The Administrative and Logistical History of the ETO

NEPTUNE: Training, Mounting, The Artificial Ports

Historical Division

United States Army Forces, European Theater

Lt. Clifford L. Jones

March 1946


Table of Contents

Volume I
Chapter   Page
  Foreword i
I Background of Amphibious Operations 1
    The Beginnings of Invasions
    Training in the United States
    Early Developments in the United Kingdom
    Arrival of American Units in the United Kingdom
II Amphibious Operations in the Mediterranean 12
    Planning for TORCH
    Operation TORCH
    Lessons From TORCH
    Training in North Africa
    Preparations for HUSKY
    Operation HUSKY
    Lessons From HUSKY
    Operation AVALANCHE
    Operation SHINGLE
III Early Training in the United Kingdom 53
    Contact with other Theaters
    Training Policy in the United Kingdom
    The American School Center
    The Joint Q Planning School
    The 29th Division in the United Kingdom
    Miscellaneous Training
    Development of Doctrine Through Exercises
IV Planning for OVERLORD and NEPTUNE 95
    The Evolution of the Plan
    Planning by Engineers
    Plan NEPTUNE--General
    Plan NEPTUNE--Mounting
    Plan NEPTUNE--The Assault
    Plan NEPTUNE--Beach Operations
    Basic Agreements
V Composition of the Forces 144
    Selection of Assault Units
    The Assault Units
    Composition of Shore Units
VI The Assault Training Center 164
    The Background of the Center
    Activation of the Center
    Center Doctrine
    Setting up the Center
    Organization of Assault Troops
    Courses at the Center
    Development of Doctrine
    Center Chronology
VII Exercises 211
    Exercise DUCK I
    Exercises DUCK II, DUCK III
    Exercise FOX
    Other Assault Exercises
    Miscellaneous Exercises
    Exercise TIGER
    TIGER--The E-Boat Attack
    Exercise FABIUS
VIII Mounting 275
    The Base Sections
    Development of Marshalling Facilities
    Marshalling Facilities in Southern Base Section
    Marshalling Facilities in Western Base Section
    Control of Movement
    Equipping the Invasion Force
    Marshalling in Southern Base Section
    Marshalling in Western Base Section
    Composition of the Assault Convoys
    Briefing and Embarkation
Volume II
    OMAHA Beach
    The Voyage of the Assault Convoy
    The Preliminary Bombardment
    H Hour--The Gap Assault Teams
    First Engineer Landings
    Late Afternoon
    D Day Night
X D Day UTAH 34
    UTAH Beac
    The Voyage of the Assault Convoy
    Paratroop Landings and Preliminary Bombardment
    H Hour--The Gap Assault Teams
    First Engineer Landings
    Development of UTAH Beach on D Day
XI OMAHA Beach Development to the Storm 63
    The Tactical Situation
    Marking the Beaches
    Development of the Beach
    D plus 6--Opening the Inland Dumps
    Later Improvements
XII UTAH Beach Development to the Storm 86
    The Tactical Situation
    Marking the Beaches
    Development of the Beach
    Unloading Operations
    Dump Activities
    Personnel and Vehicles
    Beach Development
XIII The Storm Period 110
    Planning the Harbor
    Construction of the Harbor
    The Storm
    Damage caused by the Storm
    The Change in Plan, Arromanches
    Aftermath of the Storm
XIV The Beaches After the Storm 135
    Settling down to Normal
    August Operations
    Fall Operations
    Movement of Personnel
    Movement of Supplies
A Tonnages of cargo unloaded at the beaches, 6 June to 19 Nov 44
B Personnel crossing the beaches from 6 June to 14 Nov 44
C Movement of vehicles across beaches, 6 June to 12 Nov 44
D Casualties handled at the beaches, 6 June to 4 Sep 44
E Prisoner evacuation via the beaches, 6 June to 4 Sep 44
F Breakdown of tons discharged by DUKW, ferry-craft, barge, direct to truck, 31 Aug to 20 Nov 44
  Bibliography 193
1 RATTLE Conference appreciation of beach capacities of Western France, July 1942
2 COSSAC final plan of November 1943, designating beaches, ports, future plans for lines of communications, etc, and including the changes of February 1944
3 The OVERLORD plan, including the naval plan, the SBS divisions, ports of debarkation etc.
5 Assault Training Center map, with insert of map of England, showing location of training areas and schools mentioned in Chapter III
6 Schematic organization of an assault regiment, battalion, company, team, and their attachments etc.
7 The Mounting Plan for southern England, showing SBS and WBS, the ports, division of responsibility for mounting the assault forces, follow-up and buildup
8 OMAHA Beach, showing planned exits, dump areas, transit areas
9 UTAH Beach, showing the same plans as in Figure 8
10 UTAH Beach as it actually developed
11 Command and communications channels at the beaches, showing relationship of Navy and Army commands

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