Department of the InteriorC Street between Eighteenth and Nineteenth Streets NW.
REpublic 1820, Branch 3171
Officials Secretary of the Interior1 Harold L. Ickes Under Secretary Abe Fortas Assistant Secretary Michael W. Straus Assistant Secretary Oscar L. Chapman Special Assistant to the Secretary William H. McCrillis Assistant to the Secretary Wesley C. Clark Assistant to the Secretary May B. Conley Assistant to the Secretary Sylvia Altman Assistant to the Secretary in Charge of Land Utilization Lee Muck Chief Clerk Floyd E. Dotson Director of Information John E. Ryckman Budget Officer and Director, Division of Budget and Administrative Management Vernon D. Northrop Assistant Budget Officer Otis Beasley Director of Personnel Mrs. J. Atwood Maulding Special Adviser on Labor Relations C. Warren Stapleton Supervising Field Representative Virgil P. Wallace Purchasing Officer Earl E. Eisenhart Chief, Miscellaneous Service Division Frank C. Updike Director, United States Board on Geographical Names Meredith F. Burrill Solicitor Fowler V. Harper Chairman, Board of Appeals Felix S. Cohen Member, Board of Appeals William H. Flanery Member, Board of Appeals Leland O. Graham Director, Division of Power Arthur E. Goldschmidt Director, Division of Territories and Island Possessions Benjamin W. Thoron Director, Petroleum Conservation Division Edward B. Swanson, Acting Deputy Solid Fuels Administrator for War1 Charles J. Potter Deputy Coordinator of Fisheries1 Ira N. Gabrielson Director of Grazing Clarence L. Forsling Commissioner, General Land Office Fred W. Johnson Commissioner of Indian Affairs William A. Brophy Director, Geological Survey William E. Wrather Commissioner of Reclamation Harry W. Bashore Director, National Park Service Newton B. Drury Director, Bureau of Mines Royd R. Sayers Director, Fish and Wildlife Service Ira N. Gabrielson Director, War Relocation Authority Dillon S. Myer Governor of Alaska Ernest Gruening Governor of Hawaii Ingram M. Stainback Governor of Virgin Islands Charles Harwood Governor of Puerto Rico Rexford G. Tugwell U.S. High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands (Vacancy)
General Manager, The Alaska Railroad Otto F. Ohlson President, The Virgin Islands Company Gilbert L. Pace Administrator, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oreg. Paul J. Raver Administrator, Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration Benjamin W. Thoron Assistant Administrator, Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration Guillermo Esteves Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration Douglas G. Wright
Creation and Authority.--The Department of the Interior was created by the act of Congress approved March 3, 1849 (9 Stat. 395; 5 U.S.C. 481), titled "An Act to establish the Home Department." Many subsequent acts and Executive orders have added to and subtracted from the duties and specific charges of the Department, but its purposes remain substantially the same as those for which it was created.
Purpose.--The Department of the Interior was charged with the responsibility for advancing the domestic interests of the people of the United States. While the duties and specific charges of the Department have become many and varied, all have to do with promoting the domestic welfare, and administering the conservation of natural resources. The jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior extends from the administration of territories to the supervision of mining operations and the management of the Alaska Railroad. He administers the National Park Service, the Geological Survey, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Indian Service, and various land services.
Organization.--The Secretary of the Interior has as his chief aides the Under Secretary and two Assistant Secretaries. The Under Secretary has supervision of the Department as a whole, supervises the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, and is in charge of general departmental administration, the Budget and Administrative Management Division, Division of Personnel Supervision and Management, Office of Labor Relations, and the Office of the Chief Clerk.
An Assistant Secretary exercises supervision over the Bureau of Mines, Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the Petroleum Conservation Division.
An Assistant Secretary is i charge of the Office of Indian Affairs, General Land Office, Grazing Service, National Park Service, Office of Land Utilization, Fish and Wildlife Service, and the United States Board on Geographical Names.
Directly under the Secretary are the Solicitor, Division of Information, Division of Power, Bonneville Power Administration, Southwestern Power Administration, Solid Fuels Administration for War, Office of Fishery Coordination, War Relocation Authority, and the Office of the Supervising Field Representative. The Secretary of the Interior is designated as Petroleum Administrator for War, Solid Fuels Administrator for War, Coordinator of Fisheries, and as Chairman of the National Power Policy Committee.
The principal bureaus, offices, and divisions are as follows:
General Land Office
Bureau of Reclamation
Bureau of Mines
Office of Indian Affairs
National Park Service
Fish and Wildlife Service
Office of Fishery Coordination
Petroleum Conservation Division
Solid Fuels Administration for War
War Relocation Authority
Division of Power
Division of Territories and Island Possessions
Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration
Office of Land Utilization
Office of the Solicitor
Office of the Chief Clerk
Division of Information
United States Board on Geographical Names
Budget and Administrative Management Division
Bonneville Power Administration
Southwestern Power Administration
Division of Personnel Supervision and Management
General Management of Public Lands.--The General Land Office supervises the survey, management, and disposition of the public lands and the resources therein. It executes all laws relating to the surveying, prospecting, locating, appropriating, entering, reconveying, and patenting of all public lands within national forests, grazing districts, and other reservations.
General Land Office
It conducts scientific and professional work in the fields of land and mineral economics, including research into the past and present condition of the public domain as an aid to public land administration and for use in determining future public land policy.
It maintains an organization for the prevention and suppression of fires on the public lands in Alaska.
It prepares and issues the official map of the United States.
War Activities.--The General Land Office makes large tracts of public land available for bombing ranges, training grounds, camps, and maneuver areas; leases mineral rights and authorizes development of minerals, including petroleum, on the public domain.
Cadastral Engineering Service.--The General Land Office maintains the only official cadastral engineering service for the execution of surveys and resurveys of the public lands, the preparation and maintenance of plat and field-note records thereof, and the approval and platting of mineral surveys executed by United States mineral surveyors.
Public Land Claims.--The General Land Office adjudicates all claims to the public lands initiated under the numerous public-land laws, including applications for coal, oil, and gas prospecting permits and leases, and grants railroad and other rights-of-way over the public lands.
Land Patents.--The Office also issues land patents and furnishes certified copies of such patents and other records on file in its offices.
Range Conservation.--It conducts range improvements and soil and moisture conservation projects on public lands subject to grazing lease outside of grazing districts.
Revested Oregon and California Railroad Grant Lands.--This Office administers the revested Oregon and California railroad and reconveyed Coos Bay wagon road grant lands in Oregon, including forestry and grazing activities, fire protection, development of sustained-yield forest units, and classification and timber sale activities.
Local Public Land Matters.--It maintains 25 district land offices in the western part of the United States and in Alaska to receive applications to enter public lands, take initial action thereon, render decisions, keep track-book and plat records showing the status of the public lands, and give information.
The Bureau of Reclamation has in operation, under construction or authorization, 78 irrigation or multiple-purpose projects in 17 States west of the 100th meridian. Fifty-two of these are producing food, electric energy, and furnishing municipal and industrial water. Reclamation developments also provide flood control, river regulation, and silt removal.
Bureau of Reclamation
Nearly 5,000,000 persons live where Reclamation systems are operated, with about 3,500,000 benefiting from power and domestic water, while 1,257,395 live on the 91,120 farms or in cities or towns on the projects.
Post-War Inventory Completed.--The post-war inventory, involving 236 potential projects and expenditures of $4,000,000,000, was presented to the Senate Committee on Post-War Economic Policy and Planning on June 6, 1944. Under pending legislation, this plan will create 1315,000 new farms in the 17 western States for settlement by veterans and others. the resultant benefits will spread to industries in the other 31 States, as orders are placed for supplies and equipment needed in construction. Carried out in full, the program will create employment for 1,250,000 men working one year, thereby offering jobs for many demobilized veterans and defense workers.
Further impetus was added to the post-war program when conferences were held with regional directors and early deadlines were set for completion of basin reports. Among these reports are investigations of the Columbia River Basin, Pecos River Basin, and many others.
Power for War.--Power plants operating on Reclamation projects have an installed capacity of 2,440,275 kilowatts. The leading power producer is Boulder Dam with a rated capacity of 1,034,800, and second is Grand Coulee with 818,000 kilowatts. Reclamation power was largely responsible for the operation of airplane factories, aluminum and magnesium plants, shipyards, and other industries so vital to prosecution of the war. In so doing, Reclamation established a new power expansion record for a single agency in a wartime year.
Construction and Operation of Irrigation Projects.--The Bureau investigates water resources in the western United States and constructs and operates projects. Crops valued at $388,000,000 were produced on lands watered by Reclamation systems in 1943, and the 1944 record will exceed that amount.
War Relocation Centers for Japanese evacuees are located on three projects. Civilian Public Service Camps provide labor for conscientious objectors on three others.
War Food Program.--The War Production Board stop order of October 20, 1942, practically halted all construction. To increase production of war foods, the Bureau presented construction programs designed to furnish facilities to expand the output of irrigated lands. This resulted in the lifting of stop orders on 28 projects under the war food program, thereby enabling the Bureau to extend irrigation service to approximately 1,400,000 additional acres during 1945-46.
Bureau Decentralization Effectuated.--Decentralization of the Bureau of Reclamation through the establishment of seven regional offices in western cities and five administrative branches in Denver, Colo., was effectuated during 1943-44. The object was to "streamline" the organization for greater efficiency in meeting post-war problems.
The Regional Directors are responsible for coordinating all Bureau activities within their regions. Reporting directly to the Commissioner, they have extensive latitude for independent action and are assisted in the technical phases of their work by the branch heads.
Regional Activities Advance Reclamation.--Among the outstanding achievements were:
Region 1. Expansion of power production at Grand Coulee Dam (Washington), for industrial plants, and the extension of irrigation service on the highly productive Roza Division of the Yakima project (Washington).
Region 2. Completion of Shasta Dam, Central Valley Project (California). Two 75,000-kilowatt generators put into operation at Shasta.
Region 3. Installation of a twelfth 82,500-kilowatt generator at Boulder Dam, which added to Boulder's prestige as the world's top power producer for war.
Region 6. Activity on plans for the proposed Missouri River Basin development climaxed with the compromise plan between the Army engineers and Reclamation, set forth in Senate Document 247, November 21, 1944.
Water Conservation and Utilization Program.--Until halted by cease-construction orders of the War Production Board in 1942, the Bureau was constructing eight small irrigation projects for the rehabilitation of areas in the Great Plans and other arid and semiarid areas affected by drought or shortages of irrigation water. Several projects under this program are being completed under specific exemptions from the stop-work ban and others are included in the war food program. Construction on an additional project, Scofield, not included in the War Production Board order was started in 1943.
The Geological Survey prepares and publishes reports upon the geology and mineral and water resources of the United Sates, Alaska, and Hawaii; classifies the public lands as to their mineral and power value; supervises technical phases of mineral leasing on public lands, and, using aerial photographs extensively, prepares and publishes topographic quadrangle maps of the United States.
Grazing Service(Walker Bank Building, Salt Lake City, Utah)
The Grazing Service administers grazing on 142,000,000 acres of Federal range in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming under the Taylor Grazing Act of June 28, 1934 (48 Stat. 1269), as amended June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1976), and July 14, 1939 (53 Stat. 1002; 43 U.S.C. 315), in order to protect the lands, permit the highest use of the forage and other resources, and at the same time retard soil erosion and facilitate flood control. In addition, the Grazing Service coordinates grazing on several million acres of interspersed State and privately owned lands and various Federal withdrawals through cooperative agreement under authority of the Taylor Grazing Act and through lease under the Pierce Act of june 23, 1938 (52 Stat. 1033; 43 U.S.C. 315m-1 to 315m-4).
The work of the Grazing Service is coordinated through 10 regional and 59 district offices located in the States mentioned, in which is conducted a broad conservation program designed to protect, improve, and develop the soil, water, and forage resources of the public lands, and stabilize the range livestock industry. Range control is effected by a license and permit system involving more than 11,000,000 head of livestock belonging to some 22,000 resident stock owners. An assistant director is located at Washington, D.C.
The Bureau of Mines, organized July 1, 1910, originally place din the Department of the Interior by act of March 16, 1910 (36 Stat. 369; 30 U.S.C. 1 note), was transferred to the Department of Commerce in 1925. There it remained for 9 years until President Roosevelt, acting under the authority of the act of March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1517; 40 U.S.C. 278a), returned the Bureau to the Department of the Interior by Executive Order 6611, dated February 22 and effective April 24, 1934.
Bureau of Mines
War Activities.--The Bureau is wholly engaged in war activities. Exploration and development of minerals which are essential to the War Program, development of processes for beneficiation of low-grade and complex domestic ores, development of ore-dressing techniques, production of helium primarily for military uses, protection of mineral production plants from subversive action, licensing of all non-military explosives, and the production of gasoline and other liquid fuels from coal are included in the Bureau's broad emergency program. Field investigations,k economic and statistical surveys, and extensive scientific research in metallurgy, nonmetallics, coal, petroleum, and explosives are being pursued on many fronts in an effort to make the United States as self-sufficient as possible with respect to all critical and essential minerals.
Strategic Mineral Investigations.--Since 1939 the Bureau of Mines has examined many hundred of deposits of strategic minerals in the 48 States and Alaska, and has explored scores of them by surface-trenching, tunneling, and drilling. Substantial new quantities of antimony, bauxite, chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, iron, tungsten,
and many other ores have been found, and much of this material is now in production. A congressional act of June 7, 1939 (53 Stat. 811; 50 U.S.C. 98), authorized the Bureau to conduct scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores in order to determine and develop new domestic sources of supply.
Beneficiation of Ores.--Based upon exhaustive laboratory studies of methods for processing low-grade domestic ores, the Bureau has built and is operating a number of pilot plants to determine the commercial aspects of the ores of such metals as manganese, chromite, magnesium, aluminum, copper, and antimony. Because manganese is essential in the manufacture of steel, the Bureau's technologists conducts studies in ore dressing, hydrometallurgy, electrometallurgy, and pyrometallurgy at widely scattered points in the great manganese districts of the West and in some of the principal eastern deposits. Exploratory projects, pilot plants, research at several experimental laboratories, and other highly important work in the metallurgical field are directed form the Bureau's regional offices at Salt Lake City, Utah, Rolla, Mo., and College Park, Md. Several of the beneficiation processes developed by the Bureau are being used commercially to further the War Program. A new electrodevelopment laboratory has been established at Albany, Oreg., to utilize power from Bonneville and Grand Coulee Dams in studying minerals of that section. Various laboratories of the Bureau are studying treatment of low-grade bauxite ores, clays, alunite, and other alumina-bearing minerals for the manufacture of aluminum. Similar research is being conducted to help increase the production of other metals.
Helium Production.--The Bureau of Mines is in charge of the only helium production plants in the world, in the Southwest, where millions of cubic feet of this lightweight and noninflammable gas are produced annually, principally for such military uses as lifting blimps, barrage balloons, and weather observation balloons. Having ample facilities for meeting all military requirements for helium, the Bureau now has large quantities of this gas available for special welding processes, medical uses, and research laboratories. Helium plants are operated by authority of the amendatory Helium Act of September 1, 1937 (50 Stat. 885; 50 U.S.C. 151, 163-66).
Synthetic Liquid Fuels Research.--Under act of Congress of April 5, 1944 (58 Stat. 190) the Bureau of Mines has begun an expanded 5-year research program in the production of synthetic liquid fuels from coal, oil shales, and other native products. Research laboratories are being established at Bruceton, Pa., for coal research, and Laramie, Wyo., for oil-shale studies.
Mineral Production Security.--Integrated with the facility security program of the Office of Civilian Defense, the Bureau of Mines has a Mineral Production Security Division to insure the continued production of war materials from mines, quarries, mills, smelters, and allied mineral production facilities. Inventories of facilities and protection against hazardous negligence and subversive enemy actions are the objectives of the Bureau's field force. The Bureau cooperates in this work with the Army, the Navy, and various Federal and local agencies.
Explosives Control.--Under the Federal Explosives Act of October 26, 1917 (40 Stat. 385; 50 U.S.C. 128-40), as amended, December 26, 1941 (55 Stat. 863), the Bureau has charge during war and national emergency periods, of the issuance of licenses for the manufacture, distribution, storage, use, or possession of nonmilitary explosives and their ingredients.
Coal Mine Inspections and Investigations.--The Bureau is authorized and empowered under the Coal Mine Inspection Act of May 8, 1941 (55 Stat. 177; 30 U.S.C. 4f), to make inspections and investigations in coal mines to curb accidents and ill health among those employed in coal mining. Original inspections and reinspections of about 2,500 mines to date have resulted in improved safety conditions and have helped in developing an increased efficiency of coal production for vital wartime needs.
Fuel Testing.--Investigating the properties of American coals, the Bureau has established comprehensive data on the coking and byproduct-making properties of various coals. it has found coals from several States that are suitable for making coke that can be used in the expanding steel industry of those areas. The Bureau tests fuels purchased for many branches of the Government and suggests the proper heating equipment.
Fuel Conservation.--As part of the national wartime fuel conservation program, the Bureau of Mines sponsors and leads a Nation-wide campaign of fuel efficiency in industrial and commercial establishments. The program is effected through 5,000 fuel engineers in various localities who have volunteered their services.
Mineral Economic Studies.--Government war agencies call on the Bureau daily for data on mineral production, consumption, and stocks, and for other economic and statistical information, domestic and foreign, necessary in conducting present war production activities and in planning long-range production and use programs. Data of this type have been accumulated for nearly 3 decades by Bureau specialists and are available for both the Government and industry in promoting the War Program. The Bureau makes special canvasses and furnishes basic data and many other confidential reports to the war agencies.
Accident Prevention and Mine Rescue.--The Bureau of Mines investigates the causes of mine accidents and seeks means of preventing them. It instructs mine operators, miners, and officers and employees of the mineral industries in safety methods, accident prevention, and mine rescue and recovery work, and assembles information concerning the number and causes of mine accidents. Studies are constantly being made of the inflammability and explosive characteristics of metal powders and dusts, and other dusts and fumes of mineral origin.
Health Investigations.--The Bureau investigates atmospheric contaminants in mines and smelters, tests respiratory devices, analyzes gases, and conducts other studies as a basis for recommendations to eliminate or control objectionable and harmful conditions in the mineral industries.
Office of Indian Affairs(The Merchandise Mart, 222 North Bank Drive, Chicago 54, Ill.)
The Office of Indian Affairs, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, has the management of all Indian affairs and of all matters arising out of Indian relations under provisions of the Constitution, treaties with Indian tribes, and statutes enacted by the Congress. It is charged with the duty of protecting the interests and promoting the welfare of those Indians of the continental United States and of the natives of Alaska who are under Federal guardianship. The objective of the Indian Office is to assist the Indians to become economically independent through the use of their own resources and acquired skills and to adapt their indigenous institutions and culture to modern conditions. In the discharge of this duty the Indian Office supervises the use of 56,000,000 acres of Indian tribal and individual farm, grazing, timber, and mineral lands on about 200 reservations scattered from Florida to Alaska. It provides educational facilities through approximately 400 day and boarding schools and community centers, and through Federal aid for public schools attended by Indian children. It supplies medical service to Indians through more than 100 hospitals, sanitariums, and clinics. It operates an agricultural extension and credit service, encourages conservation practices, supplies agricultural and vocational training and guidance, and administers Indian tribal and individual trust funds. It assists Indian tribes in the maintenance of law and order on Indian reservations, supplies social services and relief for indigent and disabled Indians. It aims to make all Indians completely self-supporting and it does not supply a Federal dole to all Indians under guardianship.
Indian Arts and Crafts Board.--By the act of August 27, 1935 (49 Stat. 891; 46 U.S.C. 88b), the Indian Arts and Crafts Board was created within the Department of the Interior to establish standards and create Governments marks of genuineness and quality for Indian handmade products. This Board functions in closest cooperation with the Office of Indian Affairs, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs has been a member of the Board since its establishment.
National Park Service(The Merchandise Mart, 222 North Bank Drive, Chicago 54, Ill.)
The National Park Service administers the 169 areas of the national park system in accordance with the act of August 25, 1916, as amended; the act of June 8, 1906; Executive Order 6166 of June 10, 1933; and the act of August 21, 1935; and in accordance with the act of June 23, 1936, aids other governmental agencies in planning recreational facilities. In addition, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the Service administers the Boulder Dam National Recreational Area. It also administers 18 recreational demonstration areas.
Primary Functions.--Under congressional mandate the National Park Service protects and administers the national park system to "conform to the fundamental purpose of . . . parks, monuments, and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the
natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations."
Fish and Wildlife Service(The Merchandise Mart, 222 North Bank Drive, Chicago 54, Ill.)
The Fish and Wildlife Service, established on June 30, 1940, consolidates work formerly carried on by the Bureau of Biological Survey and the Bureau of Fisheries. With few exceptions, the lines of work of these bureaus have been continued as functions of their former divisions--dealing with game and other birds; game, fur, and other land mammals; reptiles and amphibians; commercial and sport fishes and fisheries, including the shrimp, lobster, and shellfish industries; and fur seals, whales, an other marine mammals.
The importance of the Service's programs in perpetuating renewable resources on which national welfare and morale depend is reflected in its designation as a defense agency for specific reasons that include the emergency values of the fisheries fleet, the food supply in fishes, the control of animals that destroy crops and food stores, and the Service's trained research and law-enforcement personnel. As an agency carrying out the national purpose to restore wildlife and conserve it for prudent use, the Service has also been given responsibility for guarding the resources against avoidable damage from defense activities. Most of the field operations other than research are conducted in the 48 States through regional directors in Portland, Oreg.; Albuquerque, N. Mex.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Atlanta, Ga.; and Boston, Mass. There is also a regional office at Juneau, Alaska.
Wildlife Research.--The Service brings the biological sciences to the aid not only of agriculture, horticulture, stock raising, forestry, and recreation but of the fauna as well. This is accomplished through biological surveys, field investigations, and laboratory studies of the distribution, migration, classification, natural history, taxonomy, food habits, food resources, and diseases of wildlife, and through studies and experiments concerning the breeding, feeding, and management of wild fur animals and domesticated rabbits. Research and demonstration projects are conducted in cooperation with land-grant colleges and conservation commissions in 10 States. The damage caused by birds, rodents, fur animals, predators, and other forms of wildlife on agricultural, grazing, or forested areas is studied, and selective methods of control are determined. The research includes studies and experiments relating to the wildlife resources of the national parks, Indian reservations, and other areas, and to methods of conservation and restoration, and surveys are made of areas, designed for the proper restoration and maintenance of game, fur, and other forms of wildlife.
Fishery Biology.--The fishery conservation policies and recommendations of the Service are based upon extensive and diversified biological investigations of the fishery resources. The research projects at present concern four major fields: (1) studies to determine the natural history, environmental relationships, and size, extent, and variation of fish populations; the effect of fishing operations on abundance;
and the most efficient methods of prosecuting the fisheries without endangering the future of the supply; (2) the study and management of the fishery resources of interior waters to increase fish production by scientifically directed stocking, the improvement of conditions for natural propagation, the development of more efficient hatchery methods, and the detection and elimination of pollution hazards in lakes and streams; (3) shellfish investigations to develop more effective methods of cultivation, to improve the quality of oysters, and to investigate and combat diseases that may endanger the economically important invertebrates; (4) the protection of fishes in connection with irrigation, water power, and flood-control projects through the installation and maintenance of screens, fishways, or fish ladders. The various projects are conducted by approximately 20 field stations in the major geographical regions of the United States and include investigations of more than 30 important food and game fishes, shellfishes, and crustaceans.
Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration.--The Service correlates and supervises all wildlife restoration activities under the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act (Sept. 2, 1937, 50 Stat. 917; Aug. 18, 1941, 55 Stat. 632; 16 U.S.C. 669-69j), by the terms of which the United States may pay 75 percent of the total cost. The projects are initiated and conducted by the States and involve the acquisition and development of lands and waters and research into problems of management necessary to wildlife administration. In close cooperation with State fish and game department, proposed restoration measures are inspected and appraised, and the completed work is reviewed prior to the payment of the Federal share of the cost. The Service does not select restoration projects but advises the States as to those considered substantial. During the fiscal year 1942 the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (55 Stat. 367; 16 U.S.C. 715-715r) was amended to extend its benefits to Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Restoration projects were inaugurated in all these areas except Hawaii, where action was postponed because of the war.
National Wildlife Refuges.--To provide perpetual habitat for wildlife, the Service establishes and maintains refuges for game and other species, and for this purpose acquires lands by reservation of the public domain and by purchase and gift.
The number of national wildlife refuges now administered by the Service has increased to 279 (17, 628,122 acres), of which 260 (9,581,114 acres) are in the United States and 19 (8,046,975 acres) are in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Through the program of Federal aid, other wildlife areas are being established by State agencies. Prior to the establishment of Federal refuges, detailed examinations and appraisals are made to determine the extent of the various types of land, the cover and improvements, and the market value. Engineering developments, water impoundments, and vegetative improvements, including the propagation of aquatic and other plants, are undertaken on many refuges.
Administration of Conservation Areas.--The Service is responsible for the effective administration of several Federal statues for the protection and conservation of migratory game and other birds, of game, fur, and other mammals, and of fishes, and after surveys and research it prepares drafts of regulations under these laws. The
conservation laws administered include the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, and the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, which were passed to carry out treaty obligations for the protection of birds that spend part of the year in this country and part in Canada or Mexico; the Bald Eagle Act; the law regulating interstate transportation of black bass; and laws for the conservation under international agreement of fur seals; laws protecting the walrus, and for the maintenance of the fishery, fur, and game resources of Alaska, for the protection of animals and property on wildlife refuges, for the prevention of illegal shipments in interstate commerce of wild animals and birds, and for the regulation of importations of injurious foreign species; the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act; the issuing of permits; and the collection of fees and statistical and scientific data under the WHaling Treaty Act.
Fishery Industries.--The Service conducts studies for improving fishery methods, including the capture, preservation, utilization, and merchandising of fishery products and the compilation of statistics thereon, and provides current information on production, market movement, storage, and prices of fishery products. To improve methods, eliminate waste, and promote the consumption of fishery products and byproducts, investigations are made in fishery technology and nutrition. Market surveys and other economic studies of the fisheries are conducted, the Fishery Cooperative Marketing Act is administered, a Fishery Market News Service is maintained, and apparatus and methods of fishing are studies for the purpose of suggesting technical improvements.
Fish Culture.--The Division propagates food and game fishes to assist in maintaining the commercial and sports fisheries resources. Normally, approximately 130 fish-cultural and seasonal rearing stations are operated, but the number has been materially reduced to conform to management policies resulting from emergency conditions. Eggs are salvaged from the commercial catch of the Atlantic Ocean and Great Lakes. These are hatched and the resulting fry are returned to suitable habitats. Large hatcheries have been established on the Sacramento and Columbia Rivers to replace natural spawning runs now cut off by power dams, and the rehabilitation of the Atlantic salmon runs in being attempted. Game fishes are used to stock public waters, but special emphasis is being placed on the use of warm-water species in farm fish ponds. The service maintains an aquarium in Washington, D.C., for educational purposes, and provides technical and general information on fish-cultural problems. It cooperates with the States and other governmental agencies on fish-cultural problems, including the coordination of fish distribution, stocking according to predetermined management plans, and pooling fish-cultural facilities for the stocking of farm fish ponds.
Alaska Fisheries.--In Alaska the Service regulates and protects the salmon and other important commercial fisheries, as well as game fishes in interior waters, administers the fur seal and fox herds on the Pribilof Islands, and cares for the native inhabitants of these island,s who are virtual wards of the Government. It makes observations of operations of canneries, salteries, and other fishery establishments; maintains salmon-counting weirs, examines spawning streams to determine escapement of fishes, and collects statistics on these subjects;
patrols fishing grounds to prevent poaching and other violations of the laws and regulations; protects walruses and sea lions; and, in close cooperation with the Alaska Game Commission, operates a fleet of boats and airplanes in enforcement and patrol work.
Control of Injurious Species.--Through demonstrations and in cooperative efforts, the Service provides leadership in curbing the increase and spread of stock-killing wild animals and destructive rodents, furnishes technical advice in the control of injurious birds and noxious fishes, and compiles reports on the various projects and species concerned. it coordinates control activities with those of all cooperating States, counties, agricultural and livestock associations, and other agencies. mammal- and bird-control work involves species injurious to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry, and stored foods, and the methods employed are developed for maximum effectiveness with minimum hazard to harmless or beneficial species.
Dissemination of Information.--Since one of its basic functions has been to "gather and disseminate information," this Service conducts educational work to make the results of its investigations available. Special efforts are made through publications, press, statements, radio and other addresses, and by means of motion pictures and exhibits to provide information on the economic aspects of the various species of game and fur animals and fishes; to facilitate law enforcement by acquainting sportsmen and fishermen with the need for legal restrictions on hunting and fishing; to encourage the setting aside of wildlife habitat and the promotion of game, fur, and fish management on farms; and to aid in solving various wildlife and fishery problems confronting Federal, State, and other agencies administering lands and waters.
By Executive Order 9204, dated July 21, 1942, the President designated the Secretary of the Interior as Fishery Coordinator. This designation was for the purpose of developing and assuring sustained production o aquatic food supplies essential to the conduct of the present war, and for the purpose of coordinating the policies, plans, and programs relating to war that affect the fishery industries and the aquatic food supplies of the United States, its Territories, and possessions.
Office of Fishery Coordination
The Secretary of the Interior, as Coordinator of Fisheries, has been delegated the responsibility for those portions of the war food program concerned with the production and processing of fishery commodities, including the allocation of production materials and facilities. Field offices are located in the important fishing areas of the United States and Alaska for the purpose of insuring an adequate and sustained fishery production. The objective of the program is to meet the requirements for fishery commodities as determined by Federal war agencies.
Established under Administrative Order 1054, of March 14, 1936, the Petroleum Conservation Division, under the Director, assists the Secretary of the Interior in administering the act of February
Petroleum Conservation Division
22, 1935 (49 Stat. 30; 15 U.S.C. 715), as amended, known as the Connally law, which prohibits the shipment in interstate and foreign commerce of petroleum or its products produced in excess of the amount permitted by State law.
Under direction of the Secretary of the Interior, the Division recommends action on any case relative to oil and gas conservation brought to its attention, acts as the contact agency with the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, and cooperates with the oil-producing States in the study of physical waste and the enactment of oil- and gas-conservation laws.
It also supervises operations of the Federal Petroleum Board, receives all regular reports from and conducts all routine correspondence with the Board, and performs such other duties in connection therewith as the Secretary may direct.
The Solid Fuels Administration for War was established in the Department of the Interior by Executive Order 9332, of April 19, 1943, which designated the Secretary of the Interior as Administrator. The Administration absorbed the Office of Solid Fuels Coordinator for War, and utilizes the facilities of the BUreau of Mines and other agencies of the Federal Government in discharging its functions.
Solid Fuels Administration for War
The Solid Fuels Administration centralizes Government policies and activities pertaining to bituminous and anthracite coals and certain other solid fuels, and is the channel of liaison and communication between the solid fuels industries and Government agencies on fuel questions under its jurisdiction. The Administrator establishes basic policies and formulates plans and programs to assure operation of all branches of the solid fuels industries on a basis that will enable them to meet wartime requirements. The Administrator issues policy and operating directives to all units of the solid fuels industries under his jurisdiction; recommends to the War Production Board any necessary program for wartime solid fuels distribution; determines where and when rationing should be effective; recommends to the Office of Price Administration needed adjustments in maximum prices for solid fuels; makes recommendations to the War Production Board as to critical materials needed by the solid fuels industries; makes recommendations to the Office of Defense Transportation and the War Shipping Administration on questions of provision of facilities for transporting solid fuels; requests action from the War Manpower Commission whenever it is represented that the ability of solid fuels industries to meet wartime requirements is impaired by manpower shortages; and discharges other functions necessary to assure an adequate wartime supply of solid fuels.
The Solid Fuels Administration also supervises the operation of coal mines taken over by the Federal Government under the War Labor Disputes Act, of June 25, 1943 (57 Stat. 163; 50 App. U.S.C. 1501), and various Executive orders.
This Division has supervision over all the functions in connection with electric power matters in the Department of the Interior, and the study of power problems, with particular reference at present to meeting the power requirements of the War Program in those areas served by the Department's multipurpose developments. In it are centralized responsibility for and coordination of the power phases of the work of the various bureaus of the Department, including the Bonneville Power Administration, Bureau of Reclamation, Office of Indian Affairs, National park Service, the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, and the Southwestern Power Administration. This responsibility includes review of budgetary problems relating to electric power matters and correlation of the power construction program of the Department.
Division of Power
The Division has a staff of engineers, economists, finance and rate experts, and lawyers, with training and experience in public power problems, including planning, operations, and contracts. it has extensive relations with municipalities and public power agencies thoughout the West, with the utility industry, with large industrial power users, and with other Federal power and war agencies, with especial reference to power supply for plants furnishing essential products in the War Program and for military and naval establishments.
The Division of Territories and Island Possessions was created in the Department of the Interior by Executive Order 6726, dated May 29 and effective July 29, 1934, issued under authority of the act approved March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1517; 40 U.S.C. 278a). This order placed under the jurisdiction of the new division the civil affairs of Puerto Rico, formerly administered by the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department, and also transferred to the Division all functions, personnel, records, supplies, equipment, property, and unexpended appropriations of the Bureau, as pertaining to Puerto Rico, to be adminisitered by the Secretary of the Interior.Pursuant to the authority cited, the Secretary of the Interior directed, in Order 1040, of February 13, 1936, that the administration of the following Territories and possessions, and certain activities therein, already under the supervision of the Department of the Interior, be vested in the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, to be exercised under his supervision:
Division of Territories and Island Possessions
Territory of Alaska.--Governor's Office, Alaska Railroad, Alaska Road Commission, and Alaska Insane.
Territory of Hawaii.--Governor's Office, Hawaiian Homes Commission, and Territorial Office of Civilian Defense.
Virgin Islands.--Governor's Office, The Virgin Islands Company, and Bluebeard Castle Hotel.
The President's Reorganization Plan II, submitted to Congress on May 9, 1939, and made effective July 1, 1939, transferred the Bureau of Insular Affairs, which administered the affairs of the Philippine Islands, from the War Department to the Division of Territories and Island Possessions in the Department of the Interior.
Under authority of Executive Order 7368 of May 13, 1936, and public resolution of June 23, 1936 (49 Stat. 1896), the administration of Jarvis, Baker, and Howland Islands was placed under the Division of Territories and Island Possessions, together with the necessary funds for their maintenance. Canton and Enderbury Islands also have been placed under this Division.
Administration of Territories and Island Possessions.--This Division, through the respective Governors of the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii, of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and through the United States High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, exercises supervision of, and acts as coordinating agency for, various Federal Government activities in these areas.
A fuller explanation of the various activities under the supervision of the Division of Territories and Island Possessions is as follows:
Alaska Railroad.--The operation and maintenance of the Government railroad in Alaska is in charge of the general manager, with headquarters at Anchorage, Alaska. The railroad was authorized by Congress in 1914. It was engineered and built under the supervision of the Department of the Interior and was placed in commercial operation in 1923. The railroad maintains and operates river boats in Alaska; promotes Alaska agricultural and industrial development; investigates mineral and other resources; operates hotels at Curry and Mt. McKinley Park, Alaska; and maintains a hospital and medical staff.
Alaska Road Commission.--Created by Congress in 1905, the Commission is charged with the construction, repair, and maintenance of roads, landing fields, tramways, ferries, bridges, and trails in the Territory of Alaska. It was transferred from the War Department to the Department of the Interior by act of Congress approved June 30, 1932 (47 Stat. 446; 48 U.S.C. 321a-c). Finances for this work are made available by a tax fund collected in Alaska, congressional appropriations, and contributions by the Territorial Legislature and by individuals.
Civilian Food Reserve.--This Division has the responsibility for providing emergency reserve food stockpiles in Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. In addition thereto, all items of general merchandise destined to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have to receive the approval of this Division before shipment can be made.
Jarvis, Baker, Howland, Canton, and Enderbury Islands.--These islands, located in the Pacific Ocean south of Hawaii, are administered in peacetime by a field representative, located at Honolulu, who visits the islands periodically in connection with their development by the Hawaiian colonists thereon. For the duration of the war, however, no activity with regard to these islands will be undertaken.
Puerto Rican Hurricane Relief Loan Section.--The Loan Section is the successor to the Puerto Rican Hurricane Relief Commission which was established by act of December 21, 1928 (49 Stat. 320), and abolished June 3, 1935, under Public Resolution 22 of the Seventy-fourth Congress. As in the case of the Commission, its purpose is to assist in the rehabilitation of agriculture in Puerto Rico, the production of coffee and coconuts, the encouragement of
raising food crops, as well as the extension of relief to Puerto Ricans affected by the hurricane of September 1928. Under authority of Public Resolutions 59 (49 Stat. 926) and 60 (49 Stat. 928), approved August 27, 1935, the Loan Section is now engaged in supervising and adjusting outstanding loans and the collection of principal and interest due thereon.
The Virgin Islands.--The Virgin Islands Company, a Federal Government agency, was created to carry out a comprehensive study for the economic and social rehabilitation of the people of the Virgin Islands. The operations of the Company consist of sugarcane cultivation, the production of rum, and such other activities as may be deemed advisable in the interest of the people of the Islands.
The Bluebeard Castle Hotel, now under lease to a private individual, is operated at Charlotte Amalie, V.I., for the purpose of providing suitable hotel accommodations to tourists, as an additional means of assisting in the general rehabilitation of the Islands.
The Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration was established within the Department of the Interior by Executive Order 7057, of May 28, 1935, issued under authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935. With funds aggregating approximately $70,000,000 made available under the 1935 and succeeding Emergency Relief Appropriation acts, the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration has conducted a broad program of work relief projects to increase employment in Puerto Rico, with emphasis on rural rehabilitation of needy persons, or other appropriations for continuance of the work were made by the Seventy-eighth Congress, and during the fiscal year 1945 only those limited projects will be maintained which are deemed necessary to protect substantial investments of the Government created by previous PRRA operations and to conserve social and economic progress under way. These limited projects are financed from the revolving fund created by the act of February 11, 1936 (49 Stat. 1135).
Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration
The Office of Land Utilization is charged, under Administrative Order 1466, dated April 15, 1940, with the responsibility of coordinating and integrating the land use and land management activities of the several bureaus and agencies of the Department, the establishment and development of sound forestry practices, the general administration of the soil and moisture conservation work, the maintenance of cooperative relations with Federal, State, and private agencies concerned with the protection, conservation, and prudent use of the lands and natural resources of the United States and Alaska.
Office of Land Utilization
The Solicitor is the chief law officer of the Department. Responsible to him are an immediate staff of assistants and the chief legal officers of the various bureaus of the Department, together with their staff.
Office of the Solicitor
The Solicitor is the chief legal adviser to the Secretary of the Interior and to the other administrative officers. His duties include all legal matters involved in the public properties or affairs entrusted to the Department, including regulations governing production and marketing of helium and fuel, explosives, fisheries, public lands, grazing, parks, reclamation, and Indian reservations, as well as ordinances of Territories, insular possession, and Indian tribes, legislation sponsored by the Department, and reports on proposed legislation. He passes upon the title to ming claims and properties in connection with the exploration of strategic minerals and the development and production of helium for the conduct of the war, lands acquired by the Department for national parks, public power projects, irrigation projects, Indian reservations, and other purposes.
The SOlicitor is in charge of all interest in the Department in litigation. He is charged with the defense of certain suits involving the legality of action by the Secretary of the Interior, and the handling of cases in the Supreme Court specially assigned to him by the Solicitor General. The Solicitor renders formal opinions, at the request of the Secretary, on important legal questions arising in the administration of the work of the Department. He conducts hearings in matters referred by the Secretary of the Interior. He represents the government of Puerto Rico in litigation in the higher Federal courts.
The Division has the responsibility for planning, organizing, directing, and supervising a comprehensive program of personnel administration, including classification, selection, appointment, placement, service rating, wage analyses, employee welfare and safety, and coordinates personnel procedures. The Director serves on the Council of Personnel Administration.
Division of Personnel Supervision and Management
The Division of Budget and Administrative Management, under the direction of the Under Secretary, provides a budget, finance, and management service for the Department. The Division consists of the Director, the Office of the Budget, and the Office of Organization and Methods. The Division participates in departmental planning related ot budget, finance, and management programs and objectives; advises and assists the bureaus and offices in the development and application of organization and methods; reviews and recommends action upon proposed changes in organization of the bureaus and offices; and directs the development and coordination of the Department's budget and finance programs. The Director of the Division is designated as the Budget Officer of the Department and represents the Department in liaison relationships with officials of the Bureau of the Budget and other executive departments and agencies, and with the appropriations committees of the Congress in matters relating to the Department's budget, finance, and administrative management activities.
Division of Budget and Administrative Management
The Chief Clerk is charged with the enforcement of departmental regulations of a general nature and has administrative supervision over the buildings occupied by the Department; has control of expenditures for contingent, printing and binding, and other departmental appropriations; purchasing, duplicating, museum, telephones, dispensary, mail and files, and motor vehicle service. he is custodian of the seal of the Department and contact officer for the Department in matters relating to the Division of Disbursements, Treasury Department, and the General Accounting Office. The Chief Clerk is designated as conservator of property for the Department, and as mileage administrator for the Department. He signs such official mail as the Secretary of the Interior may direct and handles various other miscellaneous matters of the Secretary's Office not otherwise assigned.
Office of the Chief Clerk
This Division prepares and distributes information touching upon all departmental activities, and acts as a clearing house for all public information originating in the various bureaus of the Department. The Director of Information is also the Departmental Security Officer, charged with safeguarding information which might prove of aid or comfort to the enemy; and Departmental Clearance Officer, charged with determining the suitability of format and the necessity of all of the Department's informational publications.
Division of Information
This Board, established by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions of the United States Geographic Board, transferred to him by Executive Order 6680, of April 17, 1934, is the official authority on the use of geographic names by the Government. In that capacity it formulates and enunciates national policies with respect to geographic names, establishes standard procedures and rules for guidance in naming hitherto unnamed features or places and in treating foreign names, decides unsettled questions as to the form, spelling, or application of geographic names, and considers new names proposed by Government officers. Its decision, according to Executive Order 399, of January 23, 1906, are "to be accepted by the departments of the Government as the standard authority," and are informally recognized as standard for nongovernmental use. The Board maintains central files, compiles and issues gazetteers and indexes, and furnishes information on geographic names in response to requests from governmental and other sources. The Board also represent the United States in international negotiations directed toward the development of uniform geographic nomenclature and orthography. Furnishes uniform information of international and domestic importance in military and post-war mapping.
United States Board on Geographical Names
The Bonneville Power Administration was created by act of Congress approved August 20, 1937 (50 Stat. 731; 16 U.S.C. 832), to market power generated at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in Oregon and Washington. It is directed by statute to encourage the widest possible use of electric energy and to provide market outlets therefor by constructing, operating, maintaining, and improving such electric transmission lines and substations as may be necessary.l By Executive Order 8526 of August 26, 1940, issued pursuant to the authority of the act of August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. 1039), the Administration was made the marketing agency for energy generated at the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, By order of the Secretary of the Interior it has also been designated as the marketing agency for energy generated at the Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork of the Flathead River in western Montana which will be constructed and operated by the Bureau of Reclamation.
Bonneville Power Administration
The Bonneville and Grand Coulee Dams are operated, respectively, by the United States Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation. Power generated at the dams is sold by the Administration over a network of high voltage transmission lines in Oregon and Washington. Most of this power is being distributed to war industries, including those industries newly established in the region for the production of metals such as aluminum, and to military and naval establishments. The Grand Coulee and Bonneville power plants are capable of expansion to an aggregate installed capacity in excess of two and one-half million kilowatts. During 1945 the ultimate capacity of the Bonneville plant and two-thirds of the prime capacity of the Grand Coulee plant will be utilized.
The Southwestern Power Administration was created on September 1, 1943, by order of the Secretary of the Interior, to effect the provisions of Executive Orders 9366 of July 30, 1943, and 9373 of August 30, 19843, designating the Secretary as the agent for the sale and distribution of all electrical energy generated at the Pensacola, Denison, and Norfork Dams in the States of Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas.
Southwestern Power Administration
The Pensacola Dam was built on the Grand River under the supervision of the Public Works Administration for flood control and the generation of power. The Denison and Norfork Dams were built under the direction of the Secretary of War and under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers of the War Department for the purpose of improving navigation, regulation of the flow of the Red River and North Fork of the White River, controlling floods, and other beneficial uses. The latter two dams are being operated by the Untied States Corps of Engineers.
The Secretary of the Interior is directed to distribute the power and make it available to war plants and establishments, public bodies and cooperatives, and other persons in the order named, with the ultimate purpose of providing a dependable market for such power and energy. He is directed to construct such facilities and make such other arrangements
as he deems necessary to interconnect the projects with other utility systems in the area. Because of the shortage of copper and other materials and facilities for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy required for the prosecution of the war, the Secretary is authorized to allocate transmission and distribution lines and appurtenant facilities in the area without interference with other uses of such lines and facilities by agreement with the owners of such facilities or upon terms fixed by the Federal Power Commission.
Creation and Authority.--The War Relocation Authority was created within the Office for Emergency management by Executive Order 9102 of March 18, 1942. Executive Order 09423 of February 16, 1944, transferred the Authority to the Department of the Interior to be administered as an organizational entity under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of the Interior.
War Relocation Authority
Purpose.--The Authority was established to provide for the removal from designated areas of persons whose removal is necessary in the interest of national security, and for their relocation, maintenance, supervision, and placement in public and private employment. The areas are designated from time to time by the Secretary of War or appropriate military commanders under authority of Executive Order 9066 of February 19, 1942. The War Relocation Authority does not undertake any evacuation activities within military areas without the prior approval of the Secretary of War or the appropriate military commander.
On June 8, 1944, the President directed the War Relocation Authority to administer an Emergency Refugee Shelter for a group of civilian refugees to be evacuated from the European theater of war and given shelter in the United States for the duration of the war.
Activities.--The Director consults with other Federal agencies such as the War Manpower Commission, War Department, navy Department, Department of Justice, and Federal Security Agency, on problems connected with the fields of their jurisdiction. He cooperates with the Alien Property Custodian in formulating policies to govern the custody, management, and disposal by the Alien Property Custodian of property belonging to foreign nationals removed under Executive Order 9102 of March 18, 1942, or Executive Order 9066 of February 19, 1942. He may assist other persons removed under either order in the management and disposal of their property.
The biggest single task of the War Relocation Authority is the maintenance and resettlement of approximately 110,000 persons of Japanese ancestry who were evacuated from their homes in the strategic military zones of the Pacific Coast region early in 1942, and who were subsequently transferred to relocation centers administered by the Authority. Acting on the premise that the national interest would best be served by permitting those evacuees whose loyalty could be established to resettle in ordinary communities, the War Relocation Authority announced procedures for granting indefinite leave in October 1942. Field relocation offices have been established to facilitate the placement of evacuees in productive jobs throughout the country, outside the evacuated zone. In September and October 1943,
the War Relocation Authority carried on a program of segregation, moving those persons whose loyalty to the United States was in doubt or whose loyalty to Japan had been established, into a segregation center at Tule Lake, Calif.
In the war refugee program, the War Relocation Authority administers one Emergency Refugee Shelter, housing for the duration of the war about 1,000 men, women, and children of 17 nationalities in an establishment made available by the Army at Fort Ontario, Oswego, N.Y. The Government furnishes essential subsistence. Educational, recreational, and other services are provided through the efforts of interested private agencies, the city of Oswego, and the refugees themselves.
Relocation Centers Name Project Director Address Manzanar Ralph P. Merritt Manzanar, Calif. Tule Lake1 Raymond R. Best Newell, Calif. Heart Mountain Guy L. Robertson Heart Mountain, Who. Colorado River Duncan Mills Poston, Ariz. Gila River Leroy H. Bennett Rivers, Ariz. Minidoka Harry L. Stafford Hunt, Idaho Rohwer Ray D. Johnston Relocation, Ark. Granada James G. Lindley Amache, Colo. Central Utah Luther E. Hoffman Topaz, Utah 1 Segregation Center.
Relocation Offices Area Relocation Supervisor Address Intermountain Walter Mewing, Acting 234 Atlas Building, Salt Lake City 1, Utah Western Plains Charles B. Miller Midland Savings Building, Denver 2, Colo. Central Leo T. Simmons, Acting Fidelity Bank Building, Kansas City 6, Mo. North Central Prudence Ross, Acting 226 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 6, Ill. Great Lakes Robert M. Cullum Union Commerce Bldg., Cleveland 14, Ohio Middle Atlantic Harold S. Fistere 350 Fifth Avenue, New York 1, N.Y. New England Roger F. Clapp 1700 Post Office Building, Boston 9, Mass. Southern Jesse H. Lewis Pyramid Building, Little Rock, Ark.
West Coast Offices Office Officer in Charge Address Western Field Office R.B. Cozzens, Assistant Director, WRA 461 Market Street, San Francisco 5, Calif. Los Angeles Area Earl W. Barton, Evacuee Property Supervisor 1031 S. Broadway, Los Angeles 15, Calif. San Francisco Area Harry R. Oakley, Evacuee Property Supervisor 690 Market Street, San Francisco 4, Calif. Seattle Area Claude G. Walker, Evacuee Property Supervisor 1331 Third Avenue Building, Seattle 1, Wash.
Harold L. Ickes
Secretary of the Interior
HyperWar Bibliography The Relocation Program Community Government in War Relocation Centers
Department of the Interior History Internment Archives The Munson Report (re: Loyalty of Japanese-Americans)
Department of the Interior--Related Organizations
Migratory Bird Conservation CommissionThe Merchandise Mart, 222 North Bank Drive,
Chicago 54, Ill.
Officials Chairman (Secretary of the Interior) Harold L. Ickes Commissioners: Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace Senator from Maryland George L. Radcliffe Senator (Vacancy) Representative from Missouri John J. Cochran Representative from Ohio Walter E. Brehm Secretary Rudolph Dieffenbach
Creation and Authority.--The Migratory Bird Conservation Commission was created by the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of February 18, 1929 (45 Stat. 1222; 16 U.S.C. 715-715e-1).
Purpose.--The purpose of the Migratory Bird Conservaton Commission is to consider and pass upon any area of land, water, or land and water that may be recommended by the Secretary of the Interior for purchase or rental under the provisions of this act, and to fix a price or prices at which such area may be purchased or rented. No purchase or rental shall be made of any such area until it has been duly approved for purchase or rental by the Commission.
Organization.--This Commission consists of the Secretary of the Interior, as Chairman, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, two Members of the Senate, selected by the President of the Senate, and two Members of the House of Representatives, selected by the Speaker.
The ranking officer of the branch or department of a State to whom is committed the administration of its game laws, or his authorized representative, and in a State having no such branch or department, the Governor thereof, or his authorized representative, shall be member ex officio of the Commission for the purpose of considering and voting on all questions relating to the acquisition, under the act, of areas in his State.
Activities.--The Commission, through is Chairman, makes an annual report in detail to Congress on the operations of the Commission during the preceding fiscal year.
The procedure observed in discharging the responsibilities of the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission is for the FIsh and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, to select, examine, and appraise for the purpose of deciding upon the fair value of the lands, waters, or lands and waters within the confines of proposed refuges, and to conduct negotiations with the owners for the purpose of securing price agreements with them. Approximately every 6 months the program of such acquisitions, either by direct purchase or by condemnation, is prepare din detail and presented to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission for its consideration.
After lands are approved for acquisition, it becomes a function of the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior, and the Department of Justice to take all subsequent steps looking to the vesting of title to the lands in the United States.
Harold L. Ickes
National Park Trust Fund BoardThe Merchandise Mart, 222 North Bank Drive,
Chicago 54, Ill.
Members Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes Director of the National Park Service Newton B. Drury Civilian Members J. Horace McFarland
Creation and Authority.--The National park Trust Fund Board was established pursuant to authority provided in the act of July 10, 1935 (49 Stat. 477; 16 U.S.C. 6a, 191-d).
Gifts Received for the National Park Service.--The Board is authorized to accept, hold, and administer gifts or bequests of personal property for the benefit of, or in connection with, the National park Service, its activities, or its service. No gift which entails any expenditure not met out of the gift may be accepted without the consent of Congress.
Moneys or Securities Received by National Park Trust Fund Board.--Such gifts compsoing the trust funds given or bequeathed to the Board are receipted for by the Secretary of the Treasury, and in turn are invested by that official. Income from the gifts is placed in the Treasury of the United States in a trust fund account known as the National park Trust Fund.
Newton B. Drury
National Power Policy CommitteeRoom 6315, Department of the Interior Building, C Street between Eighteenth and Nineteenth Streets NW.
REpublic 1820, Branch 4125
Members Philip B. Fleming Paul J. Raver Ganson Purcell Robert P. Patterson David E. Lilienthal Charles B. Henderson Officials Chairman (Secretary of the Interior) Harold L. Ickes Vice Chairman Leland Olds Executive Secretary Joel David Wolfsohn General Counsel Abe Fortas, Acting
Creation and Authority.--The Committee was organized under authority of letters from the President to the Secretary of the Interior dated July 9, 1934, and January 18, 1937, and was reconstituted October 1, 31939, when the National Defense Power Committee was merged with it.
Purpose.--It is the purpose of the National Power Policy Committee to develop a national power policy in the interest of national defense as well as peacetime needs. It considers power problems common to the several departments and agencies represented on the Committee with a view to the coordinated development of a consistent Federal power policy. It plans for the closer cooperation between public and private agencies supplying electric power to the end that electricity may be made more broadly available at cheaper rates. The Committee acts in a capacity advisory to the President.
Organization.--The National power Policy Committee is composed of officials of various Federal Government units. It has the cooperation of Federal agencies in assembling data for its reports.
Harold L. Ickes
Table of Contents
1. The Secretary of the Interior is designated as Petroleum Administrator for War, Solid Fuels Administrator for War, Coordinator of Fisheries, and Chairman of the National Power Policy Committee.