Command and General Staff School, Forth Leavenworth, Kans.; the Army War College, and the Army Industrial College, Washington, D.C. The mission of the Command and General Staff School is to train officers for command and general staff duty. The Army War College, which has suspended classes during the war, has trained officers for wartime command and staff positions in field armies and in the General Headquarters of the entire Army. The Army Industrial College trains officers in the procurement of munitions and in the preparation of plans for mobilization of matériel and industrial organizations essential to wartime needs.
United States Military Academy.--The United States Military Academy is located at West Point, N.Y. The 4-year academic course is now completed in 3 years, followed by a 6-month period in an officers' training camp. The cadets receive, besides a general education, theoretical and practical training as junior officers. cadets who complete the course satisfactorily are graduated with the rank of second lieutenant.
Territorial Divisions of the Army.--The continental United States is divided into four Army areas, or defense commands, which border upon the four strategic frontiers. A fifth, the Caribbean Defense Command, includes the Panama Canal and Puerto Rican departments. A sixth comprises Alaska. It is also divided into nine service commands, based on approximately equal military populations and included in the four continental Army areas. The Panama Canal Zone, the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, and Alaska constitute what are known as the five departments. Command of units within the service commands and departments is, generally
speaking, decentralized to service commands and department commanders, except for certain exempted stations which operate under War Department control.
Army Service Commands First Service Command
Headquarters at Boston, Mass.
Second Service Command
Headquarters at Governors Island, N.Y.
Third Service Command
Headquarters at Baltimore, Md.
District of Columbia
Fourth Service Command
Headquarters at Atlanta, Ga.
Fifth Service Command
Headquarters at Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio
Sixth Service Command
Headquarters at Chicago, Ill.
Seventh Service Command
Headquarters at Omaha, Nebr.
Eighth Service Command
Headquarters at Dallas, Tex.
Ninth Service Command
Headquarters at Fort Douglas, Utah
Northwest Service Command Headquarters at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
The territorial limits include the Provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, Yukon Territory and the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territory, Canada; plus that area in Alaska bounded by the White Pass and Yukon Railway, Skagway, the west and north shore line of Lynn Canal from Skagway to Chilkoot Barracks, Chilkoot Barracks, and the Hanes Military Road, all inclusive.
Hawaiian Department--Headquarters, Fort Shafter, T.H.
Panama Canal Department--Headquarters, Quarry Heights, C.Z.
Antilles Department--Headquarters, San Juan, P.R.
Alaskan Department--Headquarters, Anchorage, Alaska
The Army Ground Forces[See HyperWar for the official history of the Army Ground Forces in World War II.]
Under policies prescribed by the Chief of Staff, the Commanding General, Army Ground Forces, is charged in general with the functions,
responsibilities, and authorities of command authorized by law, Army regulations, and custom over individuals and units assigned to the Army Ground Forces. The mission of the Army Ground Forces is to provide ground force units properly organized, trained, and equipped for combat operations.
The following duties are specifically assigned to the Army Ground Forces:
The operation of Infantry, Field Artillery, Antiaircraft Artillery, Cavalry, Tank Destroyer, and Armored replacement training centers, and Infantry, Field Artillery, Antiaircraft, Coast Artillery, Cavalry, Tank Destroyer, Parachute, and Armored Schools, including officer candidate schools, for the Army Ground Forces.
The organization of tactical units as directed by the War Department.
The training of all tactical units assigned to the Army Ground Forces.
The organization, equipment, and training of such task forces as are directed by the Chief of Staff.
The development of tactical and training doctrine, tables of organization, tables of basic allowances, military characteristics of weapons and equipment, and operational changes needed in equipment fo the Infantry, Field Artillery, Antiaircraft Artillery, Coast Artillery, Cavalry, and specialized combat units.
The furtherance of the orderly continuity and progressive development of the several arms.
The review with the Commanding General, Army Service Forces, of the tactical doctrine, military characteristics of weapons and equipment, tables of organization, and tables of basic allowances of Army Service Forces units assigned to the Army Ground Forces.
The discharge of personnel functions formerly performed in the offices of the Chiefs of Infantry, Field Artillery, Coast Artillery, and Cavalry, less those now engaged in the procurement of officer candidates.
The assignment of officers of the Army Ground Forces, including Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces personnel on duty therewith.
The supply of Infantry, Field Artillery, Coast Artillery, Cavalry, Antiaircraft Artillery, Tank Destroyer, Air-borne, and Armored personnel to the Army Air Forces, Army Service Forces, defense commands, theaters of operation, and oversea forces in accordance with policies announced by the Chief of Staff.
The submission to the Commanding General, Army Service Forces, of such recommendations on construction, shelter, training aids, movements, supply, equipment, real estate, and such other matters as may be necessary.
The submission to the Budget Officer for the War Department of estimates of funds and other budgetary estimates as required.
The control of funds allocated for the Army Ground Forces.
The development jointly with the Commanding General, Army Air Forces, of ground-air support, tactical training, and doctrine in conformity with policies prescribed by the Chief of Staff.
The minimization of the administrative activities of the Army Ground Forces by utilizing the services available in the Army Service
Forces to the maximum degree consistent with proper control of the Army Ground Forces.
The use of judicious short cuts in procedure to expedite operations. ?
The Army Air Forces[See HyperWar for the official histories of the Army Air Forces in World War II.]
The Commanding General of the Army Air Forces is charged with the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of command authorized by law, Army regulations, and custom over individuals and units assigned to the Army Air Forces. He procures and maintains equipment for the Army Air Forces, and provides air force units properly organized, trained, and equipped for combat operations.
He operates replacement training centers, including officer candidate schools, for the training of personnel in pilot functions and specialist nonpilot functions of combat and ground crews and in all duties involving the care, supply, and maintenance of aeronautical material.
The Commanding General of the Army Air Forces is charged with the organization and training of air force tactical units and task forces. He develops tactics and training methods and tables of organization. He reviews military characteristics of aircraft weapons and equipment, and operational changes needed in equipment, aircraft, and weapons.
The supply of air force personnel and equipment to the Army Air Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Service Forces, defense commands, theaters of operations, and task forces is the responsibility of the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces. He submits to the Commanding General, Army Service Forces, recommendations on construction, training aids, supply, equipment not peculiar to the Air Forces alone, and similar matters.
The Commanding General of the Army Air Forces commands and controls the Army Air Forces stations and bases not assigned to the defense commands or theater commanders.
Five boards have been created by joint agreement of the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy. By military order of the President, effective July 1, 1939, these boards exercise their functions under the direction and supervision of the President as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States.
Joint Army-Navy Boards
The Joint Board.--This Board was organized July 17, 1903, and its functions were later amended by joint agreement dated July 24, 1919. Any matter which, in the estimation of either the War of the Navy Department, seems to call for consideration as to cooperation between the two services may be referred by that Department to the Joint Board. The Board may also originate consideration of subjects which in its judgment are necessary. .Proceedings and reports of the Board are confidential. Each Department receives a copy of the record of the Board.
The Aeronautical Board.--This Board was created in 1916, with limited jurisdiction. Its advisory scope has been broadened from time to time; the last such amendatory agreement was dated May 21,
1936. The purpose of the Board is to prevent duplication of effort and to secure a more complete measure of cooperation and coordination in the matters jointly affecting the Army Air Forces and Navy aviation.
The Joint Economy Board.--The Joint Economy Board was organized on September 20, 1933. It investigates and reports on economies which can be effected without loss of efficiency by the elimination of overlap or the simplification of functioning in those activities of the War and Navy Departments concerned with joint operations of the two services or which have approximately parallel functions.
Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board.--This Board was organized in 1922 for the purpose of harmonizing the plans of the Army and the Navy in the procurement of munitions and supplies for war purposes.
Joint Army and Navy Committee on Welfare and Recreation.--The Committee was created on February 12, 1941, as an advisory and liaison committee on problems in welfare and recreation of servicemen. It provides expert advice to the responsible officers in the Army and Navy and acts as liaison between the Army and Navy and Government and private agencies dealing with related problems.
The Panama Canal was created under authority of the Panama Canal Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 560, 569; 48 U.S.C. 1301, 1302, 1306, 1330). Supervision of the Panama Canal organization is placed by Executive Order 1885, dated January 27, 1914, in the Secretary of War.
The Panama Canal
The Governor of the Panama Canal, under the supervision of the Secretary of War, is charged with the completion, maintenance, and operation of the Panama Canal, and with the administration, sanitation, and government of the Canal Zone.
The Panama Canal maintains departments of operation and maintenance, civil government, sanitation, supply and accounting on the Isthmus, and a subordinate office in Washington for handling administration, purchasing, and accounting matters in the United States.
The ARlington Memorial Amphitheater Commission was created by act of Congress approved March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. 1440; 24 U.S.C. 291-95).
Arlington Memorial Amphitheater Commission
Through the President of the United States, the Commission reports annually to Congress as to what inscriptions, tablets, busts, or other memorials (if any) shall be erected, and the bodies of what deceased members of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps (if any) shall be entombed during the next ensuing year within the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. No such memorial construction or entombment may be made without special authorization by an act of Congress. In making its recommendations to Congress regarding memorials, the Commission is required by law to consult with the Commission of Fine Arts on the artistic aspects of the project under construction.
The act provides that the Commission consist of the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, with the former designated as chairman. It also states that the Depot Quartermaster (now under Amy Service Forces) of the Army in Washington shall be its executive and disbursing officer.
Henry l. Stimson
Secretary of War
Table of Contents
1. By Executive Order 8232, dated September 5, 1939, the administration of The Panama Canal was placed for a temporary period under the direction of the Military Commander of The Panama Canal Department.