79th Congress, 1st Session
Senate Doc. No. 93
Surrender of Italy
Germany and Japan
WORLD WAR II
Surrender of Italy
Germany and Japan
WORLD WAR II
INSTRUMENTS OF SURRENDER · PUBLIC PAPERS
AND ADDRESSES OF THE PRESIDENT
AND OF THE
October 1, 1945 (legislative day October 2, 1945)
Ordered to be printed
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1946
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Table of Contents
Page PART I. SURRENDER OF ITALY 3-39 Instrument of Armistice and Surrender, September 3, 1943 3 Eisenhower (General), Italian surrender announcement, September 8 6 Badoglio (Marshal), surrender announcement, September 8, 1943 7 Fleet surrender instructions, September 8, 1943 7 Disposition agreement, fleet and merchant marine, September 23, November 17, 1943 (footnote) 9 Statement of DeCourten (Admiral), November 17, 1943 (footnote) 9 Commentary on the Cunningham-DeCourten agreement, November 6, 1945 (footnote) 9 Middle East surrender instructions, September 8, 1943 9 Roosevelt (President), Churchill (Prime Minister), joint message to Italy, September 10, 1943 11 Additional Armistice conditions, September 29, November 9, 1943 12 Eisenhower (General), letter to Marshal Badoglio on signing the additional Armistice conditions, September 29, 1943 27 Relaxation of Armistice terms, Aide-Mèmoire from the Allied Commission, February 24, 1945 29 PART II. SURRENDER OF GERMANY 39-67 Instrument of Surrender: Holland, Denmark, May 4, 1945 39 Allies, Soviet High Command, May 7, 1945 41 Allies, Red Army, May 8, 1945 42 Eisenhower (General), Proclamation on German surrender, May 8, 1945 44 Truman (President) Statement, May 8, 1945 45 Address (radio), on German surrender, May 8, 1945 46 Proclamation, May 8, 1945 48 Eisenhower (General), Order of the Day, May 8, 1945 50 Doenitz (Admiral), address to German people (radio), May 8, 1945 52 Occupation Terms for Germany, June 5, 1945 54 PART III. SURRENDER OF JAPAN 71-111 Potsdam Declaration, July 26, 1945 71 Swiss Chargé d'Affaires, notes relating to Japanese surrender, August 10, 14, 1945 74, 78 Byrnes (Secretary of State), notes relating to Japanese surrender, August 11, 14, 1945 76, 79 Truman (President), Statement on Japanese acceptance of Potsdam Declaration, August 14, 1945 81 MacArthur (General), Statement on meeting surrender emissaries, Manila, August 20, 1945 83 Occupation and Surrender Terms, August 23, 1945 84 Instrument of Surrender, September 2, 1945 89 Surrender in other areas (footnote) 90 MacArthur (General), Statement before signing Surrender Instrument, September 2, 1945 92 Nimitz (Admiral), Statement on signing the Surrender Instrument, September 2, 1945 94 MacArthur (General), Address after signing the Surrender Instrument, September 2, 1945 96 Hirohito (Emperor of Japan), Imperial Rescript on Surrender, September 2, 1945 99 Imperial General Headquarters (Japan), Order of Surrender, September 2, 1945 100 Truman (President), Address on Japanese surrender, September 1, 1945 107
SEPTEMBER 3, 1943
SURRENDER OF ITALY
INSTRUMENT OF ARMISTICE and surrender of the Italian Forces to the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. 1
Sicily, September 3, 1943.2
The following conditions of an Armistice are presented by General DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces, acting by authority of the Governments of the United States and Great Britain and in the interest of the United Nations, and are accepted by Marshal PIETRO BADOGLIO, Head of the Italian Government:
- Immediate cessation of all hostile activity by the Italian armed forces.
- Italy will use its best endeavors to deny, to the Germans, facilities that might be used against the United Nations.
- All prisoners or internees of the United Nations to be immediately turned over to the Allied Commander-in-Chief, and none of these may now or at any time be evacuated to Germany.
- Immediate transfer of the Italian Fleet and Italian aircraft to such points as may be designated
by the Allied Commander-in-Chief, with details of disarmament to be prescribed by him
- Italian merchant shipping may be requisitioned by the Allied Commander-in-Chief to meet the needs of his military-naval program
- Immediate surrender of Corsica and of all Italian territory, both islands and mainland, to the Allies, for such use as operational bases and other purposes as the Allies may see fit
- Immediate guarantee of the free use by the Allies of all airfields and naval ports in Italian territory, regardless of the rate of evacuation of the Italian territory by the German forces. These ports and fields to be protected by Italian armed forces until this function is taken over by the Allies.
- Immediate withdrawal to Italy of Italian armed forces from all participation in the current war from whatever areas in which they may now be engaged.
- Guarantee by the Italian Government that if necessary it will employ all its available armed forces to insure prompt and exact compliance with all the provisions of this armistice.
- The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces reserves to himself the right to take any measure which in his opinion may be necessary for the protection of the interests of the Allied Forces for the prosecution of the war, and the Italian Government binds itself to take such administrative or other action as the Commander-in-Chief may require, and in particular the Commander-in-Chief will establish Allied Military Government over such parts of Italian territory as he may deem necessary in the military interests of the Allied Nations.
- The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces will have a full right to impose measures of disarmament, demobilization and demilitarization.
- Other conditions of a political, economic and financial nature with which Italy will be bound to comply will be transmitted at later date.
The conditions of the present Armistice will not be made public without prior approval of the Allied Commander-in-Chief. The English will be considered the official text.
Marshal PIETRO BADOGLIO
Head of the Italian Government
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
General, U. S. Army
Commander in Chief Allied Forces.
By: GIUSEPPE CASTELLANO
Brigadier General, attached to The
Italian High Command
By: WALTER B. SMITH
Major General, U. S. Army
Chief of Staff.
Present: Rt. Hon. HAROLD MACMILLAN
British Resident Minister, AFHQ
Personal Representative of the President of the United States
Commodore, R. N.
Chief of Staff to the C. in C. Med.
LOWELL W. ROOKS
Major General, U. S. Army
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, AFHQ
Official Italian Interpreter
Brigadier KENNETH STRONG
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, AFHQ
"the Italian Government has surrendered its armed forces unconditionally"
Proclamation by GENERAL EISENHOWER on the Italian Surrender.
United Nations Radio. September 8, 1943.3
This is Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander in Chief of the Allied Forces.
The Italian Government has surrendered its armed forces unconditionally. As Allied Commander in Chief, I have granted a military armistice, the terms of which have been approved by the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Thus I am acting in the interest of the United Nations.
The Italian Government has bound itself to abide by these terms without reservation. The armistice was signed by my representative and the representative of Marshal Badoglio and it becomes effective this instant.
Hostilities between the armed forces of the United Nations and those of Italy terminate at once. All Italians who now act to help eject the German aggressor from Italian soil will have the assistance and the support of the United Nations.
"... cease all acts of hostility against the Anglo-American Forces wherever they may be met"
Proclamation of Italian Surrender by MARSHAL PIETRO BADOOLIO, Head of the Italian Government.
Rome Radio. September 8, 1943.4
The Italian Government, recognizing the impossibility of continuing the unequal struggle against the overwhelming power of the enemy, with the object of avoiding further and more grievous harm to the nation, has requested an armistice from General Eisenhower, Commander in Chief of the Anglo-American Allied forces. This request has been granted. The Italian forces will therefore cease all acts of hostility against the Anglo-American forces wherever they may be met. They will, however, oppose attack from any other quarter.
"save your ships and follow the directions now given to you by the United Nations"
Instructions to the Italian Fleet and Mercantile Marine by SIR ANDREW BROWNE CUNNINGHAM, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Naval Forces in the Mediterranean.
United Nations Radio. Algiers. September 8, 1943.5
Sailors of the Italian Navy and mercantile marine: Your country has terminated hostilities against the United Nations. The German armed forces have
become the open enemies of the Italian people and intend to seize your ships.
Your ships are urgently needed to assist in the work of carrying supplies to Italy and your warships to protect them from the Germans. Take heed, therefore, that you do not scuttle your ships or allow them to be captured.
The forces of the United Nations are watching out to receive you and protect you. Save your ships and follow the directions now given to you by the United Nations.
Ships in the Mediterranean, sail to a place safe from the interference of the German armed forces. Sail if you can to North Africa or Gibraltar, to Tripoli or Malta, to Haifa or Alexandria, or to Sicily, there to await the outcome of events.
Ships in the Black Sea, sail to Russian ports. If you have not the fuel to do this, then proceed to neutral ports.
When you meet forces of the United Nations, identify yourself by day by flying a large black or dark blue pennant from the main mast, by showing large circular patches from your decks as identification to aircraft.
By night, if darkened ships are met, burn dim navigation lights and flash the letters "GA" toward the darkened ship.
Follow carefully all directions of United Nations forces. These are given to insure your safety.
Merchant seamen, if you first preserve your ships intact and afterward satisfy the authorities of the United Nations that you will loyally cooperate with them, there will be opportunity for further seagoing inployment for you in Italian ships.
Those of you who are in the Aegean or the Black Sea, if you cannot make good your escape from the Germans, who are now your enemies, do not let your ships fall into their hands. As a last resort, scuttle them or sabotage them, rather than let them fall into the hands of the Germans to be used against Italy.
Ships intending to act in conformity with this message may confirm their safe conduct by calling "Malta V P T" or "Algiers F U G" or "Alexandria S U H" on 500 kilocycles.6
"the war between Italy and the United Nations is ended"
Order of the Day addressed by radio to Italian forces in the Balkan and Aegean areas by the Allied Commander in the Middle East, LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIR HENRY MAITLAND WILSON.
Cairo. September 8, 1943.7
An armistice has been signed by your Government. The war between Italy and the United Nations is ended.
Based on the terms of the armistice, the following are my immediate orders to all members of the Italian armed forces in the Balkan area:
First, all acts of hostility toward the peoples in whose countries you find yourselves will cease forthwith.
Second, the strictest discipline will be maintained throughout all units and all units will retain their formations.
Third, all attempts by the Germans or their satellites to disarm or disband the Italian forces or gain possession of their weapons, stores of petrol or water, or points now being garrisoned by them, will be resisted to the utmost. All orders transmitted by the Germans will be disregarded.
Fourth, Italian forces in the Dodecanese will take over by force all points now in possession of the Germans.
Fifth, all units of the Italian Navy and Italian merchant marine will proceed immediately as follows: merchant ships east of 170 east longitude, direct to Alexandria, except, if necessary to refuel, they mat call at intermediate United Nations ports; warships in the Aegean to Haifa.
Sixth, all aircraft in the Italian Air Force will be flown immediately to Nicosia, Derna or Tobruk (seaplanes to El Adem).
The procedure to be followed by Italian aircraft in approaching a landing in Allied territory will be: give a five-mile berth to all shipping at sea and avoid ports on approaching the coast; fly at 3,000 feet with undercarriage down from twenty miles at sea to the coast and then to the airdrome selected for the landing; complete two left-hand circuits of the airdrome at 1000 feet before coming in to land.
Disregard of these orders or of subsequent orders that I shall issue will be considered a breach of the
armistice terms accepted by your Commander in Chief and will be to the prejudice of your future treatment.
"now is the time for every Italian to strike his blow"
Joint Message upon the Italian Surrender from PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT and PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL to MARSHAL BADOGLIO and the Italian people.
Washington and London. September 10, 1943.8
"It has fallen to you in the hour of your country's agony to take the first decisive steps to win peace and freedom for the Italian people and to win back for Italy an honourable place in the civilization of Europe.
"You have already freed your country from Fascist servitude. There remains the even more important task of cleansing the Italian soil from the German invaders. Hitler, through his accomplice Mussolini, has brought Italy to the verge of ruin. He has driven the Italians into disastrous campaigns in the sands of Egypt and the snows of Russia. The Germans have always deserted the Italian troops on the battlefield, sacrificing them contemptuously in order to cover their own retreats. Now Hitler threatens to subject you all to the cruelties he is perpetrating in so many lands.
"Now is the time for every Italian to strike his blow. The liberating armies of the Western World
are coming to your rescue. We have very strong forces and are entering at many points. The German terror in Italy will not last long. They will be extirpated from your land and you, by helping in this great surge of liberation, will place yourselves once more among the true and long-proved friends of your country from whom you have been so wrongfully estranged.
"Take every chance you can. Strike hard and strike home. Have faith in your future. All will come well. March forward with your American and British friends in the great world movement towards Freedom, Justice and Peace."
ADDITIONAL INSTRUMENT of ARMISTICE and surrender of the Italian forces to the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces, General Dwight D. Eisenhower9
Malta. September 29, 1943.
Whereas in consequence of an Armistice dated September 3, 1943 between the United States and the United Kingdom Governments acting in the interests of all the United Nations on the one hand, and the Italian Government on the other hand, hostilies were suspended between Italy and United Nations on certain terms of a military nature;
And whereas in addition to those terms it was also
provided in the said Armistice that the Italian Government bound themselves to comply with other conditions of a political, economic and financial nature to be transmitted later;
And whereas it is convenient that the terms of a military nature and the said other conditions of a political, economic and financial nature should without prejudice to the continued validity of the terms of the said Armistice of September 3rd, 1943, be comprised in a further instrument;
The following, together with the terms of the Armistice of September 3, 1943, are the terms on which the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Governments, acting on behalf of the United Nations, are prepared to suspend hostilities against Italy so long as their military operations against Germany and the Allies are not obstructed and Italy does not assist these powers in any way and complies with the requirements of these governments.
These terms have been presented by General DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces, duly authorized to that effect;
and have been accepted unconditionally by Marshal PIETRO BADOGLIO, Head of the Italian Government representing the Supreme Command of the Italian Land, Sea and Air forces and duly authorized to that effect by the Italian Government.
- (A) The Italian Land, Sea and Air forces wherever located hereby surrender. Italian participation in the war in all Theaters will cease immediateli. There will be no opposition to landings, movements or other operations of the Land, Sea and Air Forces of the United Nations. Accordingly, the Italian Supreme
Command will order the immediate cessation of hostilities of any kind against the Forces of the United Nations and will direct the Italian Navy, Military, and Air Force authorities in all Theaters to issue forthwith the appropriate instructions to those under their Command.
(B) The Italian Supreme Command will further order all Italian Naval, Military and Air Forces or authorities and personnel to refrain immediately from destruction of or damage to any real or personal property, whether public or private.
- The Italian Supreme Command will give full information concerning the disposition and condition of all Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces, wherever they are situated and of all such forces of Italy's Allies as are situated in Italian or Italian occupied territory.
- The Italian Supreme Command will take the necessary measures to secure airfields, port facilities, and all other installations against seizure or attack by any of Italy's Allies. The Italian Supreme Command will take the necessary measures to insure Law and Order, and to use its available armed forces to insure prompt and exact compliance with all the provisions of the present instrument. Subject to such use of Italian troops for the above purposes, as may be sanctioned by the Allied Commander-in-Chief, all other Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces will proceed to and remain in their barracks, camps or ships pending directions from the United Nations as to their future status and disposal. Exceptionally such Naval personnel shall proceed to shore establishments as the United Nations may direct.
- Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces will within
the periods to be laid down by the United Nations withdraw from all areas outside Italian territory notified to the Italian Government by the United Nations and proceed to areas to be specified by the United Nations. Such movement of Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces will be carried out in conditions to be laid down by the United Nations and in accordance with the orders to be issued by them. All Italian officials will similarly leave the areas notified except any who may be permitted to remain by the United Nations. Those permitted to remain will comply with the instructions of the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- No requisitioning, seizures or other coercive measures shall be effected by Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces or officials in regard to persons or property in the areas notified under Article 4.
- The demobilization of Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces in excess of such establishments as shall be notified will take place as prescribed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- Italian warships of all descriptions, auxiliaries and transports will be assembled as directed, in ports to be specified by the Allied Commander-in-Chief and will be dealt with as prescribed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief. (NOTE. If at the date of the Armistice the whole of the Italian Fleet has been assembled in Allied ports, this article would run--"Italian warships of all descriptions, auxiliaries, and transports will remain until further notice in the ports where they are at present assembled, and will be dealt with as prescribed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief.")
- Italian aircraft of all kinds will not leave the
ground or water or ships, except as directed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- Without prejudice to the provisions 14, 15 and 28 (A) and (D) below, all merchant ships, fishing or other craft of whatever flag, all aircraft and inland transport of whatever nationality in Italian or Italian-occupied territory or waters will, pending verification of their identity and status, be prevented from leaving.
- The Italian Supreme Command will make available all information about naval, military and air devices, installations, and defences, about all transport and inter-communication systems established by Italy or her allies on Italian territory or in the approaches thereto, about minefields or other obstacles to movement by land, sea or air and such other particulars as the United Nations may require in connection with the use of Italian bases, or with the operations, security, or welfare of the United Nations Land, Sea or Air Forces. Italian forces and equipment will be made available as required by the United Nations for the removal of the above mentioned obstacles.
- The Italian Government will furnish forthwith lists of quantities of all war material showing the location of the same. Subject to such use as the Allied Commander-in-Chief may make of it, the war material will be placed in store under such control as he may direct. The ultimate disposal of war material will be prescribed by the United Nations.
- There will be no destruction of nor damage to nor, except as authorized or directed by the United Nations, any removal of war material, wireless,
radio location or meteorological stations, railroad, port or other installations or in general, public or private utilities or property of any kind, wherever situated, and the necessary maintenance and repair will be the responsibility of the Italian authorities.
- The manufacture, production and construction of war material and its import, export and transit is prohibited, except as directed by the United Nations. The Italian Government will comply with any directions given by the United Nations for the manufacture, production or construction and the import, export or transit of war material.
- (A) All Italian merchant shipping and fishing and other craft, wherever they may be, and any constructed or completed during the period of the present instrument will be made available in good repair and in seaworthy condition by the competent Italian authorities at such places and for such purposes and periods as the United Nations may prescribe. Transfer to enemy or neutral flags is prohibited. Crews will remain on board pending further instructions regarding their continued employment or dispersal. Any existing options to repurchase or re-acquire or to resume control of Italian or former Italian vessels sold or otherwise transferred or chartered during the war will forthwith be exercised and the above provisions will apply to all such vessels and their crews.
(B) All Italian inland transport and all port equipment will be held at the disposal of the United Nations for such purposes as they may direct.
- United Nations merchant ships, fishing and
other craft in Italian hands wherever they may be (including for this purpose those of any country which has broken off diplomatic relations with Italy) whether or not the title has been transferred as the result of prize court proceedings or otherwise, will be surrendered to the United Nations and will be assembled in ports to be specified by the United Nations for disposal as directed by them. The Italian Government will take all such steps as may be required to secure any necessary transfers of title. Any neutral merchant ship, fishing or other craft under Italian operation or control will be assembled in the same manner pending arrangements for their ultimate disposal. Any necessary repairs to any of the above mentioned vessels will be effected by the Italian Government, if required, at their expense. The Italian Government will take the necessary measures to insure that the vessels and their cargo are not damaged.
- No radio or telecommunication installations or other forms of intercommunication, ashore or afloat, under Italian control whether belonging to Italy or any nation other than the United Nations will transmit until directions for the control of these installations have been prescribed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief. The Italian authorities will conform to such measures for control and censorship of press and of other publications, of theatrical and cinematograph performances, of broadcasting, and also of all forms of intercommunication as the Allied Commander-in-Chief may direct. The Allied Commander-in-Chief may, at his discretion, take over radio, cable and other communication stations.
- The warships, auxiliaries, transports and merchant
and other vessels and aircraft in the service of the United Nations will have the right freely to use the territorial waters around and the air over Italian territory.
- The forces of the United Nations will require to occupy certain parts of Italian territory. The territories or areas concerned will from time to time be notified by the United Nations and all Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces will thereupon withdraw from such territories or areas in accordance with the instructions issued by the Allied Commander-in-Chief. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to those of article 4 above. The Italian Supreme Command will guarantee immediate use and access to the Allies of all airfields and Naval ports in Italy under their control.
- In the territories or areas referred to in article 18 all Naval, Military and Air installations, power stations, oil refineries, public utility services, all ports and harbors, all transport and all inter-communication installations, facilities and equipment and such other installations or facilities and all such stocks as may be required by the United Nations will be made available in good condition by the competent Italian authorities with the personnel required for working them. The Italian Government will make available such other local resources or services as the United Nations may require.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of the present instrument the United Nations will exercise all the rights of an occupying power throughout the territories or areas referred to in article 18, the administration of which will be provided for by the issue of proclamations, orders or regulations. Personnel
of the Italian administrative, judicial and public services will carry out their functions under the control of the Allied Commander-in-Chief unless otherwise directed.
- In addition to the rights in respect of occupied Italian territories described in articles 18 to 20,
(A) Members of the Land, Sea or Air Forces and officials of the United Nations will have the right of passage in or over non-occupied Italian territory and will be afforded all the necessary facilities and assistance in performing their functions.
(B) The Italian authorities will make available on non-occupied Italian territory all transport facilities required by the United Nations including free transit for their war material and supplies, and will comply with instructions issued by the Allied Commander-in-Chief regarding the use and control of airfields, ports, shipping, inland transport systems and vehicles, intercommunication systems, power stations and public utility services, oil refineries, stocks and such other fuel and power supplies and means of producing same, as the United Nations may specify, together with connected repair and construction facilities.
- The Italian Government and people will abstain from all action detrimental to the interests of the United Nations and will carry out promptly and efficiently all orders given by the United Nations.
- The Italian Government will make available such Italian currency as the United Nations may require. The Italian Government will withdraw
and redeem in Italian currency within such time limits and on such terms as the United Nations may specify all holdings in Italian territory of currencies issued by the United Nations during military operations or occupation and will hand over the currencies withdrawn free of cost to the United Nations. The Italian Government will take such measures as may be required by the United Nations for the control of banks and business in Italian territory, for the control of foreign exchange and foreign commercial and financial transactions and for the regulation of trade and production and will comply with any instructions issued by the United Nations regarding these and similar matters.
- There shall be no financial, commercial or other intercourse with or dealings with or for the benefit of countries at war with any of the United Nations or territories occupied by such countries or any other foreign country except under authorisation of the Allied Commander-in-Chief or designated officials.
- (A) Relations with countries at war with any of the United Nations, or occupied by any such country, will be broken off. Italian diplomatic, consular and other officials and members of the Italian Land, Sea, and Air Forces accredited to or serving on missions with any such country or in any other territory specified by the United Nations will be recalled. Diplomatic and consular officials of such countries will be dealt with as the United Nations may prescribe.
(B) The United Nations reserve the right to require the withdrawal of neutral diplomatic and
consular officers from occupied Italian territory and to prescribe and lay down regulations governing the procedure for the methods of communication between the Italian Government and its representatives in neutral countries and regarding communications emanating from or destined for the representatives of neutral countries in Italian territory.
- Italian subjects will, pending further instructions, be prevented from leaving Italian territory except as authorised by the Allied Commander-in-Chief and will not in any event take service with any of the countries or in any of the territories referred to in article 25 (A) nor will they proceed to any place for the purpose of undertaking work for any such country. Those at present so serving or working will be recalled as directed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- The Military, Naval and Air personnel and material and the merchant shipping, fishing and other craft and the aircraft, vehicles and other transport equipment of any country against which any of the United Nations is carrying on hostilities or which is occupied by any such country, remain liable to attack or seizure wherever found in or over Italian territory or waters.
- (A) The warships, auxiliaries and transports of any such country or occupied country referred to in article 27 in Italian or Italian-occupied ports and waters and the aircraft, vehicles and other transport equipment of such countries in or over Italian or Italian-occupied territory will, pending further instructions, be prevented from leaving.
(B) The Military, Naval and Air personnel and the
civilian nationals of any such country or occupied country in Italian or Italian-occupied territory will be prevented from leaving and will be interned pending further instructions.
(C) All property in Italian territory belonging to any such country or occupied country or its nationals will be impounded and kept in custody pending further instructions.
(D) The Italian Government will comply with any instructions given by the Allied Commander-in-Chief concerning the internment, custody or subsequent disposal, utilisation or employment of any of the above mentioned persons, vessels, aircraft, material or property.
- Benito Mussolini, his chief Fascist associates, and all persons suspected of having committed war crimes or analogous offences whose names appear on lists to be communicated by the United Nations and who now or in the future are on territory controlled by the Allied Military Command or by the Italian Government, will forthwith be apprehended and surrendered into the hands of the United Nations. Any instructions given by the United Nations to this purpose will be complied with.
- All Fascist organisations, including all branches of the Fascist Militia (MVSN), the Secret Police (OVRA), all Fascist youth organisations will insofar as this is not already accomplished be disbanded in accordance with the directions of the Allied Commander-in-Chief. The Italian Government will comply with all such further directions as the United Nations may give for abolition of Fascist institutions, the dismissal and internment of Fascist personnel,
the control of Fascist funds, the suppression of Fascist ideology and teaching.
- All Italian laws involving discrimination on grounds of race, color, creed or political opinions will insofar as this is not already accomplished be rescinded, and persons detained on such grounds will, as directed by the United Nations, be released and relieved from all legal disabilities to which they have been subjected. The Italian Government will comply with all such further directions as the Allied Commander-in-Chief may give for repeal of Fascist legislation and removal of any disabilities or prohibitions resulting therefrom.
- (A) Prisoners of war belonging to the forces of, or specified by, the United Nations and any Nationals of the United Nations, including Abyssinian subjects, confined, interned, or otherwise under restraint in Italian or Italian-occupied territory will not be removed and will forthwith be handed over to representatives of the United Nations or otherwise dealt with as the United Nations may direct. Any removal during the period between the presentation and the signature of the present instrument will be regarded as a breach of its terms.
(B) Persons of whatever nationality who have been placed under restriction, detention or sentence (including sentences in absentia) on account of their dealings or sympathies with the United Nations will be released under the direction of the United Nations and relieved from all legal disabilities to which they have subjected.
(C) The Italian Government will take such steps as the United Nations may direct to safeguard the persons of foreign nationals and property of foreign
nationals and property of foreign states and nationals.
- (A) The Italian Government will comply with such directions as the United Nations may prescribe regarding restitution, deliveries, services or payments by way of reparation and payment of the costs of occupation during the period of the present instrument.
(B) The Italian Government will give to the Allied Commander-in-Chief such information as may be prescribed regarding the assets, whether inside or outside Italian territory, of the Italian state, the Bank of Italy, any Italian state or semi-state institutions or Fascist organisations or residents in Italian territory and will not dispose or allow the disposal, outside Italian territory of any such assets except with the permission of the United Nations.
- The Italian Government will carry out during the period of the present instrument such measures of disarmament, demobilisation and demilitarisation as may be prescribed by the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- The Italian Government will supply all information and provide all documents required by the United Nations. There shall be no destruction or concealment of archives, records, plans or any other documents or information.
- The Italian Government will take and enforce such legislative and other measures as may be necessary for the execution of the present instrument. Italian military and civil authorities will comply with any instructions issued by the Allied Commander-in-Chief for the same purpose.
- There will be appointed a Control Commission representative of the United Nations charged with
regulating and executing this instrument under the orders and general directions of the Allied Commander-in-Chief.
- (A) The term "United Nations" in the present instrument includes the Allied Commander-in-Chief, the Control Commission and any other authority which the United Nations may designate.
(B) The term "Allied Commander-in-Chief" in the present instrument includes the Control Commission and such other officers and representatives as the Commander-in-Chief may designate.
- Reference to Italian Land, Sea and Air Forces in the present instrument shall be deemed to include Fascist Militia and all such other military or paramilitary units, formations or bodies as the Allied Commander-in-Chief may prescribe.
- The term "War Material" in the present instrument denotes all material specified in such lists or definitions as may from time to time be issued by the Control Commission.
- The term "Italian Territory" includes all Italian colonies and dependencies and shall for the purposes of the present instrument (but without prejudice to the question of sovereignty) be deemed to include Albania. Provided however that except in such cases and to such extent as the United Nations may direct, the provisions of the present instrument shall not apply in, or affect the administration of any Italian colony or dependency already occupied by the United Nations or the rights or powers therein possessed or exercised by them.
- The Italian Government will send a delegation to the Headquarters of the Control Commission to represent Italian interests and to transmit the orders
of the Control Commission to the competent Italian authorities.
- The present instrument shall enter into force at once. It will remain in operation until superseded by any other arrangements or until the voting into force of the peace treaty with Italy.
- The present instrument may be denounced by the United Nations with immediate effect if Italian obligations thereunder are not fulfilled or, as an alternative, the United Nations may penalize contravention of it by measures appropriate to the circumstances such as the extension of the areas of military occupation or air or other punitive action.
The present instrument is drawn up in English and Italian, the English text being authentic, and in case of any dispute regarding its interpretation, the decision of the Control Commission will prevail.
Signed at Malta on the 29 day of September, 1943.
MARSHAL PIETRO BADOGLIO
Head of the Italian
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
General, United States Army
Letter from GENERAL EISENHOWER to MARSHAL BADOGLIO explanatory of the signing of the Additional Armistice and Surrender Instrument, September 29, 1943.10
29 SEPTEMBER, 1943.
MY DEAR MARSHAL BADOGLIO,
The terms of the armistice to which we have just appended our signatures are supplementary to the short military armistice signed by your representative and mine on September 3rd, 1943. They are
based upon the situation obtaining prior to the cessation of hostilities. Developments since that time have altered considerably the status of Italy, which has become in effect a co-operator with the United Nations.
It is fully recognized by the Governments on whose behalf I am acting that these terms are in some respects superseded by subsequent events and that several of the clauses have become obsolescent or have already been put into execution. We also recognize that it is not at this time in the power of the Italian Government to carry out certain of the terms. Failure to do so because of existing conditions will not be regarded as a breach of good faith on the part of Italy. However, this document represents the requirements with which the Italian Government can be expected to comply when in a position to do so.11
It is to be understood that the terms both of this document and of the short military armistice of September 3rd may be modified from time to time if military necessity or the extent of co-operation by the Italian Government indicates this as desirable.
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER General, United States Army
Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces.
Marshal PIETRO BADOGLIO
Head of the Italian Government.
"...the Allied Governments propose to relax the control of the Italian Govern ment under the Armistice in the matter of the day-to-day Administration..."
Aide-Mèmoire of the Allied Commission to the Italian Government.
In accordance with the declaration of the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the Allied Governments propose to relax the control of the Italian Government under the armistice in the matter of day-to-day administration and only to exercise such control when Allied military interests require.
- The Political Section of the Allied Commission is being abolished as of the 1st March, 1945. The Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs will deal with the Chief Commissioner on matters of major policy, and on matters of minor policy and routine business it will address itself to whatever section (economic or civil affairs) of the commission may be appropriate to the subject involved. Matters involving the travel of diplomatic and other public officials will hereafter be dealt with on behalf of the commission by the office of the Executive Commissioner.
- The Italian Government will continue, as at present, to have direct relations with foreign diplomatic representatives accredited to the Quirinal.
The Allied Commission should be kept generally informed by the Italian Government of any negotiations in which they engage with other Governments. Facilities for the use of secret bags will be granted to the Italian Government for use in correspondence with their diplomatic representatives abroad. Undeposited cypher facilities cannot be allowed for the present.
In so far as these negotiations have to do with economic and financial matters, the Economic Section and its Finance Sub-Commission should be kept informed of their progress.
It would be convenient if the Italian Government would furnish a periodic summary of all negotiations completed or pending with other Governments.
- The Allied Commission will limit its dealings with respect to territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government to consultation with and advice to the Ministers of the Italian Government.
- The advisory functions of the Sub-Commissions of Education, Monuments and Fine Arts, Local Government, Legal and Labour in territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government will be performed only when requested by the Italian Government.
- It will no longer be necessary for the Italian Government to obtain the approval of the Allied Commission for decrees and other legislation enacted by the Italian Government in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government. Nevertheless the Allied Commission should be informed of proposed decrees some time before their enactment, in order to enable the Chief Com-
missioner to consult with the Italian Government as to their application to territory under the jurisdiction of Allied Military Government (A.M.G.), and to lay plans for their effective implementation in such territory when appropriate.
- It will no longer be necessary for the Italian Government to obtain approval of the Allied Commission for Italian appointments, whether to national or local offices, in territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government except with regard to the attached list of positions having military significance. The Italian Government will have the right to alter appointments made previously by A.M.G. authorities.
- The Allied Commission officers stationed in the field in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government will be withdrawn. As a first step it is intended to abolish by the 1st April, 1945, the Regional Offices of the Allied Commission for Sicilia, Sardegna, Southern and Lazio-Umbria Regions. Representatives of the Allied Commission will, however, be sent into territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government when necessary and certain specialist officers with economic functions will remain in such territory for a limited period.
- It is the desire of the Allies to encourage free trade in knowledge and learning with the Italian people. Arrangements will be facilitated for the flow between Italy and the United Nations of books and other publications of a scientific, political, philosophical and artistic nature, and for the movement of scholars, artists and professional men between Italy and the United Nations.
- The Allies welcome the decision to hold local elections in territory under the jurisdiction of the Italian Government as soon as may be.
- The Allied nations desire to make concessions with regard to Italian prisoners of war now or hereafter held in Italy, other than those captured since the armistice was signed. Provided that arrangements can be made for the services of such persons to continue to be made available on terms satisfactory to the Supreme Allied Commander, their status as prisoners of war will be terminated.
- It is essential that the Italian Government formulate and implement appropriate economic controls and take all other steps possible both in order to ensure that maximum production and effective and equitable distribution and control of consumption of local resources possible under existing conditions be secured and as a prerequisite to increased economic assistance.
- In the joint programme of essential Italian imports, now being prepared by the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Reconstruction and the Economic Section of this commission, there will be some supplies for which the combined United States-United Kingdom military authorities will assume responsibility for procurement (Category "A") and other supplies for which they will not assume responsibility (Category "B"). A definition of the supplies which fall into Category "A" follows:
- Those quantities of agreed essential supplies necessary to prevent disease and unrest prejudicial to military operations, such as food, fuel, clothing, medical and sanitary supplies.
- Those supplies, the importation of which will reduce military requirements the import of essential civilian supplies for the purposes referred to in this paragraph, such as fertilizer, raw materials, machinery and equipment.
- Those materials essential for the rehabilitation of such of the Italian communication facilities, power systems and transportation facilities as will directly further the Allied military effort.
- The programme for which the military authorities assume responsibility will be maintained for the duration of combined (United States-United Kingdom) operations in Italy. For this period, and within the limits defined in paragraph 13, Italy will be treated as a whole. The date of the termination of military responsibility will be fixed by the Allied Nations.
- In addition to the programme of supplies for which the military assume responsibility for procurement (Category "A") the Allied Commission will assist the Italian Government in the preparation of programmes of supplies designed to rehabilitate Italian industry. Such programmes, referred to as Category "B," will be handled under procedures already notified. The purchasing of supplies in Category "B" programmes will be undertaken immediately without reference to the present difficult shipping position in order that the supplies so purchased may be called forward as and when shipping space becomes available.
- The Allies desire that industrial rehabilitation in Italy be carried out by the Italian Government to the fullest extent permitted by Italian resources and
such supplies as it may be possible to import under the terms of paragraphs 13, 14 and 15 above, and subject to the limitation in paragraph 19 below. The sole exception to this principle is to be made in the case of industries involving the production or repair of munitions or other implements of war, which will be rehabilitated only to the extent required by the Supreme Allied Commander in, the discharge of his military mission, and to the extent necessary to further the Allied military effort in other theatres. The priority order in which Italian industry will be rehabilitated (after the rehabilitation of industries essential for Allied Military purposes) will be determined by the Italian Government, with the assistance and advice of the Allied Commission.
- The prime responsibility for the control of inflation in Italy, including the imposition and administration of the appropriate financial controls and economic controls, and appropriate utilization of supplies, rests with the Italian Government. In this connexion, as in others, the Allied Commission stands ready to advise and assist.
- The extent to which exports are to be stimulated and the development of machinery to handle export trade are for determination by the Italian Government. For the time being, the Italian export programme will necessarily be limited by certain shipping, military, financial and supply factors. The applicability of these factors to individual programmes will be worked out between the Italian Government and the Economic Section of the Allied Commission along the lines already discussed by the Economic Section with the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Reconstruction.
- Nothing contained in the above should be taken as constituting a commitment by the Allied Nations with respect to shipping. Any supplies to be imported into Italy must be transported within such shipping as may be allocated from time to time by the Allied Nations.
24th February, 1945.
List of Italian Government appointments requiring prior approval by the Allied Commission.
Minister of War.
Minister of Marine.
Minister of Air.
Any other Minister of Armed Forces who may be created.
Under-Secretary for Telecommunications.
Director of Railroads.
Director-General of Pubblica Sicurezza.
Commanding General, CC. RR.
Chief of Staff, CC. RR.
Commanding General, GG. FF.
Appointments in the Army, Navy and Air Force in accordance with current practice.
MAY 8, 1945
SURRENDER OF GERMANY
INSTRUMENT of SURRENDER of all German armed forces in Holland, in northwest Germany including all islands, and in Denmark to Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery, General Commanding in Chief, 21st Army Group
Near Luneburg. May 4, 1945.13
- The German Command agrees to the surrender of all German armed forces in Holland, in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland and all other islands, in Schleswig-Holstein, and in Denmark, to the C.-in-C. 21 Army Group. This to include all naval ships in these areas. These forces to lay down their arms and to surrender unconditionally.
- All hostilities on land, on sea, or in the air by German forces in the above areas to cease at 0800 hrs. British Double Summer Time on Saturday 5 May 1945.
- The German command to carry out at once, and without argument or comment, all further orders that will be issued by the Allied Powers on any subject.
- Disobedience of orders, or failure to comply with them, will be regarded as a breach of these surrender terms and will be dealt with by the Allied Powers in accordance with the accepted laws and usages of war.
- This instrument of surrender is independent of, without prejudice to, and will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by or on behalf of the Allied Powers and applicable to Germany and the German armed forces as a whole.
- This instrument of surrender is written in English and in German. The English version is the authentic text.
- The decision of the Allied Powers will be final if any doubt or dispute arises as to the meaning or interpretation of the surrender terms.
B. L. MONTGOMERY
4 May 1945
INSTRUMENT of SURRENDER of all German forces to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, and to the Soviet High Command
Rheims. May 7,1945.14
- We the undersigned, acting by authority of the German High Command, hereby surrender unconditionally to the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and simultaneously to the Soviet High Command all forces on land, sea, and in the air who are at this date under German control.
- The German High Command will at once issue orders to all German military, naval and air authorities and to all forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on 8 May and to remain in the positions occupied at that time. No ship, vessel, or aircraft is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, machinery or equipment.
- The German High Command will at once issue to the appropriate commanders, and ensure the carrying out of any further orders issued by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and by the Soviet High Command.
- This act of military surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by, or on behalf of the
United Nations and applicable to GERMANY and the German armed forces as a whole.
- In the event of the German High Command or any of the forces under their control failing to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender, the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and the Soviet High Command will take such punitive or other action as they deem appropriate.
Signed at Rheims at 0241 as the 7th day of May 1945. France
On behalf of the German High Command.
JODL. IN THE PRESENCE OF: On behalf of the Supreme Commander,
Allied Expeditionary Force.
W. B. SMITH
On behalf of the Soviet High Command
Major General, French Army
INSTRUMENT of SURRENDER of all German Forces to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, and to the Supreme High Command of the Red Army
Berlin, May 8, 1945.15
- We the undersigned, acting by authority of the German High Command, hereby surrender unconditionally to the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and simultaneously to the Supreme
High Command of the Red Army all forces on land, at sea, and in the air who are at this date under German control.
- The German High Command will at once issue orders to all German military, naval and air authorities and to all forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on 8th May 1945, to remain in the positions occupied at that time and to disarm completely, handing over their weapons and equipment to the local allied commanders or officers designated by Representatives of the Allied Supreme Commands. No ship, vessel, or aircraft is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, machinery or equipment, and also to machines of all kinds, armament, apparatus, and all the technical means of prosecution of war in general.
- The German High Command will at once issue to the appropriate commanders, and ensure the carrying out of any further orders issued by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and by the Supreme High Command of the Red Army.
- This act of military surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by any general instrument of surrender imposed by, or on behalf of the United Nations and applicable to GERMANY and the German armed forces as a whole.
- In the event of the German High Command or any of the forces under their control failing to act in accordance with this Act of Surrender, the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force and the Supreme High Command of the Red Army will take such punitive or other action as they deem appropriate.
- This Act is drawn up in the English, Russian and German languages. The English and Russian are the only authentic texts.
Signed at Berlin on the 8 day of May, 1945
FRIEDEBURG KEITEL STUMPF
On behalf of the German High Command
IN THE PRESENCE OF: On behalf of the Supreme Commander
Allied Expeditionary Force
A W TEDDER
On behalf of the Supreme High Command
of the Red Army
At the signing also were present as witnesses: F. DE LATTRE-TASSIGNY
General Commanding in Chief First
General, commanding United States
Strategic Air Forces
"This unconditional surrender has been achieved by team-work, team-work not only among all the Allies participating but among all the services, land, sea and air."
Proclamation by GENERAL EISENHOWER on the unconditional surrender of Germany.
Paris. May 8, 1945.16
In 1943 the late President Roosevelt and Premier Churchill met in Casablanca. There they pronounced the formula of unconditional surrender for the Axis Powers.
In Europe that formula has now been fulfilled. The Allied force which invaded Europe on June 6,
1944, has, with its great Russian ally and the forces advancing from the south, utterly defeated the Germans on land, sea and air.
This unconditional surrender has been achieved by team-work, team-work not only among all the Allies participating but among all the services, land, sea and air.
To every subordinate that has been in this command of almost 5,000,000 Allies I owe a debt of gratitude that can never be repaid. The only repayment that can be made to them is the deep appreciation and lasting gratitude of all the free citizens of all the United Nations.
"Nazi Germany Has Been Defeated"
Statement by PRESIDENT TRUMAN on the surrender of Nazi Germany.
The White House. May 8, 1945.17
Nazi Germany has been defeated.
The Japanese people have felt the weight of our land, air, and naval attacks. So long as their leaders and the armed forces continue the war the striking power and intensity of our blows will steadily increase and will bring utter destruction to Japan's industrial war production, to its shipping, and to everything that supports its military activity.
The longer the war lasts, the greater will be the suffering and hardships which the people of Japan will undergo--all in vain. Our blows will not cease
until the Japanese military and naval forces lay down their arms in unconditional surrender.
Just what does the unconditional surrender of the armed forces mean for the Japanese people?
It means the end of the war.
It means the termination of the influence of the military leaders who have brought Japan to the present brink of disaster.
It means provision for the return of soldiers and sailors to their families, their farms, their jobs.
It means not prolonging the present agony and suffering of the Japanese in the vain hope of victory.
Unconditional surrender does not mean the extermination or enslavement of the Japanese people.
"We can repay the debt which we owe to our God, to our dead, and to our children only by work--by ceaseless devotion to the responsibilities which lie ahead of us."
Radio address and proclamation by PRESIDENT TRUMAN.
Washington. May 8, 1945.18
This is a solemn but a glorious hour. I only wish that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day. General Eisenhower informs me that the forces of Germany have surrendered to the United Nations. The flags of freedom fly over all Europe.
For this victory we join in offering our thanks to
the Providence which has guided and sustained us through the dark days of adversity.
Our rejoicing is sobered and subdued by a supreme consciousness of the terrible price we have paid to rid the world of Hitler and his evil band. Let us not forget, my fellow Americans, the sorrow and the heartbreak which today abide in the homes of so many of our neighbors--neighbors whose most priceless possession has been rendered as a sacrifice to redeem our liberty.
We can repay the debt which we owe to our God, to our dead, and to our children only by work--by ceaseless devotion to the responsibilities which lie ahead of us. If I could give you a single watchword for the coming months, that word is work, work, work.
We must work to finish the war. Our victory is but half won. The West is free, but the East is still in bondage to the treacherous tyranny of the Japanese. When the last Japanese division has surrendered unconditionally, then only will our fighting job be done.
We must work to bind up the wounds of a suffering world--to build an abiding peace, a peace rooted in justice and in law. We can build such a peace only by hard, toilsome, painstaking work--by understanding and working with our allies in peace as we have in war.
The job ahead is no less important, no less urgent, no less difficult than the task which now happily is done.
I call upon every American to stick to his post until the last battle is won. Until that day let no man abandon his post or slacken his efforts.
And now I want to read to you my formal proclamation of this occasion:
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, A PROCLAMATION
The Allied armies, through sacrifice and devotion and with God's help, have wrung from Germany a final and unconditional surrender. The western world has been freed of the evil forces which for 5 years and longer have imprisoned the bodies and broken the lives of millions upon millions of free-born men. They have violated their churches, destroyed their homes, corrupted their children, and murdered their loved ones. Our armies of liberation have restored freedom to these suffering peoples, whose spirit and will the oppressors could never enslave.
Much remains to be done. The victory won in the West must now be won in the East. The whole world must be cleansed of the evil from which half the world has been freed. United, the peace-loving nations have demonstrated in the West that their arms are stronger by far than the might of dictators or the tyranny of military cliques that once called us soft and weak. The power of our peoples to defend themselves against all enemies will be proved in the Pacific war as it has been proved in Europe.
For the triumph of spirit and of arms which we have won, and for its promise to peoples everywhere who join us in the love of freedom, it is fitting that we, as a Nation, give thanks to Almighty God, who has strengthened us and given us the victory.
Now, therefore, I, Harry S. Truman, President of the United States of America, do hereby appoint Sunday, May 13, 1945, to be a day of prayer.
I call upon the people of the United States, whatever their faith, to unite in offering joyful thanks to God for the victory we have won and to pray that He will support us to the end of our present struggle and guide us into the way of peace.
I also call upon my countrymen to dedicate this day of prayer to the memory of those who have given their lives to make possible our victory.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington this 8th day of May, in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and forty-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and sixty-ninth.
By the President:
HARRY S. TRUMAN.
JOSEPH C. GREW,
Acting Secretary of State.
". . . Our common problems of the immediate and distant future can be best solved in the same conceptions of cooperation and devotion to the cause of human freedom as have made this expeditionary force such a mighty engine of righteous destruction."
GENERAL EISENHOWER'S Order of the Day to the Troops.
Paris. May 8, 1945.19
The crusade on which we embarked in the early summer of 1944 has reached its glorious conclusion. It is my especial privilege, in the name of all nations represented in this theatre of war, to commend each of you for the valiant performance of duty.
Though these words are feeble, they come from the bottom of a heart overflowing with pride in your loyal service and admiration for you as warriors. Your accomplishments at sea, in the air, on the ground and in the field of supply have astonished the world.
Even before the final week of the conflict you had put 5,000,000 of the enemy permanently out of the war. You have taken in stride military tasks so difficult as to be classed by many doubters as impossible. You have confused, defeated and destroyed your savagely fighting foe. On the road to victory you have endured every discomfort and privation and have surmounted every obstacle ingenuity and
desperation could throw in your path. You did not pause until our front was firmly joined up with the great Red Army coming from the east and other Allied forces coming from the south.
Full victory in Europe has been attained. Working and fighting together in single and indestructible partnership you have achieved a perfection in the unification of air, ground and naval power that will stand as a model in our time.
The route you have traveled through hundreds of miles is marked by the graves of former comrades. From them have been exacted the ultimate sacrifice. The blood of many nations--American, British, Canadian, French, Polish and others--has helped to gain the victory. Each of the fallen died as a member of a team to which you belong, bound together by a common love of liberty and a refusal to submit to enslavement. No monument of stone, no memorial of whatever magnitude could so well express our respect and veneration for their sacrifice as would the perpetuation of the spirit of comradeship in which they died.
As we celebrate victory in Europe let us remind ourselves that our common problems of the immediate and distant future can be best solved in the same conceptions of cooperation and devotion to the cause of human freedom as have made this Expeditionary Force such a mighty engine of righteous destruction. Let us have no part in the profitless quarrels in which other men will inevitably engage as to what country and what service won the European war.
Every man and every woman of every nation here represented has served according to his or her
ability and efforts and each has contributed to the outcome. This we shall remember and in doing so we shall be revering each honored grave and be sending comfort to the loved ones of comrades who could not live to see this day.
". . . In the hope that one day our children may lead a free and secure existence in a peaceful Europe."
Radio address to the German people by GRAND ADMIRAL KARL DOENITZ,20, President of the German Reich, on the unconditional surrender of Germany.
Flensburg, May 8, 1945.21
German men and women: When I addressed the German nation on May 1 telling it that the fuehrer had appointed me his successor, I said that my foremost task was to save the lives of the German people. In order to achieve this goal, I ordered the German High Command during the night of May 6-7 to sign the unconditional surrender for all fronts.
On May 8 at 23 hours (11 P. M.) the arms will be silent.
German soldiers, veterans of countless battles, are now treading the bitter path of captivity, and thereby making the last sacrifice for the life of our women and children and for the future of our nation.
We bow to all who have fallen. I have pledged myself to the German people that in the coming times of want I will help courageous women and children, as far as I humanly can, to alleviate their conditions. Whether this will be possible I do not know.
We must face facts squarely. The unity of state and party does not exist any more. The party has left the scene of its activities.
With the occupation of Germany, the power has been transferred to the occupying authorities. It is up to them to confirm me in my function and the Government I have appointed or decide whether to appoint a different one. Should I be required to help our Fatherland, I will remain at my post.
Should the will of the German people express itself in the appointment of a head of state, or should the powers of occupation make it impossible for me to continue in my office remains to be seen.
Duty keeps me in my difficult post for the sake of Germany. I will not remain one hour more than can be reconciled with the dignity of the Reich. I will disregard my person in this matter.
All of us have to face a difficult path. We have to walk it with dignity, courage and discipline which those demand of us who sacrificed their all for us. We must walk it by making the greatest efforts to create a firm basis for our future lives.
We will walk it unitedly. Without this unity we shall not be able to overcome the misery of the times to come. We will walk it in the hope that one day our children may lead a free and secure existence in a peaceful Europe.
On this thorny path which we all will have to
tread, I will try to help you as much as is possible, should I remain at my post. Should we succeed in going this way together, this step will be a service to the nation and to the Reich.
Allied statement on defeat and occupation terms for Germany
Washington Release. June 5, 194122
Statement by the Governments of the United States of America, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic on consultation with Governments of other United Nations.
By the declaration made at Berlin on June 5 the Governments of the United States, United Kingdom and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Provisional Government of the French Republic have assumed supreme authority with respect to Germany. The Governments of the four powers hereby announce that it is their intention to consult with the Governments of other United Nations in connection with the exercise of this authority.
Statement by the Governments of the United States of America, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic on zones of occupation in Germany.
- Germany, within her frontiers as they were on Dec. 31, 1937, will, for the purposes of occupation, be divided into four zones, one to be allotted to each power as follows:
An eastern zone to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics;
A northwestern zone to the United Kingdom;
A southwestern zone to the United States of America;
A western zone to France.
The occupying forces in each zone will be under a commander in chief designated by the responsible power. Each of the four powers may, at its discretion, include among the forces assigned to occupation duties under the command of its commander in chief, auxiliary contingents from the forces of any other Allied power which has actively participated in military operations against Germany.
- The area of "Greater Berlin" will be occupied by forces of each of the four powers. An inter Allied governing authority (in Russian, Komendatura) consisting of four commandants, appointed by their respective commanders-in-chief, will be established to direct jointly its administration.
Statement by the Governments of the United States of America, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic on control of machinery in Germany.
- In the period when Germany is carrying out the basic requirements of unconditional surrender, supreme authority in Germany will be exercised, on instructions from their Governments, by the Soviet, British, United States and French commanders-in-chief, each in his own zone of occupation, and also jointly, in matters affecting Germany as a whole. The four commanders-in-chief will together constitute the Control Council. Each commander-in-chief will be assisted by a political adviser.
- The Control Council, whose decisions shall be unanimous, will ensure appropriate uniformity of action by the commanders-in-chief in their respective zones of occupation and will reach agreed decisions on the chief questions affecting Germany as a whole.
- Under the Control Council, there will be a permanent coordinating committee composed of one representative of each of the four commanders-in-chief and a control staff organized in the following divisions (which are subject to adjustment in the light of experience): Military; naval; air; transport; political; economic; finance; reparation, deliveries and restitution; internal affairs and communications; legal; prisoners of war and displaced persons; manpower. There will be four heads of each division, one designated by each power. The staffs of the divisions may include civilian as well as military personnel, and may also in special cases include nationals
of other United Nations appointed in a personal capacity.
- The functions of the coordinating committee and of the control staff will be to advise the Control Council, to carry out the council's decisions and to transmit them to appropriate German organs, and to supervise and control the day-to-day activities of the latter.
- Liaison with the other United Nations Governments chiefly interested will be established through the appointment by such governments of military missions (which may include civilian members) to the Control Council. These missions will have access through the appropriate,channels to the organs of control.
- United Nations organizations will, if admitted by the Control Council to operate in Germany, be subordinate to the Allied control machinery and answerable to it.
- The administration of the "Greater Berlin" area will be directed by an inter-allied governing authority, which will operate under the general direction of the Control Council, and will consist of four commandants, each of whom will serve in rotation as chief commandant They will be assisted by a technical staff which will supervise and control the activities of the local German organs.
- The arrangements outlined above will operate during the period of occupation following German surrender, when Germany is carrying out the basic requirements of unconditional surrender. Arrangements for the subsequent period will be the subject of a separate agreement.
Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority with respect to Germany by the Governments of the United States of America, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
The German armed forces on land, at sea and in the air have been completely defeated and have surrendered unconditionally and Germany, which bears responsibility for the war, is no longer capable of resisting the will of the victorious powers. The unconditional surrender of Germany has thereby been effected, and Germany has become subject to such requirements as may now or hereafter be imposed upon her.
There is no central government or authority in Germany capable of accepting responsibility for the maintenance of order, the administration of the country and compliance with the requirements of the victorious powers.
It is in these circumstances necessary, without prejudice to any subsequent decisions that may be taken respecting Germany, to make provision for the cessation of any further hostilities on the part of the German armed forces, for the maintenance of order in Germany and for the administration of the country, and to announce the immediate requirements with which Germany must comply.
The representatives of the supreme commands of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the French Republic, hereinafter called the "Allied representatives," acting by authority of their respective
Governments and in the interests of the United Nations, accordingly make the following declaration:
The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, and the Provisiohal Government of the French Republic, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to Germany, including all the powers possessed by the German Government, the High Command and any state, municipal or local government or authority. The assumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said authority and powers does not effect the annexation of Germany.
The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom, and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, will hereafter determine the boundaries of Germany or any part thereof and the status of Germany or of any area at present being part of German territory.
In virtue of the supreme authority and powers thus assumed by the four Governments, the Allied representatives announce the following requirements, arising from the complete defeat and unconditional surrender of Germany with which Germany must comply:
Germany, and all German military, naval and air authorities and all forces under German control shall immediately cease hostilities in all theatres of war against the forces of the United Nations on land, at sea and in the air.
(A) All armed forces of Germany or under German control, wherever they may be situated, including land, air, anti-aircraft and naval forces, the SS, SA and Gestapo, and all other forces or auxiliary organizations equipped with weapons, shall be completely disarmed, handing over their weapons and equipment to local Allied commanders or to officers designated by the Allied representatives.
(B) The personnel of the formations and units of all forces referred to in Paragraph (A) above shall, at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the armed forces of the Allied state concerned, be declared to be prisoners of war, pending further decisions, and shall be subject to such conditions and directions as may be prescribed by the respective Allied representatives.
(C) All forces referred to in Paragraph (A) above, wherever they may be, will remain in their present positions pending instructions from the Allied representatives.
(D) Evacuation by the said forces of all territories outside the frontiers of Germany as they existed on Dec. 31, 1937, will proceed according to instructions to be given by the Allied representatives.
(E) Detachments of civil police to be armed with small arms only, for the maintenance of order and for guard duties, will be designated by the Allied representatives.
(A) All aircraft of any kind or nationality in Germany or German-occupied or controlled territories or waters, military, naval or civil, other than aircraft
in the service of the Allies, will remain on the ground on the water or aboard ships pending further instructions.
(B) All German or German-controlled aircraft in or over territories or waters not occupied or controlled byermany will proceed to Germany or to such other place or places as may be specified by the Allied representatives.
(A) All German or German-controlled naval vessels, surface and submarine, auxiliary naval craft, and merchant and other shipping, wherever such vessels may be at the time of this declaration, and all other merchant ships of whatever nationality in German ports, will remain in or proceed immediately to ports and bases as specified by the Allied representatives. The crews of such vessels will remain on board pending further instructions.
(B) All ships and vessels of the United Nations, whether or not title has been transferred as the result of prize court or other proceedings, which are at the disposal of Germany or under German control at the time of this declaration, will proceed at the dates and to the ports or bases specified by the Allied representatives.
(A) All or any of the following articles in the possession of the German armed forces or under German control or at German disposal will be held intact and in good condition at the disposal of the Allied representatives, for such purposes and at such times and places as they may prescribe;
I. All arms, ammunition, explosives, military
equipment, stores and supplies and other implements of war of all kinds and all other war material;
II. All naval vessels of all classes, both surface and submarine, auxiliary naval craft and all merchant shipping, whether afloat, under repair or construction, built or building;
III. All aircraft of all kindv, aviation and antiaircraft equipment and devices;
IV. All transportation and communications facilities and equipment, by land, water or air;
V. All military installations and establishments, including airfields, seaplane bases, ports and naval bases, storage aepots, permanent and temporary land and coast fortifications, fortresses and other fortified areas, together with plans and drawings of all such fortifications, installations and establishments;
VI. All factories, plants, shops, research institutions, laboratories, testing stations, technical data, patents, plans, drawings and inventions, designed or intended to produce or to facilitate the production or use of the articles, materials, and facilities referred to in Sub-Paragraphs I, II, III, IV and V above or otherwise to further the conduct of war.
(B) At the demand of the Allied representatives the following will be furnished:
I. The labor, services and plant required for the maintenance or operation of any of the six categories mentioned in Paragraph (A) above; and
II. Any information or records that may be required by the Allied representatives in connection with the same.
(C) At the demand of the Allied representatives all facilities will be provided for the movement of
Allied troops and agencies, their equipment and supplies, on the railways, roads and other land communications or by sea, river or air. All means of transportaton will be mantaned in good order and repair) and the labor, services and plant necessary therefor will be furnished.
(A) The German authorities will release to the Allied representatives, in accordance with the procedure to be laid down by them, all prisoners of war at present in their power, belonging to the forces of the United Nations, and will furnish full lists of these persons, indicating the places of their detention in Germany or territory occupied by Germany. Pending the release of such prisoners of war, the German authorities and people will protect them in their persons and property and provide them with adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical attention, and money in accordance with their rank or official position.
(B) The German authorities and people will in like thanner provide for and release all other nationals of the United Nations who are confined, interned or otherwise under restraint, and all other persons who may be confined, interned or otherwise under restraint for political reasons or as a result of any Nazi action, law or regulation which discriminates on the ground of race, color, creed or political belief.
(C) The German authorities will, at the demand of the Allied representatives, hand over control of places of detention to such officers as may be designated for the purpose by the Allied representatives.
The German authorities concerned will furnish to the Allied representatives:
(A) Full information regarding the forces referred to in Article 2 (A), and, in particular, will furnish forthwith all information which the Allied representatives may require concerning the numbers, locations and dispositions of such forces, whether located inside or outside Germany;
(B) Complete and detailed information concerning mines, minefields and other obstacles to movement by land, sea or air, and the safety lanes in connection therewith. All such safety lanes will be kept open and clearly marked; all mines, minefields and other dangerous obstacles will as far as possible be rendered safe, and all aids to navigation will be reinstated. Unarmed German military and civilian personnel with the necessary equipment will be made available and utilized for the above purpose and for the removal of mines, minefields and other obstacles as directed by the Allied representatives.
There shalt be no destruction, removal, concealment, transfer or scuttling of, or damage to, any military, naval, air, shipping, port, industrial and other like property and facilities and all records and archives, wherever they may be situated, except as may be directed by the Allied representatives.
Pending the institution of control by the Allied representatives over all means of communication, all
radio and telecommunication installations and other forms of wire or wireless communications, whether ashore or afloat, under German control, will cease transmission except as directed by the Allied representatives.
The forces, nationals, ships, aircraft, military equipment and other property in Germany or in German control or service or at German disposal, of any other country at war with any of the Allies, will be subject to the provisions of this declaration and of any of the proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions issued thereunder.
(A) The principal Nazi leaders as specified by the Allied representatives, and all persons from time to time named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied representatives as being suspected of having committed, ordered or abetted war crimes or analogous offenses, will be apprehended and surrendEred to the Allied representatives.
(B) The same will apply in the case of any national of any of the United Nations who is alleged to have committed any offense against his national law, and who may at any time be named or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied representatives.
(C) The German authorities and people will comply with any instructions given by the Allied representatives for the apprehension and surrender of such persons.
The Allied representatives will station forces and civil agencies in any or all parts of Germany as they may determine.
(A) In the exercise of the supreme authority with respect to Germany assumed by the Government of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United Kingdom, and theProvisional Government of the French Republic, the four Allied Governments will take such steps, including the complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, as they deem requisite for future peace and security.
(B) The Allied representatives will impose on Germany additional political, administrative, economic, financial, military and other requirements arising from the complete defeat of Germany. The Allied representatives, or persons or agencies duly designated to act on their authority, will issue proclamations, orders, ordinances and instructions for the purpose of laying down such additional requirements, and of giving effect to the other provisions of this declaration. All German authorities and the German people shall carry out unconditionally the requirements of the Allied representatives, and shall fully comply with ail such proclamations, orders, ordinances and instructions.
This declaration enters into force and effect at the date and hour set forth below. In the event of failure on the part of the German authorities or
people promptly and completely to fulfill their obligations hereby or hereafter imposed, the Allied representatives will take whatever action may be deemed by them to be appropriate under the circumstances.
This declaration is drawn up in English, Russian, French and German languages. The English, Russian and French are the only authentic texts.
BERLIN, JUNE 5, 1945.
SEPTEMBER 2, 1945
SURRENDER OF JAPAN
"The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan."
Potsdam Declaration, signed by PRESIDENT TRUMAN, PRIME MINISTER CHURCHILL, and concurred in by CHIANG KAI-SHEK, President of the National Government of China, calling on the Japanese to surrender unconditionally.
Potsdam. July 26, 194523
(1) We--the President of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
(2) The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power is sustained and inspired bythe determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
(3) The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.
(4) The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those selfwilled militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.
(5) Following are our terms. We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
(6) There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
(7) Until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that Japan's war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
(8) The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.
(9) The Japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
(10) We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
(11) Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
(12) The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.
(13) We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all
Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.
"The Japanese Government are ready to accept the terms enumerated in the joint declaration which was issued at Potsdam on July 26, 1945 . . ."
Japanese offer of surrender, exchange of correspondence between the Secretary of State, JAMES F. BYRNES, and MAX GRÄSSLI, Chargè d'Affaires ad interim of Switzerland, August 10 through the 14th, 1945.24
GRÄSSLI Letter of AUGUST 10, 1945.
AUGUST 10, 1945
I have the honor to inform you that the Japanese Minister to Switzerland, upon instructions received from his Government, has requested the Swiss Political Department to advise the Government of the United States of America of the following:
"In obedience to the gracious command of His Majesty the Emperor who, ever anxious to enhance the cause of world peace, desires earnestly to bring about a speedy termination of hostilities with a view to saving mankind from the calamities to be imposed upon them by further continuation of the war, the Japanese Government several weeks ago asked the
Soviet Government, with which neutral relations then prevailed, to render good offices in restoring peace vis a vis the enemy powers. Unfortunately, these efforts in the interest of peace having failed, the Japanese Government in conformity with the august wish of His Majesty to restore the general peace and desiring to put an end to the untold sufferings entailed by war as quickly as possible, have decided upon the following.
"The Japanese Government are ready to accept the terms enumerated in the joint declaration which was issued at Potsdam on July 26th, 1945, by the heads of the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, and China, and later subscribed by the Soviet Government,25 with the understanding that the said declaration does not comprise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as a Sovereign Ruler.
"The Japanese Government sincerely hope that this understanding is warranted and desire keenly that an explicit indication to that effect will be speedily forthcoming."
In transmitting the above message the Japanese Minister added that his Government begs the Government of the United States to forward its answer through the intermediary of Switzerland. Similar requests are being transmitted to the Governments of Great Britain and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics through the intermediary of Sweden, as well as to the Government of China through the intermediary of Switzerland. The Chinese Minister at Berne has already been informed of the foregoing
through the channel of the Swiss Political Department.
Please be assured that I am at your disposal at any time to accept for and forward to my Government the reply of the Government of the United States.
Chargé d'Affaires ad interim
JAMES F. BYRNES
Secretary of State.
BYRNES Reply of August 11, 1945.26
AUGUST 11, 1945
I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your note of August 10, and in reply to inform you that the President of the United States has directed me to send to you for transmission by your Government to the Japanese Government the following message on behalf of the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and China:
"With regard to the Japanese Government's message accepting the terms of the Potsdam proclamation, but containing the statement, 'with the understanding that the said declaration does not comprise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as a sovereign ruler', our position is as follows:
"From the moment of surrender the authority of
the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate the surrender terms.
"The Emperor will be required to authorize and ensure the signature by the Government of Japan and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters of the surrender terms necessary to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration, and shall issue his commands to all the Japanese military, naval and air authorities and to all, the forces under their control wherever located to cease active operations and to surrender their arms, and to issue such other orders as the Supreme Commander may require to give effect to the surrender terms.
"Immediately upon the surrender the Japanese Government shall transport prisoners of war and civilian internees to places of safety, as directed, where they can quickly be placed aboard Allied transports.
"The ultimate form of government of Japan shall, in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration, be established by the freely expressed will of the Japanese people.
"The armed forces of the Allied Powers will remain in Japan until the purposes set forth in the Potsdam Declaration are achieved."
JAMES F. BYRNES
Secretary of State
Mr. MAX GRÄSSLI
Chargé d'Affaires ad interim of
GRÄSSLI Letter of August 14, 194527
AUGUST 14, 1945.
I have the honor to refer to your note of August 11, in which you requested me to transmit to my Government the reply of the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and China to the message from the Japanese Government which was communicated in my note of August 10.
At 20.10 today (Swiss Time) the Japanese Minister to Switzerland conveyed the following written statement to the Swiss Government for transmission to the four Allied governments:
"Communication of the Japanese Government of August 14, 1945, addressed to the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China:
"With reference to the Japanese Government's note of August 10 regarding their acceptance of the provisions of the Potsdam declaration and the reply of the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China sent by American Secretary of State Byrnes under the date of August 11, the Japanese Government have the honor to communicate to the Governments of the four powers as follows:
"1. His Majesty the Emperor has issued an Imperial rescript regarding Japan's acceptance of the Provisions of the Potsdam declaration.
"2. His Majesty the Emperor is prepared to authorize and ensure the signature by his Government
and the Imperial General Headquarters of the necessary terms for carrying out the provisions of the Potsdam declaration. His Majesty is also prepared to issue his commands to all the military, naval, and air authorities of Japan and all the forces under their control wherever located to cease active operations, to surrender arms and to issue such other orders as may be required by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces for the execution of the abovementioned terms."
Chargé d'Affaires ad interim
BYRNES Reply of August 14, 1945.28
AUGUST 14, 1945.
With reference to your communication of today's date, transmitting the reply of the Japanese Government to the communication which I sent through you to the Japanese Government on August 11, on behalf of the Governments of the United States, China, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which I regard as full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration and of my statement of August 11, 1945, I have the honor to inform you that the President of the United States has directed that the following message be sent to you for transmission to the Japanese Government:
"You are to proceed as follows:
"(1) Direct prompt cessation of hostilities by
Japanese forces, informing the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers of the effective date and hour of such cessation.
"(2) Send emissaries at once to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers with information of the disposition of the Japanese forces and commanders, and fully empowered to make any arrangements directed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to enable him and his accompanying forces to arrive at the place designated by him to receive the formal surrender.
"(3) For the purpose of receiving such surrender and carrying it into effect, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur has been designated as the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, and he will notify the Japanese Government of the time, place and other details of the formal surrender."
JAMES F. BYRNES
Secretary of State
MAX GRÄSSLI, Esquire,
Chargé d'Affaires ad interim of Switzerland.
"I deem this reply a full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration which specifies the unconditional surrender of Japan."
Statement by PRESIDENT TRUMAN on the Japanese notes accepting the terms of the Potsdam Declaration.29
Washington. August 14, 1945.
I have received this afternoon a message from the Japanese Government in reply to the message forwarded to that Government by the Secretary of State on August 11. I deem this reply a full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration which specifies the unconditional surrender of Japan. In the reply there is no qualification.
Arrangements are now being made for the formal signing of surrender terms at the earliest possible moment.
General Douglas MacArthur has been appointed the Supreme Allied Commander to receive the Japanese surrender. Great Britain, Russia, and China will be represented by high-ranking officers.
Meantime, the Allied armed forces have been ordered to suspend offensive action.
The proclamation of V-J Day must wait upon the formal signing of the surrender terms by Japan.
Following is the Japanese Government's, message accepting our terms:
"Communication of the Japanese Government of August 14, 1945, addressed to the Governments of
the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China:
"With reference to the Japanese Government's note of August 10 regarding their acceptance of the provisions of the Potsdam declaration and the reply of the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China sent by American Secretary of State Byrnes under the date of August 11, the Japanese Government have the honor to communicate to the Governments of the four powers as follows:
"1. His Majesty the Emperor has issued an Imperial rescript regarding Japan's acceptance of the provisions of the Potsdam declaration.
"2. His Majesty the Emperor is prepared to authorize and ensure the signature by his Government and the Imperial General Headquarters of the necessary terms for carrying out the provisions of the Potsdam declaration. His Majesty is also prepared to issue his commands to all the military, naval, and air authorities of Japan and all the forces under their control wherever located to cease active operations, to surrender arms and to issue such other orders as may be required by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces for the execution of the above-mentioned terms."
"It is my earnest hope that pending the formal accomplishment of the instrument of surrender armistice conditions may prevail on every front and that a bloodless surrender may be effectuated."
Statement by GENERAL MACARTHUR, Supreme Allied Commander, after meeting with the Japanese emissaries on the terms and details of surrender.
Manila. August 20, 194530
The Japanese emissaries have reported to general headquarters. They imparted all information required and instructions of the United Nations are being conveyed by them to the Government of Japan and to Japanese Imperial Headquarters. In my capacity as Supreme Commander for the Allied powers I shall soon proceed to Japan with accompanying forces composed of ground, naval and air elements. Subject to weather that will permit landings, it is anticipated that the instrument of surrender will be signed within ten days.
At that time, having accepted the general surrender of the Japanese armed forces for the United States, the Chinese Republic, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and in the interest of other United Nations at war with Japan, I shall direct Japanese Imperial Headquarters to issue general orders which will instruct Japanese commanders wherever situated to surrender unconditionally
themselves and all of the forces under their control to the appropriate theatre commander.
Responsibility for that portion of the southwest Pacific area which lies south of the Philippines will be assumed by British and Australian commanders.
It is my earnest hope that pending the formal accomplishment of the instrument of surrender armistice conditions may prevail on every front and that a bloodless surrender may be effectuated.31
Occupation and surrender terms for Japan.
GENERAL MACARTHUR'S statement on surrender terms for Japan.
Manila. August 23, 194532
(1) Weather permitting, air-borne forces accompanying the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers will land at Atsugi Airdrome, in the vicinity of Tokyo, and naval and marine forces will land in the vicinity of Yokosuka Naval Base on Aug. 28, 1945. The instrument of surrender will be signed in the Tokyo area on Aug. 31.
(2) Requirements of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers presented to Japanese representatives at Manila, Philippine Islands, Aug. 20, 1945:
Requirements for entry of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and his accompanying forces.
(1) The Japanese Imperial Government and Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will require execution of the following requirements effective 1800 hours [6 P. M.] Aug. 24, 1945:
(a) Japanese armed forces and civilian aviation authorities will insure that all Japanese military, naval and civil aircraft in Japan remain on ground, on water or aboard ship until further notification of disposition to be made of them.
(b) Japanese or Japanese-controlled military, naval or merchant vessels of all types in Japanese waters will be maintained without damage and will undertake no movement beyond voyages in progress pending instructions of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Vessels at sea will immediately render harmless and throw overboard explosives of all types. Vessels not at sea will immediately remove explosives of all types to safe storage ashore.
(c) Merchant vessels under 100 gross tons engaged in civilian supply activities in Japanese waters are excepted from foregoing instructions. Vessels in Tokyo Bay engaged in evacuation of personnel from Yokosuka Naval Base are also excepted.
(d) Japanese or Japanese-controlled ships at sea, wherever located, will report their positions in plain language immediately to the nearest United States, British or Soviet radio station. They will proceed to the nearest Allied port or such port as the Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, may direct and will await further orders. Ships will burn navigational lights at night and will display searchlights with beams held vertically.
(e) Japanese or Japanese-controlled submarines, wherever located, will remain on the surface, fly a
black flag or pennant and show lights at night. They will report their positions in accordance with the next preceding paragraph and will proceed on the surface to the nearest of the following ports: Agana, Guam; Midway Island or Subic Bay, Philippine Islands. Upon arrival at a point ten miles from entrance to port, communicate with port and lie to until boarded by. Allied naval forces.
Safety and well-being of all United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees will be scrupulously preserved to include the administrative and supply services essential to provide adequate food, shelter, clothing and medical care until such responsibility is undertaken by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Local delivery of supplies dropped for United Nations prisoners of war and internees will be insured.
Each camp or place of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees will be marked with letters PW twenty feet in height in yellow on black background, reading south to north.
(2) The Japanese Imperial Government and Japanese Imperial Headquarters will require execution of the following requirements effective 1800 hours Aug. 25:
(a) All mines, minefields and other obstacles to safe movement by land, sea and air into the Tokyo Bay area will be removed and, pending such action, all safety lanes will be kept open and clearly marked.
(b) All aids to navigation will be re-established and, pending the accomplishment of this task, the existing war system of navigational lighting will be maintained except that all dimmed lights will be shown at full brilliancy.
(c) Piloting services will continue to operate in the Tokyo Bay area and all pilots will be held in their normal stations ready for service and equipped with charts.
(d) Japanese naval and other personnel concerned with operation of ports will remain at their stations and continue to carry out their normal duties.
(e) Immobilize all vessels and craft, of whatever type, in Tokyo Bay and approaches thereto.
(f) Remove breechlocks from and fully depress and render inoperative all coast-defense antiaircraft and other fixed and mobile artillery of all calibers within the Tokyo Bay area.
(g) Completely disarm all craft in Tokyo Bay area and render inoperative all weapons, of whatever type, which may exist in the area of initial evacuations, in addition to those specifically set forth herein.
(3) The Japanese Imperial Government and Japanese Imperial Headquarters will require execution of the following requirements effective 1800 hours Aug. 27, 1945:
(a) Prepare Yokosuka Naval Base for occupation and possible operation by United States naval units.
(b) Evacuate all combatant units of Japanese armed forces from the area of initial evacuation and confine them to limits of their assigned bivouacs. There is excepted all civil police and gendarmerie, which will be maintained as necessary to prevent outbreaks, sniper fire and other overt acts and to prohibit and prevent any substantial gathering of the populace. There are also excepted such unarmed military personnel as are necessary for normal caretaking functions. Firearms employed by civil police and gendarmerie will be limited to small arms. On
Oshima the personnel may remain but will be disarmed.
(c) Provide accommodations, billets and camp area facilities and utilities for the Supreme Commander.
(4) The Japanese Imperial Government and Japanese Imperial Headquarters will require execution of the following requirements effective 0600 hours [6 A. M.] Aug. 28, 1945:
(a) Make available members of the Imperial General Staff for conference with representatives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied powers at Atsugi Airdrome immediately upon arrival and at such times and places thereafter as may be directed for prompt settlement of all matters requiring attention.
(b) Make available 125 local guides and interpreters familiar with "initial evacuations."
(5) To insure safe entry into Tokyo Bay area, a Japanese ship will, as soon as practicable and not later than 0800 hours [8 A. M.] Aug. 26, 1945, meet United States naval forces twenty miles bearing 135 degrees from Oshima and will lead those forces into Sagami Wan [Bay] and will supply twelve pilots to conduct certain forces into Tokyo Bay when and as directed by the senior United States naval commander present. These pilots will be equipped with complete charts showing the location of all underwater defenses, mine fields and other obstructions, and also all aids to navigation.
(6) The following general measures are being taken by 0600 hours Aug. 25, 1945, by forces of the Allied Powers within their several areas of action:
(a) United Nations aircraft will conduct daylight
and night surveillance flights over Japan and Japanese-controlled areas.
(b) United Nations air forces will drop supplies to United Nations prisoners-of-war and internee camps and places of detention.
(c) United Nations naval forces will occupy the coastal waters of Japan and Japanese-controlled areas.
(d) United Nations' naval forces may start minesweeping operations at any of the following ports: Osaka, Sasebo, Nagasaki, Takasu (Kagoshima Wan), Jinsen (Chemulpo), Tsingtao, Shanghai, Canton, Hong Kong and Singapore.
In the above duties they will be unmolested.
INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER of all Japanese forces to GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR, Supreme Allied Commander.
Tokyo Bay. Aboard the battleship Missouri. September 2, 1945.33
(1) We, acting by command of and in behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the Japanese Government, and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, hereby accept provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China, and Great Britain July 26, 1945, at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which four powers are hereafter referred to as the Allied Powers.
(2) We hereby proclaim the unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and of all Japanese armed forces under Japanese control wherever situated.
(3) We hereby command all Japanese forces, wherever situated, and the Japanese people to cease hostilities forthwith, to preserve and save from damage all ships, aircraft, and military and civil property and to comply with all requirements which may be imposed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by agencies of the Japanese Government at his direction.
(4) We hereby command the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to issue at once orders to the commanders of all Japanese forces and all forces under Japanese control, wherever situated, to surrender unconditionally themselves and all forces under their control.34
(5) We hereby command all civil, military, and naval officials to obey and enforce all proclamations, orders, and directives, deemed by the supreme commander for the Allied Powers to be proper to effectuate this surrender and issued by him or under his authority, and we direct all such officials to remain at their posts and to continue to perform their noncombat duties unless specifically relieved by him or under his authority.
(6) We hereby undertake for the Emperor, the Japanese Government, and their successors to carry out the provisions of the Potsdam declaration in good
faith, and to issue whatever orders and take whatever action may be required by the supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or by any other designated representative of the Allied Powers for the purpose of giving effect to that declaration.
(7) We hereby command the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters at once to liberate all Allied, prisoners of war and civilian internees now under Japanese control and to provide for their protection, care, maintenance, and immediate transportation to places as directed.
(8) The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government to rule the state shall be subject to the supreme commander for the Allied Powers, who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate these terms of surrender.35
"it is for us, both victors and vanquished, to rise to that higher dignity which alone benefits the sacred purposes we are about to serve, committing all of our peoples unreservedly to faithful compliance with the undertakings they are here formally to assume."
Statement by GENERAL MACARTHUR preceding the signing of the Surrender Instrument by Japan. Tokyo Bay. Aboard the battleship Missouri. September 2, 1945.36
We are gathered here, representative of the major warring powers, to conclude a solemn agreement whereby peace may be restored. The issues, involving divergent ideals and ideologies, have been determined on the battlefields of the world and hence are not for our discussion or debate. Nor is it for us here to meet, representing as we do a majority of the peoples of the earth, in a spirit of distrust, malice, or hatred. But rather it is for us, both victors and vanquished, to rise to that higher dignity which alone benefits the sacred purposes we are about to serve, committing all of our peoples unreservedly to faithful compliance with the undertakings they are here formally to assume.
It is my earnest hope and indeed the hope of all mankind that from this solemn occasion a better
world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage of the past--a world founded upon faith and understanding--a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish--for freedom, tolerance, and justice.
The terms and conditions upon which the surrender of the Japanese Imperial forces is here to be given and accepted are contained in the instrument of surrender now before you.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, I announce it my firm purpose, in the tradition of the countries I represent, to proceed in the discharge of my responsibilities with justice and tolerance, while taking all necessary dispositions to insure that the terms of surrender are fully, promptly, and faithfully complied with.
I now invite the representatives of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to sign the instrument of surrender at the places indicated.
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers will now sign on behalf of the nations at war with Japan.
The representatives of the United States of America will sign now.
The representative of the Republic of China will now sign.
The representative of the United Kingdom will now sign.
The representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics will now sign.
The representative of Australia will now sign.
The representative of Canada will now sign.
The representative of France will now sign.
The representative of the Netherlands will now sign.
The representative of New Zealand will now sign.
Let us pray that peace be now restored to the world, and that God will preserve it always. These proceedings are closed.
". . . Maintain our national strength at a level which will discourage future acts of aggression aimed at the destruction of our way of life."
Statement of ADMIRAL CHESTER W. NIMITZ, Commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet, at the signing of the Surrender Instrument by Japan.
Tokyo Bay. Aboard the battleship Missouri. September 2, 1945.37
On board all vessels at sea and in port, and at our many island bases in the Pacific, there is rejoicing and thanksgiving. The long and bitter struggle, which Japan started so treacherously on the 7th of December 1941, is at an end.
I take great pride in the American forces which have helped to win this victory. America can be proud of them. The officers and men of the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and merchant marine who fought in the Pacific have
written heroic new chapters in this Nation's military history. I have infinite respect for their courage, resourcefulness, and devotion to duty. We also acknowledge the great contribution to this victory made by our valiant Allies. United we fought and united we prevail.
The port of Tokyo, which was fist opened by Commodore Perry in 1853, is now crowded with United States men-of-war. The process of bringing Japan into the family of civilized nations, which was interrupted when Japan launched her program of conquest, will soon begin again.
Today all freedom-loving peoples of the world rejoice in the victory and feel pride in the accomplishments of our combined forces. We also pay tribute to those who defended our freedom at the cost of their lives.
On Guam is a military cemetery in a green valley not far from my headquarters. The ordered rows of white crosses stand as reminders of the heavy cost we have paid for victory. On these crosses are the names of American soldiers, sailors and marines--Culpepper, Tomaino, Sweeney, Bromberg, Depew, Melloy, Ponziani--names that are a cross-section of democracy. They fought together side by side. To them we have a solemn obligation--the obligation to insure that their sacrifice will help to make this a better and safer world in which to live.
To achieve this it will be necessary for the United Nations to enforce rigidly the peace terms that will be imposed upon Japan. It will also be necessary to maintain our national strength at a level which will discourage future acts of aggression aimed at the destruction of our way of life.
Now we turn to the great tasks of reconstruction and restoration. I am confident that we will be able to apply the same skill, resourcefulness, and keen thinking to these problems as were applied to the problems of winning the victory.
"A great tragedy has ended. A great victory has been won."
Address by GENERAL MACARTHUR after the signing of the Surrender Instrument by Japan.
Tokyo Bay. Aboard the Battleship Missouri. September 2, 1945.38
My fellow countrymen, today the guns are silent. A great tragedy has ended. A great victory has been won. The skies no longer rain death--the seas bear only commerce--men everywhere walk upright in the sunlight. The entire world is quietly at peace. The holy mission has been completed, and in reporting this to you, the people, I speak for the thousands of silent lips, forever stilled among the jungles and the beaches and in the deep waters of the Pacific which marked the way. I speak for the unnamed brave millions homeward bound to take up the challenge of that future which they did so much to salvage from the brink of disaster.
As I look back on the long tortuous trail from those grim days of Bataan and Corregidor, when an entire world lived in fear; when democracy was on the
defensive everywhere, when modern civilization trembled in the balance, I thank a merciful God that He has given us the faith, the courage, and the power from which to mold victory.
We have known the bitterness of defeat and the exultation of triumph, and from both we have learned there can be no turning back. We must go forward to preserve in peace what we won in war.
A new era is upon us. Even the lesson of victory itself brings with it profound concern, both for our future security and the survival of civilization. The destructiveness of the war potential, through progressive advances in scientific discovery, has in fact now reached a point which revises the traditional concept of war.
Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start workable methods were found insofar as individual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. Military alliance, balances of power, League of Nations all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war.
The utter destructiveness of war now blots out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we do not now devise some greater and more equitable system Armageddon will be at our door. The problem basically is theological and involves a spiritual recrudescence and improvement of human character that will synchronize with our almost matchless advance in science, art, literature, and all material and cultural developments of the past 2,000
years. It must be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh.
We stand in Tokyo reminiscent remniscent of our countryman, Commodore Perry, 92 years ago. His purpose was to bring to Japan an era of enlightenment and progress by lifting the veil of isolation to the friendship, trade, and commerce of the world. But alas the knowledge thereby gained of western science was forged into an instrument of oppression and human enslavement. Freedom of expression, freedom of action, even freedom of thought were denied through suppression of liberal education, through appeal to superstition, and through the application of force.
We are committed by the Potsdam Declaration of principles to see that the Japanese people are liberated from this condition of slavery. It is my purpose to implement this commitment just as rapidly as the armed forces are demobilized and other essential steps taken to neutralize the war potential. The energy of the Japanese race, if properly drected, will enable expansion vertically rather than horizontally. If the talents of the race are turned into constructive channels, the country can lift itself from its present deplorable state into a position of dignity.
To the Pacific basin has come the vista of a new emancipated world. Today, freedom is on the offensive, democracy is on the march. Today, in Asia as well as in Europe, unshackled peoples are tasting the full sweetness of liberty, the relief from fear.
In the Philippines, America has evolved a model for this new free world of Asia. In the Philippines, America has demonstrated that peoples of the East
and peoples of the West may walk side by side with mutual respect and with mutual benefit. The history of our sovereignty there has now the full confidence of the East.
And so, my fellow-countrymen, today I report to you that your sons and daughters have served you well and faithfully with the calm, deliberate determined fighting spirit of the American soldier and sailor based upon a tradition of historical trait, as against the fanaticism of any enemy supported only by mythological fiction, their spiritual strength and Power has brought us through to victory. They are homeward bound--take care of them
"We command all Our people forthwith to cease hostilities, to lay down their arms and faithfully to carry out all the pro visions of the Instrument of Surrender . . ."
Imperial Rescript by HIROHITO, Emperor of Japan, prior to the signing of the surrender instrument.
Toyko. September 2, 1945.39
Accepting the terms set forth in Declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, and China on July 26th, 1945, at Potsdam and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, We have commanded the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters to sign on
Our behalf the Instrument of Surrender presented by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and to issue General Orders to the and Naval Forces in accordance with the direction of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. We command all Our people forthwith to cease hostilities, to lay down their arms and faithfully to carry out all the provisions of Instrument of Surrender and the General Orders issued by the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters hereunder.
Order for the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces and Japanese-controlled forces at home and abroad by the Imperial General Headquarters of Japan.
Tokyo. September 2, 1945.40
(1) The Imperial General Headquarters by direction of the Emperor, and pursuant to the surrender to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers of all Japanese armed forces by the Emperor, hereby orders all of its commanders in Japan and abroad to cause the Japanese armed forces and Japanese controlled forces under their command to cease hostilities at once, to lay down their arms, to remain in their present locations and to surrender unconditionally
to commanders acting on behalf of the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom and the British Empire, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as indicated hereafter or as may be further directed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
Immediate contact will be made with the indicated commanders, or their designated representatives-subject to any changes in detail prescribed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, and their instructions will be completely and immediately carried out.
(a) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa, and French Indochina north of 16 degrees north latitude shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
(b) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within Manchuria, Korea north of 28 degrees north latitude and Karafuto shall surrender to the commander in chief of Soviet forces in the Far East.
(c) The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, Wand auxiliary forces within the Andamans, Nicobars, Burma, Thailand, French Indo-China south of 16 degrees north latitude, Malaya, Borneo, Netherlands Indies, New Guinea, Bismarks, and the Solomons, shall surrender to the Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command or the commanding general, Australians, to be arranged between them, and the details of this paragraph then prepared by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
(d) The senior Japanese commanders and all
ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces in the Japanese-mandated islands, Ryukus, Bonins and other Pacific islands shall surrender to the Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet.
(e) The Imperial General Headquarters, its senior commanders, and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces in the main islands of Japan, minor islands adjacent thereto, Korea south of 38 degrees north latitude, and the Philippines shall surrender to the commander in chief United States Army Forces in the Pacific.
(f) The above indicated commanders are the only representatives of the Allied Powers empowered to accept surrender, and all surrenders of Japanese forces shall be made only to them or to their representatives.
The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters further orders its commanders in Japan and abroad to disarm completely all forces of Japan or under Japanese control, wherever they may be situated, and to deliver intact and in safe and good condition all weapons and equipment at such time and at such places as may be prescribed by the Allied commanders indicated above.
Pending further instructions, the Japanese police force in the main islands of Japan will be exempt from this disarmament provision.
The police force will remain at their posts and shall be held responsible for the preservation of law and order. The strength and arms of such a police force will be prescribed.
(2) The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall furnish to the supreme commander for the Allied Powers within (time limit) of receipt of this order
complete information with respect to Japan and all areas under Japanese control as follows:
(a) Lists of all land, air, and antiaircraft units showing locations and strengths in officers and men.
(b) Lists of all aircraft, military, naval and civil, giving complete information as to the number, type, location, and condition of such aircraft.
(c) Lists of all Japanese and Japanese-controlled naval vessels, surface and submarine and auxiliary naval craft in or out of commission and under construction, giving their position, condition, and movement.
(d) Lists of all Japanese and Japanese-controlled merchant ships of over 100 gross tons in or out of commission and under construction, including merchant ships formerly belonging to any of the United Nations now in Japanese hands, giving position, condition, and movement.
(e) Complete and detailed information, accompanied by maps showing locations and layouts of all mines, mine fields, and other obstacles to movement by land, sea, and air and the safety lanes in connection therewith.
(f) Locations and descriptions of all military installations and establishments, including airfields, seaplane bases, antiaircraft defenses, ports and naval bases, storage depots, permanent and temporary land and coast fortifications, fortresses and other fortified areas.
(g) Locations of all camps and other places of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees.
(3) Japanese armed forces and civil aviation authorities will insure that all Japanese military and
naval and civil aircraft remain on the ground, the water, or aboard ship until further notification on the disposition to be made of them.
(4) Japanese or Japanese-controlled naval or merchant vessels of all types will be maintained without damage and will undertake no movement pending instructions from the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Vessels at sea will remove explosives of all types to safe storage ashore.
(5) Responsible Japanese or Japanese-controlled military and civil authorities will insure that:
(a) All Japanese mines, mine fields, and other obstacles to movement by land, sea, and air wherever located be removed according to instructions of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
(b) All aids to navigation be reestablished at once.
(c) All safety lanes be kept open and clearly marked pending accomplishment of (a) above.
(6) Responsible Japanese and Japanese-controlled military and civil authorities will hold intact and in good condition pending further instructions from the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers the following:
(a) All arms, ammunitions, explosives, military equipment stores and supplies and other implements of war of all kinds and other war material (except as specifically prescribed in section (4) of this order).
(b) All land, water, and air transportation, and communication facilities and equipment.
(c) All military installations and establishments including airfields, seaplane bases, antiaircraft defenses, ports and naval bases, storage depots, permanent and temporary land and coast fortifications,
fortresses and other fortified areas together with plans and drawings of all such fortifications, installations and establishments.
(d) All factories, plants, shops, research institutions, laboratories, testing stations, technical data, patents, plans, drawings and inventions designed or intended to produce or to facilitate the production or use of all implements of war and other material and property used or intended for use by any military or part-military organization in connection with its operations.
(7) The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall furnish to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within (time limit) of receipt of this order complete lists of all the items specified in paragraphs A, B, and D of section 6 above, indicating the numbers, types, and locations of each.
(8) The manufacture and distribution of all arms, ammunition, and implements of war will cease forthwith.
(9) With respect to United Nations prisoners-of-war and civilian internees in the hands of Japanese or Japanese-controlled authorities:
(a) The safety and well-being of all United Nations prisoners-of-war and civilian internees will be scrupulously preserved to include the administrative and supply service essential to provide adequate food, shelter, clothing, and medical care until such responsibility is undertaken by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
(b) Each camp or other place of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees together with its equipment, stores, records, arms, and ammunition will be delivered immediately to the
command of the senior officer designated representative of the prisoners of war and civilian internees.
(c) As directed by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers prisoners of war and civilian internees will be transported to places of safety where they can be accepted by Allied authorities.
(d) The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will furnish to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within (time limit) of the receipt of this order complete lists of all United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees indicating their location.
(10) All Japanese and Japanese-controlled military and civil authorities shall aid and assist the occupation of Japan and Japanese-controlled areas by forces of the Allied Powers.
(11) The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and appropriate Japanese officials shall be prepared on instructions from Allied occupation commanders to collect and deliver all arms in the possession of the Japanese civilian population.
(12) This and all subsequent instructions issued by the Supreme Commander for the Allied forces of other Allied military authorities will be scrupulously and promptly obeyed by Japanese and Japanese-controlled military and civil officials and private persons.
Any delay or failure to comply with the provisions of this or subsequent orders, and any action which the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers determines to be detrimental to the Allied Powers, will incur drastic and summary punishment at the hands of the Allied military authorities and the Japanese Government.
"It is our responsibility--ours, the living--to see to it that this victory shall be a monument worthy of the dead who died to win it."
Radio address by PRESIDENT TRUMAN on the signing of the Surrender Instrument by Japan.
Washington. September 1, 1945.41
My fellow Americans, the thoughts and hopes of all America--indeed of all the civilized world--are centered tonight on the battleship Missouri. There on that small piece of American soil anchored in Tokyo Harbor the Japanese have just officially laid down their arms. They have signed terms of unconditional surrender.
Four years ago the thoughts and fears of the whole civilized world were centered on another piece of American soil--Pearl Harbor. The mighty threat to civilization which began there is now laid at rest. It WAS a long road to Tokyo--and a bloody one.
We shall not forget Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese militarists will not forget the U.S.S. Missouri.
The evil done by the Japanese war lords can never be repaired or forgotten. But their power to destroy and kill has been taken from them. Their armies and what is left of their navy is now impotent.
To all of us there comes first a sense of gratitude to Almighty God who sustained us and our Allies in the dark> days of grave danger, who made us to
grow from weakness into the strongest fighting force in history, and who now has seen us overcome the forces of tyranny that sought to destroy His civilization.
God grant that in our pride of the hour we may not forget the hard tasks that are still before us; that we may approach these with the same courage, zeal and patience with which we faced the trials and problems of the past 4 years.
Our first thoughts, of course--thoughts of gratefulness and deep obligation--go out to those of our loved ones who have been killed or maimed in this terrible war. On land and sea and in the air American men and women have given their lives so that this day of ultimate victory might come and assure the survival of a civilized world. No victory can make good their loss.
We think of those whom death in this war has hurt, taking from them husbands, sons, brothers, and sisters whom they loved. No victory can bring back the faces they long to see.
Only the knowledge that the victory, which these sacrifices have made possible, will be wisely used, can give them any comfort. It is our responsibility--ours, the living--to see to it that this victory shall be a monument worthy of the dead who died to win it.
We think of all the millions of men and women in our armed forces and merchant marine all over the world who, after years of sacrifice and hardship and peril, have been spared by providence from harm.
We think of all the men and women and children who during these years have carried on at home, in lonesomeness and anxiety and fear.
Our thoughts go to the millions of American
workers and businessmen, to our farmers and miners--to all those who have built up this country's fighting strength and who have shipped to our allies the means to resist and overcome the enemy.
Our thoughts go out to our civil servants and to the thousands of Americans who, at personal sacrifice, have come to serve in our Government during these trying years; to the members of the selective-service boards and ration boards; to the civilian defense and Red Cross workers; to the men and women in the USO and in the entertainment world--to all those who have helped in this cooperative struggle to preserve liberty and decency in the world.
We think of our departed gallant leader, Franklin D. Roosevelt, defender of democracy, architect of world peace and cooperation.
And our thoughts go out to our gallant allies in this war; to those who resisted the invaders; to those who were not strong enough to hold out, but who nevertheless kept the fires of resistance alive within the souls of their people; to those who stood up against great odds and held the line until the United Nations together were able to supply the arms and the men with which to overcome the forces of evil.
This is a victory of more than arms alone. This is a victory of liberty over tyranny.
From our war plants rolled the tanks and planes which blasted their way to the heart of our enemy, from our shipyards sprang the ships which bridged all the oceans of the world for our weapons and supplies; from our farms came the food and fiber for our armies and navies and for all our allies in all the corners of the earth; from our mines and factories came the raw materials and the finished products
which gave us the equipment to overcome our enemies.
But back of it all was the will and spirit and determination of a free people--who know what freedom is, and who know that it is worth whatever price they had to pay to preserve it.
It was the spirit of liberty which gave us our armed strength and which made our men invincible in battle. We now know that that spirit of liberty, the freedom of the individual and the personal dignity of man are the strongest, and toughest and most enduring forces in all the world.
And so on VJ-day, we take renewed faith and pride in our way of life. We have had our day of rejoicing over this victory. We had our day of prayer and devotion. Now let us set aside VJ-day as one of renewed consecrations to the principles which have made us the strongest Nation on earth and which, in this war, we have striven so mightily to preserve.
Those principles provide the faith, the hope, and the opportunity which helped men to improve themselves and their lot. Liberty does not make all men perfect nor all society secure. But it has provided more solid progress and happiness and decency for more people than any other philosophy of government in history. And this day has shown again that it provides the greatest strength and the greatest power that man has ever reached.
We know that under it we can meet the hard problems of peace which have come upon us. A free people with free allies, who can develop an atomic bomb, can use the same skill and energy and determination to overcome all the difficulties ahead.
Victory always has its burdens and responsibilities as well as its rejoicings.
But we face the future and all its dangers with great confidence and great hope. America can build for itself a future of employment and security. Together with the United Nations it can build a world of peace founded on justice and fair dealing and tolerance.
As President of the United States I proclaim Sunday, September 2, 1945 to be VJ-day -- the day of formal surrender by Japan. It is not yet the day of the formal proclamation of the end of the war or the cessation of hostilities. But it is a day which we Americans shall always remember as a day of retribution -- as we remember the other day, the day of infamy.
From this day we move forward. We move toward a new era of security at home. With the other United Nations we move toward a new and better world of peace and international good will and cooperation.
God's help has brought us to this day of victory. With His help he will attain that peace and prosperity for ourselves and all the world in the years ahead.
1. See Additional Instrument of Armistice and Surrender of September 29, 1943, p. 12, and Aide-Mèmoire of the Allied Commission, February 24, 1945, p. 29.
2. Released by the Department of State, November 6, 1945. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945. Signing of the armistice took place at Fairfield Camp, Cassibide, Fractione of Commune of Syracuse.
3. New York Times, September 9, 1943.
4. New York Times, September 9, 1943.
5. New York Times, September 9. 1943.
6. These preliminary instructions were expanded in the Cunningham-DeCourten Memorandum of Agreement of Employment and Disposition of the Italian Fleet and Merchant Marine on September 23, and amended on November 17, 1943. Admiral R. DeCourten registered his objection to the amendment in the original Memorandum in a statement issued November 17, 1943; the amendment broadened controls by the Allies; on November 6, 1945, the State Department released a commentary regarding the execution of the Cunningham-DeCourten memorandum. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945.
7. New York Times, September 9, 1943
8. Department of State Bulletin, September 11, 1943
9. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945
10. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945.
11. See the Commentary on the Additional Conditions of the Armistice with Italy, released by to Department of State on November 6, 1945, for explanation of the extent to which the articles of agreement were implemented or modified. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945.
12. Department of State Bulletin, November 11, 1945
13. This first instrument of surrender by Germany of the areas indicated was superseded by the Rheims instrument of May 7 and the Berlin instrument of May 8 (see following documents). Department of State Bulletin, July 21, 1945.
14. Department of State Bulletin, July 22, 1945.
15. Department of State Bulletin, July 22 1945.
16. New York Times, May 9, 1945.
17. Department of State Bulletin, July 22, 1945.
18. Congressional Record, May 10, 1945.
19. New York Times, May 9, 1945.
20. Admiral Doenitz was appointed President of the Reich and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces by Hitler on April 29, 1945. Hitler wee reported to have committed suicide at his command post in the Chancellory in Berlin on Monday, May 1, 1945. New York Times, May 2, 3, December 31, 1945.
21. New York Times, May 9, 1945.
22. New York Times, June 6, 1945.
23. Department of State, Radio Bulletin #178, July 26, 1945.
24. Department of State Bulletin, August 12, 1945. For Potsdam Declaration see preceding document.
25. In its declaration of war against Japan, effective as of Aug. 9, 1944 the Soviet Government retroactively joined in the declaration of July 26, 1945, issued at Potsdam, Germany, defining terms of surrender for Japan.
27. Department of State Bulletin, August 19, 1945.
29. Department of State Bulletin, August 19, 1945.
30. New York Times, August 21, 1945.
31. General MacArthur was appointed Supreme Allied Commander to receive the Japanese surrender by President Truman on August 14, 1945. See preceding document.
32. New York Times, August 23, 1945.
33. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945.
34. For instruments of Surrender in other areas -- Philipine Islands, September 3, 1945; Korea, September 9, 1945; South East Asia, September 12 1945 -- see, The End of the War in the Pacific. National Archives Publication No. 46-6. Washington. Government Printing Office, 1945.
35. For order of signing see succeeding document.
36. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945. Tokyo is approximately 14 hours ahead of New York time (E. W. T.). Proceedings incidental to signing of the surrender instrument by Japan took place on Sunday, September 2, Japanese time but Saturday, September 1, Washington time.
37. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945.
38. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945.
39. The End of the War in the Pacific/Surrender Documents in Fascimile. National Archives Publication No. 464. Washington. Government Printing Office, 1945.
40. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945.
41. Congressional Record, September 6, 1945. President Truman's address was delivered September 1, New York time (E.W.T.), September 2, Japanese time.