yearly inspection and report to Congress on the condition of Howard University.
The United States Office of Education cooperates with the States, local communities, and engineering schools, colleges, and universities
in carrying out the provisions of the act approved June 28, 1944 (58 Stat. 547), title II, subtitle "Education and Training Defense Workers (National Defense)," and with the War Production Board, the War Manpower Commission, and with other national war agencies.
The Office cooperates with the several State Boards for Vocational Education and participating colleges and universities in the furtherance of the education and training of war production workers as follows:
- Assists the States to organize and conduct vocational courses of less than college grade through (a) courses supplementary to employment in occupations essential to the war effort, and (b) preemployment and refresher courses for workers preparing for such occupations and selected from public employment office registers. Courses within the States are determined by State Boards for Vocational Education in cooperation with State and local representative advisory committees when such courses are consistent with State plans which have been approved by the United States Commissioner of Education and when they are designed to prepare for occupations which have been declared by the War Manpower Commission to be essential to the war effort. Certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury the allotment of funds to the State Boards for Vocational Education to bear the cost of such instruction, exclusive of the purchase or erection of buildings.
- Cooperates with degree-granting schools and universities in organizing and conducting short courses of college grade designed to meet the shortage of engineers, chemists, physicists, and production supervisors with specialized training in fields essential to the war effort. Assists such institutions in the preparation of plans for review by the Commissioner for the purpose of approval or disapproval. Cooperates with these institutions in securing the most efficient use of funds to be expended for the purchase or rental of additional equipment and the leasing of additional necessary space. Allots to them Federal funds for the maintenance of such courses. The short engineering courses of college grade include instruction in such fields as materials inspection, machine design, tool engineering, production engineering, marine engineering and naval architecture, design and inspection of aircraft equipment and structures, and various types of technical inspection. Courses for production supervisors include personnel, administration, accounting, and statistics.
- Assists the States in the organization and conduct of vocational courses in food production and conservation, mechanics, farm-machinery repair, and farm-labor training of less than college grade designed to assist in attaining the production goals for those farm commodities designated from time to time in the food-for-freedom program promulgated by the United States Department of Agriculture. Reviews for the purpose of approving or disapproving State plans submitted by State Boards for Vocational Education for the organization and conduct of such programs and apportions Federal funds among the several States for such courses. Approves or disapproves proposed expenditures for the purchase or rental of additional equipment and rental of additional space for the organization and conduct of such programs.
In addition to the foregoing, the Office produces visual aids for war training in occupations essential to the war effort, such occupations having been approved by the Chairman of the War Manpower Commission. The production of these visual aids involves making surveys of industries for critical training areas and analyses of teaching content; the laying out of detailed specifications for content and treatment of motion picture films, slide films, and teachers manuals; the awarding of contracts for the actual production to industrial producing companies, and the giving of close direction and supervision to the work of the companies in producing the visual aids; and the awarding of a contract for the national distribution and sale of prints to all interested users. The congressional appropriation for 1944 provided funds for the completion by June 30, 1945, of all films in production. At that time the Division's activities will be terminated.
School Services in War Areas.--The act of Congress of July 15, 1943 (57 Stat. 565; 42 U.S.C. 1534-note), provides that the U.S. Office of Education and State departments of education shall be consulted by the Federal Works Agency before funds under the Lanham Act are made available to local school districts in war areas for the maintenance and operation of regular school services and extended school services for children of working mothers. Field and departmental consultants are employed by the U.S. Office of Education, by transfer of funds from the Federal Works Agency, to make recommendations in cooperation with the State departments of education fo such services.
Health and Physical Fitness Services.--The Office of Education has increased its physical fitness and health services through the cooperation of the Committee on Physical Fitness of the Federal Security Agency and the United States Public Health Service. These two agencies have assigned staff members to this Office to aid with programs of physical fitness and social hygiene, respectively.
Inter-American Education Relations.--The Office is promoting the development of Inter-American understanding and cooperation in the field of education through such activities as exchange of students and teachers; promotion of language study; preparation and distribution of exhibits, loan packets, and other teaching materials; and assistance to Pan-American clubs and to inter-American teacher education programs. Funds for the program are received from the Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the American Republics and from the office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs.
School Transportation in Wartime.--This Office cooperates with the Office of Defense Transportation, through funds provided by that agency, in the program of conservation and proper utilization of equipment in school transportation services. The program looks toward the reorganization of bus routes, planned State and local programs of maintenance and operation of equipment, drive-and-mechanic training programs, and other related problems.
Cooperative Activities With Other Agencies.--Cooperative activities are carried on with the War Production Board (1) in determining priorities for materials used by schools and 92) in salvage campaigns; the Surplus Property Board on problems of utilization and disposal of surplus property for educational use; the Children's
Bureau in recommending minimum standards relative to school attendance and child labor; the Commodity Credit Corporation in its efforts to provide Federal assistance to school lunches; and with various Government agencies in plans for consumer education.
John W. Studebaker
Columbia Institution for the DeafSeventh Street and Florida Avenue NE.
President Percival Hall
Creation and Authority.--The Columbia Institution for the Instruction fo the Deaf and the Dumb and the Blind was created by act of February 16, 1857 (11 Stat. 161-2; 24 U.S.C. 231, 235). An amendatory act of February 23, 1865 (13 Stat. 436; 24 U.S.C. 231, 249), changed the name to Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. Its name was changed to the present one by act of March 14, 1911 (36 Stat. 1422; 24 U.S.C. 231 note). Its functions under the Department of the Interior were transferred to the Federal Security Agency by section 11(d) of Reorganization Plan IV, effective June 30, 1940.
Purpose.--All deaf mutes of teachable age of the District of Columbia are admitted to this institution without charge. Pay pupils and students may receive instruction for $600. The advanced department, known as Gallaudet College, offers the only advanced course especially for deaf students, given anywhere in the world. Congress maintains a definite number of free scholarships in this department for students who can pass the necessary educational tests.
Howard University2401 Sixth Street NW.
President Mordecai Johnson
Creation and Authority.--Howard University was established by act of March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 438). Its functions under the Department of the Interior were transferred to the Federal Security
Agency by section 11 (c) of Reorganization Plan IV, effective June 30, 1940.
Purpose.--The lack of higher educational facilities for Negroes in the States in which most of them live has resulted in a serious deficiency in professional services for Negroes essential for their better development and greater security. Howard University, jointly supported by congressional appropriations and private funds, is a comprehensive university organization, offering instructions in nine schools and colleges as follows: the college of liberal arts, the school of engineering and architecture, the school of music, the college of medicine, the college of dentistry, the college of pharmacy, the school of law, the school of religion, the graduate school, and, in addition, a summer school.
Public Health ServiceTemporary Building T-6, Bethesda, Md., OLiver 4200;
National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Md., WIsconsin 7000
OFFICIALS Surgeon General Dr. Thomas Parran Deputy Surgeon General Dr. Warren F. Draper Assistant Surgeon General, Director, National Institute of Health Dr. Rollo E. Dyer Assistant Surgeon General, Chief, Bureau of State Services Dr. L.R. Thompson Assistant Surgeon General, Associate Chief, Bureau of State Services Dr. C.L. Williams Assistant Surgeon General, Chief, BUreau of Medical Services Dr. R.C. Williams Assistant Surgeon General, Chief Medical Officer, War Shipping Administration Dr. Justin K. Fuller Medical Director, Division of Commissioned Personnel Dr. W.F. Ossenfort Dental Director, Division of Dentistry Dr. W.T. Wright, Jr. Sanitary Engineer Director, Division of Engineering John K. Hoskins Medical Director, United States Coast Guard Dr. Carl Michel Chief, Division of Public Health Methods G. St. J. Perrott Nurse Director, Division of Nurse Education Lucile Petry
Creation and Authority.--The Public Health Service had its origin in an act of Congress of July 1`6, 1798 (ch. 77, 1 Stat. 605; 24 U.S.C. 2), creating the marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen, later known as the Marine Hospital Service. Subsequent legislation has vastly broadened the scope of activities to include the functions of a national health service. The Public Health Service Act of July 1, 1944 (58 Stat. 682), codifies substantially all existing public health legislation. In addition, it provides for greater assistance to
States in establishing and maintaining adequate public health services; development of coordinated research into causes and prevention of all diseases; establishment of a national tuberculosis control program; expansion of the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service to include scientific personnel and nurses. In 1902 the name was changed to Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, and in 1912 to the Public Health Service.
Purpose.--The Public Health Service, under the Surgeon General, is the Federal agency specifically charged with matters relating to the protection and improvement of the public health. Its authorized functions are research and promotion of research relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases and impairments of man, control of biologic products, cooperation with State and other health agencies, prevention of the introduction of disease from abroad and the spread of disease in the United States, medical care of legal beneficiaries, and the dissemination of health information.
Federal-State Cooperative Program.--The Public Health Service cooperates with other Federal agencies, with State and local health departments, and with unofficial health agencies on matters pertaining to public health, health education, and sanitation. Under the Public Health Service Act of 1944 (which embodies provisions of title VI of the Social Security Act), it assists States, counties, health districts, and other political subdivisions of the States in establishing and maintaining adequate public health services, including the training of personnel. For this purpose an annual appropriation not to exceed $20,000,000 is authorized. This sum exceeds the 1944 appropriation (authorized under title VI) by $9,000,000.
To enable the Public Health Service to develop more effective measures for the prevention, treatment, and control of tuberculosis and to assist States and their political subdivisions in tuberculosis control, the Public Health Service Act authorizes an appropriation of $10,000,000 for the tuberculosis control program in the 1945 fiscal year.
Provisions of the Venereal Disease Act (of July 9, 1918), and the amendment to the act (approved May 24, 1939), are embodied in the Public Health Service Act of 1944. Appropriations authorized for venereal disease control in 1944 totaled $12,500,000. The appropriation for 1945 is $12.339,000.
The Public Health Service is assisting State and local health authorities in maintaining proper sanitation facilities and providing other health protective measures in military, naval, and industrial areas where there are large concentrations of troops or abnormal increases in population as the result of war industrial activities. For the conduct of these emergency health activities, an appropriation of $11,250,000 was made for the fiscal year 1945.
Research.--The National Institute of Health and field stations investigate the causes and methods of prevention of diseases of man. Appropriations totaling $2,274,000 have been authorized under the Public Health Service Act for the fiscal year 1945. The Public Health Service Act, which embodies provisions of the National Cancer Institute Act of August 5, 1937, also authorizes an appropriation of $561,000 for the National Cancer Institute in 1945.
Diseases of importance to the military forces are being studied and nutritional research related to military needs is in progress. Yellow fever and typhus vaccine are being supplied the Army and navy, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine for Army and civilian use.
Laboratory investigations have been expanded to establish toxicological standards, study new industrial substances and processes, and to further research in aviation medicine.
Control of Biologic Products.--By means of inspection of plants, tests of products, and license, the Public Health Service supervises the manufacture and sale, in interstate commerce, of biologic and analogous products used in the prevention and treatment of disease. The purpose is to insure, to the highest degree possible, the purity and potency of standard products. Standards for the collection, drying, and storage of human blood plasma for the use of the wounded have been set. Laboratories engaged in this collection have been inspected and approved.
Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Disease.--In preventing the introduction of disease from abroad, the Public Health Service conducts the national maritime quarantine activities, makes physical examinations of immigrants, and inspects passengers and crews of vessels and airplanes arriving from foreign ports. it also acts to prevent the spread of communicable diseases between the States through interstate traffic.
Quarantine surveillance, especially at airports of entry, maritime ports, continental borders, and in the Caribbean area, has been intensified.
Hospitalization and Institutions.--The Public Health Service furnishes outpatient and hospital treatment to its legal beneficiaries in 150 ports of the United States and its possessions, provided by 25 marine hospitals, 120 other relief stations, and 133 contract hospitals located in ports not served by the marine hospitals. It operates a hospital for the care and treatment of persons having leprosy, conducts two hospitals for the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts, and administers Freedmen's Hospital in the District of Columbia. It also studies and issues information on mental diseases, and furnishes and supervises the medical and psychiatric services in Federal penal and correctional institutions under the Department of Justice, a provided by the act of May 13, 1930.
The hospital facilities of the Public Health Service are available for the care of patients whose treatment is requested or authorized by the Army or the Navy.
Dissemination of Public Health Information.--It publishes the results of research, collects, compiles, and publishes reports of communicable diseases in the United States and foreign countries and other information relating to public health, and disseminates general health information through publications, exhibits, moving picture films stereopticon slides, posters, and other educational means.
Administration of Regulatory Laws.--The regulatory functions of the Public Health Service concern the administration of the laws and the regulations issued under the authority thereof relating to maritime and interstate quarantine and to the control of manufacture and sale of biological and analogous products.
Other War Activities
The Service has acted as the approving agency for construction of public health, sanitation, and hospital facilities under the Lanham Act. Personnel of the Service are cooperating with military authorities and other Federal agencies in the development of their medical and public health programs.
Venereal disease control activities have been intensified and rapid treatment enters for infected persons have been established. Special programs have been set up for the control of plague, typhus fever, malaria, and tuberculosis. Services to the States in the development of industrial hygiene programs have been expanded.
Medical officers of the Service have been assigned to duty with the armed services, and officers have been assigned to the War Shipping Administration for the medical care program for recruits and trainees. Additional medical officers have been assigned to the Coast Guard.
Training for Nurses.--Under the provisions of the Bolton Act, the Public Health Service administers a program of nurse education. The war nurse training program calls for recruitment and training of 125,000 new nurses in the fiscal years 1944 and 1945. Trainees enrolled in the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps receive free training, maintenance, uniforms, and a monthly stipend. A total of $55,200,000 was appropriated for the fiscal year 1944 to carry out the program. The 1945 appropriation is $63,000,000.
Freedmen's HospitalSixth and Bryant Streets NW.
Superintendent James L. Hall
Creation and Authority.--Freedmen's Hospital was established by act of March 3, 1871 (16 Stat. 506; 24 U.S.C. 261). Its functions were transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Security Agency by section 11 (b) of Reorganization Plan IV, effective June 30, 1940.
Purpose.--Freedmen's Hospital, rated as Class A by the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical Association, is a general hospital with specialized departments and a school of nursing approved by the Nurses Examining Board of the District of Columbia. It has 348 beds, 54 bassinets, and a 150-bed tuberculosis unit, and maintains an outpatient department. The Hospital is affiliated with Howard University Medical School.
Saint Elizabeths HospitalNichols Avenue, Congress Heights
Superintendent Winfred Overholser
Creation and Authority.--The Hospital was first established by act of March 3, 1955 (10 Stat. 682; 24 U.S.C. 165). Its functions were transferred from the Department of the Interiror to the Federal Security Agency by section 11 (a) of Reorganization Plan IV, efective June 30, 1940.
Purpose.--Saint EWlizabeths Hospital provides for treatment of the mentally ill members of the military services of the United States, including the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It also provides such treatment for certain civilians, including residents of the District of Columbia, beneficiaries of the United States Public Health Service, Indians under the Office of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior, persons charged with Federal crimes who are insance, expatriated American citizens from Canada, and the mentally ill from the Canal Zone and the Virgin Islands.
Social Security Board1825 H. Street NW.
EXecutive 6500, Branches 3010-03
MEMBERS Chairman Arthur J. Altmeyer George E. Bigge Ellen S. Woodward OFFICIALS Executive Director Oscar M. Powell Assistant Executive Director William L. Mitchell Director, Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Oscar C. Pogge Director, Bureau of Employment Security Ewan Clague Director Bureau of Public Assistance Jane M. Hoey Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics I.S. Falk Director, Bureau of Accounts and Audits Leonard J. Wilbert Director, Informational Service Robert Huse Actuarial Consultant W.R. Williamson Chairman, Appeals Council Joseph E. McElvain
Creation and Authority.--The Social Security Board was established under the provisions of the Social Security Act (49 Stat.
620; 29 U.S.C. 45b, also title 42), approved August 14, 1935. In accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1939 (53 Stat. 561; 5 U.S.C. 133R), and Reorganization Plan I, made effective July 1, 1939, the Social Security Board and its functions are administered as a part of the Federal Security Agency under the direction and supervision of the Federal Security Administrator.
Purpose.--The Social Security Board administers the duties imposed upon it by titles I, II, III, IV, VII, X, ,and XI of the Social Security Act, by the Social Security Act Amendments of 1939 (33 Stat. 1360; 42 U.S.C. 302), and title XII (War MObilization and Reconversion Act of 1944 amended the Social Security Act by adding title XII, Reinsurance of State Unemployment Funds; 58 Stat. 789). These duteis include the general determiniation of policies regarding the above titles and, speficially, (1) approvbal of State palns for old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the blind; certification to the Secretary of the Tresury of grants-in-aid for approved plans; subsequent review of State plans and administraton to insure compliance with the requirements of the Social Security Act; (2) certification to the Secretary of the Treasury of Federal old-age and survivors benefit and lump-sum payments to individuals; (3) approval of State unemplyment compenstation laws; certification to the Secretary of the Treasury of grants to States for the administration of unemployment compensation; subsequent review of such State laws to insure compliance with Federal reqruirements; (4) making findings and certifying to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts to be transferred on a loan basis from the Federal unemployment account to separate State accounts in the Unemplyment Trust Fund; (5) conducting studies and making r ecommendations related to the most effective methods of providing economic security through social insurance. Also, under title V of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (58 Stat. 295), the Social Security Board participates with the Administrator of Veterans Affairs in certifying to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment amounts for administrative expenses incurred or to be incurred byb participating States.
Organization.--The Board is composed of three members, not more than two of whom may be of one political party, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The President designates the chairman of the Board.
Responsibility for administrative and executive action is assigned to an Executive Director. Under the general supervision of the Board, he is responsible for the general supervision and coordination of the work of 3 major operating bureaus and 3 service bureaus, and the immediate supervision and direction of 11 regional and 2 Territorial offices. The office of the Executive Director has the direction and maintenance of business management and administrative services of the Board. The Executive Director is also charged with responsibility for coordinating Federal-State relations, and providing an advisory service with respect to theestablishment and maintenance of State merit systems of personnel administration.
The Actuary of the Board is consultant and adviser to the Board with respect to technical actuarial analysis on a long-range basis of all data pertaining to population, employment, wages, and other
subjects which are necessary for the Board in planing operations under the Social Security Act, in determining costs, and in considering proposals concerning the social security program.
The Office of the Appeals Council provides a means for hearing and review of appeals on claims for old-age and survivors insurance as adjudicated under title II of the Social Security Act. The Office consists of 3 members of the Council, 12 regional referees, and a consulting referee. It is independent of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, which makes the original determination with respect to such claims. It also provides a means for hearing and review of appeals on claims under the temporary civilian war relief program.
Primary responsibliity for administration of the parts of the Social Security Act administered by the Social Security Board is placed in three operating bureaus: the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, the Bureau of Employment Security, adn the Bureau of Public Assistance.
Under title II of the Social Security Actt, as amended, the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance administers a program which provides monthly benefits for insured workers when they reach the age of 65 and retire. Wives who have reached 65 and any children under 18 years of age or aged dependent parents of deceased workers, are also entitled to monthly survivors' benefits. If there is no person immediately qualified to receive monthly survivors' benefits, lump-sum payments are made to specified classes of individuals. The purpose of this program is to provide wage earners and their families with partial repolacement for4 loss of income due to the old age or death of the wage earner. Benefits are based upon wages received in employment covered under title II. This program is financed through contributions by wage earners and their employers; it is administered entirely by the Federal Government as contrasted with old-age assistances or other social security programs whihc are administered by the States. The provisions of the original old-age insurance plan became effective January 1, 1937. Benefits under the amended plan began in January 1940.
Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
The Bureau is responsible for the establishment and maintenance of individual accounts in which are recorded the amounts of reported wages. By the end of 1944, about 80.5 million account numbers had been issued since the inception of the program. Not all of these accounts, however, had wages credited to them. It is estimated that 70.6 million living persons have wages credited to their accounts. Account numbers are assigned in the field offices of the Bureau, which also furnish information to workers and employers as to their rights and obligations under the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance program.
The Bureau's field representatives assist potential claimants in filing applicaitons for benefits and in developing the necessary evidence for the determination of their claims. They also determine eligibility for benefits and compute the amount of the benefits. Responsiblity for reviewing field office determinations and for making certifications
to the Treasury Department for payment of benefits is decentralized to five area offices. At the end of 1944, monthly benefits and lump-sum payments aggregating about 690 million dollars had been certified for payment.
The Bureau conducts such actuarial, economic, and administrative studies as are necessary to the administration of title II; it also tabulates, from its wage and claims records, statistical data needed by the Board in analyzing and supervising the operation of the old-age and survivors insurance provisions of the Social Security Act. On the basis of experience and studies in administration of title II, the Bureau makes recommendations as to establishment and improvement of policy and procedure.
The Bureau of Employment Security administers the Federal aspects of the Federal-State unemployment compensation program.
Bureau of Employment Security
Unemployment Compensation.--With respect to unemployment compensation, the Social Security Act is essentially an enabling statute, designed to facilitate the enactment and administration of unemployment conpensation laws by the States. States desiring to provide compnensaton for involunatry unemployment pass laws suited to local conditions and problems. If these laws meet certain basic standards set forth in chapter 9, subchapter C, of the Internal Revenue Code (formerly contianed in title IX of the Social Security Act), they are approved by the Social Security Board.
Uniform Excise Tax.--Under chapter 9, subhcapter C, of the Internal Revenue Code, the Treasury, through the Bureau of Internal Revenue, collects a uniform excise tax imposed on employers who have in their employ eight or more workers engaged in covered employments in the United States on any 20 days in a taxable year, each day being in a different week. Employers in States having unemployment compensation laws approved by the Board are entitled to deduct from their Federal tax, up to a maximum of 90 percent thereof, the amounts they have paid as contributions required under State laws to State unemployment compensation funds. Under certain circumstances employers may receive additional credit, within the same maximum limitation, for amounts not actually paid into State unemployment compensation funds but which they would have been required to pay if they had been subject throughout the year to the highest contribution rate in effect under the State law.
State Law Must Contain Certain Basic Provisions.--To be approved by the Board, a State unemployment compensation law must contain certain basic provisions. These include requirements for payment of unemployment compensation through public employment offices or such other agencies as are approved by teh Board, collection of contributions for a period of 2 years before unemployment compensation may be payable, safeguarding a worker's right to benefits even though he refuses new work under certain conditions, and deposit of all contributions, upon collection, in the unemployment trust fund in the United States Treasury. Money thus deposited may be requisitioned by teh State from the trust fund and must be used
exclusively for payment of unemployment compensation or for refunds for contributions erroneously collected.
Analysis and Certification of State Laws.--States having laws which have been approvedf by the Board and which meet certain additional provisions required by teh Social Security Act receive grants from the Federal Government covering proper cost of adminitering their unemployment compensation systems. The Bureau of Employment Security, after obtaining analysis of State unemployment compensation laws by the office of the General Counsel and the advice of this officer that they conform to the applicable provisions of the internal Revenue Code and of the Social Security Act, certifies to the Board the eligibility of the respective States for administrative grants. The Bureau analyzes estimates of administrative expenses submitted by the States and recommends to the Board the amounts to be certified to the Secretary of the Trreasury for Federal grants. In the various aspects of its work, the Bureau has the assistance of the office of the General Counsel, the Bureau of Research and Statistics, the Bureau of Accounts and Audits, and the Informational Service.
Technical Aid Given to States.--When requested, the Bureau gives technical advice to State agencies in connection with the development of legislative programs and the drafting or preparation of amendments to unemployment compensation legislation. It collaborates with State administrative agencies in developing generally recommended administrative policies, organizational plans, and methods and procedures for administration of State unemployment compensation laws; in analyzing the types of records and accounts best suited to the provisions of State laws; in adopting methods for effective personnel adminsitration; in coordinating the activities of the Employment Service of the War Manpower Commission and those of the State unemployment compensation agencies; and in studying such technical problems as experience rating for employers, and the adjustment of weekly benefits for changed wage levels and for dependents.
Federal Advisory Council.--The Federal Advisory Council for Employment Security was appointed by teh Social Security Board pursuant to the provisions of secton 11 of the Wagner-Peyser Act which established the United States Employment Service. The scope of activities of the Council covers employment security problems, including those unemployment compensation functions which arise in or relate to local employment offices. Representatives from the general public and equal numbers of representatives from both labor and management compose its membership. In addition, the Council's membership reflects a wide geographical repreentation from all sections of the country.
The Council is continuing to perform its functions, since the transfer of the United States Employment Service to the War Manpower Commission, under the joint auspices of the War Manpower Commission and the Social Security Board.
War and Demobilization Program Activities.--The reports and analysis activities pursued in connecton with the unemployment compensation program have been directed to immediate war needs. Emphasis is placed on the collection and analysis of employment and
wage data on workers in employment covered by the unemployment compensation State laws so as to provide accurate detailed data on the trend of employment and wges in each State and each major industry. Data are analyzed to indicate the effects of curtailed employment in consumer goods production and to assist in planning the unemployment compensation program adequately to meet the unemployment problems of the post-war era. On the basis of the comprehensive data collected, the Bureau and other Government agencies concerned with problems related to labor supply are able to plan the action required to minimize insecurity in wartime and in the period of reconversion from war to peacetime employment. The Bureau advises and assists the Board in administering the duties imposed upon it by a new title, title XII War Mobilization and Reconversion Act of 1944 amended by Social Security Act by adding title XII, Reinsurance of State Unemployment Funds). These duties include making findings and certifying to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts to be transferred on a loan basis from the Federal unemployment account to separate State accounts in the unemployment trus fund. The Bureau also assists the Board in carrying out its responsibilities under titel V of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944. The Bureau also assists in the development of common concepts relative to national war labor policy and State unemployment compensation administration, with regard to the interpretation of State laws particularly as they affect labor supply in war industry areas.
This Bureau administers provisions for grants by teh Federal Government ot States for old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the needy blind. The act provides a cooperative Federal-State relationship for all three of these public-assistance programs. Action by the States is necessary if they are to participate in each of these provisions. Plans for all three forms of assistance must be State-initiated and State-administered. The act directs the Board to approve all State plans under State law which meet certain specified requirements. States with approved plans receive Federal cooperation and financial assistance.
Bureau of Public Assistance
With the advice and assistance of the office of the General Counsel, the Bureau of Accounts and Audits, and the State Technical Advisory Service of the office of the Executive Director, this Bureau analyzes State plans for public assistance, recommends such plans to the Board for approval and, after the review of State estimates, recommends the amounts of Federal grants to be certified by the Board. The Bureau reveiws the operations of State plans in order to determine their continuing conformity with the Federal act and with the provisions of the State plans as approved by teh Board. The Bureau collects and analyzes pertinent data on the operation of public assistance programs in the States and also collects and analyzes reports submitted by the States and localities on general public and private assistance. The Bureau is also responsible for broad planningh for the relief of civilian distress caused by enbemy action or military necessity which affects individuals and families in need of financial or other assistance.
Grants to States for Needy Aged.--Such grants are authorized under title I. To be approved by the Board, State plans for old-age assistance must conform to certain standards relating to procedure and administraiton, and to age, residence, and citizenshi8p requirements. States having approved plans receive from teh Federal Government one-half of any amount expended by teh State and its political subdivisions for old-age assistance up to a maximum Federal-State total of $40 a month for each needy individual 65 years of age or over who is not an inmate of a public institution. In addition, the Federal sum is increased by 5 percent of the amount granted for old-age assistance. This additional amount may be used by eh State for administration, for assistance to the needy aged, or for both purposes.
Grants to States for Aid to Dependent Children.--Under title IV, the Board is authorized to make available to States with approved plans for aid to dependent children an amount equal to one-half of the sum expended by the State and its political subdivisions under such a plan, up to a comined Federal-State total of $18 a month for the first child and $12 for each addiitional child in any one home. The Federal grant also includes one-half of the expenditures made by the State and its local units for the administration of aid to dependent children.
The act defines a dependent child as a needy child under the age of 16 9or under the age of 18 if he is regularly attending school) who has been deprived of parental support or care by reason of the death, continued absence from the home, or physical or mental incapacity of a parent, and who is living with his father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister, stepfather, stepmother, stepbrother, stepsister, uncle, or aunt, in a place of residence maintained by one or more of such relatives as his or their own home. For approval by the Board, State plans must meet certain conditions with respect to operation and administration, and must not impose residence requirements in excess of those authorized by the act.
Grants for Aid to Needy Blind.--For this aid, the Board is authorized under title X to make grants to States with approved plans. The Federal grant equals the sum expended by the State and its political subdivisions for aid to the blind up to a maximum Federal-State total of $40 a month for each individual not an inmate of a public institution and not receiving old-age assistance. The Federal grant also includes one-half of the expenditures made by teh State and its local units for the administration of aid to the blind. As in other public-assistance provisions of the act, State plans must conform to certain specified conditions before they may be approved by the Board.
Bureau of Public Assistance Cooperates With States.--States receive from teh Bureau advice and assistance with respect to initiating or amending State laws and public assistyance plans. In addition to consulting with the States concerning technical problems involved in the administration of public assistance, the Bureau through its regional staff conducts a continuous review of the efficiency of operations in State and local administration of public assistance. The Bureau acts as a clearing house for information regarding administration gathered from teh various States in the operation of their own plans. This information is available to any State. In addition, the Bureau is
continuously engaged n the analysis and development of standards and procedures, and is prepared to advise with States concerning teh organization of their programs.
Civilian War Assistance.--Under this program the Bureau of Public Assistance is responsible for the provision of assistance and other welfare services to civilians affected by enemy attack or action taken to meet such attack or the danger thereof. The Bureau administers the civilian war assistance program through State public assistance agencies acting as agents of the Social Security Board and operations are financed entirely by Federal funds.
Service and Assistance to Enemy Aliens and Others Affected by Restrictive Governmental Action.--Under this program the Bureau provides assistance and other welfare services to enemy aliens and other persons and their dependents who are in need as a result of (1) removal from or regulation within a military area or restricted or prohibited area and (2) detention or interment. Funds were provided under Presidential Allotment, 42-74, February 6, 1942, as amended by Allotment 42-105, March 23, 1942, as continued under Allotment 42-152, June 30, 1942, and extended to June 30, 1944, by Presidential letter of July 1, 1943. Since July 1, 1944, the cost of this program is met through congressional appropriation to the Federal Security Agency and by teh transfer of funds from the War Relocation Authority to the Federal Security Agency. The Bureau administers the program through State public assistance agencies acting as agents of the Social Security Board and the operations are financed entirely by Federal funds.
Selective Service System Medical Survey.--By agreement, dated July 18, 1944, with the Selective Service System, the Bureau assists in the effectuation of the purposes of the medical survey programs, particularly with regard to the fiscal liaison with State departments of public welfare. The Bureau and the Selective Service System act jointly in determining the policies governing the allocation of funds among the States and the amounts to be allocated.
Other War-Related Services.--The Bureau also participates with other bureaus and offices of the Board and with the Federal Security Agency in the analysis of proposed Federal legislation on war-related problems; develops standards and procedures and other material for the use of State and local public welfare agencies in meeting new problems and requests for services from other Federal agencies such as the Selective Service Boards, ╬epartment of Justice, and the War Relocation ASuthroity; and makes studies with the CHildren's Bureau to determine the cause and methods of preventing the increase in juvenile delingquency in war industry and military camp communities.
Bureau of Research and Statistics.--This Bureau conducts basic research and statistical activitiets necessary to aspects of the Board's work which are beyond the immediate fields of particular operating programs, including the over-all financial and economic aspects of the social security program, the characteristics or effects of the inter-relations
of Board programs and other social insurance and welfare measures, the basis for a coordinatted social security system, and development of new fields of study in social security such as health and disability insurance and the provision of medical care, arising out of the Board's responsibilities under section 702 of the Social Security Act. The Bureau is responsible for maintaining a continuing review of the research and statistical programs of the several bureaus and offices of the Board concerning their adequacy and their integration into a total research program. It exercises tchnical supervision over the preparation of the Board's Annual Report, the Social Security Bulletin, the Social Security Yearbook, and various other technical publications.
Bureau of Accounts and Audits.--The Bureau of Accounts and Audits is responsible for the conduct of budget processing, accounting, financial reporting, auditing, and fiscal advisory functions relating to the departmental and field activities of the Board. This Bureau conducts audits of State public-assistance agencies and reviews the fiscal aspects of State public-assistance plans and request for grants. It furnishes constructive accounting services to State public-assistance agencies. In unemployment compensation it conducts audits of administrative expenditures of State employment security agencies. it is responsbile for precessing the budget of the Social Security Board and for keeping continuous accounting control over its expenditures. It maintains the Board's system of accounts, covering all funds collected or disbursed. The preaudit and certification for payment of administrative expenses of the Board and the furnishing of advisory services to its bureaus on budget, accounting, and fiscal matters are further duties of this Bureau.
Informational Service.--The Informational Service is responsible for informing the public on the provisions of the Social Security Act which are administered by the Board, and the rights, benefits, and responsibilities of individualsl under these provisions. This program is conducted through publications of the Board and through other channels of public information and education. The Bureau also advises and assists State public assistance and employment security agencies in planning and developing their informational activities.
To provide decentralized servicde and supervision to State agencies and to the field staffs of the Board operating under the Social Security Act throughout the United States, the Board has established 11 regional offices, and territorial offices in Alaska and Hawaii. All operations in each region are supervised by a regional director, responsible to the Executive Director, with a staff including representatives of bureaus and offices of the Board.
Regional and Field Offices
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance representatives supervie the administration of the 422 field offices of that Bureau. Public Assistance representatives render technical advice and consulatative service to the regional directors and to the State agencies operating under the welfare titles of the act. Emplotyment Security representatives perform the same functions for the State Unemployment Compensation agencies.
Representatives of the service bureaus and offices (Accounts and Audits, Informational Service, and State Technical Advisory Service) provide app ropriate specialized assistance to the regional directors, the representatives of the three operating bureaus, and the cooperating State agencies. Representatives of the office of the General Counsel of the Federal Security Agency and of the Appeals Council of the Board are also assigned to each regional office.
The regional directors of the Social Security Board, who were designated as regional directors for the Office of Community War Services serve as chairmen of its regional advisory councils. Their health and welfare staffs include representatives of the Divisions of Recreation and Social Protection. Functions include correlating the activities, investigations, and recommendations of the several Federal agencies concerned with war-connected problems in each region in the fields of health, welfare, social protection, family security, and recreation.
The regional offices of the Board also supervise two war programs: Civilian War Assistance, and Service and Assistance to Enemy Alienas and Others Affected by Restrictive Governmental Action, including State public welfare agencies operating these programs by agreement with the Board.
Regional Offices--Social Security Board
Region Director Address No. 1. Maine, New Hamppshire, Vermont, Massachussetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut John F. Hardy 120 Boylston Street, Boston 16, Mass. Nos. 2 and 3. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Peter Kasius 11 West Forth-Second Street, New York 18, N.Y. No. 4. Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia, District of Columbia Lavinia Engle 1523 L. Street NW., Washington 25, D.C. No. 5. Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio Mary E. Woods 6231 Union Commerce Building, Cleveland 14, Ohio No. 6. Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin Henry L. McCarthy 188 W. Randolph Street, Chicago 1, Ill. No. 7. South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida Richard H. Lyle 441 Wesxt Peachtree Street, Atlanta 3, Ga. No. 8. North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota Chester B. Lund Midland Bank Building, Fourth Street and Second Avenue South, Minneapolis 1, Minn. No. 9. Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma John E. Wrenn 1006 Grand Avenue, Kansas Citty 5, Mo. No. 10. Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico James B. Marley Maverick Building, North Press and East Houston Streets, San Antonio 5, Tex. No. 11. Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado Heber R. Harper 730 Seventeenth Street, Denver 2, Colo. No. 12. California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona Richard M. Neustadt 785 Market Street, San Francisco 3, Calif. Territory of Alaska Hugh J. Wade P.O. Box 1331, Juneau Territory of Hawaii Robert W. Beasley 425 Dillingham Building, Honolulu 16
Arthur J. Altmeyer
Committee on Economic Security1
MEMBERS Chairman Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury Claude R. Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture Francis Biddle, Attorney General Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Commerce Arthur J. Altmeyer, Chairman, Social Security Board
The Committee on Economic Security was created by Executive Order 6757, dated June 29, 1934, to sutdy the whole problem of economic and social security and to develop an appropriate legislative program. The present Social Security Act and the 1939 amendments are the result of its work. The Committee is now studying various proposals for further amendments to the Social Security Act.
Food and Drug AdministrationSouth Buidling, Department of Agriculture
Twelfth and C. Streets SW.
REpublic 4142, Branch 2390
OFFICIALS Commissioner of Food and Drugs Paul B. Dunbar Assistant Commissioner Charles W. Carwford Chief Food and Drug Inspector George P. Larrick Assistant to the Commissioner F. Muchmeyer
Creation and Authority.--The name "Food and Drug Administration" was first provided by the Agricultural Appropriation Act of 1931, approved May 27, 1930 (46 Stat. 392) although its law-enforcement functions had been carried on under different organizational titles since January 1, 1907, when the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (345 Stat. 3915; 21 U.S.C. 1 secs 1-15) became effective. The Food and Drug Administration and its functions necessary for the enforcement of the five acts named below were transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the Federal Security Agency, effective June 30, 1940, in accordance with the provisions of the President's Reorganization Plan IV.
Enforcement of Laws.--The Food and Drug Administration enforces the Food, Durg, and Cosmetic Act, Tea Act, Import Milk Act, Caustic Poison Act, and Filled Milk Act. Its activities are directed maily toward promoting purity, standard potency, and trughfl and informative labeling of the essential commoditites voered by the provisions of these five acts.
Inspection and Analysis.--It inspects factories where foods, drugs, and cosmetics are processed or manufactured. it analyzes products
coming within the jurisdiction of the five laws enforced in order to detect adulterated or misbranded articles and to institute appropriate acton to bring about correction. At the request of the War and Navy Departments samples of foods and drugs intended for the armed forces are tested to see that they comply with specifications and are otherwise suitable for acceptance. Tests are also made upon request for other agencies of the Government that purchase foods and drugs. Standards for foods are formulated and methods of anaysis developed. Close cooperation is maintained with State and city food and drug law enforcement agencies.
Paul B. Dunbar
Commissioner of Food and Drugs
Office of Vocational RehabilitationRochambeau Building, 815 Connecticut Avenue NW.
EXecutive 6500, Branch 2373
OFFICIALS Director Michael J. Shortley Associate Director John A. Kratz Assistant Director, Division of Rehabilitation Standards Tracy Copp Chief, Division of Administrative Standards Joseph V. Hunt Administrative Officer Margaret Paulick
Creation and Authority.--The Office of Vocational Rehabilitation was created within the Federal Security Agency to administer the expanded program of vocational rehabilitation provided by the Barden-La Follette Act of July 6, 1943 (57 Stat. 374), in a series of amendments to the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of June 2, 1920.
Purpose.--The Office of Vocational Rehabilitation cooperates with the States in providing vocational rehabilitation to prepare for and place in remunerative employment persons who are vocationally handicapped because of a permanent disability caused by accident, disease, or congenital defect. (The Veterans Administration maintains a program for the rehabilitation of veterans with disabilities of service origin; act of Congress, approved March 24, 1943, 57 Stat. 43; 38 U.S.C. 701, and chap. 12 note.) The mentally as well as the physically handicapped may receive rehabilitation. The blind may be rehabilitated on the same terms as other grups of the disabled. There is specific provision for war-disabled civilians (defined as members of civilian defense corps, aircraft warning services, civil air patrol and merchant seamen), and for civil employees of the United States Government injured in line of duty.
The boradened program contributes to the war effort by facilitating the use of the physically handicapped through essential services to remove the obstacle to their employment. It is designed as a permament service for the civilian disabled.
Activities.--Through the cooperative Federal-State plan, the funcitons of operating the program rest with the State Boards of Vocational Education, each having a Division of Vocational Rehabilitation with a full-time director and professional staff. Vocational rehabilitation for the blind is provided by the State commissions or agencies for the blind where legal authority exists for rendering rehabilitation services. Otherwise, rehabilitation for the physically handicapped becomes a function of the Division of Rehabilitation of the State Board of Vocational Education.
The Office of Vocational Rehabilitation is a constitutent unit of the Federal Security Agency. It is responsible for the establishment of standards in the various areas of service; for technical assistance to the States; and for certification of Federal funds for grants-in-aid to the States upon the approval of State plans for vocational rehabilitation meeting the requirements of the authorizing act of Congress. Specail assistance is furnished the States by regional offices, conforming to the general pattern of the Federal Security Agency organization.
Professional guidance is furnished the program by two national committees: the Rehabilitation Advisory Council, composed of outstanding representatives of business and industry, labor, medicine, social welfare, and other interests closely alied to the problems of rehabilitation; and the Professional Advisory Committee, representing the medical specialties most acitvely concerned with the adjustment of the disabled. Similar committees are in procedss of formation in each State.
Rehabilitation services available under the program include medical and vocational diagnosis, vocational counseling, physical restoration, vocational training, funds for maintenance during training, occupatinal tools and equipment, placement in employment, and supervision in employment until adjustment has been made. These services are provided without cost to the individual, except for physical restoration, prosthetic applicances, maintenance during training, and occupational equipment for which it must be shown that the applicant is unable to pay from his own resources.
The enumerated rehabilitation services (with the exception of maintenance) are available to war-disabled civilians and civil employees of the United States injured in the performance of their duties wihtout regard to their financial need. Eligibility for physical rewtoration is also determined by an employment handicap that is static (relatively stable), and remediable. Hospitalization is limited ot 90 days for any one disability. Necessary State administrative costs are assumed by teh Federal Government; the costs of rehabilitation services are shared by the State and Federal Governments on a fifty-fifty basis; State expenditures for services to war disabled civilians are fully reimbursed by the Federal Government.
Michael J. Shortley
Table of Contents
Bibliography United States Navy Hospital Corpsman
(Prepared for the Occupational Information and Guidance Service, Vocational Division, U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION, Federal Security Agency, by the Hospital Corps Section, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, UNITED STATES NAVY . . . December 1, 1943)
1. This Committee is independent--not a part of the Federal Security Agency.