See HyperWar for the history of the United States Navy in World War II. See also Administration of the Navy Department in World War II See Seamanship, Chapter 2: Naval Organization for a good, brief narrative description of how the organizations of the Navy Department function.
Department of the NavyEighteenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW
REpublic 7400, Information
Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal Naval Aide to the Secretary Capt. E.B. Taylor Under Secretary of the Navy Ralph A. Bard Naval Aide to Under Secretary Capt. Robert N. McFarlane Naval Aide to Under Secretary Comdr. George S. Piper (U.S.N.R.) Assistant Secretary of the Navy H. Strive Hensel Naval Aide to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy Lt. Comdr. Richard G. McClung (U.S.N.R.) Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air Artemus L. Gates Naval Aide to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air Capt. Bennett W. Wright Executive Office of the Secretary General Board: Chairman Adm. A.J. Hepburn (U.S.N. ret.) Member Adm. E.C. Kalbfus (U.S.N. ret.) Member Adm. C.C. Bloch (U.S.N. ret.) Member Rear Adm. G.J. Rowcliff Member Rear Adm. O.M. Hustvedt Secretary Capt. W.D. Chandler Chief Clerk Jarvis Butler Shore Establishments and Civilian Personnel Division, Director Rear Adm. F.G. Crisp Administrative Office, Administrative Officer Comdr. Ronald J. Chinnock (U.S.N.R.) Executive Assistant Ben Abbott Administrative Assistant J.S. Davitt Management Engineer Comdr. R.M. Paget (U.S.N.R.) Industrial Survey Division, Director Rear Adm. Charles W. Fisher (U.S.N. ret.) Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, Judge Advocate General Rear Adm. T.L. Gatch Assistant Judge Advocate General Rear Adm. F.L. Lowe Office of Procurement and Material, Chief Vice Adm. S.M. Robinson Special Assistant J.H. Vincent Special Assistant, General Administration Comdr. C.K. Mallory (U.S.N. ret.) Deputy Chief and Assistant Chief in charge of Production Rear Adm. A.M. Charlton Assistant Chief in charge of Procurement V.D. Goubeau Assistant Chief in charge of Planning and Statistics Rear Adm. J.M. Irish Assistant Chief in charge of Industrial Readjustment Rear Adm. H.L. Merring (U.S.N. ret.) Deputy Assistant Chief in charge of Industrial Readjustment E. Perkins McGuire Office of General Counsel, General Counsel W. John Kenney Office of Public Relations, Director Deputy Director Capt. G.W. Campbell Press Officer Lt. Comdr. J.E. Conley (U.S.N.R.)
Office of Budget and Reports, DIrector Rear Adm. Ezra G. Allen Assistant Director Capt. Alfred Tawresey Office of War Savings Bonds, Coordinator Capt. Gerald A. Eubank (S.C., U.S.N.R.) Industrial Incentive Division, Chief Rear Adm. C.H. Woodward (U.S.N. ret.) Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, Director Capt. William G. Greenman Division of Training Liaison and Coordination, Chief Dr. Joseph W. Barker Lend-Lease Liaison Office, Liaison Officer and Chairman of Munitions Assignment Committee (Navy) Adm. J.M. Reeves (U.S.N. ret.) Office of Coordinator of Research and Development, Coordinator Rear Adm. J.A. Furer Assistant Coordinator Capt. Lybrand Smith Transportation Branch, Chief Arthur M. Hill Office of Naval History, Director Adm. E.C. Kalbfus (U.S.N. ret.) Office of Navy Photographic Services, Director Capt. Gene Markey (U.S.N.R.) Office of Patents and Inventions, Director Rear Adm. H.G. Bowen Board of Medical Examiners and Naval Examining Board (Medical), President Rear Adm. B.H. Dorsey (M.C., U.S.N. ret.) Naval Examining Board Line, President) Rear Adm. Laurence T. DuBose Naval Retiring Board, President Rear Adm. B.H. Dorsey (M.C., U.S.N. ret.) Naval Clemency and Prison Inspection Board, Senior Member Vice Adm. J.K. Taussig (U.S.N. ret.) Board for Production Awards, Chairman Adm. C.C. Bloch (U.S.N. ret.) Board of Decorations and Medals: Senior Member Rear Adm. Laurence T. DuBose Member and Recorder Capt. H.G. Patrick (U.S.N. ret.) Board of Review, Discharges and Dismissals, President Capt. A.B. Anderson Naval Retiring Review Board, President Rear Adm. P.H. Bastedo (U.S.N. ret.) Headquarters of Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King Deputy Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Vice Adm. Richard S. Edwards Chief of Staff Vice Adm. C.M. Cooke, Jr. Deputy Chief of Staff Rear Adm. B.H. Bieri Aide and Flag Secretary Capt. Howard E. Orem Aide and Flag Lieutenant Comdr. R.E. Dornin Assistant Chief of Staff (Plans) Rear Adm. D.B. DUncan Assistant Chief of Staff (Combat Intelligence) and Director of Naval Intelligence Rear Adm. L.H. Thebaud Assistant Chief of Staff (Operations) Rear Adm. M.F. Schoeffel Assistant Chief of Staff (Readiness) Rear Adm. Walter S. DeLany Chief of Staff, Tenth Fleet, and Assistant Chief of Staff (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Rear Adm. A.R. McCann Naval Inspector General Adm. Charles P. Snyder (U.S.N. ret.) Vice Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Frederick J. Horne Sub Chief of Naval Operations Rear Adm. W.S. Farber Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) Vice Adm. A.W. Fitch
Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (for Matériel) Rear Adm. W.R. Purnell Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (for Logistic Plans) Rear Adm. L.D. McCormick Hydrographer Rear Adm. G.S. Bryan (U.S.N. ret.) Superintendent, Naval Observatory Capt. J.F. Hellweg (U.S.N. ret.) Chief of Naval Personnel Vice Adm. Randall Jacobs Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel Rear Adm. L.F. Denfeld Director, Women's Reserve of the United States Naval Reserve Capt. Mildred McAfee (U.S.N.R.) Superintendent, United States Naval Academy, (Annapolis, Md.) Chief, Bureau of Ordnance Rear Adm. George Hussey, Jr. Assistant Chief Rear Adm. Willard A. Kitts, 3d Chief, Bureau of Ships Rear Adm. Edward L. Cochrane Assistant Chief Rear Adm. Earle W. Mills Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics Rear Adm. Dewitt C. Ramsey Assistant Chief Rear Adm. L.B. Richardson Chief, Bureau of Yards and Docks Vice Adm. Ben Moreell (C.E.C.) Assistant Chief Rear Adm .L.B. Combs (C.E.C.) Chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, and Paymaster General) Rear Adm. W.B. Young (S.C.) Assistant Chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts Rear Adm. W.J. Carter (S.C.) Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, and Surgeon General Vice Adm. Ross T. McIntire (M.C.) Assistant to the Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Rear Adm. W.J.C. Agnew (M.C.) Superintendent, Navy Nurse Corps Capt. Sue S. Dauser (Nurse Corps, U.S.N.) Commandant, United States Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift Assistant Commandant Maj .Gen. DeWitt Peck Director of Personnel, Marine Corps Maj. Gen .Allen H. Turnage The Quartermaster General of the Marine Corps Brig. Gen. W.P.T. Hill The Paymaster General of the Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Raymond R. Wright Director, Marine Corps Women's Reserve Col. Ruth Cheney Streeter (U.S.M.C.R.) Commandant, United States Coast Guard Vice Adm. Russell R. Waesche Director, Women's Reserve of the United States Coast Guard Reserves Capt. Dorothy C. Stratton (U.S.C.G.R.)
Creation and Authority.--The Department of the Navy and the office of the Secretary of the Navy were established by act of Congress approved April 30, 1798 (1 Stat. 553; 5 U.S.C. 411-12). For 9 years prior to that date by provision of act of Congress, April 7, 1789, the conduct of naval affairs was under the Secretary for the Department of War.
The Board of Navy Commissioners (consisting of three members) was created by the act of February 7, 1815.
The act of August 31, 1842 (5 Stat. 579; 5 U.S.C. 429), abolished the Board of Navy Commissioners and established the Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks, Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair, Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
The act of July 5, 1862 (2 Stat. 510; 5 U.S.C. 429), established the following organizations: Bureau of Yards and Docks, Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting (later changed to Bureau of Equipment and still later abolished), Bureau of Navigation (now Bureau of Naval Personnel), Bureau of Ordnance, Bureau of Construction and Repair, Bureau of Steam Engineering (later changed to Bureau of Engineering, which, together with Bureau of Construction and Repair, was abolished on June 20, 1940--now Bureau of Ships), Bureau of Provisions and Clothing (later changed to Bureau of Supplies and Accounts), and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
The Office of Chief of Naval Operations was established by the act of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 929; 5 U.S.C. 422).
The Bureau of Aeronautics was established by the act of July 12, 1921 (42 Stat. 140; 5 U.S.C. 439).
Purpose.--It is the purpose of the Department to supervise and maintain a naval establishment in readiness for the performance of such duties as the President, who is Commander in Chief, may order.
The fundamental naval policy of the United States is to maintain the Navy in sufficient strength to support the national policies and commerce and to guard the continental and overseas possessions of the United States.
The General Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Secretary of the Navy, considering and reporting upon such subjects as the Secretary may submit to it.
The Executive Office of the Secretary
The Division of Shore Establishments and Civilian Personnel established January 20, 1944, by order of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, includes the former Divisions of Personnel Supervision and Management, and Shore Establishments. The Division is responsible for the administration of civilian personnel policy and procedures in the departmental service and shore establishments of the Navy Department. The Division promulgates and administers regulations governing employment, classification, wage administration, service ratings, training, grievances, removals, retirement, leaves of absence, employee beneficial suggestions, safety engineering, selective service,
Division of Shore Establishments and Civilian Personnel
labor utilization and supply, labor relations, and the act of Congress of March 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 143; 50 App. U.S.C. 1001), granting financial aid to dependents of civilian employees missing, beleaguered, or captured by the enemy.
The Division of Shore Establishments and Civilian Personnel also assists in the adminisitration of labor relation matters affecting naval production at plants of naval contractors and subcontractors; this includes assistance in the fields of industrial manpower, labor supply, deferments, and training.
The Division works closely with the bureaus, shore establishments, the Civil Service Commission, and the Bureau of the Budget.
The Administrative Office plans, coordinates, and controls the departmental administrative and general business operations, including space planning and control; mail and telephone facilities; office equipment and supplies, including standardization; printing and publications control; forms standardization; correspondence and records management; microfilming (except V-mail); property, fire, and general security; local vehicle transportation; public transit liaison; rationing; cafeterias; civil personnel pay roll; personal business facilities; medical and health services; work incentives; improvement of working conditions and related management functions to increase efficiency and economy of operation. Certain of these functions, such as space planning, printing and publications control, forms standardization, correspondence and records management, and microfilming, extend into the Naval Establishment.
The Administrative Office also prepares budget estimates and administers expenditures of certain appropriations for the Secretary, performs miscellaneous departmental administrative duties, and provides office management services for the Office of the Secretary and the Executive Office of the Secretary.
This Office is under the direction of the Management Engineer, who acts as a management consultant and adviser to the Secretaries and their staffs.
Office of the Management Engineer
It is the responsibility of this Office to assist in the development of adequate organization structure of the bureaus and offices in the Navy Department. It is also the responsibility of this Office to coordinate management effort in the Navy Department, to eliminate nonessential work, simplify essential work, and to improve the utilization of personnel. These responsibilities are effect through Department-wide management programs and specialized surveys and analyses.
This Division has been established in order that the Secretary of the Navy may be kept informed as to the efficiency of operation of the
Industrial Survey Division
industrial activities of the shore establishments of the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard, including the effectiveness of utilization of personnel engaged in industrial work. The mission of this Division is to inspect such industrial activities from time to time and report the results thereof to the Secretary, with pertinent observations and recommendations.
The Office of the Judge Advocate General has cognizance of all matters of law which involve the service, and reports upon the legal features of courts martial, courts of inquiry, and boards of investigation and inquest. It also drafts proposed legislation, except appropriations, arising in the Department. It renders to the Secretary opinions on the legality of any matters referred to tie Office by him, including proceedings in the civil courts by or against the Government--action relating to insurance, contracts, patents, copyrights, and trade-marks. The Judge Advocate General prepares for submission to the Attorney General such questions as the Secretary of the Navy may direct.
Office of the Judge Advocate General
This Office examines reports, bills, and resolutions introduced into Congress and referred to the Navy Department. Additional functions include the review and necessary action on international law, admiralty cases, and claims for damages involving vessels and aircraft.
The Chief of Procurement and Material is an officer on the active list of the Navy, appointed by the Secretary of the Navy from among the officers of the line not below the grade of captain. While so serving, the Chief of Procurement and Material has the rank and title of vice admiral. He is charged (by General Order 166, January 30, 1942, approved by the President of the United States) with coordination of all the material and procurement activities of the Navy Department; supervision of programs for the procurement of ships and materials of every character as approved by the Secretary of the Navy, and the performance of such other duties as the Secretary of the Navy may direct. The orders of the Office of Procurement and Material are considered as emanating from the Secretary of the Navy and have full force and effect as such.
Office of the Chief of Procurement and Material
The Office of Procurement and Material is composed of:
Planning and Statistics Branch.--This branch acts as a central agency for the collection of statistical data relating to the Navy procurement program, reviews and analyzes programs and schedules, and studies the effect of program changes.
Production Branch.--The duty of this branch is to coordinate and expedite the Navy's production program. Through its staff it maintains close coordination with the War Production Board on scheduling and other phases of production, and supervises the allocation within the Navy program of critical raw materials.
Procurement Branch.--This branch coordinates the various phases of procurement in the bureaus. It has cognizance of contract clearance, guaranteed loans, contract renegotiation, and insurance.
Industrial Readjustment Branch.-- This branch of the Office of Procurement and Material was established to consolidate the administration of the material inspection activities of the material bureaus of the Navy Department.
This Office furnishes commercial legal services to the Navy Department. It is charged with responsibility for all legal matters relating to procurement, contract terminations, and property disposition. A branch office designated Office of Counsel is established in each of the contracting bureaus, the Navy Price Adjustment Board, and the Industrial Readjustment Branch of the Office of Procurement and Material.
Office of the General Counsel
The functions of the Office of Public Relations are: to satisfy the American public's justifiable interest in the activities of the Navy; to procure for the personnel of the Navy public recognition commensurate with their accomplishments; to insure continuing public support for the prosecution of the war; and to foster a sustained interest in the Navy in the post-war period.
Office of Public Relations
The Office of Budget and Reports, under the Secretary of the Navy, has charge of the preparation and execution of the Navy Department's budget. It analyzes the estimates of the individual bureaus and offices and correlates them into a well-balanced program. After funds have been appropriated by Congress, the Office revises the budgetary program to conform to specific funds and follows up the execution of that program.
Office of Budget and Reports
The Office of War Savings Bonds promotes the sale of War Bonds by allotment, pay roll deduction, and cash payment plans to the civilian, enlisted, and officer personnel of the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, ashore and afloat, throughout the world. The Office of War Bonds is responsible for the appointment of issuing agents for War Bonds and War Bond officers at naval, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps activities.
Office of War Savings Bonds
The Industrial Incentive Division is charged with the operation of industrial incentive plans of the Navy Department for stimulating,
Industrial Incentive Division
in cooperation with all cognizant Government agencies, the production of war materials. This Division operates a comprehensive program designed to improve industrial morale by media which show the necessity of any particular part of a product to the total war effort.
The Division arranges for reports of the use of equipment under combat conditions; releases action photographs; aids in arranging material exhibits; issues posters, employee publication material and labor press material; produces and distributes combat motion pictures; and arranges for returned combat personnel to visit plants engaged in war production. It also has cognizance of all Army-Navy "E" ceremonies.
The Office of Naval Petroleum Reserves was established in 1927 as a part of the Secretary's Office. A directed dated June 6, 1944, which re-defined the duties and functions of this office, established the Office of the Director of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale reserves to take custody and charge of the reserves on behalf of the Secretary; to formulate plans and programs for the exploration, prospecting, protection, conservation, development, use, and operation of the reserves, and for the production of oil therefrom, and to make recommendations to the Secretary with respect thereto; to execute such plans and programs as are duly approved; and to consult with the bureaus and other offices of the Navy Department and other Government departments and agencies to the extent necessary for the administration and control of the reserves, and for the production therefrom.
Office of the Director, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves
This Division represents the Navy Department in cooperation with other governmental agencies for civilian vocational training and non-military education. It confers with all bureaus and offices of the Department on matters of such training.
Division of Training Liaison and Coordination
The principal function of this Office is to bring about the fullest possible cooperation in, and coordination of, research efforts affecting the Navy among the research establishments of the Army and navy, other Government and industrial research establishments, the activities mobilized under the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and the using services themselves. The Coordinator provides information to the bureaus and offices of the Navy Department regarding
Office of Coordinator of Research and Development
research facilities of outside agencies and assists in directing research into appropriate channels. By personal contacts of his staff, by correspondence, and by inspections, he maintains a follow-up on the progress of all research and development projects in which the Navy is interested, taking such steps as necessary to expedite the work. The Coordinator is the Chairman of the Naval Research and Development Board and advises the Secretary of the Navy on all matters concerning naval research. He arranges for suitable representation of the Navy on outside boards, committees, and councils dealing with research.
The Office of Inventions is one of the activities of this Office. It handles all suggestions and proposals made by individuals in civil life to the Navy Department direct or through the National inventors Council for new or improved weapons and devices for use by the Navy.
The Transportation Branch administers the policies of the Navy Department on matters relating to domestic transportation; procures, assigns, operates, and maintains all transportation facilities and equipment for domestic transportation; advises on, and acts as a clearing house with respect to the procurement of automotive transport vehicles for use outside the continental limits of the United States. Excluded from the foregoing are transportation: by air; by vessels under the Naval Transportation Service; by equipment used in training, maneuvers, or actual combat or patrol duty; by common carriers of personnel under travel orders; and routing of material by common or charter carrier.
The Office of Naval History was established July 31, 1944, directly under the Secretary of the Navy. The Director is charged with coordinating the widely distributed work of the Navy Department in the preparation of histories and narratives of the present war, in order to assure adequate coverage to serve present and future needs and effectively to eliminate nonessential and overlapping effort.
Office of Naval History
This Office was established to represent the Secretary of the navy in all motion picture activities of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard; and to conduct and coordinate Navy liaison concerning motion pictures with Government agencies and commercial producers.
Office of Navy Photographic Services
This Office, established October 19. 1944, supervises and administers all activities within or on behalf of the Navy Department relating to patents and patent matters, and correlates such activities with the research and development activities of the Navy. The term "patents" as used herein additionally includes trade-marks, copyrights, royalty payments, and other similar matters.
Office of Patents and Inventions
The Naval Examining Board (Medical) conducts the professional examinations of Medical Corps officers of the U.S. Navy and Naval reserve for promotion to the grades of commander and captain, Medical Corps. The examinations of officers to promotion to the grade of rear admiral, Medical Corps, are customarily conducted by a special examining board composed of officers of the grade of rear admiral, of which the president of this Board is a member, and the examination records are handled by this office.
Naval Examining Board (Medical)
The Board of Medical Examiners conducts the physical examination of officers of the line and staff corps, U.S. Navy and Naval Reserve, to determine their physical qualifications for promotion, appointment, and advancement.
Board of Medical Examiners
The Naval Examining Board conducts the professional examination of line officers, including warrant and chief warrant officers of the U.S. Navy for promotion, and for appointment, transfer, and promotion of the U.S. Naval Reserve; competitive examinations of warrant and chief warrant officers for appointment to commissioned ranks of ensign, lieutenant (junior grade), and lieutenant of the regular Navy; competitive examinations of enlisted personnel for appointment to warrant ranks of the regular Navy; and examinations of records of chief warrant officers, regular Navy and Naval Reserve, for Certificates of Creditability of Record.
Naval Examining Board (Line)
The Naval Retiring Board conducts the examinations of such officers of the line and staff corps of the U.S. Navy and Naval Reserve as may be ordered to appear before it, or whose cases may be referred to it by the Secretary of the Navy, to determine their physical fitness to perform all the duties appropriate to their respective ranks or grades. (Commonly referred to as examinations for physical incapacity retirements).
Naval Retiring Board
The Naval Clemency and Prison Inspection Board, convened by precept of the Acting Secretary of the Navy, of August 27, 1943, considers applications of naval prisoners for clemency and for restoration to duty. THe Board makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy on such applications and on matters relating to the treatment of naval prisoners and to naval discipline. Members of the Board make frequent inspections of naval prisons, detention barracks, and brigs, and recommendations upon the organization and conduct of such activities are submitted.
Naval Clemency and Prison Inspection Board
It is the duty of the Board for Production Awards to stimulate the production of war material. It fosters teamwork between labor and management and makes Army-Navy "E" awards to the outstanding producers both commercial and governmental.
Board for Production Awards
The Board of Decorations and Medals makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy on the bestowal of honors of all types within the naval service not awarded by delegated authority; on the legislation, Executive orders, and general orders pertaining to decorations, awards, and campaign medals; and on retirement benefits to personnel with previous commendations. The design of medals and the definition of policies come within the Board's purview.
Board of Decorations and Medals
This Board, established July 22, 1944, in compliance with section 301 of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, approved June 22, 1944 (58 Stat. 286), reviews discharges and dismissals of former members of the naval service for purpose of determining, whether, under reasonable standards of naval law and discipline, the type and nature of discharge or dismissal of former service personnel should be changed, corrected, or modified. Cases are reviewed either by hearing or documentary review on petitioner's request. After this review they are submitted to the Secretary of the Navy for and subject only to his final review.
Board of Review, Discharges and Dismissals
This Board reviews and reports upon the findings and decision of any naval retiring board by reason of which any person who, while serving as an officer of the naval service, has been or may be retired or released to inactive service without pay. The Board's authority is extended only to those individuals who may request review within the time limit prescribed in section 302 of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (58 Stat. 287).
Naval Retiring Review Board
The duties of the Commander, in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations have been combined in accordance with Executive Order 9096 of March 12, 1942. They devolve upon an admiral who is the principal naval adviser to the President on the conduct
Headquarters of Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations
Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations
of the war and the principal naval adviser and executive to the Secretary of the navy on the conduct of the activities of the Naval Establishment.
A line officer on the active list, with the rank of vice admiral, is detailed as Deputy Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations to act for and in the name of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations, in such matters (chiefly policy-making) as the latter may direct.
The Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations is a member of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, United States and Great Britain, and is the senior Navy member of the Joint Army-Navy Board.
During the temporary absence of the Secretary of the Navy, the Under Secretary of the Navy, and the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations shall be next in succession to act as Secretary of the Navy. In the temporary absence of all of these officers, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Staff, United States Fleet, respectively, shall be next in succession to act as Secretary of the Navy.
The Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, has supreme command of the operating forces comprising the several fleets, seagoing forces, and sea frontier forces of the United States Navy, and shall be directly responsible, under the general direction of the Secretary of the Navy, to the President therefor.
Headquarters of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet
The Staff of the Commander, in Chief, United States Fleet, is composed of the Chief of Staff of the United States Fleet, the Deputy Chief of Staff, five Assistant Chiefs of Staff, and the required additional officers organized into five divisions--Plans Division, Combat Intelligence Division, Operational Division, Readiness Division, and Anti-Submarine Division.
Under the Commander in Chief and his Chief of Staff, the staff of the Commander in Chief prepares and executes plans for current war operations, conducts operational duties, and directs the training essential to carrying out operations. In order that close liaison may be maintained with the Navy Deparmtent, the principal offices of the Commander in Chief shall be in the Navy Department unless otherwise directed.
The Office of the Naval Inspector General is within the Headquarters of, and he is the agent of, the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations. The Naval Inspector General is charged with inquiry into and report on all matters which affect the efficiency and economy of the naval service. By General Order 196, of June 16, 1943, he has the rank of a rear admiral or above, of the line, not designated for engineering duty only. He is assisted by a Deputy Inspector General, three Assistant Inspectors
General, other inspectors assigned to temporary duty, and such other naval, technical, and civilian assistants as are required.
The scope of inspection, investigation, and inquiry of the Naval Inspector General is broad, and generally includes all naval activities not restricted by law or excepted by orders of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations, or higher authority.
An officer on the active list of the Navy is detailed by the Secretary of the Navy as Vice Chief of Naval Operations. in the temporary absence or incapacity of the Commander in Chief, United Sates Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations, he acts as Chief of Naval Operations. This officer while serving in this office has the rank of vice admiral.
Vice Chief of Naval Operations
The Vice Chief of Naval Operations executes the plans and policies of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations, with respect to the preparation, readiness, and logistic support of the operating forces comprising the several fleets, seagoing forces, and sea frontier forces of the Navy.
Sub Chief of Naval OperationsThe Sub Chief of Naval Operations is the principal assistant to the Vice Chief of Naval Operations. In the latter's absence or incapacity, the Sub Chief acts as the Vice Chief of Naval Operations. The Sub Chief of Naval Operations, insofar as practicable, relieves the Vice Chief of Naval Operations of details of administration of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. The Divisions of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations under immediate direction of the Sub Chief of Naval Operations are: Intelligence, Pan American, Communications, hydrographic Office, and Naval Observatory.
The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) performs the function of correlating and coordinating all military aspects, including policy, plans, and logistics, of naval aviation.
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air)
He is charged with the preparation, readiness, and logistic support of the naval aeronautic operating forces included within the several fleet, seagoing forces, and sea-frontier forces of the United States Navy, and with the coordination and direction of the effort to this end of the bureaus and offices of the Navy Department.
The Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Matériel has supervision over the Matériel Divisions of Naval Operations; i.e., the Fleet Maintenance, Base Maintenance, and Naval Transportation Division, and the Board of Inspection and Survey. In this capacity he is responsible for the execution of all Navy Matériel plans, excepting aviation matters. He is responsible for investigation of characteristics
Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Matériel
of types of ships; advising the Chief of Naval Operations of new construction possibilities; issuance of directives or supervision of changes, alterations, conversions, and acquisitions; issuance of basic priority directives to the Navy; making provision for convoy terminal overhaul and repair facilities; establishment of policies for Fleet Maintenance, Base Maintenance, Naval Transportation Service, and Board of Inspection and Survey; promulgation of policies regarding arming merchant vessels, provision of armed guard crews, training of armed guard crews, foreign nations' quotas of guns, and liaison with the War Shipping Administration regarding merchant vessel arming; supervision of assemblage, priority assignment, and allocation of electronic equipment; supervision of degaussing and mining activities; and establishment of policies and directives regarding foreign ship repairs. He is assisted in the execution of logistic plans by a Progress Section. He is a member of the Munitions Assignments Board.
The Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Logistic Plans heads the Logistic Plans Division.
Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Logistic Plans
The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is composed of 17 divisions: Logistic Plans, Central, Naval Intelligence, Pan American, Naval Communications, Inspection and Survey, Fleet Maintenance, the Hydrographic Office, the Naval Observatory, Base Maintenance, Aviation Planning, Aviation Personnel, Aviation Training, Flight, Naval Air Transport Service, Marine Corps Aviation, and Naval Transportation Service.
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations
Logistic Plans Division.--In coordination with Plans Division, Headquarters, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, the Logistic Plans Division makes plans for implementing current and future operations, requirements as to location and facilities of advance bases, coordination of the logistic supply and distribution of munitions, an the coordination of the logistic efforts of the Navy Department with the Army and Allied governments.
Central Division.--The Central Division maintains liaison with the State Department and has cognizance of matters concerning foreign relations, treaties and treaty interpretation, international law, diplomatic arrangements for visits of United States ships and aircraft to foreign ports and foreign ships and aircraft to United States territory, honors and ceremonies, general orders, Navy Regulations, bureau manuals, legislation, and special and annual reports. It has cognizance of miscellaneous matters, assignment of which to another division is not appropriate, and such other matters as the Vice Chief of Naval Operations may direct. It has supervision of Island governments under United States naval jurisdiction and civil matters in connection with island bases in foreign territory.
Naval Intelligence Division.--the Intelligence Division is charged with the collection and evaluation of information for the Department and for other naval activities. It publishes and disseminates such information to the Navy and to Government officials requiring it and keeps in close touch with all naval activities both in and out of the Navy Department. It supervises naval censorship and is responsible for the security of naval information. It cooperates with the other executive departments of the Government in discovering persons engaged in activities inimical to the United States It supervises offices in each naval district, administers all United States naval attachés and liaison officers abroad, and is the official channel of communication in the United States for all foreign naval attachés. The Office of Naval Records and Library, in addition to maintaining a technical library for reference purposes, collects and classifies, with a view to publication, naval records of historical value.
Pan American Division.--The Pan American Division is the central agency for coordinating those naval activities involved in developing military cooperation with the American Republics.
Naval Communications Division.--The Director fo Naval Communications, under the Chief of Naval Operations, is charged with the preparation, readiness, and logistic support of the operating forces comprising the several fleets, seagoing forces, and sea frontier forces of the United States Navy, insofar as communications are concerned. He administers the operation of the naval shore communication system; supervises merchant ship communications, naval postal affairs, V-Mail, expeditionary force messages and senders composition messages, procurement, assignment, accounting and disbursing of radio, wire, and cable tolls; prepares shore communications plans, communications instructions, signal books, call sign books, cryptographic aids and allowances thereof, budget (miscellaneous expenses), and communication personnel plans; determines military characteristics and allowances of radio, radar, sonar, electrical visual and special signalling devices, radio and radar navigational aids and associated devices, and military communication aspects of legislation, treaties, and agreements; distributes registered publications, nonregistered communication publications; operates Navy Department Communications Office, communication intelligence, and communication security; maintains liaison with joint, combined, and civil government agencies and civilian enterprises on communication matters and electronic materials. The Director of Naval Communications is a member of the Joint Communications Board, Combined Communications Board, Board of War Communications, Interdepartmental Telecommunications Committee, and Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee.
Inspection Division (Board of Inspection and Survey).--The Board of Inspection and Survey is charged with inspections and trials of newly constructed naval vessels, including submarine and aircraft
and, at intervals specified by law, with the material inspections of all vessels of the Navy. It is in close coordination with the Secretary of the Navy and the Fleet Maintenance Division of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
Fleet Maintenance Division.--The Fleet Maintenance Division coordinates the efforts of the material bureaus from the board viewpoint of the requirements of the Navy insofar as the material readiness of the fleet (including Coast Guard and district craft, sea frontier forces, and Naval Transportation Service vessels) is concerned; regulates the availability of foreign and Naval Transportation vessels for overhaul at navy yards in accordance with the operating requirements; has cognizance of alterations, repairs, upkeep, and conversion of all types of naval vessels; recommends as to changes in design of ships, their armament and equipment; assigns relative priority between vessels at the same navy yard in accordance with the operative needs when this is necessary; coordinates matters regarding the arming of merchant vessels and training of armed guard crews; handles navy yard repairs and alterations to British and other foreign naval vessels; makes out the Operating Force Plans (including Proposed and Long Range); has cognizance of all vessels acquired or building, while building or converting, and until turned over to the proper authority, such as fleets or NTS; handles disposal transfer or loan of naval craft; strikes ships from Navy register; handles all matters pertaining to location, assignment, and status of district and utilitarian craft; handles delivery of landing craft from inland waterways; handles acquisition of craft under 1,000 tons; and assigns home yards to naval vessels.
Hydrographic Office.--This office is charged with the execution of hydrographic surveys in foreign waters and on the high seas; the collection and dissemination of hydrographic and navigational information and data; the preparation and printing by its own personnel and with its own equipment of maps and charts relating to and required in navigation, including confidential, strategical, and tactical charts for naval operations and maneuvers; the preparation and issue of sailing directions (pilots), light lists, pilot charts, navigational manuals, periodicals, and radio broadcasts for the use of all vessels of the United States and for the benefit and use of navigators generally; the furnishing of the foregoing to the Navy and other public services, and the sale of charts and publications to the mercantile marine of all nations and to the general public, at the cost of printing and paper. It maintains intimate relations with the hydrographic offices of all foreign countries; with the International hydrographic Bureau, Monaco; and, through branch hydrographic offices and sales agents, with mariners and the general public.
The Hydrographic Office is charged with the publication and supply of naval air pilots; aviation charts and publications for special naval purposes; as well as the collection and dissemination of timely information which will contribute to the safe navigation of aircraft over sea.
The Hydrographic Office cooperates with the National Academy of Sciences by conducting research work in oceanography, especially in soundings and in the collection of the temperatures of the surface of the sea.
Naval Observatory.--The Naval Observatory at Washington, D.C. broadcasts time signals daily. In addition to establishing standard time for the country and for the navigator at sea to determine his chronometer error and position, these signals are used by surveyors, engineers, scientific workers, and mining and petroleum engineers for the determination of position, measurement of gravity and radio frequencies, and other purposes requiring exact time. in order to meet the needs of all who may have use for them, a number of different frequencies are used in broadcasting the signals via the naval radio station at Annapolis, Md. Daily signals are also transmitted by the station at Mare Island, Calif., and the noon signals are distributed by telegraph. Naval Radio stations at Honolulu and in the Canal Zone transmit time signals which are based on Naval Observatory time.
The administration for the upkeep, repair, inspection, supply, and distribution of designated navigational, aeronautical, and aerological instruments and their spare parts for the ships and aircraft of the Navy is performed at the Naval Observatory.
The Naval Observatory maintains continuous observations for absolute positions of the fundamental stars, and the independent determination, by observations of the sun, of the position of the ecliptic and of the Equator among the stars, and of the positions of the stars, moon, and planets, with reference to the Equator and equinoxes, in order to furnish data to assist in preparing the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac and improving the tables of the planets, moon, and stars. Information is also furnished to foreign countries in accordance with international agreement.
The Nautical Almanac Office of the Naval Observatory computes and prepares for publication the American Ephemeris and its supplements, the American Air Almanac and the Nautical Almanac. In addition, there is carried on the essential research work of deriving improved values of the fundamental astronomical elements and embodying them in new tables of the celestial motions.
One of the many scientific duties of the Naval Observatory is the determination and promulgation of information in connection with all solar and lunar eclipses. For many years it has been the practice to distribute pamphlets containing all of the astronomical data in connection with coming total solar eclipses.
Base Maintenance Division.--This Division has cognizance of the general organization and administration of naval districts; coordinates the acquisition and disposal of property, the procurement of required facilities, and the development and maintenance of bases; coordinates matters relating to harbor and coastal defense; coordinates matters pertaining to mines and mine warfare; has cognizance of matters pertaining to internal security and passive defense of shore establishments and certain commercial plants.
Aviation Planning Division.--Determines the numbers and types of aircraft (including lighter-than-air) required to meet the needs of the Naval Establishment, and handles the assignment and distribution of aircraft to the aeronautic organization. It handles new construction budget estimates. The Division determines the policy regarding the development of existing and proposed naval aviation shore facilities; coordinates long-range planning and analysis of
requirements and availability of personnel, aircraft, and shore facilities; coordinates the efforts of the several divisions under the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) to meet the requirements of the aviation organization, and issues directives to implement aeronautic policy and planning. The Division determines policy with respect to legislation and legislative planning relating to or affecting naval aviation and naval aeronautic programs. It handles the implementation of approved logistic plans and supplies information concerning the aeronautic organization, as is required for Operating Force Plans and related documents to appropriate office in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the headquarters of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet.
Aviation Personnel Division.--Has cognizance of matters pertaining to the procurement of naval personnel for duty in the aeronautical organization; has cognizance of matters pertaining to naval personnel of the aeronautical organization, especially as concerns assignments to duty, requests for duty, discipline, policy, promotion, complements, allowances, etc., and of the permanent assignment to duty of all commissioned and warrant officers on duty in the aeronautical organization. It maintains information files on the aeronautical experience and qualifications of commissioned and warrant officers who are or who have been on duty in the aeronautical organization, and information files on the assignments of all commissioned and warrant officers who are or have been on duty in the aeronautical organization. The Division coordinates civilian and naval personnel complements of and establishes civilian personnel allowances for the naval aeronautical organization.
Aviation Training Division.--Coordinates all aviation training. It is the agent through which the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) administers the Naval AIr Training Command and the Naval Air Technical Training Command. Through this chain the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) maintains cognizance over the flight and ground training of commissioned and enlisted personnel of the naval aeronautical organization; the establishment and supervision of flight and ground training activities; the shore facilities requirements of the aviation training establishment; training airplanes and equipment; instructor personnel; and courses and methods of instruction. The Division prepares and develops literature for use in flight and ground training, and accumulates current data on the progress and status of such training. It maintains liaison with foreign governments' training activities and with the Navy Department Office of Public Relations.
Flight Division.--Has cognizance of flight operations matters; standardization of flight rules and procedures; air traffic control; violation of flight rules and disciplinary action in connection therewith; and matters concerning Federal airways. It maintains liaison with the Civil Aeronautics Administration, the Army, the Hydrographic Office, and the Director of Naval Communications concerning aviation matters, and handles operations matters connected with air navigational aids. The Division has cognizance of flight operations of personnel assigned to the Navy Department and other Government departments and agencies; authorizes aircraft visits and participation
in celebrations, and issues regulations governing authority for flights in naval aircraft. The processing of matters before the Interdepartmental Air Traffic Control Board--such as airspace reservations, bombing ranges, gunnery ranges, caution areas, danger areas, prohibited areas, training areas, surface danger zones, airports, and construction hazards--is performed by the Flight Division. It has cognizance of aerological and weather matters; reviews aviation courts, boards, administrative reports, trouble reports, and damage claims; maintains flight statistical records; has cognizance of matters concerning flight safety, and maintains liaison with the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery on aviation physiological and psychological matters; mental and physical fitness; flight safety and training of naval aviators.
Naval Air Transport Service.--Furnishes scheduled air transportation to, and ferries aircraft for, the Naval Establishment; provides as practicable, air transportation to other Government departments and agencies of the United States and Allied Nations, and supervises air transport commands, and through these commands, the air transport squadrons maintaining air transportation. It prepares Naval Air Transport Service Manual and Planning Manual. THe Naval Air Transport Service maintains liaison with other division of Operations, the bureaus of the Navy Department, and fleet activities in connection with the construction, improvement, and development of base facilities to support air transport operations; maintains liaison with the Aviation Personnel Division and with the Bureau of Naval Personnel in connection with air transport personnel; maintains liaison with Headquarters, Army Air Transport Commands, and maintains liaison with the Bureau of Aeronautics no matters relating to transport aircraft design, engineering, maintenance, and performance. It establishes, supervises, and administers regulations relating to priorities for passengers, cargo, and mail, and establishes and supervises schedules and traffic rules. The Service is responsible for the coordination of training programs for flight and operations ground personnel in the Naval Air Transport organization, and has cognizance of all relations with contract air carriers under contract to the Navy Department, including services rendered, costs, fees, and other matters. The Naval Air Transport Service has cognizance of the Navy Air Ferry Command, and, through that command, supervises the air ferry squadrons and service units including liaison with other divisions of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and with the various bureaus of the Navy Department regarding matters affecting the naval ferry service.
Division of Aviation, Marine Corps.--Is responsible for the administration and training of Marine Corps aviation in order to make available units of Marine Corps, properly trained and equipped for combat, and maintains liaison between the Commandant, Marine Corps, and the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air). It is responsible for the procurement, training, and distrubtion of personnel for Marine Corps aviation, for the collection and dissemination of timely and useful information for Marine Corps aviation, for the coordination of organization, training, and deployment of Marine
Corps aviation. The Division is responsible for deperming and submitting recommendations to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) for Marine Corps units used in air defense, such as night fighters, air warning squadrons, and radar equipment. It is also responsible for submitting to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) the requirements of Marine Corps aviation for aircraft, material, and shore establishments, and for the obtaining of adequate Marine Corps equipment for all units of Marine Corps aviation.
Naval Transportation Service.--Operates merchant type dry cargo, tanker, and passenger vessels in logistic support of the fleet and its advance bases; prepares advance plans for NTS and allocated ships and for initial overseas movements; processes priorities for transportation of cargo and personnel in the Pacific Ocean; coordinates all fuel problems of fleets and bases; procures merchant type vessels over 1,000 gross tons by charter or purchase; administers the port directors organizations and development of port service to NTS vessels; arranges Navy towing requirements with the War Shipping Administration.
General Administration of Naval Personnel.--The Bureau of Naval Personnel is charged with and responsible for the procurement, education, training, discipline, promotion, and distribution of officers and enlisted personnel of the Navy, including the Naval Reserve and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, except the professional education of officers, nurses, and enlisted men of the Medical Department.
Bureau of Naval Personnel
It issues, records, and enforces the orders of the Secretary of the Navy to the individual officers of the Navy and Naval Reserve.
It administers recruiting stations and supervises the enlistment and discharge of all enlisted persons. it also administers the Women's Reserve, and branch of the Naval Reserve. It directs the organization and administration of the Naval Reserve and provides for the mobilization of these Reserves.
It has cognizance of transportation for all naval personnel except the Marine Corps.
It establishes the complements and allowances of ships and shore activities.
It keeps the records of service of all officers and men, and prepares the annual Navy Register for publication; and it keeps records and makes reports on all naval casualties.
It is charged with all matters pertaining to application for appointments and promotions in the Navy and with the preparation of appointments and promotions for signature.
it is charged with the preparation, revision, and enforcement of all regulations governing uniforms, and with the distrubtion of general orders and regulations.
Questions of naval discipline, rewards, and punishments are submitted by the Bureau for the action of the Secretary of the Navy. The records of all general courts-martial and courts of inquiry involving the personnel of the Navy are, before the final action, referred to the Bureau for comment and recommendation as to disciplinary features.
It receives all reports of services performed by individual officers or men.
It is charged with the enforcement of regulations and instructions regarding naval ceremonies and naval etiquette.
It is charged with the supervision of the welfare and recreational activities of the naval service except those under the cognizance of the Marine Corps, including certain programs of financial benefits to dependents of naval personnel and naval casualties.
it is responsible for libraries on ships and at shore stations throughout the Naval Establishment.
it is charged with regulation of ships service activities ashore, departmental cognizance of ships service matters in forces afloat for the purpose of disposing of outstanding accounts and residual funds of vessels lost at sea and regulation of officer messes and other messes and clubs, except those under the cognizance of the Marine Corps.
Establishments Under Supervision of Bureau of Naval Personnel.--It is charged with the upkeep, operation, and repair fo the Naval Academy, Postgraduate School, Naval War College, schools for the training of naval personnel, training stations, and the Naval Home, with the direction of receiving ships and stations, and with the supervision and control of naval prisons and prisoners, including prisoners of war.
Appropriations Under Cognizance of Bureau of Naval Personnel.--It is charged with the cognizance and responsibility for the preparation of the estimates, the justification, and the administration of the part of the appropriation "Pay, Subsistence and Transportation of Naval Personnel" relating to pay and transportation of Naval Personnel, and appropriations for the Naval Academy, the Postgraduate School, the Naval Home, the Naval War College, naval training stations, schools for the training of naval personnel, the Naval Reserve, the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps, welfare and recreation, libraries, and ships' stores profits.
The Women's Reserve, a branch of the Naval reserve composed of Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service ("WAVES"), was established by law on July 30, 1942. It is composed of women trained and qualified for duty in the shore establishment of the Navy, within the American area and the territories of Hawaii and Alaska, to release male officers and men of the naval service for duty at sea. WAVES may be commissioned in ranks not above captain, and enlisted in such appropriate ratings, corresponding to those of the regular Navy, as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy. Military authority of WAVES officers is limited to administration of the Women's Reserve.
The Bureau of Ordnance is charged with and responsible for the design, manufacture, procurement, maintenance, issue, and efficiency of all offensive and defensive arms and armament (including armor, torpedoes, mines, depth charges, pyrotechnics, bombs, ammunition, war explosives, war chemicals; defensive nets, booms, and buoys, plus
Bureau of Ordnance
anchors, moorings, and appliances therefor except fixtures on shore used to secure the ends of nets and booms), and, except as specifically assigned to other cognizance, optical and other devices and material for the control of guns, torpedoes, and bombs.
Ordnance Establishments Under Supervision of Bureau.--It is charged with the upkeep and operation of the following naval ordnance establishments and with their repairs, within the capacity of the force employed: naval gun factories, naval ordnance plants, naval torpedo station, naval torpedo testing ranges, naval proving grounds, naval powder factories, naval ammunition depots, naval magazines on shore, naval mine depots, naval net depots, naval ordnance laboratories, naval mine warfare test stations, naval ordnance test stations, naval degaussing stations, and naval deperming stations.
By the act approved June 20, 1940 (54 Stat. 492; 5 U.S.C. 429), the Bureau of Construction and Repair and the Bureau of Engineering were abolished and the functions of these bureaus were transferred to one bureau known as the Bureau of Ships, with a Chief of Bureau at the head.
Bureau of Ships
Ship Design.--The Bureau of Ships is charged with and responsible for the general design, structural strength, stability, and seaworthiness of all ships of the Navy, including the Landing Vehicle, Tracked, except airships.
It is responsible for the preparation of preliminary plans, approximate data, or both, showing the designs of new ships in accordance with the military characteristic recommended by the General Board and approved by the Secretary of the Navy, and for the preparation of final designs of new vessels in consultation with other bureaus.
It is charged with and responsible for all that relates to details of designing, building, fitting-out, repairing, and altering of hulls, permanent fittings, and main machinery, including its related equipment used for propulsion of naval vessels, district craft (except those of the Bureau of Yards and Docks), and small boats.
It has similar responsibility in connection with auxiliary machinery not association with propulsion equipment, including all pumps, distilling apparatus, refrigerating apparatus, air-conditioning apparatus, steering gear, anchor, windlass, deck machinery, air compressors, heating systems, and piping systems.
Electrical Apparatus.--It has cognizance of all that relates to electric generating sets and storage batteries; the generation and distribution of electric power on board ships for all purposes; all means of interior communication; all electrical methods of signaling, internal and external; all other electrical apparatus on board ship, except fire-control instruments and motors and control appliances used to operate machinery under the specific cognizance of other bureaus; and all appliances and articles of equipage and supplies on its approved allowance list.
Equipment.--It is charged with the design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of all radio and sound equipage, for shore and afloat, including all appliances used by the naval communications
service, except such material as is assigned to other cognizance. It is charged with the design and development of and procurement planning for materials and appliances for defense against gas attacks, except as specifically assigned to other cognizance; for diving gear and experimental diving units, respiratory protective devices, paravanes and mine-sweeping gear, office labor-saving devices for ships and certain shore activities, mess and galley equipment, ground tackle and towing gear, life-saving equipment, and navigational equipment.
Shipkeepers, Drydocks, and Salvage.--The Bureau provides shipkeepers for the care of vessels and district craft (except those of the Bureau of Yards and Docks) not in commission. It has administrative supervision of the drydocking of all vessels and district craft. It is responsible for the provision of facilities and arrangements for salvaging naval vessels. In time of war or national emergency this includes private vessels as well.
Specifications and Tests.--It prepares specifications and prescribes tests for material, equipment, and machinery under its cognizance. It is represented on many of the national standardization and engineering bodies, and on the various Federal specifications committees. It is responsible for the quality control of all petroleum products for the fleet. It prepares specifications and recommendations for the purchase of annual contracts of consumable engineering supplies and conducts test for determining the quality which these supplies must meet. It prepares the specifications for the yearly contract under which lubricating oil is purchased by the Navy and by all other Federal activities.
Naval Agencies Under the Bureau.--The Bureau is charged with the upkeep, operation, and repair of the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; the David W. Taylor Model Basin, Carderock, Md.; the Naval Engineering Experiment Station, Annapolis, Md.; the Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory, San Diego, Calif.; the Naval Boiler and Turbine Laboratory, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa.; the Materials Testing Laboratory, Navy Yard, New York, N.Y.; the Industrial Test Laboratory, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa.; the Naval Metals Laboratory, Munhall, Pa.; the Naval Chemical Laboratory, Houston, Tex.; the Paint Laboratory, Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va.; the Paint Laboratory, Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif.; the Rubber Testing Laboratory, Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif.; the Naval Electrical Testing laboratory, Summersworth, N.H.; navy yard materials laboratories located in the navy yards in Portsmouth, N.H.; Boston, Mass.; Norfolk, Portsmouth, Va.; Charleston, S.C.; Mare Island, Calif.; Puget Sound, Bremerton, Wash.; and Pearl Harbor, T.H. These activities are employed for conducting necessary research tests, investigations, and developments to obtain suitable apparatus and material for naval purposes. They supply technical services directly to the Bureau although the administrative control of such activities is vested in the military commands of the naval establishments in which they are located.
Field Forces.--The Bureau is responsible, so far as material under it cognizance is concerned, for specifications and for requirements for inspection at offices of supervisors of shipbuilding, inspectors of machinery, and inspectors of naval material. In the offices of
supervisors of shipbuilding and inspectors of machinery a force of trained naval and civilian experts is maintained for the inspection of machinery and materials generally entering into the construction of new vessels. This force interprets and enforces strict compliance with the specifications and other contractual obligations for the construction of vessels as regard characteristics of materials used and the method of installation of completed parts. The offices of the inspectors of naval material, which are also composed of trained naval and civilian experts, are maintained for the purpose of inspecting and insuring strict compliance with the specifications of materials purchased for the maintenance of the Naval Establishment. These offices are available to and frequently used by other Federal departments for the inspection of material purchased for Government use.
Officers for Engineering Duty.--It nominates to the Bureau of Naval Personnel specially qualified officers for engineering duty at sea and on shore, including those for duty as supervisors of shipbuilding, inspectors of machinery, and inspectors of naval material.
Instructions.--It compiles and issues instructions for the care, operations, and maintenance of material, equipment, and machinery under its cognizance and prepares and issues bulletins of official information on these subjects.
Appropriations Under Supervision of Bureau.--The Bureau of Ships has supervision and control over the appropriations "Maintenance, Bureau of Ships," "Increase and Replacement of Naval Vessels, Construction and Machinery," "Defense Installations on Merchant Vessels," and, together with the Bureau of Ordnance, has joint supervision and control over the appropriations "Increase and Replacement of Naval Vessels, Emergency Construction," and "Repair Facilities, Navy."
The Bureau of Aeronautics is charged with such matters pertaining to naval aeronautics as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy (sec. 8, act of July 12, 1921; 42 Stat. 140 as modified by letter fo the Secretary of the Navy, dated August 18, 1943).
Bureau of Aeronautics
The Bureau of Aeronautics makes recommendations to the Chief of Naval Operations as to the technical characteristics and limitations of naval aircraft, naval aviation equipment, and manufacturing sources therefor involved in the formulation of operating plans. Conducts research, makes tests, and participates with other Government agencies in the design, development, and improvement of such aircraft and equipment. Contracts for naval aircraft and aviation equipment of a technical, specialized nature. provides for plant facilities as necessary to meet production programs. Schedules, in accordance with requirements, the production of naval aircraft and naval aviation equipment and assists manufacturers in the production thereof, to the end that the various items may be delivered in the quantities, of the qualities, and at the times specified. Collaborates with the Bureau of Yards and Docks, in the design, construction, and alteration of all aeronautic shore establishments, except advance bases, and maintains and repairs such establishments. Initially outfits and thereafter replenishes with aeronautical equipment and material all
bases afloat and ashore from which naval aircraft operate. Supervises the service, repair, overhaul, and salvage of naval aircraft and aviation equipment. Provides and distributes, with minor exceptions, all photographic material for the Navy and Marine Corps. Redistributes Government-owned material, handles termination claims, and disposes of property under its cognizance.
The Bureau of Yards and Docks is the Navy Department's "Public Works Agency" for the entire Naval Shore Establishment. it is the function and responsibility of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and its field organizations to assist all Bureaus and Offices of the Navy Department in development planning and to administer directly the design, construction, and major repairs of the public works and public utilities, including: Navy Yard facilities, such as drydocks, marine railways, building ways, hammerhead cranes; harbor structures, such as moorings, quay walls, piers, wharves, slips (including dredging), landings, floating cranes; utilities such as power plants, railroads, and systems for heat, light, telephone, water, and sewer services; all types of buildings, including structural and machine shops, and such accessories as roads, walks, bridges, and radio towers.
Bureau of Yards and Docks
The Bureau is charged with responsibility for, and execution of, the annual inspection as to structural condition and all major repairs of such naval public works and utilities. It provides for their general and routine maintenance, except such minor routine work as can be accomplished by station forces, at ordnance stations, air stations, training stations, hospitals, Marine posts, and the Naval Academy. The Bureau is also responsible for the operation of all central power plants and distribution systems and the provision and operation of land transportation and weight-handling equipment, including locomotives, locomotive cranes, cars, derricks (both shore and floating), shears, motor-trucks, passenger automobiles, etc.
The Bureau consults fully on new projects with those departmental bureaus or offices for whose use they are primarily intended; prepares designs that will be mutually satisfactory as to location, lay-out, and operating features; makes cost estimates; and supervises construction.
The Bureau of Yards and Docks is charged with all functions, both legal and administrative, respecting the acquisition and disposition of real estate, or any interest therein, for the Navy Department, and is custodian of all naval real estate which is not in active use.
The Bureau of Yards and Docks is a direct construction agency, one of its major ultimate objectives being the construction of all shore facilities for the use of the Navy. Its work of design and construction is broad in nature and embraces nearly all forms of engineering and all types of structures mentioned above. The Bureau's present practice is the accomplishment of construction work coming under its cognizance through the medium of general contracts awarded on a competitive, lump-sun-bid basis. However, enacted legislation allows the award of contracts on a negotiated, cost-plus-fixed-fee basis, and this type of contract was extensively used during the period immediately prior to and during the early stages of the war, in the interests of satisfying the construction demands of the Navy in the shortest time. The use of this type of contract has been largely discontinued,
since March 1943, in favor of the lump-sum form of contract.
In order to accomplish the design, construction, repair, and operation of public works facilities at advanced bases, the Bureau has been instrumental in organizing and placing in service naval personnel known as Construction Battalions (Seabees). A Construction Battalion consists of approximately 32 officers and 1,100 enlisted men who are all qualified engineering and construction personnel, with a sufficient diversity of ratings to perform any and all tasks, the accomplishment of which is a responsibility of this Bureau.
Members of the Construction Battalions are trained in military tactics and have participated in and experienced combat in every theater of war.
Construction Battalion Specials, specifically trained in handling cargo from ships to shore, have been formed in considerable numbers, and are gradually assuming the major responsibilities in the movement of Navy cargo at advanced bases.
Construction Battalion Maintenance Units, composed of 4 officers and 270 men, are now taking over the base maintenance work from those regular battalions which have completed the base construction, and which have moved up to more advanced positions, or have returned to the United States for recuperation and reassignment.
Construction Battalion Detachments are smaller groups of men specially organized for particular assignments and may be transferred immediately to other destinations upon completion of the task. The complement of such units is not constant.
The work of the Bureau and its attendant field activities are administered by officers of the Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, headed by the Chief of the Bureau, who is an officer of the Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, and also Chief of Civil Engineers, United States Navy, appointed for a term of 4 years, who now holds the temporary rank of vice admiral, and an Assistant Chief of the Bureau, also an officer of the Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy. At the present time this officer holds the temporary rank of rear admiral while in that office.
For administrative purposes the work of the Bureau is divided into six departments, each headed and administered by a commissioned officer fo the Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, as follows: Administration and Personnel Department, Construction Department, Planning and Design Department, Finance and Operating Department, Progress Control and Statistical Department, and Advance Base Department.
The Bureau of Supplies and Accounts is charged with and responsible for the procurement, purchase, receipt, custody, warehousing, issue, and shipment of all supplies, fuel, and other materials for the Navy, except supplies for the Marine Corps, and except the procurement of certain special technical items and the storage and issue of medical stores, ammunition, projectiles, mines, and explosives.
Bureau of Supplies and Accounts
These duties include the development, testing, procurement, and distribution of special and protective clothing, other than aviation
clothing, and of new articles and methods of subsistence, for the protection and physical comfort of naval personnel serving in all parts of the world. It arranges for the compilation, printing, and distribution of Navy Specifications and of the Navy Supplement to the Federal Standard Stock Catalog.
Supervision of Supplies.--It has control of the operation of the Naval Stock Fund, the Naval Working Fund, the Clothing and Small Stores Fund, and the stocks procured under these funds, and has administrative control of the Naval Procurement Fund. It has charge of the upkeep and operation of naval supply depots, the naval clothing factory, and coffee roasting plants; it exercises administrative supervision over fuel plants, supply piers, commissary and ship's store activities, purchasing offices, Navy market offices, cost inspection offices, property transportation offices, defense aid receiving barracks and training stations, and storehouses for supplies under its cognizance at navy yards and stations. It coordinates the assembly of supplies and material for the initial establishment of advance bases and determines storage and space requirements in connection with movement of such bases. It supervises the reporting of Navy inventories, usage, and requirements of critical and strategic material subject to allocation by the War Production Board and other Government agencies.
Storage and Transportation of Supplies.--This Bureau determines the necessity for and recommends the location, type, size, and interior arrangements of storehouses ashore, and the equipment and arrangement of supply activity spaces afloat. It authorizes and has cognizance over the transportation of naval property and household effects of naval personnel and has charge of the procurement of cargoes; the loading and discharging of supply ships, colliers, and tankers; and the charter of merchant vessels for transportation of supplies. It has cognizance of the development of new containers, improved packaging, packing, and materials-handling methods for use by the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.
Estimating, Procurement, Disbursement, and Accounting.--The Bureau of Supplies and Accounts prepares and submits estimates of funds required for freight, fuel, clothing, and subsistence of naval personnel, for the maintenance and operation of activities under its direction, and for the rental of property for general naval purposes, and administers the funds provided for these purposes. It has charge of the procurement of money for use of disbursing officers in the payment of naval and civilian personnel, for the payment of family allowances to dependents of enlisted personnel, and for all articles and services procured for the Naval Establishment. Through a special division it distributes allotment checks to the dependents and other authorized allottees of naval personnel. It is charged with the keeping of the money and property accounts of the Naval Establishment, including the accounts of all manufacturing and operating expenses, industrial and cost accounting at navy yards and stations, records of all defense aid material furnished foreign governments, the direction of cost accounting for work performed for the Navy in private plants and the audit of property returns from ships and stations. This Bureau develops
fiscal and accouting policies and procedures relative to the possession and operation of private plants by the Navy.
Supply Corps Officers.--It recommends the appointment, training, promotion, and assignment to duty of officers of the supply corps, chief pay clerks, and pay clerks.
Salvage and Conservation.--This Bureau supervises the collection, classification, segregation, and disposal of all Navy salvage, surplus or obsolete material and equipment both in the Naval Establishment and in private plant engaged in work for the Navy, and conducts the sale of condemned vessels.
The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery is charged with and responsible for the maintenance of the health of the Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps, for the care of the sick and injured, for the custody and preservation of the records, accounts, and properties under its cognizance and pertaining to its duties, and for the professional education and training of officers, nurses, and enlisted personnel of the Medical Department.
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
Naval Hospitals and Medical Establishments.--It is charged with the management and control of all naval hospitals, medical supply depots, medical laboratories, the Naval Medical Center, and all technical schools established for the education or training of members of the Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Nurse Corps, and Hospital Corps, and with their upkeep and operation.
Sanitation Standards.--The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery provides for inspection of the sanitary condition of the Navy and the U.S. marine Corps, and recommends with respect to all questions connected with hygiene and sanitation affecting the service. it advises with the Department and other bureaus with reference to the sanitary features of ships under construction and in commission, regarding berthing, ventilation, and location of quarters for the care and treatment of the sick and injured; provisions for the care and transportation of wounded in battle; and, in the case of shore stations, with reference to health conditions depending on location, the hygienic construction and care of public buildings, especially of barracks and other habitations, such as camps.
It also advises concerning matters pertaining to clothing and food, to water supplies used for drinking, cooking, and bathing purposes, and to drainage and disposal of wastes, so far as these affect the health of the Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps. It safeguards the personnel by the employment of the best methods of hygiene and sanitation, both afloat and ashore, with a view to maintaining the highest possible percentage of the personnel ready for service at all times, and adopts for use all such devices or procedures developed in the sciences of medicine and surgery as will in any way increase military efficiency.
Examinations.--It is the duty of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery to provide for the physical examination of officers, nurses, and enlisted personnel with a view to the selection or retention of those only whose physical condition is such as to maintain or improve the military efficiency of the service. It passes upon the competency
from a professional standpoint of all personnel of the Hospital Corps for appointment, enlistment, and promotion, by means of examinations conducted under its supervision or by such forms as it may prescribe.
Assignment of Medical Personnel.--The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery recommends to the Bureau of Naval Personnel the complement of Medical Department personnel for hospitals and hospital ships, for all ships and stations, and to the U.S. Marine Corps for all posts and units. It also recommends and has information as to the assignment and duties of medical officers, dental officers, and Hospital Corps personnel. It is charged with the administration of the Nurse Corps, and has power to appoint and remove all nurses, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Navy.
Hospital and Medical Supplies.--It has control of the preparation, reception, storage, care, custody, transfer, and issue of all supplies of every kind used in the Medical Department. it has charge of the civilian force employed at naval hospitals, medical supply depots, medical laboratories, the National Naval Medical Center, and at all technical schools for the education or training of Medical Department personnel.
Hospital Ships.--It approves the design of hospital ships in relations to their efficiency for the care of the sick and wounded, and provides for the organization and administration of the medical department of such vessels.
Care of the Dead.--The arrangements for care, transportation, and burial of the dead are under the jurisdiction and control of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
The Marine Corps was established by act of Congress, July 11, 1798 (1 Stat. 594; 34 U.S.C. 621).
[See HyperWar for the history of the United States Marine Corps in World War II.]
Headquarters United States Marine Corps
General Administration of Marine Corps Personnel.--The Commandant of the Marine Corps is charged with and responsible for the procurement, discharge, education, training, discipline, and distribution of officers and enlisted personnel of the Marine Corps, including the Marine Corps Reserve, and their administration and general efficiency. The Headquarters is organized as the office of the Commandant, the Personnel Department, the Quartermaster's Department, and the Paymaster's Department.
Office of the Commandant.--In the office of the Commandant are his assistant, the director of plans and policies, the director of aviation, the director of public relations, the military secretary to the Commandant, and the legal aide to the Commandant, as follows:
The assistant to the Commandant is his principal adviser; performs the duties of a chief of staff and assists in coordinating the work of the several departments and divisions at Marine Corps Headquarters; conducts the business of the office of the Commandant in the latter's absence.
The director of plans and policies make recommendations to the Commandant relative to plans and policies of the United States Marine Corps, and has cognizance of military intelligence, education, operations, training, and matériel.
The director of aviation has supervision over the training, operations, promotion, organization, and distribution of aviation personnel.
The director of public relations has supervision over and is responsible for all public relations and publicity.
The military secretary to the Commandant serves the Commandant in a confidential capacity in the performance of the activities of his office; facilitates communications between the Commandant and his subordinates; provides for the orderly disposal of communications and correspondence in Headquarters, Marine Corps; assists the Commandant in such other matters as he may direct.
The legal aide acts as legal adviser to the Commandant in matters pertaining to the administration of the Marine Corps and as the liaison officer with Congress for the Commandant.
Personnel Department.--The office of Director of Personnel, Marine Corps, was established by act of Congress, approved May 25, 194 (34 U.S.C. 1940 ed., Sup. III, 632b).
The Director, under the direction of the Commandant, is charged with the procurement and administration of officer and enlisted personnel of the Marine Corps and Marine Corps reserve, including the Women's Reserve; appointment, distribution, promotion, retirement, welfare, discipline, and discharge of commissioned, warrant, and enlisted personnel; rehabilitation, Marine Corps personnel, military records; historical archives, post exchanges; target practice; insignia; casualties; inspections and investigations, when so ordered; determination of responsibility for overpayments and loss or destruction of Government property, funds, etc.; adjudication of claims; legislation, preparation, revision, and issue of regulations and instructions to the service; keeping records and reports and furnishing of returns and necessary information in connection with officer and enlisted personnel; and such other duties as may be prescribed by the Commandant from time to time.
The Paymaster General of the Marine Corps.--The Paymaster General of the Marine Corps has supervision of all matters relating to pay and allowances of the Marine Corps; the preparation of annual and supplemental estimates under the appropriations "Pay, Marine Corps" and "Pay of Civil Forces, Marine Corps"; and is responsible for the administration and general efficiency of all offices and personnel of the Paymaster Department at Headquarters and in the field.
The Quartermaster General of the Marine Corps.--The Quartermaster General of the Marine Corps has supervision of matters relating to the purchase of military supplies for the Marine Corps, including subsistence, construction material, and labor; pays all expenses of the Corps except those pertaining to Paymaster Department; has jurisdiction over quarters, barracks, and other public buildings provided for officers and enlisted men, and repairs, alterations, and improvements thereto, vehicles for the transportation of troops and supplies, and public animals and their equipment; furnishes means of transportation for movements of troops; and prints and issues blank forms for the Marine Corps.
Women's Reserve.--An act of Congress approved July 30, 1942 (56 Stat. 730; 34 U.S.C. 857), authorized the organization of the United States Marine Corps Women's Reserve. This class of reserves
relieves men of the Marine Corps for combat duty. The act of Congress, approved September 27, 1944 (58 Stat. 754), permits the assignment of women Reservists to duty in Hawaii, Alaska, and at any station within the American area.
Pursuant to the act of January 28, 1915 (38 Stat. 800; 14 U.S.C. 1), as amended, the Coast Guard is constituted a military service and at all times constitutes a branch of the land and naval forces of the United States, operating under the Treasury Department in time of peace and as a part of the Navy in time of war, or whenever the President shall so direct. It represents, in its historical development from 1790, an amalgamation into one united service of the activities of the old Revenue Cutter Service, the Life-Saving Service, and the Lighthouse Service.
[See HyperWar for the history of the United States Coast Guard in World War II.]
United States Coast Guard
By Executive Order 8929, of November 1, 1941, the Coast Guard has operated since that date as a party of the Navy, its personnel and resources being used to the best advantage by directives of the Secretary of the Navy and of the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, and Chief of Naval Operations.
By Executive Order 9083 of February 28, 1942, certain functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, Department of Commerce, pertaining to the navigation and vessel-inspection laws and to the welfare of merchant marine seamen, were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard.
To assist the Commandant, who is charged by law with the administration of the Coast Guard, Headquarters' organization comprises and Assistant Commandant, Offices of Personnel, Operations, Air-Sea Rescue, Finance and Supply, and Engineering; and Divisions of Inspection, Intelligence, Legal, Administrative Management, and Public Relations. Acting in an advisory capacity to the Commandant are an Advisory Board and a Merchant Marine Council. An Air-Sea Rescue Agency also operates under the Commandant.
The functions of the Coast Guard, as the Federal maritime police, embrace, in general terms, maritime law enforcement, saving and protecting life and property, safeguarding navigation on the high seas and navigable waters of the United States, and national defense.
Wartime Operations.--During the existing emergency, a number of the normal peacetime duties have been subordinated, discontinued, or curtailed wherever necessary and every energy directed toward prosecution of the war, the service functioning as a service in the Navy Department. Among the fields of wartime activities in which service facilities are being employed are convoy, anti-submarine and patrol duty with the fleet, Naval Sea Frontiers, and task forces; manning of transports, invasion barges, and other naval craft and certain Army craft; security of ports, harbors, vessels, and waterfront facilities; beach patrol; training of landing crews; and in combat landing operations in all theaters of war. By direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, an Air-Sea Rescue Agency, of which the Commandant is the Coordinator assisted by a board of representatives from the Army and navy, has been established in the Coast Guard for conducting joint studies, and assembling and disseminating information, with respect to air-sea rescue equipment, methods, and facilities. Responsibility
is also assumed in pilotage control and for emergency wartime measures for the merchant marine.
Law Enforcement.--The Coast Guard is empowered by act of Congress to enforce any law of the United States upon its navigable waters and the high seas. Its duties include prevention of smuggling and the enforcement of customs, navigation, and other laws governing the operation of marine craft.
The Coast Guard enforces the conventions, laws, and regulations designed to protect the Alaskan fisheries and those of the high seas. It protects game, the seal and otter fisheries of Alaska, and the bird reservations established by Executive order. Officers of the Coast Guard, appointed United States commissioners and deputy United States marshals, are active in law enforcement generally in Alaska. The Coast Guard is charged with the administration of oaths, taking the census, and protecting public health there.
It enforces other maritime laws, such as those relating to oil pollution, immigration, quarantine, neutrality, and the whaling treaty. It enforces rules and regulations promulgated for safety of life during regattas or marine parades. It also enforces miscellaneous other statutes for various Government departments, assisting those agencies in the performance of assigned duties.
Saving Life and Property and Assistance to Marine Commerce.--The Coast Guard saves life and property on the high seas and navigable waters of the United States, renders assistance to vessels in distress, and engages in flood-relief work. It extends medical and surgical aid to the crews of United States vessels engaged in deep-sea fishing. It cares for and transports shipwrecked and destitute persons in Alaska and elsewhere.
The Coast Guard removes or destroys derelicts, wrecks, and other dangers to navigation and assists in keeping channels from becoming ice-blocked. It conducts the international service of ice observation and ice patrol in the North Atlantic to protect shipping from the danger of icebergs, and carries out oceanographic studies in relation thereto.
In cooperation with the Weather Bureau, cutters are stationed far at sea on transoceanic air routes to provide weather observation service and otherwise to add to the security of air commerce over the sea, and observations by certain coastal stations assist in weather forecasting.
Safety and National Security Measures.--The Coast Guard, through its captains of the port, enforces rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of vessels in territorial waters under the Espionage Act; exercises supervision over the loading and unloading of explosives and other dangerous cargoes, in the interest of safety to life and property, by vessels in our harbors and adjacent jurisdiction waters; is responsible for the safeguarding against destruction, loss or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, fires, accidents, or other causes of similar nature, of vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront facilities in the United States, its Territories and possessions; and issues and enforce blackout and air-raid measures to be taken by vessels and waterfront facilities.
Safety and Efficiency of Merchant Marine.--The Coast Guard collects statistics and investigates marine disasters; approves plans
for the construction, repair, and alteration of vessels; approves materials, equipment, and appliances; classifications of vessels; inspection of vessels and their equipment and appliances; issuance of certificates of inspection and of permits indicating the approval of vessels for operations which may be hazardous to life and property; administration of load-line requirements; control of log books; numbering of undocumented vessels; licensing and certificating of officers, pilots, and seamen; suspension and revocation of licenses and certificates; shipment, discharge, protection, and welfare of merchant seamen; licensing of motorboat operators.
Navigation Aids.--The Coast GUard establishes and maintains navigation aids such as lights, lighthouses, lightships, radio beacons, radio direction-finder stations, buoys, and unlighted beacons, and performs work incident thereto, on the sea and lake coasts of the United States, on the rivers of the United States, at Atlantic and Pacific defense bases, and on the coasts of all other territory under United States jurisdiction, with the exception of the Philippine Islands and Panama.
Aviation.--The Coast Guard maintains aviation stations along the coasts, its aircraft now being employed in anti-submarine, aerial coverage for convoys, air reconnaissance and other war activities operating under various naval commands, and being further engaged in air-sea rescue work, and in cooperation with other Federal agencies in such matters as law enforcement and mapping strategic areas.
Coast Guard Academy.--The Coast Guard maintains an Academy at New London, Connecticut, for the professional instruction of cadets for commissions in the service after completing a 4-year course.
Training Stations.--Numerous training stations are maintained for the indoctrination and training of recruits, advanced training of enlisted personnel, and special instruction for officers.
Coast Guard Reserve and Auxiliary.--Pursuant to the act of February 19, 1941, as amended, the Commandant of the Coast Guard administers the Coast Guard Reserve and the Coast Guard Auxiliary. The Coast Guard Reserve is a military organization, the purpose of which is to provide a trained force of officers and enlisted personnel which, added to regular personnel of the Coast Guard, will be adequate to enable that service to perform such extraordinary duties as may be necessitated by emergent conditions. The Coast Guard Auxiliary is a voluntary nonmilitary organization composed of citizens who are owners of motorboats and yachts, the purposes of which are (a) to further interest in safety of life at sea and upon the navigable waters, (b) to promote efficiency in the operation of motorboats and yachts, (c) to foster a wider knowledge of, and better compliance with, the laws, rules, and regulations governing the operation of motorboats and yachts, and (d) to facilitate operations of the Coast Guard. In the latter part of 1942 there was organized the temporary reserve, a full military organization, whose members offer their services for part-time or full-time duty without pay. Members wear regular service uniforms while on duty. Volunteer port security forces, consisting of personnel enrolled in the Temporary Reserve, serve in the waterfront areas in connection with the protection of piers,
wharves, vessels, and waterfront war activities against danger by fire, sabotage, or other cause, and assist in the enforcement of port security regulations.
Women's Reserve.--An act of Congress, approved November 23, 1942 (56 Stat. 1020; 14 U.S.C. 381), authorized the organization of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard Reserve. Members of the Women's Reserve, popularly known as SPARS (derived from the Coast Guard motto "Semper Paratus"--Always Ready), are trained and qualified for duty in the shore establishments of the Coast Guard, within the American area and the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska, to release male officers and enlisted men of the Coast Guard for duty at sea.
Cooperation With Other Government Agencies.--The Coast Guard furnishes transportation to Government agents in the performance of their duties, and, on occasions, transports United States mail over certain water routes. Assistance is given in special undertakings and missions involving use of cutters, trained personnel, and other service facilities.
Publications.--It publishes Light Lists and readiobeacon charts, which give information on aids to navigation, and various pamphlets descriptive of buoys and radio beacons. It furnishes data on aids to navigation, changes in lights and buoys, and similar information pertaining to United States waters for inclusion in Notice ot Mariners, which is published by the Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. Also, in addition to Wartime Safety Measures for Merchant Marine it publishes regulations dealing with the safety and inspection of vessels which were handled by the former Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, the Nautical Rules of the Road, and Proceedings of the Merchant Marine Council.
Coast Guard Districts.--For the purpose of administration, the United States and its Territories and possessions are divided into 15 Coast Guard districts, with offices located as follows: Boston, Mass, New York, N.Y., Philadelphia, Pa., Norfolk, Va., Charleston, S.C., Miami, Fla., New Orleans, La., Long Beach, Calif., San Francisco, Calif., Seattle, Wash., St. Louis, Mo., Cleveland, Ohio, San Juan, P.R., Honolulu, T.H., and Ketchikan, Alaska. At the present time each of these districts operates under a district Coast Guard officer, under the supervision of the Commandants of the various naval districts.
The Secretary of the Navy, by joint agreement with the Secretary of War, has created the four boards and one committee discussed in detail on page 261.
Joint Army-Navy Boards
The United States and island possessions are divided into naval districts, with limits and headquarters as indicated below. Address communications to the Commandant; for example, Commandant, First Naval District, Boston, Mass.
District Headquarters No. 1. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island (including BLock Island). Boston, Mass. No. 3. Connecticut, New York, northern part of Nw Jersey (including Counties of Mercer, Monmouth, and all counties north thereof), also the Nantucket Shoals Lightship. New York, N.Y. No. 4. Pennsylvania, southern part of New Jersey (including Counties of Burlington, Ocean, and all counties south thereof), Delaware (including Winter Quarters Shoal Light Vessel). Philadelphia, Pa. No. 5. Maryland less Anne Arundel, Prince Georges, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Calvert, and Charles Counties; West Virginia; Virginia less Arlington, Fairfax, Stafford, King George, Prince William, and Westmoreland Counties; and the Counties of Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, Gates, Perquimans, Chowan, Tyrrell, Washington, Hyde, Beaufort, Pamlico, Craven, Jones, Carteret, Onslow, and Dare in North Carolina; also the Diamond Shoal Lightship. Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, Va. No. 6. South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, except Counties of Camden, Pasquotank, Gates, Perquimans, Chowan, Tyrrell, Washington, Hyde, Beaufort, Pamlico, Craven, Jones, Carteret, Onslow, and Dare; and the Counties of Nassau and Duval in Florida. Charleston, S.C. No. 7. Florida, except the Counties of Nassau, Duval, and those west of Apalachicola River. Miami, Fla. No. 8. Florida counties west of Apalachicola River, Alabama, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas. New Orleans, La. No. 9. Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas. Great Lakes, Ill. No. 10. Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, Virgin islands and the Naval Reservation, Guantanamo, and U.S. Naval shore activities at Jamaica, Trinidad, Bahamas, Antigua, St. Lucia, British Guiana. San Juan, P.R. No. 11. New Mexico; Arizona; Clark County, Nevada; southern part of California, including Counties of Santa Barbara, Kern, and San Bernardino, and all counties south thereof. San DIego, Calif. No. 12. Colorado; Utah; Nevada except Clark County); northern part of California, including Counties of San Luis Obispo, Kings, Tulare, Inyo, and all counties north thereof. San Francisco, Calif. No. 13. Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming Seattle, Wash. No. 14. Hawaiian Islands, and islands to westward, including Midway, Wake, Kure, Johnston, and San Islands, and Kingman Reef. Pear Harbor, T.H. No. 15. Panama Canal Zone Balboa, C.Z. No. 16. Philippine Islands (when reoccupied). Cavite, P.I. No. 17. Alaska. Kokiak (Temp. Adak), Alaska. Areas Established for General Military Control Potomac River Naval Command. The Potomac River up to the Great Falls, the District of Columbia, and the Counties of Prince Georges, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Calvert, and Charles in Maryland; Arlington, Fairfax, Stafford, King George, Prince William, and Westmoreland Counties in Virginia, less the Marine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia and the Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. Severn River Naval Command. Anne Arundel County, Maryland. United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.
Secretary of the Navy
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