Department of State Bulletin, vol. V, p. 341
Address Delivered by President Roosevelt at Washington, October 27, 1941
Five months ago tonight I proclaimed to the American people the existence of a sate of unlimited emergency.
Since then much has happened. Our Army and Navy are temporarily in Iceland in the defense of the Western Hemisphere.
Hitler has attacked shipping in areas close to the Americas throughout the Atlantic.
Many American-owned merchant ships have been sunk on the high seas. One American destroyer was attacked on September fourth. Another destroyer was attacked and hit on October seventeenth. Eleven brave and loyal men of our Navy were killed by the Nazis.
We have wished to avoid shooting. But the shooting has started. And history has recorded who fired the first shot. In the long run, however, all that will matter is who fired the last shot.
America has been attacked. The U.S.S. Kearny is not just a Navy ship. She belongs to every man, woman, and child in this Nation.
Illinois, Alabama, California, North Carolina, Ohio, Louisiana, Texas, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Arkansas, New York, Virginia--those are the home States of the honored dead and wounded of the Kearny. Hitler's torpedo was directed at every American, whether he lives on our seacoasts or in the innermost part of the Nation, far from the seas and far from the guns and tanks of the marching hordes of would-be conquerors of the world.
The purpose of Hitler's attack was to frighten the American people off the high seas--to force us to make a trembling retreat. This is not the first time he has misjudged the American spirit. That spirit is now aroused.
If our national policy were to be dominated by the fear of shooting, then all of our ships and those of our sister republics would have to be tied up in home harbors. Our Navy would have to remain respectfully--abjectly--behind any line which Hitler might decree on any ocean as his own dictated version of his own war zone.
Naturally we reject that absurd and insulting suggestion. We reject it because of our own self-interest, our own self-respect, and our own good faith. Freedom of the seas is now, as it has always been, the fundamental policy of this Government.
Hitler has often protested that his plans for conquest do not extend across the Atlantic Ocean. His submarines and raiders prove otherwise. So does the entire design of his new world-order.
For example, I have in my possession a secret map made in Germany by Hitler's government--by the planners of the new world-order. It is a map of South America and a part of Central America as Hitler proposes to reorganize it. Today in this area there are 14 separate countries. The geographical experts of Berlin, however, have ruthlessly
obliterated all existing boundary lines and have divided South America into five vassal states, bringing the whole continent under their domination. And they have also so arranged it that the territory of one of these new puppet states includes the Republic of Panama and our great life line--the Panama Canal.
This map makes clear the Nazi design not only against South America but against the United States itself.
Your Government has in its possession another document made in Germany by Hitler's government. It is a detailed plan, which, for obvious reasons, the Nazis did not wish to publicize just yet, but which they are ready to impose on a dominated world--if Hitler wins. It is a plan to abolish all existing religions--Protestant, Catholic, Mohammedan, Hindu, Buddhist, and Jewish alike. The property of all churches will be seized by the Reich. The cross and all other symbols of religion are to be forbidden. The clergy are to be forever silenced under penalty of the concentration camps, where even now so many fearless men are being tortured because they placed God above Hitler.
In the place of the churches of our civilization, there is to be set up an International Nazi Church--a church which will be served by orators sent out by the Nazi government. In the place of the Bible, the words of Mein Kampf will be imposed and enforced as Holy Writ. And in place of the cross of Christ will be put two symbols--the swastika and the naked sword.
The God of Blood and Iron will take the place of the God of Love and Mercy.
These grim truths which I have told you of the present and future plans of Hitlerism will of course be hotly denied tomorrow in the controlled press and radio of the Axis Powers. And some Americans will continue to insist that Hitler's plans need not worry us--and that we should not concern ourselves with anything that goes on beyond rifle shot of our own shores.
The protestations of these American citizens--few in number--will, as usual, be paraded with applause through the Axis press and radio during the next few days, in an effort to convince the world that the majority of Americans are opposed to their duly chosen Government, and in reality are only waiting to jump on Hitler's bandwagon when it comes this way.
The motive of such Americans is not the point at issue. The fact is that Nazi propaganda continues in desperation to seize upon such isolated statements as proof of American disunity.
The Nazis have made up their own list of modern American heroes. It is, fortunately, a short list. I am glad that it does not contain my name.
All of us Americans, of all opinions, are faced with the choice between the kind of world we want to live in and the kind of world which Hitler and his hordes would impose upon us.
None of us wants to burrow under the ground and live in total darkness like a comfortable mole.
The forward march of Hitlerism can be stopped--and it will be stopped.
Very simply and very bluntly--we are pledged to pull our own oar in the destruction of Hitlerism.
And when we have helped to end the curse of Hitlerism we shall help to establish a new peace which will give to decent people everywhere a better chance to live and prosper in security and in freedom and in faith.
Each day that passes we are producing and providing more and more arms for the men who are fighting on actual battlefronts. That is our primary task.
And it is the Nation's will that these vital arms and supplies of all kinds shall neither be locked up in American harbors nor sent to the bottom of the sea. It is the Nation's will that America shall deliver the goods. In open defiance of that will, our ships have been sunk and our sailors have been killed.
I say that we do not propose to take this lying down.
Our determination not to take it lying down has been expressed in the orders to the American Navy to shoot on sight. Those orders stand.
Furthermore, the House of Representatives has already voted to amend part of the Neutrality Act of 1939, today outmoded by force of violent circumstances. The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations has also recommended elimination of other hamstringing provisions in that act. That is the course of honesty and of realism.
Our American merchant ships must be armed to defend themselves against the rattlesnakes of the sea.
Our American merchant ships must be free to carry our American goods into the harbors of our friends.
Our American merchant ships must be protected by our American Navy.
It can never be doubted that the goods will be delivered by this Nation, whose Navy believes in the tradition of "Damn the torpedoes; full speed ahead!"
Our national will must speak from every assembly line in our vast industrial machine. Our factories and our shipyards are constantly expanding. Our output must be multiplied.
It cannot be hampered by the selfish obstruction of a small but dangerous minority of industrial managers who hold out for extra profits or for "business as usual". It cannot be hampered by the selfish obstruction of a small but dangerous minority of labor leaders who are a menace to the true cause of labor itself, as well as to the Nation as a whole.
The lines of our essential defense now cover all the seas, and to meet the extraordinary demands of today and tomorrow our Navy grows to unprecedented size. Our Navy is ready for action. Indeed, units of it in the Atlantic patrol are in action. Its officers and men need no praise from me.
Our new Army is steadily developing the strength needed to withstand the aggressors. Our soldiers of today are worthy of the proudest traditions of the United States Army. But traditions cannot shoot down dive bombers or destroy tanks. That is why we must and shall provide, for every one of our soldiers, equipment and weapons--not merely as good but better than that of any other army on earth. And we are doing that right now.
For this--and all of this--is what we mean by total national defense.
The first objective of that defense is to stop Hitler. He can be stopped and can be compelled to dig in. And that will be the beginning of his downfall, because dictatorship of the Hitler type can live only through continuing victories--increasing conquests.
The facts of 1918 are proof that a mighty German Army and a tired German people can crumble rapidly and go to pieces when they are faced with successful resistance.
Nobody who admires qualities of courage and endurance can fail to be stirred by the full-fledged resistance of the Russian people. The Russians are fighting for their own soil and their own homes. Russia needs all kinds of help--planes, tanks, guns, medical supplies, and other aids--toward the successful defense against the invaders. From the United States and from Britain she is getting great quantities of those essential supplies. But the needs of her huge army will continue--and our help and British help will have to continue!
The other day the Secretary of State of the United States was asked by a Senator to justify our giving aid to Russia. His reply was: "The answer to that depends on how anxious a person is to stop and destroy the march of Hitler in his conquest of the world. If he were anxious enough to defeat Hitler, he would not worry about who was helping to defeat him."
Upon our American production falls the colossal task of equipping our own armed forces and helping to supply the British, the Russians,
and the Chinese. In the performance of that task we dare not fail. And we will not fail.
It has not been easy for us Americans to adjust ourselves to the shocking realities of a world in which the principles of common humanity and common decency are being mowed down by the firing squads of the Gestapo. We have enjoyed many of God's blessings. We have lived in a broad and abundant land, and by our industry and productivity we have made it flourish.
There are those who say that our great good fortune has betrayed us--that we are now no match for the regimented masses who have been trained in the Spartan ways of ruthless brutality. They say that we have grown fat and flabby and lazy--and that we are doomed.
But those who say that know nothing of America or of American life.
They do not know that this land is great because it is a land of endless challenge. Our country was first populated, and it has been steadily developed by men and women in whom there burned the spirit of adventure and restlessness and individual independence which will not tolerate oppression.
Ours has been a story of vigorous challenges which have been accepted and overcome--challenges of uncharted seas, of wild forests and desert plains, of raging floods and withering drought, of foreign tyrants and domestic strife, of staggering problems--social, economic, and physical; and we have come out of them the most powerful nation--and the freest--in all of history.
Today in the face of this newest and greatest challenge, we Americans have cleared our decks and taken our battle stations. We stand ready in the defense of our Nation and the faith of our fathers to do what God has given us the power to see as our full duty.
Table of Contents