Legislative Branch


The Capitol
NAtional 3120: The Senate, Branch 18;
House of Representatives, Branch 220

Seventy-ninth Congress, First Session

The Senate


President of the Senate (Vice President of the United States) Harry S. Truman
President of the Senate Pro Tempore Kenneth McKellar
Secretary Leslie L. Biffle
Sergeant at Arms Wall Doxey
Chief Clerk John C. Crickett
Secretary for the Majority (Vacancy)
Secretary for the Minority Carl A. Loeffler
Chaplain Rev. Frederick Brown Harris, D.D.

The House of Representatives


The Speaker Sam Rayburn
Clerk South Trimble
Sergeant at Arms Kenneth Romney
Doorkeeper Ralph R. Roberts
Postmaster Finis E. Scott
Chaplain Rev. James Shera Montgomery

Creation and Authority.--The Congress of the United States was created by Article I, section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Continental Congress on September 17, 1787, providing that "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives."

The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789, in the Federal Hall in New York City. The membership then consisted of 22 Senators and 59 Representatives.

Organization--The Senate is composed of 96 members, 2 from each State, who are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. Senators were originally chosen by the State legislatures. This procedure was changed by Article XVII of the Amendments to the Constitution,


adopted in 1913, which made the election of Senators a function of the people. One-third of the Senate is elected every 2 years.

The House of Representatives comprises, at the present time, 435 Representatives. The umber representing each State is determined by population but every State is entitled to at least one Representative. members are elected by the people for 2-year terms, all terms running for the same period.

Both the Senators and their Representatives must be residents of the State form which they are chosen. In addition, a Senator must be at least 30 years of age and must have been a citizen of the United States for at least 9 years; a Representative must be at least 25 years of age and must have been a citizen for at least 7 years.

One Delegate each from the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska and one Resident Commissioner each from the Commonwealth of the Philippines and Puerto Rico represent the Territories and Insular Possessions and complete the composition of the Congress of the United States. These Delegates take part in the discussions but have no vote.

The Vice President of the United States is the presiding officer of the Senate; in his absence the duties are taken over by a president pro tempore, elected by that body. The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the Speaker, is elected by the House; he may designate any Member of the House to act in his absence.

The Secretary of the Senate, elected by vote of the Senate, performs the duties of the presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the Vice President and pending the election of a President pro tempore. He is the custodian of the seal of the Senate, draws requisitions on the Secretary of the Treasury for moneys appropriated for the compensation of Senators, officers, and employees and for the contingent expenses of the Senate, and is empowered to administer oaths to any office of the Senate and to any witness produced before it. His executive duties include certification of extracts from the Journal of the Senate, the attestation of bills, and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions, and in impeachment trials may issue, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate, and he certifies to the President of the United States ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate is elected by the Senate and is required to be present on the floor during all sessions of the Senate. As executive officer it is his duty to procure a quorum for the Senate. He has charge of the Senate Galleries and supervises the Gallery Doorkeepers, Capitol Police, and various subordinate officers of his department.

The Clerk of the House presides at the beginning of a Congress until the election of a Speaker. He is a continuing officer whose duties do not terminate with the sine die adjournment of Congress; his duties are largely executive and quasi-judicial in nature; he attests bills, resolutions, and subpenas; is custodian of the Seal of the House, and prepares the roll of Representatives-elect.

Committees.--The work of preparing and considering legislation is done largely by committees of both Houses of Congress. There are


33 standing committees in the Senate and 47 in the House of Representatives. in addition, there are special committees in each House, and approximately 18 congressional commissions and joint committee composed of Members of both Houses. Each House may also appoint special investigating committees.

The personnel of the standing committees of each House is chosen by a vote of the entire body; members of other committees are appointed by the presiding officers.

All bills and resolutions are referred to the appropriate committees, which may report a bill out in its original form, vote against it in committee, make changes, or allow the proposed legislation to die in committee.

Congressional Record.--All proceedings of Congress are published in the Congressional Record, which is issued daily when Congress is in session. Publication of the Record began March 4, 1873; it was the first series officially reported, printed, and published directly by the Federal Government.

Sessions.--Section 4 of Article I of the Constitution makes it mandatory that "The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year." Under this provision, also, the date for convening Congress was designated originally as the first Monday in December, "unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.": Eighteen acts were passed, up to 1820, providing for the meeting of Congress on other days of the year. From 1820 to 1934, however, Congress met regularly on the first Monday in December. In 1934 the Twentieth Amendment changed the convening of Congress to January 3, unless Congress "shall by law appoint a different day." The President "may on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them."

Powers of Congress.--Article I, section 8, of the Constitution defines the powers of Congress. Included are the powers to assess and collect taxes--called the chief power; to regulate commerce, both interstate and foreign; to coin money; to establish post offices and post roads; to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to declare war; to raise and maintain an army and navy. Congress is further empowered "To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions"; "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."

Amendments to the Constitution.--Another power vested in the Congress is the right to propose amendments to the Constitution, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary. Should two-thirds of the State legislature demand changes in the Constitution, it is the duty of Congress to call a constitutional convention. Proposed amendments shall be valid as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures or by conventions of three-fourths of the States, as one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress.

Special Powers of the Senate.--Under the Constitution the Senate is granted certain powers not accorded to the House of Representatives. The Senate approves or disapproves major Presidential


appointments by majority vote; and treaties must be ratified by a two-thirds vote. The President may call a special session of the Senate even when the House is not sitting.

Special Powers of the House of Representatives.--The House of Representatives is granted the power of originating all bills for the raising of revenue.

Both Houses of Congress act in impeachment proceedings, which, according to the Constitution, may be instituted against the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeachment, and the Senate has the sole power to try impeachments.

Prohibitions Upon Congress.--The Constitution also imposes prohibitions upon Congress: "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it." At bill of attainder or an ex post facto law cannot be passed. No export duty can be imposed, Ports of one State cannot be given preference over those of another State. "No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law." No title of nobility may be granted.

Rights of Members.--According to section 6 of Article I, Members of Congress are granted certain privileges. In no case, except in treason, felony, and breach of the peace, can Members be arrested while attending sessions of Congress "and in going to and returning from the same." Furthermore, the Members cannot be questioned in any other place for remarks made in Congress. Senators and representatives cannot be impeached; each House, however, may expel a Member of its body by a two-thirds vote.

Enactment of Laws.--All bills and joint resolutions must pass both the House of Representatives and the Senate and must be signed by the President in order to become law, or be passed over the President's veto by a two-thirds vote of both Houses of Congress. "If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within 10 Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law." When a bill or joint resolution is introduced in the House, the procedure for its enactment into a law is as follows:

  1. Assignment to House committee having jurisdiction.

  2. If favorably considered, it is reported to the House either in its original form or with amendments.

  3. If the bill or resolution is passed by the House, it is carried to the Senate and referred to the committee having jurisdiction.

  4. In the Senate committee, as well as in the House committee, the bill may be shelved, approved as it stands, or amended.

  5. The approved bill or resolution is reported to the Senate, and if passed by that body, returned to the House.

  6. Differences in the two bodies over the measure necessitate a joint conference committee to effect a compromise, or either body may agree to the amendments of the other body.

  7. When a bill or joint resolution is finally approved by both Houses, it is signed by the Speaker and the Vice President and is presented by the Committee on Enrolled Bills to the President.


  1. Once the President's signature is affixed, the measure become a law. If the President vetoes the bill, it cannot become a law unless it is repassed by a two-thirds vote of both Houses.

[Democrats in roman (55); Republicans in italics (40); Progressives in SMALL CAPS (1); total 96]
Name State City
Aiken, George D. Vermont Putney
Andrews, Charles O. Florida Orlando
Austin, Warren R. Vermont Burlington
Bailey, Josiah W. North Carolina Raleigh
Ball, Joseph H. Minnesota St. Paul
Bankhead, John H. Alabama Jasper
Barkley, Alben W. Kentucky Paducah
Bilbo, Theodore G. Mississippi Poplarville
Brewster, Owen Maine Dexter
Bridges, Styles New Hampshire Concord
Briggs, Frank P. Missouri Macon
Brooks, C. Wayland Illinois Chicago
Buck, C. Douglass Delaware Wilmington
Burton, Harold H. Ohio Cleveland
Bushfield, Harlan J. South Dakota Miller
Butler, Hugh Nebraska Omaha
Byrd, Harry Flood Virginia Berryville
Capehart, Homer E. Indiana Indianapolis
Capper, Arthur Kansas Topeka
Chandler, Albert B. Kentucky Versailles
Chavez, Dennis New Mexico Albuquerque
Connally, Tom Texas Marlin
Cordon, Guy Oregon Roseburg
Donnell, Forrest C. Missouri Webster Groves
Downey, Sheridan California Laguna Beach
Eastland, James O. Mississippi Ruleville
Ellender, Allen J. Louisiana Houma
Ferguson, Homer Michigan Detroit
Fulbright, J. William Arkansas Fayetteville
George, Walter F. Georgia Vienna
Gerry, Peter G. Rhode Island Providence
Glass, Carter Virginia Lynchburg
Green, Theodore Francis Rhode Island Providence
Guffey, Joseph F. Pennsylvania Pittsburgh
Gurney, Chan South Dakota Yankton
Hart, Thomas C. Connecticut Sharon
Hatch, Carl A. New Mexico Clovis
Hawkes, Albert W. New Jersey Montclair
Hayden, Carl Arizona Phoenix
Hickenlooper, Bourke B. Iowa Cedar Rapids
Hill, Lister Alabama Montgomery
Hoey, Clyde R. North Carolina Shelby
Johnson, Edwin C. Colorado Craig
Johnson, Hiram W. California San Francisco
Johnston, Olin D. South Carolina Spartanburg
Kilgore, Harley M. West Virginia Beckley
LA FOLLETTE, ROBERT M., JR. Wisconsin Madison
Langer, William North Dakota Bismarck
Lucas, Scott W. Illinois Havana
McCarran, Pat Nevada Reno
McClellan, John L. Arkansas Camden
McFarland, Ernest W. Arizona Florence
McKellar, Kenneth Tennessee Memphis
McMahon, Brien Connecticut Norwalk
Magnuson, Warren G. Washington Seattle
Maybank, Burnet R. South Carolina Charleston
Mead, James M. New York Buffalo


Name State City
Millikin, Eugene D. Colorado Denver
Mitchell, Hugh B. Washington Everett
Moore, E.H. Oklahoma Tulsa
Morse, Wayne L. Oregon Eugene
Murdock, Abe Utah Beaver
Murray, James E. Montana Butte
Myers, Francis J. Pennsylvania Philadelphia
O'Daniel, W. Lee Texas Fort Worth
O'Mahoney, Joseph C. Wyoming Cheyenne
Overton, John H. Louisiana Alexandria
Pepper, Claude Florida Tallahassee
Radcliffe, George L. Maryland Baltimore
Reed, Clyde M. Kansas Parsons
Revercomb, Chapman West Virginia Charleston
Robertson, Edward V. Wyoming Cody
Russell, Richard B. Georgia Winder
Saltonstall, Leverett Massachusetts Boston
Scrugham, James G. Nevada Reno
Shipstead, Henrik Minnesota Carlos, R.F.D.
Smith, H. Alexander New Jersey Princeton
Stewart, Tom Tennessee Winchester
Taft, Robert A. Ohio Cincinnati
Taylor, Glen H. Idaho Pocatello
Thomas, Elbert D. Utah Salt Lake City
Thomas, Elmer Oklahoma Medicine Park
Thomas, John Idaho Gooding
Tobey, Charles W. New Hampshire Temple
Tunnell, James M. Delaware Georgetown
Tydings, Millard E. Maryland Havre de Grace
Vandenberg, Arthur H. Michigan Grand Rapids
Wagner, Robert F. New York New York City
Walsh, David I. Massachusetts Clinton
Wheeler, Burton K. Montana Butte
Wherry, Kenneth S. Nebraska Pawnee City
White, Wallace H., Jr. Maine Auburn
Wiley, Alexander Wisconsin Chippewa Falls
Willis, Raymond E. Indiana Angola
Wilson, George A. Iowa Des Moines
Young, Milton R. North Dakota LaMoure
[Democrats in roman (242); Republicans in italics (190); Progressives in SMALL CAPS (1); American Labor in italic SMALL CAPS; Vacancy (1); total 435]
Name District State City
Abernethy, Thomas G. 4 Mississippi Okolona
Adams, Sherman 2 New Hampshire Lincoln
Allen, A. Leonard 8 Louisiana Winnfield
Allen, Leo E. 13 Illinois Galena
Andersen, H. Carl 7 Minnesota Tyler
Anderson, Clinton P. At L. New Mexico Albuquerque
Anderson, Jack Z. 8 California San Juan Bautista
Andresen, August H. 1 Minnesota Red Wing
Andrews, George W. 3 Alabama Union Springs
Andrews, Walter G. 42 New York Buffalo
Angell, Homer D. 3 Oregon Portland
Arends, Leslie C. 17 Illinois Melvin
Arnold, Wat 1 Missouri Kirksville
Auchincloss, James C. 3 New Jersey Rumson
Bailey, Cleveland M. 3 West Virginia Clarksburg
Baldwin, H. Streett 2 Maryland Hydes
Baldwin, Joseph Clark 17 New York New York City
Barden, Graham A. 3 North Carolina New Bern
Barrett, Frank A. At L. Wyoming Lusk


Name District State City
Barrett, William A. 1 Pennsylvania Philadelphia
Barry, William B. 4 New York St. Albans
Bates, George J. 6 Massachusetts Salem
Bates, Joe B. 8 Kentucky Greenup
Beall, J. Glenn 6 Maryland Frostburg
Beckworth, Lindley 3 Texas Gilmer
Bell, C. Jasper 4 Missouri Blue Springs
Bender, George H. At L. Ohio Cleveland Heights
Bennet, Augustus W. 29 New York Balmville (Newburgh)
Bennet, Marion T. 6 Missouri Springfield
Biemiller, Andrew J. 5 Wisconsin Milwaukee
Bishop, C.W. (Runt) 25 Illinois Carterville
Blackney, William W. 6 Michigan Flint
Bland, Schuyler Otis 1 Virginia Newport News
Bloom, Sol 20 New York New York City
Bolton, Frances P. 22 Ohio Lyndhurst
Bonner, Herbert C. 1 North Carolina Washington
Boren, Lyle H. 4 Oklahoma Seminole
Boykin, Frank W. 1 Alabama Mobile
Bradley, Fred 11 Michigan Rogers City
Bradley, Michael J. 3 Pennsylvania Philadelphia
Brehm, Walter E. 11 Ohio Logan
Brooks, Overton 4 Louisiana Shreveport
Brown, Clarence J. 7 Ohio Blanchester
Brown, Paul 10 Georgia Elberton
Brumbaugh, D. Emmert 22 Pennsylvania Claysburg
Bryson, Joseph R. 4 South Carolina Greenville
Buck, Ellsworth B. 16 New York Stapleton
Buckley, Charles A. 25 New York New York City
Buffett, Howard H. 2 Nebraska Omaha
Bulwinkle, Alfred L. 11 North Carolina Gastonia
Bunker, Berkeley, L. At L. Nevada Las Vegas
Burch, Thomas G. 5 Virginia Martinsville
Burgin, W.O. 8 North Carolina Lexington
Butler, John C. 44 New York Buffalo
Byrne, William T. 32 New York Loudonville
Byrnes, John W. 8 Wisconsin Green Bay
Camp, A. Sidney 4 Georgia Neman
Campbell, Howard E. 29 Pennsylvania Pittsburgh
Canfield, Gordon 8 New Jersey Paterson
Cannon, Clarence 9 Missouri Elsberry
Cannon, Pat 4 Florida Miami
Carlson, Frank 6 Kansas Concordia
Carnahan, A.S.J. 8 Missouri Ellsinore
Case, Clifford P. 6 New Jersey Rahway
Case, Francis 2 South Dakota Custer
Celler, Emanuel 15 New York Brooklyn
Chapman, Virgil 6 Kentucky Paris
Chelf, Frank L. 4 Kentucky Lebanon
Chenoweth, J. Edgar 3 Colorado Trinidad
Chiperfield, Robert B. 15 Illinois Canton
Church, Ralph E. 10 Illinois Evanston
Clark, J. Bayard 7 North Carolina Fayetteville
Clason, Charles R. 2 Massachusetts Springfield
Clements, Earle C. 2 Kentucky Morganfield
Clevenger, Cliff 5 Ohio Bryan
Cochran, John J. 13 Missouri St. Louis
Coffee, John M. 6 Washington Tacoma
Cole, Albert M. 1 Kansas Holton
Cole, William C. 3 Missouri St. Joseph
Cole, W. Sterling 39 Washington Tacoma
Colmer, William M. 6 Mississippi Pascagoula
Combs, J.M. 2 Texas Beaumont
Cooley, Harold D. 4 North Carolina Nashville
Cooper, Jere 9 Tennessee Dyersburg


Name District State City


Name District State City


Name District State City


Name District State City


Name District State City


Name District State City



United States Senate
The Vice President
Presides over the Senate and signs enrolled bills.

The President Pro Tempore
Performs, in the absence of the Vice President, the duties of that office.

Secretary of the Senate
Is presiding officer in the absence of the Vice President and pending the elections of a President pro tempore; is custodian of the seal; requisitions moneys appropriated for expenses of the Senate; administers oaths; certifies extracts from the Journal of the Senate; attests bills and joint, concurrent, and Senate resolutions; in impeachment trials may issue, under the authority of the Presiding Officer, all orders, mandates, writs, and precepts authorized by the Senate; certifies to the President of the United States ratification of treaties and the names of persons confirmed or rejected upon the nomination of the President.

Chief Clerk
Has general supervision over the clerks under the jurisdiction of the Secretary and is Reading Clerk.

Indicates the reference of bills and Executive communications to committees. Furnishes precedents to the presiding officer and Senators concerning procedures.

Journal Clerk
Keeps the journal of the legislative and impeachment proceedings.
Enrolling Clerk
Has charge of the engrossment and enrollment of bills.

Executive Clerk
Keeps the journal of the Executive proceedings (relating to nominations and treaties).

Superintendent of the Document Room
Has charge of the Senate Document Room.

Financial Clerk
Disburses moneys appropriated for the Senate and keeps its financial records.

Legislative Clerk
Endorses action on bills and other papers presented to Senate. Prepares legislative calendar and is Assistant Reading Clerk.

Printing Clerk
Has charge of all printing and binding for the Senate.

Has supervision over the Senate Library.

Keeper of Stationery
Has charge of the stationery room of the Senate. Makes purchases and keeps accounts of Senators and committees.

Secretary to the Majority
Is Majority Part Pair Clerk, Supervises all floor activities, including supervision of pages; distribution of bills and amendments on the floor. Receives messages from the President and the House of Representatives and attends to calling of party conferences.
Assistant Secretary to the Majority
Has charge of Majority pages. Keeps the record and calendar files of Majority Senators and distributes on the Senate floor bills and amendments. Performs, in the absence of the Secretary to the Majority, certain duties of that office.

Secretary to the Minority
Is Minority Part Pair Clerk and, in the absence of the Secretary to the Majority, supervises all floor activities, including supervision of pages; distribution of bills and amendments on the floor. Receives messages from the President and the House of Representatives and attends to calling of party conferences.

Assistant Secretary to the Minority
Has charge of Minority pages. Keeps the record and calendar files of Minority Senators and distributes on the Senate floor bills and amendments. Performs in the absence of the Secretary to the Minority, the duties of that office.

Offers prayer at the opening of the daily sessions of the Senate.

Official Reporters
Report stenographically the proceedings of the Senate.

Legislative Counsel
Assists Senate committees and Senators in the preparation and drafting of bills and committee reports.
Sergeant at Arms
Is Executive Officer of the Senate; procures quorums; has charge of the Senate Galleries; oversees Gallery Doorkeepers, Capitol Police, and various subordinate officers of his department.

Deputy Sergeant at Arms
Performs, in the absence of the Sergeant at Arms, the duties of that office, and is also storekeeper. Keeps property records and is the purchasing agent.

Folding Room
Charged with the distribution of public documents by Senators.

Capitol Guides
Appointed by the Sergeants at Arms of the Senate and House of Representatives and are subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the Capitol Police Board.

Post Office
Receives and delivers mail for Senators and for officers and employees of the Senate.

Capitol Police
Appointed by the Sergeants at Arms of the Senate and House of Representatives and are under the direction of the Capitol Police Board. It is their duty to police the Capitol building and grounds.

Senate Office Building Police
Appointed by the Sergeant at Arms to police the Senate Office Building.



House of Representatives
The Speaker
Is the presiding officer of the House, decides questions of order, appoints chairmen of the Committee of the Whole, signs acts, warrants, subpenas, and orders of the House, controls the unappropriated rooms and corridors in the House wing of the Capitol, appoints conference and special committees, the official reporters of debate, the committee stenographers, the Parliamentarian, and his office force of clerks.

Majority Leader
Is elected in caucus by the Majority party and has the responsibility of conducting the legislative program; appoints the legislative clerks and other assistants provided for his office, and selects the Party Whip.

Legislative Clerk and Others
Perform service under the direction of the Majority Leader.

Majority Whip
Acts under the direction of the Majority Leader in ascertaining sentiment on a given question and secures the attendance of Members of his party for votes on important matters; keeps in touch with the legislative program and advises Members of the time when certain bills are expected to be considered.

Appointed by the Speaker, under whose direction he indicates the reference of public bills and executive communications to committee; furnishes precedents to the Speaker and chairman of the Committee of the Whole, confers with them and with members concerning legislative propositions with respect to their parliamentary admissibility or otherwise, and prepares the House Manual.

Official Reporters of Debates
Report stenographically all proceedings of the House of Representatives.

Legislative Counsel
Assist House committees in drafting bills and committee reports, likewise also assist Members when not engaged in committee work.

House Office Building Commission
Prescribe rules and regulations governing use of all rooms and space in the House Office Buildings, and directs protection, care, and occupancy thereof.

Committee on Rules
This committee occupies a unique position in that it is not a legislative committee, yet it exercises influence upon legislation through special rules reported by it providing for the consideration of bills on the Majority program, and prescribing the methods of their procedure. It also reports proposed changes in the Rules of the House, and brings in resolutions creating special committees for various purposes.

Chairmen of Committees
Preside at committee meetings and hearings, report bills to House and conduct their consideration of the Floor, may delegate these functions to another member of the committee; appoint the committee complement of clerks and assistants.
Clerks to Committees
Are appointees of the chairmen, subject ot committee approval, keep minutes of meetings, assist in the preparation of reports and minutes of meetings, and are admitted to House Floor when committees' bills are under consideration.

Official Stenographers to Committees
Report Stenographically on House committees.

Minority Leader
Is selected at a conference of Minority Members, usually his party's candidate for Speaker; chairman of Minority steering committee and chairman ex officio of Committee on Committees which selects and nominates Minority Members on house committees; is spokesman for his party and enunciates its policies. The Minority Whip functions in conjunction with him.

Legislative Clerk and Others
Perform service under the direction of the Minority Leader.

Minority Whip
Acts under the direction of the Minority Leader in ascertaining sentiment on a given question and secures the attendance of Members of his party for votes on important matters; keeps in touch with the legislative program and advises Members of the time when certain bills are expected to be considered.

Minority Clerks
Assist the Minority Leader and the Minority Whip, and represent the Minority in the arrangement of pairs.

Is charged with the enforcement of rules relating ot the privileges of the House Chamber and is responsible to the House for the official conduct of his employees; must enforce rules of decorum on the Floor of the House, in conjunction with the Sergeant at Arms; is also charged with the operation of the Document Room and Folding Room; supervises the janitor service, cloakroom men, pages, and messengers.

Superintendent of Document Room
Receives, files, and keeps available for use of the House, all bills, resolutions, and documents ordered printed by the House, as well as all public laws and resolutions; maintains a current card index giving the daily status of each piece of legislation introduced in the House and Senate.

Superintendent of FOlding Room
Receives and holds for distribution on order all documents placed to the credit of Representatives, Delegates, Resident Commissioners, and officers of the House.

Chief Janitor
Has charge of the laborers and janitors appointed by the Doorkeeper.
Superintends the Post Office in the Capitol and House Office Buildings for the accommodation of Representatives, Delegates, Resident Commissioners, and officers of the House, and is responsible for the prompt and safe delivery and dispatch of their mail.

The duties of the Clerk of the House of Representatives are largely executive and quasi-judicial in their nature, and he derives his authority from the rules of Parliamentary Law, Rules of Practice (which have the force of common law), express statutes, and the printed Rules of the House of Representatives. He is a continuing officer whose duties do not terminate with the sine die adjournment of Congress, as do the duties of the Speaker, the Majority and Minority Leaders, and some other officials. in the consideration of the sources from which the Clerk derives his authority it is correct to observe that he exercises as much authority by virtue of the unwritten rules of practice as he does under the written rules of the House and express statutes. The Clerk attests bills, resolutions, and subpenas, is the custodian of the Seal of the house, prepares the roll of Representatives elect, and preside at the beginning of a Congress until the election of a Speaker.

Journal Clerk
Keeps minutes of the proceedings of the House; writes the Daily Journal, and prepares and indexes it for printing; endorses all official papers at Clerk's desk.

Enrolling Clerk
Engrosses all bills, resolutions, and House amendments to Senate bills passed by the House for transmittal to the Senate; drafts and engrosses all messages transmitted from the House to the Senate; enrolls for presentation to the President all House bills and resolutions which have passed both Houses.

Reading Clerks
It is the duty of the Reading Clerks to read all matter presented to the House and to call the roll. They also keep a file of all bills, reports, etc. on the various calendars of business.

Disbursing Clerk
Prepares the pay rolls and pays the salaries of all officers and employees of the House of Representatives, including clerks to Members; disburses all money appropriated for operating expenses of the House of Representatives, including the contingent fund and certain specific appropriations; also keeps all books, accounts, etc., for auditing purposes by the Comptroller General of the United States.

Property Custodian
Is purchasing agent of the House; furnishes and repairs all office equipment and keep property records; superintends furniture repair shop.

Tally Clerk
Prepares and indexes the daily calendars of business of the House; records all votes by the yeas and nays and roll calls for quorum and prepares the voting records of Members.
Stationery Clerk
Has charge of the Stationery Room of the House; makes purchases, and keeps the accounts of the Representatives as well as of the officers and committees of the House.

File Clerk
Receives and files all papers from committees of the House, as required by the rule, and is custodian of the archives of the House.

Bill Clerk
Has charge of numbering and printing bills and transcribing, for the Congressional Record, bills, resolutions, Executive documents, and reports of committees; keeps a complete record of the reference of and action on bills, resolutions, Executive documents, and reports of committees, and of their status.

Clerk's Document Room
Receives all special orders for binding documents for Members of the House, distributes House and Senate journals, United States Statutes at Large, and bimonthly index to the Congressional record, receives and files all House and Senate documents.

Telephone Exchange
Furnishes telephone service to all Members of the House and Senate.

Has supervision of the House Library and the Hall Library on the Floor of the House.

Opens the daily sessions of the House with prayer and officiates at memorial services.

Sergeant at Arms
Disbursing officer of Members' salaries and mileage; is charged with keeping order on the Floor of the House; serves summonses to witnesses to appear before committees of the House; conducts obesequies of deceased Members.

Capitol Police
Appointed by the Sergeants at Arms of the Senate and House of Representatives and are under the direction of the Capitol Police Board. It is their duty to police the Capitol Building and Grounds.

Keeps records of and handles all money in the Sergeant at Arms' office, assisted by tellers and bookkeepers.

House Office Building Police
Appointed by the Sergeant at Arms to police the House Office Building.

Appointed by the Sergeants at Arms of the Senate and House of Representative and are subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the Capitol Police Board.


Architect of the Capitol

United States Capitol Building
NAtional 3120, Branch 125

Architect of the Capitol David Lynn

Creation and Authority.--The first Architect of the Capitol was appointed in 1793 by the President of the United States. During the period of construction of the Capitol (1793-1865) appointments were made to the position of Architect at such times and for such periods as the various stages of the construction work required. The office of Architect has, however, been continuous from 1851 to date.

The functions of the office have changed materially from time to time in accordance with the increased activities imposed upon it by Congress, due, principally, to the addition of new buildings and grounds. Originally, the duties of the Architect of the capitol were to plan and construct the Capitol Building, and later, to supervise its care and maintenance.

Permanent authority for the care and maintenance of the Capitol Building is provided by the act of August 15, 1876 (19 Stat. 147; 40 U.S.C. 162-163). This act has been amended from time to time to provide for the care and maintenance of the additional buildings and grounds placed under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol by Congress in subsequent years.

Activities.--The Architect of the Capitol, acting as an agent of Congress, has charge of the structural and mechanical care of the United States Capitol Building, together with arrangements in cooperation with the proper authorities, for ceremonies and ceremonials held in the building and on the grounds; is responsible for the care, maintenance, and improvement of the Capitol Grounds, the old and newly enlarged areas comprising in all 120.2 acres, as well as the care of the grounds, walks, and driveways about the buildings in the legislative group; has the structural and mechanical care of the Library of Congress Buildings, United States Supreme Court Building, Courthouse of the District of Columbia, Court of Appeals Building, Court of Claims Buildings, and Columbia Hospital for Women and Lying-In Asylum; is responsible for the operation of the United States Senate and House of Representatives Restaurants.

In addition to these activities the Architect has the following duties and responsibilities:

Under the direction and approval of the House Office Building Commission, the structural, mechanical, and domestic care and maintenance eof the House Office Buildings, including the maintenance and operation of the mechanical equipment, and the care, maintenance, and operation of the Capitol power plant, which supplies heat, light, power, and air-conditioning refrigeration for the Capitol, Senate and House Office Buildings; heat, light, and power for the Library of Congress Buildings, United States Botanic Garden, United States Supreme Court Building, and the legislative garage; and steam heat for the Government Printing Office and Washington City Post Office;


Subject to the approval of the Senate Committee on Rules as to matters of general policy, the structural, mechanical, and domestic care and maintenance of the Senate Office Building, including the maintenance and operation of the mechanical equipment;

Subject to the joint action of the Vice President of the United States and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the jurisdiction and control, including the care and maintenance, of the legislative garage.

In addition to these maintenance and repair activities, the Architect of the Capitol is charged with the planning and construction of such buildings as may be committed to his care by Congress from time to time.

Under the direction and supervision of the Joint Committee on the Library, serves as Acting Director of the United States Botanic Garden.

Over and above these functions, the Architect of the Capitol serves as a member of the Capitol Police Board, of the Commission for the Enlarging of the Capitol Grounds, of the District of Columbia Zoning Commission, and of the National Capital Housing Authority.


David Lynn
Architect of the Capitol

United States Botanic Garden

Office of Director, 245 FIrst Street SW.
NAtional 3120, Branch 267

Conservatory, Maryland Avenue, First to Second Streets SW>
NAtional 3120, Branch 1042

Nursery, Poplar Point, Howard Road SE, Anacostia, D.C.
ATlantic 0433

Acting Director David Lynn, Architect of the Capitol

Creation and Authority.--The United States Botanic Garden was founded in 1820 under the auspices of the Columbia Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, an organization which was the outgrowth of an association known as the Metropolitan Society and which received its charter from Congress on April 20, 1818. The Garden continued under the direction of this Institute until 1827, when the Institute ceased to exist as an active organization.

It remained abandoned until 1842 when it became necessary for the Government to provide accommodations for the botanical collections brought to Washington, D.C. from the South Seas by the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-42, under the leadership of Captain Charles Wilkes. The collections were placed temporarily on exhibition at the Patent Office upon return of the expedition in June 1842. The first greenhouse for this purpose was constructed in 1842 under the direction and control of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Library, from funds appropriated by Congress. The collections of the exploring expedition were put under the custodianship of the Commissioner of Patents by the Library Committee and


remained thereunder until 1850, although the actual care of the botanical collection was under the supervision of Captain Wilkes.

In 1849 Congress authorized the construction of an extension to the Patent Office Building and, in order to allow for construction, it was necessary to relocate the Botanic garden greenhouses annexed thereto.

The act of May 15, 1850 (9 Stat. 427), provided "for the removal of the public greenhouse, and the botanical collection thereat, to some suitable site on the public grounds, and for the erection of such other greenhouses as may be deemed necessary by the Joint Committee on the Library, five thousand dollars, to be expended by the direction of the said Joint Committee, and under the supervision of the Commissioner of Public Buildings."

The site selected by the Joint Committee on the Library for the relocation of the Botanic Garden was at the west end of the Capitol Grounds and was practically the same site as that occupied by the Botanic Garden during the period it functioned under the Columbia Institute.

The site was later enlarged, and the main area continued to serve as the principal Botanic Garden site from 1850 until 1933, when the gardens were relocated to their present site.

Action toward the relocation of the gardens to their present site was initiated by Congress on January 7, 1925, and the project, which was thereafter authorized by Congress, was brought to completion on January 13, 1933.

Although the Botanic Garden began functioning as a Government-owned institution in 1842, the records indicate that it was not until 1856 that the maintenance of the Garden was specifically placed under the direction of the Joint Committee on the Library, and a regular, annual appropriation was provided by Congress (11 Stat. 104).

The legislation governing the employment of personnel at the Garden, act of March 3, 1873 (17 Stat. 491; 40 U.S.C. 216), reads as follows: "There shall be a superintendent [Director] and assistants in the Botanical Garden and greenhouses who shall be under the direction of the Joint Committee on the Library."

At the present time the Joint COmmittee exercises its supervision through the Architect of the Capitol, who has been serving as Acting Director since 1934.

Purpose.--Originally, the purpose of the Botanic Garden was to collect, cultivate, and distribute the various vegetable production of this and other countries, whether medicinal, esculent, or for the promotion of arts and manufacture.

The present purpose of the United States Botanic Garden is to collect, cultivate, and grow the various vegetable production of this and other countries for exhibition and display to the public and for study material for students, scientists, and garden clubs. Activities.--The Botanic Garden contains a large variety of palms, cycads, ferns, cacti, and other miscellaneous tropical cool[-house plants, many of which are rare species. There are special displays during most of the months of the year, and in their proper seasons banana, papaya, orange, lemon, tangerine, kumquat, averrhoa, coffee, and surinam cherry are to be seen in luxuriant fruiting. The entire collection of the Garden includes over 8,000 species and varieties of plant


growth. The collection attracts many visitors annually, including botanists, horticulturists, students, and garden club members.

The Garden, though not operated as a scientific institution, offers educational facilities in that it makes available for study to students, botanists, and floriculturists may rare and interesting botanical specimens. Every year botanical specimens are received from all over the world with requests for identification, and one of the services rendered by the Garden to the public is the identification of such specimens and the furnishing of information relating to the proper methods of growing them.


David Lynn
Acting Director

Government Printing Office

North Capitol and H. Streets NW
DIstrict 6840

Public Printer A.E. Giegengack
Deputy Public Printer John J. Deviny
Administrative Assistant to the Public Printer Russell H. Herrell
Production Planning Assistant to the Public Printer Robert A. Ritter
Production Manager William Smith
Mechanical Superintendent William A. Anderson
Comptroller Felix E. Cristofane
Director of Personnel S. Preston Hipsley
Assistant Production Manager James W. Broderick
Night Production Manager Alfred L. Fleming
Director of Commercial Planning Raymond H. Lecraw
Superintendent of Documents Alton P. Tisdel
Superintendent of Composition Morris H. Reaves
Superintendent of Presswork Loxlie V. Adams
Superintendent of Binding Thomas G. Maloney
Superintendent of Platemaking John A. McLean
Technical Director Morris S. Kantrowitz
Assistant to the Production Manager John L. Grant
Medical and Safety Director Dr. Louis J. Goffredi
Director of Purchases William J. Cassiday
Chief Clerk Henry H. Wright
Superintendent of Library Branch Harry Falk
Director of Typography and Design Frank H. Mortimer
Assistant Superintendent of Composition Felix M. Halluin
Liaison Officer Maybelle G. Fickel
Administrative Assistant to the Production Planning Assistant to the Public Printer Eustis E. Morsberger
Director of Plant Planning Grover W. Tribble
Chief Storekeeper Alla G. Stevens
Director of Planning Service Philip L. Cole
Clerk in Charge of Congressional record (Capitol) Ralph L. Harris
Captain of Guards George L. Kisling

Creation and Authority.--The Government Printing Office was created by Congressional Joint Resolution 25, June 23, 1860. A then-existing commercial printing plant was purchased for $1135,000,


under an appropriation made February 18, 1861. Possession was taken March 4, 1861, and the office was named the government Printing Office. it is now the largest and best-equipped printing plant in the world. The activities of the Government Printing Office are outlined and defined in the Printing Act of January 12, 1895, as amended (28 Stat. 603; U.S.C. title 44).

Purpose.--The Government Printing Office executes orders for printing and binding placed by Congress and the departments, independent establishments, and agencies of the Federal Government; furnishes, on order, blank paper, inks, and similar supplies to all governmental activities; distributes Government publications as required by law, and maintains necessary catalogs and a library of these publications; prints, for sale to the public, such documents as are not of a confidential nature.

Organization.--The Public Printer is solely responsible for the management of the Government Printing Office. However, the Joint COmmittee on Printing, consisting of three Members of the Senate and three Members of the House of Representatives, was created by the act of August 3, 1846, superseded by the act of January 12, 1895 (28 Stat. 601; 44 U.S.C. 1), to adopt and employ such measures as in its discretion it deemed necessary to remedy any neglect, delay, duplication, or waste in public printing, binding, and distribution of Government publications. The Joint Committee fixes the standards of paper used in public printing and approves contracts for such paper and other materials. It also passes on wage agreements which the Public Printer is authorized by the act of June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 658; 44 U.S.C. 40), to enter into with the committees representing the various trades in the Government Printing Office, and acts generally as the Board of Directors of the Government Printing Office.

Management.--Entire management of the Office, including appointment through civil service of all personnel, is by law vested in the Public Printer, who is required to be a practical printer, versed in the art of bookbinding. This official is appointed by the President of the United States by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In directing the various functions and activities of the Government Printing Office, the Public Printer is aided by three principal assistants, the Deputy Public Printer, the Administrative Assistant to the Public Printer, and the Production Planning Assistant to the Public Printer. The Deputy Public Printer assumes the duties of the Public Printer in the absence of that official and is directly responsible to the Public Printer for all the production activities; in this matter his assisted by the Production Manager. The Administrative Assistant is directly responsible to the Public Printer for the proper handling of the administrative functions of the Office. The Production Planning Assistant is directly responsible to the Public Printer for planning for both plant and commercial production of printing.


The duties of the principal divisions under the general supervision of the Deputy Public Printer are:


Composing.--The setting of type and its arrangement for the printing of all matter, including linotype, monotype, hand composition, proofreading, and lock-up, are included under this activity.

Platemaking.--The platemaking division produces the stereotype, electrotype, and photoengraving plates required for the various kinds of presswork and prepares the negatives used in offset work.

Presswork.--The activity under this heading includes the actual production of impressions from type and plates. Illustrations in color work, ranging from one to four colors, are produced whenever desired.

Binding.--This activity includes the binding of all pamphlets, books, and blank work and the repairing and rebinding of old books, documents, and manuscripts.


The duties of the various divisions under the general supervision of the Administrative Assistant are:

Division of Accounts.--All fiscal and legal matters, which include the proper handling of finances, cost estimates, appropriations, pay rolls, regal work, budgets, computing, cost analysis, billing, general bookkeeping, auditing, rate-making, and statistics, are under the supervision of the Comptroller in the Division of Accounts.

Purchasing.--This division has charge of all purchases for the Government Printing Office and arranges for the sale of waste paper and old materials.

Division of Personnel.--The Division of Personnel is composed of the following units: Board of Wage and Salary Review; Efficiency Rating Review Board; Employees' Grievance Board; medical, Safety, and Health Section; Recruitment, Selection, and Placement Section; Appointment, Retirement, and Records Section; Classification and Organizational Survey Section; Employees' Relations and Welfare Section; and Employees' Training Section.

Chief Clerk.--Correspondence, the records and files pertaining thereto, Telephone Exchange, Guard Section, Sanitary Section, and related activities, are under the direction of the Chief Clerk.

Maintenance.--Under this heading is included the activity of maintaining the building, and keeping in repair and operation all the printing, binding, and building equipment.

Tests and Technical Control.--Laboratory work is performed in this division in connection with all technical specifications for paper and other printing material, and here also is carried out the testing of all purchased material for the purpose of maintaining standards of quality.

Disbursing Clerk.--The Disbursing Clerk has general supervision over all moneys spent for pay-roll purposes, supplies, etc., and all moneys received in payment for work performed.

Emergency Hospital.--An emergency hospital is maintained under the supervision of the Medical and Safety Director for the treatment of employees taken suddenly ill or injured while on duty. He is also in charge of safety measures for the protection of employees from industrial hazards.

Superintendent of Documents.--This official is the sales agent for Government publications and also prepares the official catalogs and indexes. The Superintendent is authorized to allow a discount of 25 percent to book dealers and to quantity purchasers of 100 or more copies on condition that the purchaser will adhere to the public


sales price set by the Superintendent and that publications shall not be overprinted with any advertising matter. No free distribution of publications is made by this office.

For convenience in ordering Government publications, coupons are issued by this office in sets of 20 for $1, each having a face value of 5 cents. They are detachable and usable in payment for Government publications sold by this office, thus obviating the necessity of continually purchasing postal money orders for relatively small amounts.

They Superintendent of Documents distributes publications to depository libraries, and, upon order of Federal departments and agencies, mails publications to libraries and various other places. He compiles monthly and biennial catalogs covering all Federal publications and a weekly list of selected publications. The Superintendent receives all accumulations of Government publications from the Departments and annually takes over their surplus for distribution or sale. Bibliographies, price lists, and reference catalogs are compiled by the Superintendent of Documents and are available at all times in his office. He also maintains a library of all Government publications. There is a direct appropriation which covers the expenses of the office of the Superintendent of Documents.


The duties of the division under the general supervision of the Production Planning Assistant to the Public Printer are:

Planning Service.--This division receives requisitions for Government printing and binding procured through the Government Printing Office, and issues waivers on that portion of the work which cannot be procured by or produced in the Government Printing Office.

Typography and Design.--The Typography and Design Division is responsible for the preparation of format, design, and artwork in connection with new publications; determination of acceptable copies for illustrations; and display reproduction and establishment of standards of quality.

Plant Planning.--Work is planned as to the most efficient, effective, and economical method of production.l Estimates are furnished the ordering office as to probable cost involved; specifications are made and schedules prepared for performance of operations within the plant.

Commercial Planning.--This division is responsible for determination of method of production, writing the specifications for printing to be procured from commercial sources, and preparation of schedules for performance of operations.

Appropriation of Funds for Public Printer.--Congress each year appropriates direct to the Public Printer a working capital to which is charges the cost of printing and binding for Congress. All other Government establishments pay to the Public Printer, from appropriations under their control, the cost of printing and binding which they may order, these payments being deposited by the Public Printer in the Treasury to the credit of the working capital and becoming at once subject to requisition by the Public Printer for authorized expenditures.


A.E. Giegengack
Public Printer


Library of Congress

First Street SE, between East Capitol and B Streets
NAtional 2722, Branch 333

Librarian of Congress Luther H. Evans, Acting
Librarian of Congress Emeritus Herbert Puttnam
Chief Assistant Librarian Luther H. Evans
Director of the Reference Department David C. Mearns
Director of the Processing Department Herman H. Henkle
Director of the Acquisitions Department Verner W. Clapp
Law Librarian Eldon R. James
Register of Copyrights Sam Base Warner
Chief of the Loan Division Elsie Rackstraw
Secretary of the Library Mrs. Alva B. Walker, Acting
Director of Personnel Byron F. Lindsley
Superintendent of Library Buildings and Grounds William C. Bond
The Library of Congress Trust Fund Board
Ex Officio:  
     Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Chairman
     Librarian of Congress Vacancy, Secretary
     Chairman of Joint Committee on the Library Senator Alben W. Barkley
     Adolph C. Miller, Esq., Washington, D.C. (term expires March 9, 1948)
     Mrs. Eugene Meyer, Washington, D.C. (term expires March 9, 1945)

Creation and Authority.--The Library of Congress was established under the law approved April 24, 1800, appropriating $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress" (2 Stat. 56). The subsequent act of January 26, 1802, provided that "a librarian to be appointed by the President of the United States solely, shall take charge of the said library" (2 Stat. 129). The law library was created and made of part of the Library of Congress by the act of July 14, 1832 (4 Stat. 579; 2 U.S.C. 132, 134, 135, 137); the library of the Smithsonian Institution was deposited in it under the act of April 5, 1866 (14 Stat. 13; 2 U.S.C. 151). The Appropriation Act of February 19, 1897, provided for the appointment of the Librarian by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; vested in the Librarian the authority to appoint all the members of the staff "solely with reference to their fitness for their particular duties" (29 Stat. 544; 2 U.S.C. 140); gave him the authority also to "make rules and regulations for the government of the Library:" (29 Stat. 545, 42 Stat. 715; 2 U.S.C. 136); and created in its various departments (entitled divisions) to perform certain processes or administer certain groups of materials, e.g., manuscripts, maps, etc.

By act of July 8, 1870, the business of copyright was placed under the control of the Librarian of Congress (16 Stat. 212, 215); by the act of February 19, 1897, the copyright department (now Copyright Office) was created within the Library under a Register


of Copyrights, appointed by the Librarian and responsible to him (29 Stat. 545).

The Library is mainly supported by the appropriations of Congress on the basis of estimates made by the Librarian. Apart from the appropriations of Congress, the Library has the use of the income from funds received from foundations and private sources and administered by the Library of Congress Trust Fund Board; it has the use also of gifts of money presented for direct application (act of March 3, 1925, as amended by acts of January 27, 1926, April 13, 1936, and June 23, 1936; 43 Stat. 1107-08; 44 Stat. 2; 49 Stat. 1205; 49 Stat. 1894; 2 U.S.C. 156, 157, 158).

Purpose.--Under the organic law, the Library is, as its name implies, the Library of Congress. As such, in all its departments and as a whole, it is primarily for the service of Congress. one division, the Legislative Reference Service, functions exclusively for the legislative branch of the Government. As the Library has developed, its range of service has come to include the entire governmental establishment in all its branches and the public at large, so that it has become, in effect, the national library of the United States.

Organization.--The direction of the Library is vested in the Librarian (see paragraph "Creation and Authority," above), whose immediate staff consists of the Chief Assistant Librarian, the Directors of the three principal departments into which the Library is organized, the Law Librarian, and the Register of Copyrights. Within each department are the several divisions, the operations of which are administered by division chiefs responsible to the departmental heads. The structure of the Library is, accordingly, as follows:

Reference Department
A. Circulative Service
    Stack and Reader Division
    Serial Division
    Loan Division
        House and Senate Book Rooms
        Service for the Blind
        Capitol Station (in the Capitol)
B. Public Reference Service
    General Reference and Bibliography Division
        COnsultant Service
        Special Projects
            Census Library Project
            Jefferson Catalog Project
            Local History and Genealogy Section
            Netherlands Studies Unit
    Aeronautics Division
B. Public Reference Service--continued
    Hispanic Foundation
    Manuscripts Division
    Maps Division
    Music Division
        Archive of American Fold Song
        Recording Laboratory
    Orientalia Division
        Indic Section
        Iranian Section
        Japanese Section
        Semitic Section
    Prints and Photographs Division
        Archive of Hispanic Culture
        Exhibits Officer
    Rare Books Division
        Microfilm Reading Room
C. Legislative Reference Service
    Congressional Reading Room
    State Law Index Section
Acquisitions Department
Exchange and Gift Division
Order Division
Serial Record Division


Processing Department
Binding Office
Card Division
Descriptive Cataloging Division
Subject Cataloging Division Union Catalog Division
Law Library (Includes the Law Library in the Capitol)
Copyright Office
Administrative Office (Under direction of the Chief Assistant Librarian)
Accounts Office
Books for the Adult Blind
Buildings and Grounds
Disbursing Office
Information Office
Personnel Office
Photoduplication Service
Publications Office
Secretary's Office
Supply Office
Tabulating Office

The buildings and grounds are administered by the Superintendent. All structural work on the buildings and the operation of the mechanical plant are, however, under the general jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol.

The Bindery and Printing Office maintained in the Library buildings are branches of the Government Printing Office.

The Library has seven endowed chairs (Music, Fine Arts, American History, Aeronautics, Geography, Latin American Studies, and Poetry in English), of which the first six are held by the chief of a corresponding division. it has also the services of a group of specialists ("consultants,": "honorary consultant," or "fellows of the Library of Congress"), whose association with the Library is either voluntary or is made possible by gifts from nongovernmental sources and who, unlike the incumbents of the chairs, are without administrative responsibility. These groups assist in the systematic development of the collections, furnish expert counsel in specialized fields of knowledge, and serve as liaison between the resources of the Library and investigators pursuing intensive research. For the latter, special facilities are provided both in the Main Building and in the Library Annex.


All matters relating to procuring of library material and making it useful to Congress, the governmental establishment generally, and the public at large, are within the scope of activity of the Library. Free Use of Library for Reference.--For the purposes of reference, the use of the Library is free, without introduction or credential, to any inquirer from any place. much of the reference work is carried on by answer to inquiry through correspondence. The character of the questions which the Library can thus undertake to answer may be described as follows:
  1. As to its possession of a particular book.

  2. As to the existing bibliographies on a particular subject.

  3. As to the most useful existing authorities on a particular subject and where they may be available.


  1. As to the author of a book known by title.

  2. As to the date, price, and probable present cost of a specified book.

  3. As to the source of a particular quotation, is ascertainable by ready reference.

  4. As to particular facts in history or literature, and in the organization or operations of the Federal Government (if not requiring elaborate research).

  5. As to an extract from a book in its possession (where of moderate extent).

Extensions of Service.--The Library extends its service through (1) an interlibrary loan system, (2) the photoduplication, at reasonable cost, of books, manuscripts, maps, newspapers, and prints in its collections, and the duplication of sound recordings which it possesses, (3) the exchange of duplicates with other institutions, (4) the sale of printed catalog cards, which makes available the results of the expert bibliographical and cataloging work of its trained personnel, (5) the deposits of complete sets of its printed cards in 105 libraries (92 in the United States and 13 in foreign countries), (6) a cooperative cataloging and classification service which, working in conjunction with other libraries, assists in the preparation of catalog entries for books not in the Library of Congress and in the preparation of analytical entries for the serial publications of learned societies and institutions, (7) the development of a scientific scheme of classification and cataloging embracing the entire field of printed matter, (8) the preparation of bibliographical lists, (9) the maintenance of a Union Catalog containing over 12,000,000 cards for important books in more than 700 American libraries, and (1) the publication of catalogs, bibliographical guides, and lists, as well as texts or original manuscripts in the Library of Congress.

At the center of a group of libraries, governmental and other, with collections aggregating more than 27,000,000 volumes, and in touch with experts in the various bureaus of the Government, the Library of Congress serves as a bureau of information in all matters involving the serious use of books.


Luther H.Evans
Acting Librarian of Congress


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