Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters
Operation ECLIPSE
Appreciation and Outline Plan

 


  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
TOP SECRET
Auth: SC, AEF  :
Initials: MER
25 April 1945
AG 381-1 GCT-AGM APO 757 (Main)
25 April 1945
SUBJECT: ECLIPSE Memorandum Number 1
TO: See Distribution

Attached for your information is revised copy of ECLIPSE Memorandum Number 1. Copies of original issue, forwarded under letter, this headquarters, AG 381-7 GCT-AGM, subject as above, dated 25 November 1944, should be destroyed.

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

/signed/
H. H. NEWMAN
Colonel, AGD
Assistant Adjutant General

Incl:
As stated

DISTRIBUTION: Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 1-30
Commanding General, 6th Army Group 31-51
Commanding General, 12th Army Group 52-96
Headquarters, 21 Army Group 97-121
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army 122-127
Commanding General, Communication Zone, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army 128-152
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Prov) 153-162
Air Officer Commanding, 2 Tactical Air Force 163-172
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force 173-182
Air Officer Commanding, No. 38 Group RAF 183-184
Air Officer Commanding, No. 46 Group RAF 185-186
Commander, U.S. Naval Forces in Europe 187-191
Commander, U.S. Naval Forces in France 192-196
Commanding General, Mediterranean Theater of Operations, U.S. Army 197-198
Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in Italy) 199-208
Commanding General, U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe 209-223
Commanding General, Mediterranean Allied Air Force 224-225
The Secretary, The Admiralty 226-233
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 234-235
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office 236-255

--1--

DISTRIBUTION: Copy Nos.
The Adjutant General, War Department, Washington D.C. (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 256-280
General Officer, Commander-in-Chief, Scottish Command 281-283
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command) 284-303
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command 304-313
Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. 314-315
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet 316-317
U.S. Group Control Council (Germany) 318-332
Control Commission for Germany (British Element) 333-350
Supreme Hq AEF Mission (Denmark) 351-354
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:  
Supreme Commander

355
Deputy Supreme Commander 356
Chief of Staff 357
Deputy Chief of Staff 358
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 359
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) (Rear) 360-364
Chief Administrative Officer 356
Deputy Chief Air Staff 366
Secretary General Staff 367-368
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 369-373
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 374-398
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 399-418
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 419-440
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 441-460
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2 461-462
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3 463-464
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4 465-468
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 469-471
Adjutant General 472-474
Chief, Engineer Division 475-478
Chief, Air Defense Division 479-481
Chief, Signal Division 482-490
Chief, Air Signal Division 491-492
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division 493-498
Chief, Public Relations Division 499-500
Chief, Medical Division 501
Political Officer, British 502
Political Officer, U.S. 503
War Diary (G-3) 504-506
French Military Mission for German Affairs (through Supreme Hq AEF Mission (France) 507-512
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army 513-518
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, Supreme Hq AEF) 519
Special Force Headquarters 520
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, Supreme Hq AEF) 521-522
Commanding General, Communications Zone, European T of Opns 523
Supreme Hq AEF Mission (France) 524
Supreme Hq AEF Mission (Holland) 525
Supreme Hq AEF Mission (Belgium) 526
Commanding General, Berlin District 527-536
Supreme Hq AEF Mission (Norway) 537
U.S. Group Control Council (Austria) 538-539
Control Commission for Germany (Air Division) 540-541
War Office, MO1 (SP) 542-544
Control Commission for Austria (British Element) 545-546
Commanding General, Communications Zone, European T of Opns 547
G-3 Division, Supreme Hq AEF (Spares) 548-567
AG Division, Supreme Hq AEF (Spares) 568-648

--2--

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 1

The Instrument of Surrender: The Supreme Commander's Special Orders to the German High Command to Supplement the Instrument: Sanctions in the Event of Delinquency.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Para 1. Introduction 1
Para 2. In the Event of Formal Surrender  
Para 4. In the Event of there being no Formal Surrender  
Para 7. Impositions of Sanctions  
APPENDIX 'A' - Summary of the Terms of Surrender 2
APPENDIX 'B' - Supreme Commander Special Orders to the German High Command (OKW) of common concern to all three services or the direct concern of OWK only 4
  Part I: General  
    para 1. Area of applicability of Special Orders  
    para 2. Definitions: (a) Allied Representatives  
      (b) German Armed Forces  
    para 3. Orders to Subordinates  
    para 4. Responsibility for carrying out orders  
    para 7. Information required within 48 hours 5
    para 8. Information required within 14 days  
  Part II: Control, Maintenance and Disarmament of German Armed Forces  
    para 10. Control  
    para 11. Maintenance  
    para 12. Disarmament 6
    para 13. Destruction etc. of War Material  
    para 14. Maintenance of War Material  
    para 15. Guards on War Material  
    para 16. Minefields and other dangerous obstacles  
  Part III: Allied Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees  
    para 17. Information required within 48 hours  
    para 19. Records 7
    para 21. Hand-over of Control  
    para 22. Maintenance  
    para 23. Mail  
    para 24. Communications  
    para 25. Provision of Radio Receivers 8
    para 26. Allied Civilian Internees  

 

  Page
                    Part IV -- Miscellaneous  
    para 27. Concentration Camps  
    para 29. Safety of Non-German Nationals  
    para 30. Release of the King of the Belgians  
    para 31. Restriction of Movement 9
    para 32. Arrest of Certain Persons  
    para 33. Destruction of Concealment etc. of equipment and facilities  
    para 34. Protection of Military Archives and Records  
    para 35. Manufacture of War Materials  
    para 36. Access to Property  
    para 37. Blackout Instructions  
    para 38. Publication of Newspapers, etc.  
  Part V -- Inland Transport, Ports and Merchant Shipping  
    para 39. Information Required 10
    para 40. Measures to be taken by the German High Command 11
  Part VI -- Telecommunications  
    para 41. Definition  
    para 42. Information required within 48 hours  
    para 43. Information required within within 14 days  
    para 44. Sabotage  
    para 45. Handing over of telecommunication systems  
    para 47. Provision of Advisory & Liaison Personnel to Allied Military Headquarters  
    para 48. Staffing of System  
    para 49. Addresses of Personnel  
    para 50. Closing down & re-opening of telecommunication systems  
    para 51. Jamming  
    para 52. Dine Telephone Circuits  
    para 53. Radio Telegraph Circuits 14
    para 54. Call Sign and Code Name Systems  
    para 55. Codes & Ciphers  
    para 56. Factories and Workshops  
    para 57. Research Laboratories  
    para 58. Removal of Mines etc.  
    para 59. Communications for Allied Prisoner of War Camps  
    para 60. Telecommunications in NORWAY  
Annexure I List of War Materials to be withdrawn from the Germans 15
Annexure II List of War Materials to be retained initially by the Germans 18
Annexure III List of Telecommunication circuits to be set up by the German Authorities 19
Annexure IV Provisional List of Information required relating to Transport & Shipping 20

 

  Page
APPENDIX 'C' - Special Orders to the German High Command (OKH) relating to Land Forces 22
  Part I - General  
    para 1. Definition of Land Forces  
    para 2: Auxiliary Organizations to be placed under Command  
    para. 3. Representatives of the German High Command to report within 48 hours  
    para. 4. Information required within 14 days 23
    para. 5, Representatives of C-in-C WEST to report within 48 hours 24
    para. 6. Representatives of other German Commanders to report within 24 hours  
    para. 7. Representatives of German forces in NORWAY to report within 48 hours 25
  Part II- Disarmament  
    para 8. Method of Disarmament 26
    para 9. Lay-out of Dumps for War Material formed on Disarmament of Field Armies  
    para 12. Dumps formed on Disarmament of Home Army  
    para 13. War Material not held by formations or units  
    para 14. Depots 27
    para 15. Listing of War Materials  
    para 17. Provision of services  
    para 18. Responsibility for delivery of war material  
  Annexure I Specimen Form for listing equipment 28
APPENDIX 'D' - Special Orders to the German High Command (OKM) relating to Naval Forces 29
  Part I - General  
    para 1. Definition of Naval Forces  
    para 3. German Naval Representatives & information required immediately  
    para 9. Information required within 14 days 31
  Part II- Control and Disarmament 32
    para 11. Orders to Warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft  
    para 12. Naval aircraft 33
    para 13. Neutral Shipping  
    para 14. Orders relating to scuttling, sabotage, safe measures, pilotage and personnel  
    para 15. Personnel 34

 

  Page
APPENDIX 'E' - Special Orders to the German High Command (OKL) relating to Air Forces 35
  Part I -- General  
    para 1. Definition of Air Forces  
    para 2. Auxiliary organization to be placed under Command  
    para 3. Representatives of the German High Command to report within 48 hours  
    para 4. Representatives of German Air Forces in NORWAY to Report within 48 hours 36
    para 5. Information required within 14 days after surrender takes effect 37
    para 6. Restriction on Flying 38
    para 7. Balloon Barrages  
    para 8. Meteorological Services  
    para 12. Marine Craft  
    para 15. Airfields  
  Part II -- Disarmament 39
    para 17. Responsibility for Disarmament  
    para 18. Methods of Disarmament  
    para 19. Aircraft  
    para 22. Flying Bombs and Rocket Propelled weapons  
    para 24. Anti-Aircraft guns  
    para 25. Small Arms 40
    para 26. Gas Bombs & Equipment  
    para 28. War Material not held by GAF Units or in Transit  
    para 30. Depots  
    para 31. Listing of War Material  
    para 33. Provision of Services  
    para 34. Responsibility for delivery of War Material  
  Annexure Specimen form for listing equipment 41
APPENDIX 'F'- Measures which may be taken to enforce the terms of surrender or in the event of no surrender to compel the enemy to comply with the Laws of War.  
    para 1. Definitions 42
    para 2. Limitations on the use of Sanctions & Reprisals  
    para 3. Measures which may be taken  
    para 4. Forced Evacuation of Communities  
    para 5. Destruction of Communities  
    para 6. Bombing 43
    para 7. Destruction of Private Property  
    para 8. Hostages  
    para 9. Authority to order the use of Sanctions or Reprisals.  

 

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
G-3 Division (Main)

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 1

THE INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER: ORDERS TO THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND TO SUPPLEMENT THE INSTRUMENT: SANCTIONS IN THE EVENT OF DELINQUENCY

INTRODUCTION

1. Operation 'ECLIPSE' may be put into operation either as the result of a formal signature of the Instrument of Surrender by German Plenipotentiaries or alternatively on the decision of the Supreme Commander after the main portion of the German forces opposing us have capitulated or been overpowered.

IN THE EVENT OF FORMAL SURRENDER

2. The Instrument of Surrender which has been prepared in agreement between the Three Powers is neither comprehensive nor detailed. It covers only the essentials of unconditional surrender. Consequently it will be necessary to issue further detailed orders and instructions to the German authorities regarding a number of matters upon which they will be required to take action immediately after they have signed the Instrument of Surrender.

3. The form which this amplification of the Instrument of Surrender will take is at present under consideration by the European Advisory Commission. But, in the event that there are no such orders whidh have been agreed by the Commission at the time of the formal surrender, it will be necessary for the Supreme Commander to issue his own Special Orders to the German military authorities which will be applicable only to his area of responsibility. Special Orders to meet this eventuality have been prepared and are appended to this memorandum: they consist of four orders to the German High Command, relating respectively to matters of common concern to all three services, or of the direct concern of OWK alone, and those that are applicable only to the Army (OKH) the Navy (OKE) and the Air Force (OKL).

IN THE EVENT OF THERE BEING NO FORMAL SURRENDER

4. It may well be that no formal surrender by the German authorities will take place, or that there will be local surrenders or capitulations on the part of sections of the German forces before a formal surrender takes place.

5. Under these circumstances the policy of the Combined Chiefs of Staff is as follows:--

  1. Orders must clearly and expressedly be limited to immediate military objects.

  2. No commitments of any kind must be made.

  3. Orders must be expressedly subject to any instrument of total surrender which may be later imposed on the Germans.

  4. All orders will be given some title which emphasises their purely local character.

6. Within these limits the orders issued by subordinate Allied commanders to German commanders who surrender or capitulate to them, will be based on the Special Orders contained in the appendices to this Memorandum, omitting such parts as are obviously not applicable

IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS

7. It is probable that there will be resistance in some form or another both to the terms of surrender and to the orders given by or on behalf of the Supreme Commander. Under these circumstances it will be necessary to impose certain sanctions. These sanctions are detailed in Appendix 'F' to this Memorandum.

--1--

APPENDIX 'A'
to Memorandum No.I

SUMMARY OF TERMS OF SURRENDER

For security purposes the Instrument Of Surrender as agreed to by the British, United States and USSR Governments will not be included in this memorandum. The general principles that have been agreed to, however, are as follows:--

1. All German armed forces, including paramilitary and other auxiliary organisations equipped with weapons, will be completely disarmed.

2. The personnel of these formations may be declared to be prisoners of war at the discretion of the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the Allied state concerned.

3. All German forces will remain in their present position pending further instruction., All German forces will be evacuated from territories outside the frontiers of GERMANY according to Allied instructions,

4. Allied Representatives will designate detachments of civil police for maintenance of order.

5. All aircraft will remain grounded pending further instructions.

6. All German shipping will remain in, or proceed to, specified ports.

7. All arms, ammunition, equipment and other war materials, naval vessels, aircraft, transportation and communication facilities, military installations and establishments, and all factories, shops and research institutions producing the same, shall be held intact and in good condition at the disposal of Allied Representatives. German authorities will furnish labour services required for the maintenance or operation of the foregoing as well as any information or records in connection with the same.

8. The Germans will facilitate the movement of Allied troops, equipment and supplies, and will maintain all means of transportation in good order and repair.

9. The German authorities will release to the Allies all United Nations prisoners of war and will provide adequately for them pending their release. Likewise, they will provide for and release all other nationals of the United Nations as instructed.

10. The Germans will furnish full information regarding the numbers, locations and dispositions of armed forces and all minefields, mines and other obstacles to movement by land, sea and air.

11. All obstacles to movement by land, sea and air, including minefields will be rendered as safe as possible -- German authorities will provide the necessary labour and equipment to remove all such obstacles. Safety lanes through minefields will be clearly marked.

12. The Germans will prevent the destruction, removal and concealment of all property records and archives.

13. Pending control by Allied Representatives over all means of telecommunication, wire and wireless transmission will cease except as directed by the Allied Representatives.

--2--

14. The Allies will station forces and civil agencies in any part of GERMANY as they may determine.

15. The three governments shall possess supreme authority with regard to GERMANY.

16. Additional requirements will be issued in the form of proclamations orders, ordinances and instructions and all Germans will comply therewith. In the case of violations the Allied Representatives will take whatever action nay be deemed necessary.

--3--

APPENDIX 'B'
to Memorandum No. 1

SPECIAL ORDER BY THE SUPREME COMMANDER, AEF, TO THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND (OKW) OF COMMON CONCERN TO ALLIED SERVICES, OR THE DIRECT CONCERN OF OKW ONLY

PART I -- GENERAL

Area of Applicability of Special Orders

1. Unless otherwise stated, all special orders by the Supreme Commander, AEF, to the German High Command will apply throughout that part of GERMANY WEST of the line drawn from the point on LUBECK BAY where the frontiers of SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN and MECKLENBURG meet, along the Western frontier of MECKLENBURG to the frontier of the province of HANOVER; thence along the Eastern frontier of HANOVER, to the frontier of BRUNSWICK; thence along the Western fontier of the PRUSSIAN province of SAXONY to the Western frontier of ANHALT; thence along the Western frontier of ANHALT; thence along the Western frontier of the PRUSSIAN province of SAXONY and the western frontier of THURINGIA to where the latter meets the BAVARIAN frontier; thence Eastwards along the Northern frontier of BAVARIA to the 1937 CZECHOSLOVAKIAN frontier; also to NORWAY, DENMARK, the CHANNEL ISLANDS and the German occupied areas in FRANCE and NETHERLANDS.

Definitions

2.

  1. "Allied Representatives"
For the purpose of these orders the term "Allied Representatives" shall be deemed to include the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, and any subordinate commander, staff officer or agent acting pursuant to his orders.

  1. "German Armed Forces"
For the purpose of these orders the term "German Armed Forces" shall be deemed to include the German Army, Navy and Air Force, the Shutzstaffel, including the fully militarised formations of theWaffen Schutzstaffel, the N.S. Sturmabteilung, the Volkssturm, the N.S. Kraftfahr Korps, the N.S. Fliegekorps, the Heimatflak, the Reichsarbeitsdienst, the Organization Todt, the Hitler Jugend, the Ordnungspolizei including. the Technische Nothilfe, the Sicherheitspolizei, the Sonderpolizei, every person (including women) not belonging to but who is serving with or attached for duty to any of these organizations, and every reservist viable to be called or recalled for service with any of the above specified organizations.

Orders to Subordinates

3. The German High Command (OKW) shall forthwith issue orders to all organizations under their orders and in particular to the German High Commands of the Navy (0KM), Army (OKH) and Air (RLM including OKL and RDL) and to all officers and officials and their subordiates serving therein and in all subordinate formations, including units, formations and organizations beloning to, or associated with any of the German Armed Forces as defined above to obey all orders and instructions issued by the Allied representatives. These orders and instructions will be given in English or in French, and the onus of interpreting them correctly will be upon those who receive them. When, for convenience, the text of an order or instruction is also given in German, the official text in English or in French will be controlling.

4.In case of any question as to the meaning of these orders, and instructions the decision of the Allied representatives shall be final.

--1--

Responsibility for carrying out the Orders

5. Commanding Officers of all formations and units of the German Armed forces and their subordinates are to be notified that they will be held personally responsible by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force for the execution of these Orders within their respective spheres of responsibility.

6. Disobedience to these orders or failure to enforce them either by Commanding Officers or their subordinates will be punished. Any failure to communicate these orders to those concerned will render the persons responsible for such failure liable to punishment. Ignorance will be no defence.

7. The German High Command will be held responsible by the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, for ensuring that the provisions of these orders are carried out in all German army, naval and aeronautical establishments of all types, whether military or civil.

Information required within 48 hours

8. The German High Command will furnish within 48 hours of receiving this order detailed information regarding the location of OKW and all its departments and branches. Locations will be marked on maps ot a scale of not less than 1:100 000 and not more than 1:40 000. The full official name and address of each department of OKW are to be given, together with the name and appointment of the Senior Officer or official of each department.

Information required within 14 days

9. The German High Command will furnish within 14 days of receiving this order:--

  1. A complete list of all establishment where research experimental production or repair work on war material of all natures, including chemical or biological warfare agents, is being carried out on behalf of the High Command. This list will give full official name and address of the establishment, controlling authority, appointment of Managing Director, and name of individual authority to whom he is immediately responsible.

  2. A complete list of all underground installations of every nature, stating the purposes for which used, together with marked maps to a scale of not less than 1:100,000 and not more than 1:40,000 showing their exact locations.

  3. List of all launching stations for directed missiles with marked maps on a scale of not less than 1:100,000 and not more than 1:40,000.

PART II -- COTROL, MAINTENANCE AND DISARMAMENT OF THE ARMED FORCES

Control

10. All German forces will remain in their existing locations until the receipt of further instructions by the Allied Representatives. The following exceptions are authorized:--

  1. Movement of forces required to execute these or any subsequent orders.

  2. Minimum essential Movement of personnel engaged in administrative services.

  3. Movement of German police as may be necessary for the prosecution of law and order pending the arrival of allied forces.

--2--

Maintenance

11. The German High Command will be responsible for the administration and supply of all armed forces. The scale of rations to armed forces will not exceed that of civilian personnel, except when authorized by Allied Representatives. Normal administrative procedure for reporting, recording and maintaining necessary records and normal supply procedure will be observed.

Disarmament

12. The German High Command will be responsible for the immediate and total disarmament of the German Armed Forces. All war material listed in Annexure I to these orders, with the exception Permitted in Annexure II will be withdrawn initially from units and individuals, or will be disposed of in accordance with the specific Orders to the German Army, Navy and Air Force.

Destruction etc. of War Material

13. The German High Command will give orders to all forces under its command that no war material will be concealed, damaged, or, except in accordance with instructions from the Allied Representatives, destroyed.

Maintenance of War Material

14. All war material will be properly maintained, adequate care and maintenance parties will be left with every dump or depot. As a first priority task all unarmoured load carrying Motor Transport vehicles including ambulances are immediately to be placed in a serviceable condition. The care and maintenance of all animals in possession of the German armed forces will continue to be the responsibility of German Commanders concerned until further instructions on this subject are received.

Guards on war materiel

15. Minimum guards armed only with rifles, with 10 rounds of ammunition per rifle, will be maintained on all dumps and depot pending the receipt of further instructions from Allied Representatives.

Minefields and other dangerous obstacles

16. The German High Command will take immediate steps to mark clearly all land minefields, and to remove all mines and other obstacles on road, rail or inland, waterway and ports. The German High Command will also take immediate steps to make safe and remove all demolition charges, concealed explosives, and booby traps wherever they may be.

PART III -- UNITED NATIONS PRISONERS OF WAR AND CIVILIAN INTERNEES

Information required within 48 hours

17. The German High Command shall furnish within.48 hours of receiving this order the best available information regarding:--

  1. The names and locations of all prisoner of war camps throughout GERMANY, including work detachments, prisons, hospitals, billets and other places in which Allied prisoners of war are confined. Also the name, address and location of the railway station and airport nearest to each such camp, or other places of confinement.

  2. The number of prisoners of war of each nationality on the strength of each prisoner of war camp or other place of confinement, showing in each case the number located in each work detachment, prison, hospital, billet or other place dependent on such camp or place of confinement.

--3--

18. The German High Command will ensure that no prisoner of war or article of any description is transferred or removed from, and no member of the guard or administrative staff or person responsible for the custody or treatment of prisoners of war is permitted to leave any prisoner of war camp, prison, hospital, work detachment, billet or other place of confinement of prisoners of war except as directed by the Allied Representatives.

Records

19. The German High Command will ensure that all records relating to prisoners of war (including those who have escaped or died in captivity or have been transferred or released pending instructions with regard to their disposal) are preserved and handed over immediately to Allied officers.

20. In the case of records kept at any prisoner of war camp, prison, hospital, working detachment, billet or other place of confinement instructions will specify that they will be handed over to the Camp Leader or other Allied officer or representative in command at such place of confinement. In the case of all other such records, instructions will specify that they will be handed over to the Allied representative as demanded.

Handover of Control

21. The German High Command will order all Commendants of camps, hospitals, working detachments or other places where prisoners of war are confined, or officers-in-charge of prisoners of war, to hand over control to and to take their orders from the Allied Camp Leader or other senior Allied officer, warrant officer, or non-commissioned officer under their charge and to hand over to such Allied Camp Leader, officer, warrnat officer or non-commissioned officer all stores of equipment at such camp, hospital, working detachment or other place of confinement.

Maintenance

22. The German High Command will ensure that rations are provided for all Allied prisoners of war on the highest scale available to the German Armed Forces and to ensure the maintenance of all administrative, medical, supply and other services at any prisoner of war camp, hospital, working detachment, billet or other place where Allied prisoners of war are confined. The instructions issued are required to ensure in particular that adequate supplies of food on the above scale, clothing and medical supplies are delivered at any place where Allied prisoners of war are confined and that all those in hospital or sick continue to receive proper medical attention and treatment.

Mail

23. The German High Command will ensure the immediate delivery of all mail (including letters, post-cards and parcels) destined for United Nations prisoners of war upon release of this mail by Military Government Authorities.

Communications

24. The German High Command will:--

  1. Maintain all existing means of communication between Allied prisoner of war camps and Wehrkreis Headquarters.

  2. Arrange for the immediate provision of direct telephone facilities from each Allied prisoner of war camp to points to be designated by the Allied authorities.

--4--

  1. In cases where line communication facilities in a. and b. above are not available or are interrupted, communications will be established over a two-way wireless telegraph channel until the line circuit can be provided. The power of the sets used for these circuits will not exceed 250 watts and the following frequencies only will be ised for this purpose:

    2060, 2456, 4607, 5045 Kilocycles

Provision of Radio Receivers

25. Until such a time as all Allied prisoners of war have been evacuated from prisoner of war camps, the German Government will arrange for the provision and maintenance of radio receivers capable of receiving broadcast programmes from the UNITED KINGDOM. Such receivers will be equipped with loud speakers on a scale of not less than one per hundred officers or less and one per hundred other ranks/enlisted men, and will be capable of operating to medium and short wavelength bands down to the 19 metre band inclusive. In each camp the operation of the receivers will be under the control of the senior Allied prisoner of war. Similar provisions will, wherever possible, be made wherever there are concentrations of Allied displaced persons.

Allied Civilian Internees

26. The German High Command will provide within 48 hours of receiving this order the best available information regarding numbers, names and locations of all United Nations civilian internees detained in Greater GERMANY, in respect of whom the above orders regarding prisoners of war will apply equally.

PART IV -- MISCELLANEOUS

Concentration camps

27. The German High Command will imediately after the surrender becomes effective take over the administration and control of all concentration camps. All existing guards and administration officers except such junior personnel as are required for the day to day administration of the camps will be arrested and kept in confinement pending further orders from the Allied representatives. Guards provided by the German High Command will be armed with rifles.

28. The conditions within the camps will be immediately alleviated and no punishments or restrictions are to be inflicted upon any of the inamtes [inmates] of a harsh or degrading nature. Food and medical attention will be provided on the same scale as is normally available to the Wehrmacht. All documents and records of the camp and its inamtes [inmates] will be preserved. No inmates of these concentration camps shall be released without the authority of the Allied representative.

Safety of Non German Nationals

29. The German High Command will take all appropriate steps to ensure the safety, maintenance. and welfare of persons not of German nationality and of their property, and the property of foreign states, and will comply with all Allied instructions relative thereto.

Release of His Majesty the King of the Belgians

30. The German Command will deliver up His Majesty the King of the Belgians, together with all his family, household officers and staff now held by the German authorities, at a place, at a time and by a method to be notified by the Allied representatives. The German High Command will be held responsible for the safety and welfare of His Majesty until he is so delivered.

--5--

Restriction of Movement

31. The German High Command will take appropriate measures to prevent all German Nationals from leaving German territory, except as authorized, and from non-essential travel in GERMANY.

Arrest of Certain Persons

32. The German High Command will take all appropriate means to ensure the apprehension all persons from time to time name or designated by rank, office or employment by the Allied Representatives.

Destruction, concealment etc. of equipment and facilities

33.

  1. The German High Command will take steps to ensure that there is no concealment, destruction, scuttling or dismantling of, removal or transfer of, and damage to, ships, transport, ports or harbours, aircraft, airfields, or aeronautical establishments, or any form of building, establishment, installation, device means of production, supply, distribution or communication, plant equipment, currency, stocks or resources, or in general public or private utilities, services or facilities of any kind, wherever situated.

  2. Any such measures already ordered, undertaken or begun will be immediately countermanded and discontinued. All stocks, equipment, plant or other material already concealed will forthwith be declared, and will be dealt with as the Allied Representatives may direct.

Protection of Military Archives and Records

34. German High Command will prevent and prohibit the destruction, removal or concealment of any records or archives of any nature belonging to or associated with any of the forces under or placed under their command. They will take all steps necessary to ensure preservation and safe custody of all such records and archives and will hand them over intact in such times and place as the Allied authorities direct.

35. The German High Command will prohibit the manufacture, production and construction of war material, and other products used in connection with such manufacture, production or construction, except as directed by the Allied Representatives.

Access to Property

36. The Allied Representatives shall be given access to any building, installation, establishment, property or area and any of the contents thereof for the purpose of the instrument of surrender or any proclamations, orders, ordinances or instructions issued thereunder.

Blackout Restrictions

37. The German High Command will order all forces under its command to remove all blackout restrictions at the cessation of hostilities.

Publication of Newspapers, etc.

38. The German High Command will ensure that all newspapers, journals, and periodicals outside the areas occupied by the Allies at that time cease publication forthwith, until ordered to recommence, for whole or in part, by the Supreme Commander.

--6--

PART V -- INLAND TRANSPORT, PORTS AND MERCHANT SHIPPING

Information required

39. The German High Command will arrange for the despatch to the Allied representatives of qualified officers and officials who will be able:--

  1. To report on the general condition of roads, railways inland waterways and ports.

  2. b. To give a general outline of the German organization for the administration of inland transport by road, rail and water and of ports and merchant shipping in GERMANY including details of the existing arrangements at all levels for coordination with the German military organization.

The Allied representatives will designate the time and place at which these officers and officials will report. Instructions will be given to these officers and officials to produce for the information of the Allied authorities more detailed information regarding German transportation facilities and equipment. (A provisional list of the information required is given at Annexure IV).

Measures to be taken by the German High Command

40. The German High Command will ensure that:--

  1. General

    1. All documents and information as required regarding inland transportation and shipping, facilities in ports will be made available to the Allied authorities.

    2. Appropriate officers and officials are immediately nominated to receive and give effect to orders to be issued by the Allied representatives concerning inland transport, ports, merchant shipping and crews.

    3. At the direction of Allied authority, specified organizations that have been dissolved will be reconstituted.

    4. German control of transportation facilities in countries outside the 1937 frontiers of GERMANY (except AUSTRIA) reverts immediately to Allied Control.

    5. The German Military Movement Control organization is maintained at the disposal of the Allied representatives pending further orders, and that all those forming part of that organization remain at their posts unless otherwise instructed.

    6. All German transportation personnel within GERMANY, and in territories outside the 1937 boundaries of GERMANY, will remain at their posts and will continue to perform their normal duties unless otherwise directed.

  2. Inland Transport and Ports

    1. Subject to orders from the Allied representatives, the existing administrative machinery for the control of transport facilities by road, rail and inland water, and of ports, is fully maintained and where necessary restored, and that all transport and ports facilities are efficiently operated and the required priority given to Allied traffic.

--16--

    1. All structures, installations and equipment, fixed or mobile, and all stores for the operation, maintenance and repair of the German inland transport system, by road, rail or water, are maintained intact and are placed at the disposal of the Allied representatives as and when ordered.

    2. The production and repair of locomotives, rolling stock, inland water and road transport and other necessary transport equipment is continued pending further orders from the Allied representatives.

    3. Immediate stops are taken to remove all obstructions and to repair all damage to the transport systems subject to any orders given by the Allied representatives.

    4. All obstacles, booby traps, mines, demolition charges, etc. are removed immediately from the roads, railways, inland waterways and ports and are disposed of as may be ordered by the Allied representatives.

    5. All dangers traffic, such as damaged permanent way and bridges, or bridges unable to carry standard loads, are plainly marked by notices giving adequate warning in English and French.

  1. Shipping

    1. The existing administrative machinery for the control of merchant shipping is fully maintained pending further orders from the Allied representatives.

    2. Damage or sabotage to ships and associated facilities throughout Germany is prevented.

    3. All personnel of the German merchant Navy or personnel engaged in shipbuilding in Germany, German or other, will remain at their posts and will continue to carry out their .normal duties unless otherwise directed by Allied representatives.

    4. All shipbuilding capacity is maintained and that the building of all merchant vessels and harbour craft in course of construction is continued in Germany unless otherwise directed by the appropriate Allied authority. No preparation for nor any building of any new merchant vessel or harbour craft is commenced unless ordered by the Allied representative.

    5. Repairs are completed to any vessels under repair in German yards unless otherwise directed by Allied Representatives.

--17--

PART VI -- TELECOMMUNICATIONS

41. Definition. For purposes of these orders the terms "telecommunication/s or telecommunication systems" shall be deemed to include all civil and military telephone and telegraph installations and networks, radio and broadcasting transmitting and receiving stations ( including broadcasting receivers and ship stations), RADAR and similar devices, and all other special communications systems employed by public or private undertakings.

42. Information required within 48 hours. The Chief Signal Officer of OKW or his accredited representative is to report within 48 hours of the surrender to ............................................ by......................................... at ....... ........ ........ He will bring with him the following information and adequate staff with sufficient detailed knowledge of these matters to provide any further information that may be required.

  1. Information concerning all telecommunications (including RADAR), both military and civilian, serving directly and/or indirectly OKW, OKH, OKM, and RIM (including OKL).

  2. Details of all telecommunications linking prisoner of war camps with Wehrkreise Headquarters.

  3. Details of all code and cipher systems including cipher machinery and books employed by the German civil or military authorities either in GERMANY or in the occupied countries, together will full information regarding their method of operation.

  4. A copy of all call sign and code name systems used by GERMANY and/or her Allies in operating W/T and R/T communication, both civil and military, either in GERMANY or in the other countries.

  5. The locations of all W/T, R/T and radar stations used for Intelligence purposes, and details of the organization thereof.

  6. Details of all civil and military radio frequency allocations made by German authorities.

  7. Complete information relative to landmines, demolition explosives and the like on all cable landing beaches, cable and overhead routes, telecommunication installations and their buildings.

  8. Locations of the Reichspost State Post Directorate Headquarters.

43. Information required within fourteen days of the cessation of hostilities the following information:--

  1. The location of headquarters of all naval, military and air force formations or units with details as to their communications, including outlets to the civil communications networks.

  2. Location and details of static W/T and R/T (including broadcasting) stations in GERMANY and German occupied countries.

  3. Details of power supplies and installations from which power for telecommunications is derived, including emergency power supplies.

  4. The names and locations of research laboratories, factories, etc. engaged in research or development connected with telecommunications.

  5. The names and locations of factories and workshops engaged in the production and/or repair of telecommunications or electric power equipment.

  6. Such other information as may be required.

--18--

Sabotage

44. The German High Command will prevent sabotage, unauthorized removal or other damage to civil or military telecommunications systems, or their component parts, both before and after these communications are taken over by Allied forces.

Handing over Telecommunications Systems

45. The German Authorities will hand over such telecommunications systems, equipment and clumps as may be ordered, together with all associated equipment stocks of maintenance stores and spares and relevant records. Such records will include full details of all telegraph and telephone circuits, both radio and line together with associated terminal equipment, repeater equipment, switchboards and other associated apparatus.

46. The above systems will be handed over to the Local Allied Military Commander who will have absolute discretion as to the future status of the systems.

Provision of Advisory and Liaison Personnel to Allied Military Headquarters

47. While the Allied Forces are in process of assuming control of designated sections of the telecommunications systems in GERMANY and the liberated countries, the German Authorities will be prepared to furnish telecommunication technical executive personnel of the appropriate status to all Allied Military Headquarters as may be ordered. Such personnel will be those best qualified to interpret the telecommunication records mentioned above and of such grade and status as to be capable of acting as the channel for the transmission of Allied orders regarding future operations of the various telecommunications systems.

Staffing of System

48. All executive operating and maintenance staffs, military and civilian, will remain at their posts until otherwise ordered by the Allied Representatives.

Addresses of Personnel

49. The German authorities will furnish lists of the names, subunits and units of German Military telecommunication personnel, and lists of the names and addresses of all civilian telecommunication personnel, employed on the military or civil systems with indication of position held.

Closing down and re-opening of Telecommunication Systems

50. Immediately on the cessation of hostilities, and unless otherwise directed by the Allied Representatives, all telecommunication systems under German control will close down except the wire lines serving essential administrative needs of the community concerned. Notification of such wirelines as remain in operation will be made at the first opportunity to the responsible Local Allied Military Commander. Telecommunications Systems closed down on or prior to the cessation of hostilities will be reopened only on instructions from the responsible Commander or in accordance with the orders given in paragraphs 52, 53, 59 and 60 below. During this period, the German authorities, will maintain such system in working order. Any transmission under this paragraph will be in plain language and no cryptographic, privacy or other secrecy device will be employed.

51. Jamming. Devices for jamming radio or RADAR will not be operated.

52. Line Telephone Circuits As soon as practicable after signing the Instrument of Surrender the German Authorities will establish line telephone circuits for the use of Allied forces as shown in Annexure III.

--19--

53. Radio Telegraph Circuits. Immediately after the signing of the surrender, the German Authorities will set up, operate and maintain the radio telegraph circuits listed in Annexure III. The transmitters concerned will be of not less than three hundred watts antenna power, and will be manually operates by English speaking operators. Continuous wave signals will be transmitted. Receivers will be associated with each transmitter capable of receiving manual continuous wave signals from the far terminals indicated. Details of frequencies and call signs to be used are given in Annexure III. The English language will be used employing International (CAIRO 1938) procedure, and the International Morse Code.

54. Call Sign and Code Name Systems. All call signs and code name systems used by GERMANY and/or her Allies in operating wireless communication, both civil and military, either in GERMANY or in the occupied countries, will be surrendered.

55. Codes and Ciphers. The code and cipher systems including cipher machinery and books employed by the German civil or military authorities either in GERMANY or in the occupied countries, will be surrendered.

56. Factories and Workshops. Factories and workshops for the production. and/or repair of telecommunication or electric power equipment will be maintains, in working order and will be available for use by the Allies as required.

57. Research Laboratories. Laboratories engaged in research or development of telecommunications equipment (including RADAR), with their appropriate record will be made available to the Allied military authorities. Work in progress will close down, but all apparatus, material and casebooks will be safeguarded.

58. Removal of Mines, etc. The German authorities will be responsible for the removal of landmines, demolition explosives and the like, on all cable landing beaches, cable and overhead routes telecommunication installations and buildings of all kinds.

59. Communications for Allied Prisoner of War Camps. Instructions relating to communications for Allied prisoners of war camps are detailed in Part III of these Orders.

60. Telecommunications in NORWAY. Instructions relating telecommunications in NORWAY are detailed in Part I, paragraph 7.g. of the Supreme Commander Special Orders relating to Land Forces.

--20--

ANNEXURE I

LIST OF WAR MATERIALS TO BE WITHDRAWN
FROM THE GERMAN ARMED FORCES

German Category
    Number    
(Mr. der Stoff-
gliederung.)

1   Small arms including carbines, rifles, pistols, machine pistols, revolvers, bayonets, daggers, etc.
2   Machine guns, including carriages, mountings and accessories.
3   Mortars smoke projectors and spigot projectors and accessories.
4   All types of flame throwers, their components and accessories.
5   Infantry and artillery guns, including howitzers, rocket apparatus and breechless and recoilless guns and all accessories, including all calibration and testing equipment.
13   Ammunition, including projectiles, fixed ammunition, cartridges, rockets, self-propelling projectiles, smoke charges, artificial mist charges, incendiary charges, chemical charges, filled or unfilled, together with all fuses, tubes or contrivances to explode or operate them. Propellants, explosives, liquified gases and any components destined or suitable for the propulsion, explosion, charging, filling of, or use in connection with war material listed herein.
14   Grenades, mines, land torpedoes and demolition charges.
15   Asphyxiating, lethal, toxic, incapacitating or similar substances and products in any form intended or capable of being used for war purposes, together with weapons, and containers intended to their use, storage or transport.
20   Transport vehicles, not mechanically propelled, of the types used for war purposes.
21   Mechanically propelled vehicles, with sidecars and trailers, including armoured vehicles, such as tanks, armoured cars and self-propelled guns, multi-axled motor vehicles, wheeled tracked or semi-tracked designed for military use; all types of special military vehicles, such as wireless, ammunitions or mobile work-shops; mechanical and self-propelled carriages for weapons; mechanically-propelled transport vehicles, (prime movers and trailers, wheeled, tracked, or semi-tracked.)
24 a/c Code and cipher systems, including cipher machinery and secret writing equipment, with full information regarding their method of working.
24 a Secrecy equipment for wire.

--21--

24 b Radio/wireless transmitting sets and/or transceivers with ancillary equipment held by formations below Army Headquarters. Secrecy equipment for radio/wireless. All call sign and code name documents. All frequency allotments. Radar equipment utilized by the land forces.
24 d Pyrotechnics and components thereof.
25 Searchlights and their means of direction and control.
27 Military observation and survey equipment, including range finding, sound ranging and acoustic apparatus; aiming and computing devices for fire control, including predictors and plotting apparatus; direction of fire instruments; gun sights; magnetic, acoustic, ultra-violet or infra-red intruments for location of direction of aircraft, surface or submarine vessels, weapons or objects on land, or for assisting observation of fire instruments, navigation or control of aircraft, ships or vehicles, including tanks; monoculars, binoculars and telescopes for war purposes; and all other equipment for flash spotting, sound ranging or other means of detecting and locating guns, mortars or howitzers.
28 Bridging equipment material of military types on fixed or floating supports; infantry bridges. Pneumatic boats, assault boats and assault boat motors.
30 Engineering tools, equipment, plant and stores.
31. Camouflage of all types.
35. Cameras, lenses and photographic equipment and materials for war purposes.
38. Gas masks and collective protective devices for military purposes and all defensive equipment (including chemicals and clothing) whether of individual or collective use which are capable of being used to detect or protect against chemical warfare.
46. Harness for pack military equipment.
47. Gasolines, oils and greases used for the operation of maintenance of any war materials listed herein.
56. Railway rolling stock especially adapted for war purposes.

Miscellaneous

Maps, map reproduction material and survey data for countries outside the 1937 boundaries of GERMANY.

Naval Service

Naval vessels of all classes, both surface and submarine, and all auxiliary naval craft, whether afloat, under repair or construction, built or building; all aircraft on board naval vessels.

--22--

Naval weapons, including but not restricted to projectiles of all types, sea-mines, depth charges and torpedoes, together with their accessories, whether on board ships or craft or held on shore; offensive and defensive equipment and other war material forming part of the armament and protection of ships whether on board or held on shore; special machines and installations, not used in peace time in ships other than warships.

Equipment such as propelling machinery, main and auxiliary engines, boilers, pumps, motors, electrical equipment, etc., and all parts or sections capable of assembly into naval vessels and craft defined herein, whether unfinished or completed.

Equipment and means of maintenance of all natures for the defense of coasts, harbours, ports, anchorages and docks, means for detecting the presence, preventing the approach or countering the effectiveness of hostile craft or weapons, including nets, booms, obstructions, minefields, balloon barrages and the like; means such as minesweeping, mine recovery and bomb disposal apparatus.

Work in progress on Naval war material, whether finished or partly finished, including components, spare parts and sub-assemblies of Naval War Material.

Fuel dumps and installations of all kinds used for supplying the German Naval Forces.

Air Service

Aircraft of all kinds, heavier or lighter than air, erected or dismantled, including balloons, their accessories and equipment.

Aircraft engines, mounted or dismounted, and their accessories and equipment.

Propellers.

Cannon guns, machine guns and rocket guns special to aircraft; special turrets, mountings and gun-sighting apparatus; bombing apparatus; bomb sights operated by mechanical, electrical or radio means.

Aircraft instruments and test instruments; catapults or other launching apparatus for ship-borne, land or sea-based aircraft; apparatus for launching aircraft weapons.

Parachutes, supply panniers and containers, dinghies, aircraft oxygen breathing apparatus and all equipment specially designed for airborne troops.

Aerodrome equipment special for war purposes.

--23--

ANNEXURE II

LIST OF WAR MATERIALS TO BE RETAINED INITIALLY BY THE GERMANS

  1. Minimal numbers of rifles, together with ammunition for same, for authorized armed guards.

    1. All transport belonging to supply units;

    2. The minimum number of load-carrying vehicles sufficient to unable all other units to maintain themselves;

    3. Staff cars on the scale of one per twenty officers.

    4. All horse-drawn vehicles, together with horses, mules and the necessary harness.

  2. All Signal equipment except that listed in Annexure I to this Order.

  3. Necessary maps for administration purposes.

  4. Engineer tools, equipment, bridging material, plant and stores, necessary to maintain lines of communication.

  5. Necessary gasoline, oils, greases, spares and equipment for two weeks operation of vehicles which are not placed in dumps.

  6. Line detectors and bomb disposal equipment.

--24--

ANNEXURE III

LIST OF TELECOMMUNICATION CIRCUITS TO BE SET UP BY THE GERMAN AUTHORITIES

1. Line Telephone Circuits

Number of Circuits

From

To




(To be supplied by Chief Signal Officer, SHAEF)

The above circuits will be terminated in the first instance on the main civil switchboard at ..........................., ........................ and .......................... and on the international trunk exchange at BERLIN ........................ and .......................... or other switchboards which may be designated by the Supreme Allied Commander.

2. Radio Telegraph Circuits

Circuit
No.
  Far Terminal   Near Terminal
Location Call
Sign
Call
Sign
Freq in K.C. Location Freq in K.C.
Night Alter-
nate
Day Night Alter-
nate
Day
                     
                     
                     
(To be supplied by the Chief Signal Officer, SHAEF)

--25--

ANNEXURE IV

PROVISIONAL LIST OF TRANSPORTATION REQUIRED RELATING TO
TRANSPORT AND SHIPPING

The general condition as to the quantity, location and condition of:--

  1. Inland Transport and Ports

    1. Road transport vehicles (in categories).

    2. Stocks of road and railway bridging material (military and civil).

    3. Stocks of railway track material (including railway signalling material).

    4. Locomotives (steam, diesel and electric shown separately and by types).

    5. Railway rolling stock (passenger freight and special categories shown separately and by types).

    6. Cranes (floating mobile and fixed) and other mechanical equipment suitable for handling stores and bulk material.

    7. Stocks of locomotive and other fuel shown separately and by types.

    8. Stocks of lubricants.

    9. Materials and stores available for repair or renewal of road and rail vehicles and ancillary equipment.

    10. Materials, stores and equipment suitable for reconstruction and repairs to ports, lock gates, sluices and canals.

    11. Plants and sub-stations for the generation and distribution of electric power for railway and post operation.

    12. Tugs, self propelled and dumb barges and harbour craft in ports and on inland waterways indicating power and capacity.

  2. Shipping

    1. Materials for shipbuilding and ship repairs.

    2. The locations and name or identity number of all German owned or controlled merchant vessels in German ports and waters, and on inland waterways in GERMANY, together with general information as to type, state of repair and cargoes, if any, on board; also, if German controlled, nationality, nature of controlling. interest and how that interest was acquired.

    3. Location, and name or identity number of all German owned or controlled merchant vessels not covered by (2) above wherever they may be, together with general information as to type, state of repair and cargoes if any, on board; also, if German controlled, nationality, nature of controlling interest and how that interest was acquired.

    4. Nationality, location, and name or identity number of merchant vessels not German owned or controlled in German ports and waters and on inland waterways in GERMANY.

--26--

    1. Particulars of all merchant vessels under construction in GERMANY and of merchant vessels under construction for German account outside GERMANY with their precise locations and estimated dates of completion.

    2. General information regarding the state of merchant shipbuilding and ship repairing facilities in GERMANY.

    3. Particulars of any options to re-purchase or re-acquire, or to resume control of vessels sold or otherwise transferred or chartered by GERMANY, since 1st September 1939.

  1. Names, addresses and functions of the principal officers at Headquarters and Branch Offices are to be given down to the level of the Railway Divisional Offices, Waterway Directorates, Port Authorities or equivalent.

  2. Records or lists of organizations engaged in manufacture, assembly, repair, or supply of the foregoing items or of parts of these items and locations of drawings, prints and catalogues pertaining to them listed in a. and b. above.

--27--

APPENDIX 'C'
to Memorandum No.1

SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE SUPREME COMMANDER, AEF, TO THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND (OKH)
RELATING TO LAND FORCES

PART I -- GENERAL

Definition of Land Forces

1. For the purpose of these orders, all formations, units and personnel of the German Army, the Hermann Goering Parachute Panzer Corps, the GAF Field Divisions, Parachute Formations, Fortress Battalions and Flieger Regiments, units of the same, or any other units attached to or transferred to the German Army from other services, together with the auxiliary forces named below shall be referred to as the German Land. Forces.

Auxiliary Organizations to be placed under Command

2. Members of the following auxiliary organizations will immediately be placed under the command of the appropriate German land force commanders who will be responsible for their disarmament and discipline, as well as their maintenance and supply where applicable, to the same extent and degree as for units of the German Army:--

  1. In the area defined in Part I (GENERAL):--

    1. Schutz Staffel (SS) including the Waffen - SS

    2. Sturmabteilung (SA)

    3. Nationalsozialistiscnes Kraftfahr Korps (NSKK), other than those elements attached to the German Air Forces.

    4. VOLKSSTURM

    5. Adult cadres of the Hitler Jugend (HJ)

    6. Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD), other than RAD Flak units operating under control of the German Air Force.

    7. Organization Todt (OT)

    8. Every non-German formation or unit serving with or under the control or command of any part of the German land forces, as defined above.

    9. Every person not belonging to organization referred to above who is serving with or attached for duty to a formation or unit under German Army command or authority.

    10. Reservists and such other persons, units or organizations as the Allied Representatives may at any time specify for this purpose.

  2. In the German occupied areas of NORWAY, DENMARK and HOLLAND:--

    1. ORDNUNGSPOLIZEI.

    2. SICHERHEITSPOTLIZEI.

Representatives of the German High Command to report within 48 hours

3. Army representatives of the German High Command will report within 48 hours after the surrender is effective to ....................................... by...................................................... and will bring the following information and adequate staff with detailed knowledge thereof:--

--28--

  1. Outline order of battle and location of headquarters of all German land forces, down to and including divisions and similar units, (garrison headquarters, garrison administrative headquarters,) with names of commanders.

  2. Location of all departments of OKH -- including full official name and address of each department -- name and appointment of Senior officer or official of each department -- and chart of organization of OKH.

  3. Locations of all departments of Wehrkreis Headquarters including full official name and address of each department, and chart of organization of each Wehrkreis Headquarters, including Heeresabnahme and Rustungs organization.

  4. The general plan of administration and supply of the German land forces, including major points of supply, major routes of communication and estimate of the amount of food, fuels and medical supplies available.

  5. Outline scheme of defense organization in that part of GERMANY, defined in paragraph 1 of the Supreme Commander's Special Orders to OKW, and DENMARK, including general areas of minefields, flooded areas and other obstructions to routes of advance.

  6. Outline report of the general condition of all major routes of rail and road communications in the above-named area in GERMANY and DENMARK.

  7. Information concerning all telecommunications (including Radar) both military and civil, of headquarters and units referred to in paragraph 2 and sub-paragraphs a, b and c. above.

4. Information required within 14 days after the surrender takes effect.

  1. Detailed Order of Battle and location of Headquarters of all Land Forces, under German Command, down to units of the Field and Home Armies together with strengths of personnel and animals.

  2. List of all fortified localities with marked maps on a scale of not less than 1:100,000 and not more than 1:40,000.

  3. Maps giving accurate locations of all minefields and of all preparations for demolitions or sabotage.

  4. A complete list, with full name and address, of all depots, subdepots, parks, stores, dumps, offices, etc. at which army ordnance, ammunition, engineer stores, clothing, rations and POL are, or have been, or may be stored or kept, and of all mechanical transport parks, veterinary and remount installations, medical installations, welfare offices and pay offices, army river and forest control offices, and any Other depots holding war material, for the Land Forces under German Command. Locations will be marked on maps of scale not less than 1:100,000 and not more than 1:40,000.

  5. Locations of all garrison administrative headquarters, training area headquarters, barracks and hutted camps.

  6. Locations of the following:--

      Ordnance Groups (Feldzeuggruppen -- BERLIN, KASSEL and MUNICH)
      Ordnance Headquarters (Feldzeugkommandos at Wehrkreise levels).

  7. Locations and holdings of chemical and biological warfare agents and weapons.

  8. Actual file of the War Diary of the Ordnance Controller (OKH) (Feldzeugmeister) for the preceding month.

--29--

  1. Animal strengths of all installations, depots and static units with animals.

  2. Copy of the latest Field Post Register (Feldpostubersicht).

Representatives of Commander-in-Chief, WEST, to report within 48 hours

5. Army representatives of the Commander-in-Chief, WEST, will report within 48 hours after the surrender is effective at ...................................................... by ............................................... and will bring with them the following information and staff officers with detailed knowledge thereof:--

  1. Outline order of battle and locstion of headquarters of all German land forces under his command down to and including regiments and similar units.

  2. The general plan of administration and supply of the above-named forces, including all major points of supply and routes of communication and an estimate of the amount of food, all fuels, medical supplies and forage available.

  3. Outline plan of defense organization of the forces under his command, including general areas of minefields, flooded areas and other obstructions to routes of advance by rail and road.

  4. Information regarding telecommunications under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, WEST, as outlined herewith and adequate signal staff with detailed knowledge thereof, including the Chief Signal Officer of the Commander-in-Chief, WEST, or his accredited representative.

    1. Details of all telecommunications (including radar) both military and civil, of all land forces, including all armed auxiliary formations, down to and including regiments and similar units.

    2. Complete information relative to landmines, demolition explosives and the like on all cable landing beaches, cable and overhead routes, telecommunication installations and their buildings.

Representatives of other German Commanders to report

6. Representatives of the commanders of the following German headquarters will report within 24 hours atter the cessation of hostilities by motor transport bearing large white flags to the headquarters of the Allied unit as specified;

German Unit

Report to

Allied Unit

(to be completed at time surrender document is presented)

and will bring the following information and staff officers with detailed knowledge thereof:--

  1. Detailed order of battle of their respective commands and of all subordinate units and their headquarters and present strengths.

  2. The maintenance plan of their respective commands including an estimate of the amount of food, fuels, medical supplies and forage available.

  3. Plan of all minefields, prepared demolitions, and other obstacles to movement by road and rail, and a report of the condition of routes of communications, in their area of responsibility.

  4. Information regarding the telecommunications outlined herewith and adequate signal staff with detailed knowledge thereof:--

--30--

    1. Details of all telecommunications (including radar) both military and civil, of the German land forces referred to in sub-paragraph a. above.

    2. Complete information relative to landmines, demolition explosives and the like on all cable landing beaches, cable and overhead routes, telecommunication installations and their buildings.

Representatives of German forces in NORWAY to report within 48 hours

7. Army representatives of the German land forces of NORWAY will report within 48 hours after the surrender is effective as follows:-- One party by an unescorted plane painted all white to DREN Airfield, P0002; one party by sea to a position 56°47'00" NORTH, and 01°13'00" WEST where they will be met and conveyed to ROSYTH and will bring with them the following information and staff officers with detailed knowledge thereof:--

  1. Outline order of battle and location of headquarters of all German Land forces in NORWAY down to and including regiments and independent battalions.

  2. The general plan of administration and supply of the above-named forces, including major points of supply, major routes of communication and an estimate of the food, fuels, medical supplies and forage available.

  3. Outline report of the general condition of all major road and rail routes of communication.and airfields in NORWAY.

  4. The best available information regarding the names, addresses and locations (including latitude and longitude) of all prisoners of war camps in NORWAY including work detachments, prisons, hospitals, billets and other places in which allied prisoners of war are confined. Also the name, address and location (including latitude and longitude) of the railway station and airport nearest to each such camp, work detachment,. prison, hospital, billet or other place of confinement.

  5. The best available information regarding the number of prisoners of war of each nationality on the strength of each prisoner of war camp or other place of confinement, showing in each case the number located in each work detachment, prison, hospital, billet or other place of confinement.

  6. The best available information regarding numbers, names and location of all British and US civilian internees detained in NORWAY.

  7. Information regarding telecommunications under the control of German forces in NORWAY as outlined herewith and adequate signal staff with detailed knowledge thereof:--

    1. Details of all telecommunications (including radar) both military and civil, of all land forces, including all armed auxiliary formations in NORWAY down to and including divisions and similar units.

    2. Details of all telecommunications linking prisoner of war camps in NORWAY with the German headquarters.

    3. Complete information relative to landmines, demolition explosives and the like on all cable landing beaches, cable and overhead routes, telecommunication installations and their buildings.

--31--

PART II -- DISARMAMENT

Method of Disarmament

8. The German High Command will be responsible for the immediate and total disarmament of all land forces. All war material as listed in the special orders to OKW with the exceptions therein stated, will be immediately withdrawn from units and individuals and will be disposed of stated in the following Paragraphs.

Layout of Dumps for war material formed on Disarmament of Field Armies

9. All war material arising from the disarmament of the German Field Armies will be stacked in an orderly and proper manner as directed by the appropriate Allied Representatives. In the event of no detailed orders being received, it will be stacked in dumps of a division or equivalent size and, such dumps will be sited in relation to transportation facilities as far as practicable with a view to facilitating their subsequent disposal.

10. Unless instructions as to the layout of dumps are received from the Allied Representatives concerned, separate stacks or parks will be formed within each dump for the following main classes of material:--

  1. All armoured vehicles.

  2. All other vehicles.

  3. Artillery of all types except AA Artillery of the GAF and/or German airborne forces.

  4. Small arms including machine guns and mortars.

  5. Ammunition and explosives.

  6. POL.

  7. Instruments of all types.

  8. Personal equipment and accommodation stores.

  9. Engineer stores.

  10. Telecommunication equipment.

  11. Other equipment segregated by types.

  12. Pyrotechnics.

11. All vehicles and all types of artillery will be laid out in rows in such a manner as to be visible from the air.

Dumps formed on Disarmament of Home Army

12. Similar dumps will be formed to those in paragraphs 2 to 4 above except in the case of small units or detachments of less than 200 all ranks who will return their equipment to the nearest appropriate dump or depot.

War Material not held by formations or units

13. All other war material in factories, depots, dumps, parks etc. will be properly maintained and will remain in its present location pending further instructions. In the absence of further orders, material in transit may proceed to its destination where it will be placed in an appropriate depot or dump.

--32--

Depots

14. All personnel at depots and parks will remain at their stations pending further instructions and no depots will be closed down or disbanded without instructions from Allied Representatives.

Listing of War Material

15.

  1. Stock taking will be commenced forthwith of all war material of whatever nature and wherever situated which was intended for use by the German Land Forces or which is, or has at any time been in use by the German Land Forces. Lists of such war material will immediately be prepared by German Commanders concerned covering material held at all depots, dumps, temporary installations, factories, research centers and elsewhere. These lists will be consolidated on a Wehrkreis or Corps level. They will be compiled on a standard form, a speciment of which is attached as an Annexure to those orders.

  2. These lists which will be in quadruplicate will be completed within two months of the cessation of hostilities. Priority in listing will be given to implements of war.

16. German authorities will carry out the orders given by the Allied Representatives in supervising the control and disposal of war material. The system of accounting for receipts and issues of equipment as prescribed by the German regulations will continue. All records, inventories, stock states, etc., of war material at present or previously held in all installations will be made available as required by Allied Representatives.

Provision of Services

17. Any services that may be ordered by Allied Representatives in connection with the treatment and disposal of war material will be provided, and in particular the necessary labour personnel, both skilled and unskilled, and any plant or equipment together with operating personnel that may from time to time be required.

Responsibility for Delivery of War Material

18. When ordered to hand over and deliver any items of war material the German authorities will be fully responsible, unless otherwise instructed, for arranging its evacuation and delivery to the place nominated and for ensuring that it is handed over in good order together with any accessories that may be required. They will remain responsible for this material, until it has been duly accepted by the Allied Representatives.

--33--

Annexure to Appendices 'C' and 'E'

Specimen form for Listing Equipment

LIST OF EQUIPMENT HELD AT ______ Location of Unit/Dump/Depot/Installation Sheet No. ______
REPORTED BY ____________________ Date ____________________
REPORT NO. _______________ COVERING PERIOD _______________ TO _______________

(1)
Serial No.

(2)
German
Type
Number
(Ar der
Stoffglied-
erung)
(3)
Description

(4)
Service-
able

(5)
Unser-
viceable

(6)
Total

(7)
Remarks
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: Columns 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 to be completed by the German Commander concerned. After approval by the Allied Supervising Officer, the list will be forwarded through German channels to the Wehrkreis or Military District concerned. Allied Supervising Officers will forward one copy through Allied channels to Control Staffs concerned. CERTIFICATE: I certify that this is a true and correct statement of equipment held by the Unit/Dump/Depot/Installation under my command.
  Countersigned ____________________
Allied Supervising Commander

____________________
(organization)

Date ____________________

  Signed ____________________
Commanding Officer (German)

____________________
(organization)

--34--

APPENDIX 'D'

SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE SUPPREME COMMANDER, ALLIED
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, TO THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND (OKW)
RELATING TO NAVAL FORCES

PART 1 -- GENERAL

Definition of Naval Forces

1. For the purpose of these orders all formations, units and personnel of the German Navy together with the Marine Kusten Polizei shall be referred to as the German Naval Forces.

2. Members of the Marine Kusten Polizei will immediately be placed under the command of the appropriate German Naval Commanders who will be responsible for their disarmament and discipline, as well as for their maintenance and supply where applicable, to the same extent and degree as for units of the German Navy.

German Naval representatives and information required. immediately

3. The German High Command will despatch within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective, a responsible Flag Officer to the Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force at_____________________________ by _____________________. This Flag Officer will furnish the Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, with:--

  1. Corrected copies of charts showily all minefields in Western EUROPEAN waters, including the BALTIC as far as LUBECK (inclusive) which have been laid by German and German-controlled vessels or aircraft, positions of all wrecks, booms and other underwater obstructions in this area, details of the German convoy routes and searched channels and of all buoys, lights and other navigational aids in this area. The appropriate navigational publications are also required.

  2. Details of the exact location of all departments and branches of the German Admiralty (OKW).

  3. All available information concerning the numbers and types of German minesweepers and sperrbrechers in German controlled DUTCH ports and German NORTH SEA, charts that can be obtained without delaying his departure. This German Flag Officer is to be accompanied by a Communications Officer who is familiar with the German Naval W/T organization and who is to bring with him the current naval communication Orders, including allocation of frequencies, list of W/T and R/T call signs in force, and a list of all codes and cyphers in use, and intended to be brought into use.

  4. Location of all surface warships down to and including "Elbing" class Torpedo Boats, and of all submarines and 'E' Boats.

4. The German High Command will also despatch within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective a responsible officer, not below the rank of Captain, by coastal craft to report to the Admiral Commanding at DOVER for onward routeing to Commander-in-Chief, THE NORE, with:--

  1. Corrected copies. of charts showing all minefields in the NORTH SEA South of 54°30' North and East of 1°30' East laid by German and German controlled vessels or aircraft, positions of all wrecks, booms and all other underwater obstructions; details Of all German Convoy routes and searched, channels in this area, and of all buoys, lights and other navigational aids which are under German control. Appropriate navigational publications are also required.

--35--

  1. All available information concerning the numbers and types of German minesweepers and sperrbrechers in German controlled Dutch ports and German North Sea ports that can be obtained without delaying his departure.

5. Another responsible German Naval Officer, with similar information is to be despatched by unescorted aircraft painted white to_______________________________________. Aerodrome position __________________________________________ for onward routing to Commander-in-Chief, THE NORE.

6. The German High Command will issue instructions to certain German naval commands as indicated below:--

  1. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORTH SEA will despatch by coastal craft within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective a responsible officer, not below the rank of Captain, to the Admiral Commanding at DOVER for onward routing to Commander-in-Chief, THE NORE, with:--

    1. details of minesweeping operations carried out in the German convoy route between the HOOK OF HOLLAND and HAMBURG and in approaches to harbours between these two ports during the previous 60 days;

    2. numbers and positions of all British mines swept during these operations;

    3. details of all controlled minefields in this area and information whether they have been rendered ineffective;

    4. details of all other mining and types of mines employed in the harbours and. harbour approaches of CUXHAVEN, EMDEN, TERSCHSLLING, TEXEL, YMUIDEN, AMSTERDAM, SCHEVENINGEN, HOOK OF HOLLAND and ROTTERDAM;

    5. berthing facilities in the harbours enumerated in paragraph 6 a. (iv) above and the numbers of auxiliary minesweepers which can be accommodated;

    6. a list of all W/T and R/T call signs in use by the German Navy.
      Any of the above information which cannot be obtained without delaying the departure of this officer will be forwarded subsequently as soon as it is available.

  2. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORTH SEA, will also despatch as soon as possible by coastal craft to DOVER thirteen German Naval Officers who must be familiar with the German swept channels between the HOOK OF HOLLAND and CUXHAVEN. These officers will bring with them all the charts and books required for navigation in this area and will be accompanied by pilots (and interpreters if necessary).

  3. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORWAY, will despatch by sea within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective, a responsible officer, not below the rank of Captain to the Commander-in-Chief, ROSYTH, with corrected copies of charts showing all German minefields in the NORTH SEA, NORTH of 56° NORTH, all, wrecks, booms and other underwater obstructions, details of German convoy routes and searched channels in this area, of the approach channels to the principal Norwegian ports and of all buoys, lights and other navigational aids in this area. This officer will also bring with him the disposition of all U-Boats and details of all orders affecting their future movements. He will be accompanied by six German Naval Officers with pilots (and interpreters if necessary) who are familiar with the coastal swept channels between OSLO and TROMSO. These officers will bring with them all the charts and books required for navigation in Norwegian waters, and a list of all W/T and R/T call signs in use by the German Navy.

  4. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORWAY, will despatch a duplicate party to the above with similar information by air in unescorted aircraft painted white to DREM Airfield P.0002.

--36--

  1. The Naval Commander-in-Chief, NORWAY, will report by W/T to the Commander--in--Chief, ROSYTH, within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective, the following information:--

    1. Berthing facilities at OSLO, ChrISTLANSAND, STAVANGER, BERGEN, TRONDHEIM, NARVIK and TROMSO.

    2. The approximate quantities of furnace oil fuel, diesel oil fuel and coal at all the principal Norwegian ports between OSLO and TROMSO.

7. The German Admiral SKAGGERAK will despatch by sea within 48 hours after the surrender becomes effective, a responsible officer not below the rank of Captain, to the Commander-in-Chief, ROSYTH, with corrected copies of charts, showing all German minefields, wrecks, booms and other underwater obstructions, details of German convoy routes and searched channels, buoys, lights and other navigational aids in the SKAGGERAK, KATTEGAR, THE BELTS AND SOUND, KIEL BAY and BALTIC WATERS WEST of 14° E. This officer will also bring with him the disposition of all U-Boats in the above area and details of all orders affecting their future movements. He will be accompanied by three German Naval officers with pilots (and interpreters if necessary) who are familiar with the coastal swept channels, and channels in Swedish territorial waters, in the waters referred to above. These officers will bring with them all the charts and books required for navigation in these waters, and a list of all W/T and R/T call signs in use by the German Navy.

The German Admiral SKAGGERAK will despatch a duplicate party to that specified above, with similar information by air in unescorted aircraft painted white to DREM Airfield P.0002.

8. The Geman Naval Officers who will be despatched to DOVER and ROSYTH by sea will proceed to positions in latitude 51°19' N longitude 1°43' E and latitude 56°47'N longitude 1°13'E respectively, where they will be met by British warships and escorted to their destination. The ships or craft in which they travel are to fly a large white flag at the masthead by day and are to illuminate these white flags by night. These ships are to broadcast their positions hourly by W/T on 500 ks. (600 Metres) whilst on passage.

Information required within fourteen days

9. The German High Command will furnish the following information to the Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, at ______________________________ by _____________________________ within fourteen days of cessation of hostilities.

  1. Locations of all warships, auxiliaries and armed coastal craft operating under the orders of the German Naval Command stating particulars of the operational unit to which they are attached, giving approximate totals of all naval personnel embarked in each vessel, (including naval flak, and merchant ship flak).

  2. A statement of the organizations of all naval shore Commands, giving location of all naval establishments, including establishments for experiment and research, names of all Commanding Officers and Principal Staff Officers of the rank of Commander and above, and approximate totals of the personnel located in each establishment.

  3. A statement of the strength and location of all naval land forces, including naval infantry, naval flak, merchant ship flak and naval personnel manning naval coast artillery and full particulars of all coastal and port defences giving nature and locations.

  4. Lists of stocks of furnace oil fuel, diesel oil fuel, petrol and coal of 500 tons and more at, or in the vicinity of all ports between IJMUJDEN and HAMBURG inclusive.

  5. A statement of location of the principal naval armament depots with approximate overall stocks of each major item held.

--37--

  1. The following communications information:--

    1. location and details concerning all V/S, W/T (including D/F) and radar stations in use by, and under construction for, the German Navy, these details to include types and capabilities of all equipment fitted.

    2. details of the current naval W/T organization, lists of W/T and R/T call signs in force, and allocation of all frequencies for communication and radar purposes.

    3. location and details of all naval communications (including Infra-Red) and naval radar training and research establishments.

  2. Full details of all German minefields in the NORTH SEA, SKAGGERAK, KATTEGAT, BELTS and SOUND.

  3. Full details of the German naval minesweeping organization including the communications organization.

  4. Full details of the communications (including Infra--Red) and radar equipment fitted in all German minesweepers and sperrbrechers.

  5. Technical details of all types of minesweeping gear in use by the German Navy.

  6. Details of all mining and types of mines employed and of berthing facilities available for ships of 150 feet in length and 16 feet draught at:--

        BREMERHAVEN
        WILHELMSHAVEN
        SCHIERMONNIKOOG
        DELFZIJL

10. The German High Command will also furnish the Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, with two copies of all coding and cyphering systems which have been, are being, or were to be used by the German Navy with the necessary instructions for their use and the dates between which they have been, or were to have been used.

PART II -- CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT

Orders to warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft

11. The German High Command will forthwith direct all German and German-controlled warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft to comply with the following instructions:--

  1. All warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft in harbour due to remain in harbour pending further directions from the Allied Representatives.

  2. All warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft at sea are to report their petitions in plain language immediately to the nearest British, US or Soviet Coast Wireless Telegraphy station on 500 kc/s (600 metres), and are to proceed to the nearest German or Allied port or such ports as the Allied Representatives may direct, and remain there pending further directions from the Allied Representatives. At night they are to show lights and to display searchlights with beams held vertically.

  3. All submarines at sea are to surface at once, fly a black flag or pendant and report their position in plain language immediately to the nearest British, US or Soviet Coast Wireless Telegraphy station on 500 kc/s (600 metres), and proceed on the surface to the nearest German or Allied port or such port as the Allied Representatives may direct, and remain there pending further directions from the Allied Representatives. At night they are to show lights.

--38--

  1. All warships and merchant ships whether in port or at sea will immediately train all weapons fore and aft. All torpedo tubes will be unloaded and breech blocks will be removed from all guns.

  2. All warships and merchant ships in German or German-controlled harbours will immediately land and store in safety all ammunition, warheads and other explosives. They will land all portable weapons but, pending further instructions, warships will retain on board the fixed armament. Fire control and all other equipment will be maintained on board intact and fully efficient.

  3. All minesweeping vessels are to carry out the measures of disarmament prescribed in d. and e. above, (except that they will, however, retain on board such portable weapons and explosives as are required for minesweeping purposes) and are to be prepared immediately for minesweeping service under the direction of the Allied Representatives. They will complete with fuel where necessary.

  4. All German salvage vessels are to carry out the measures of disarmament prescribed in d. and e. above (except that they will retain on board such explosives as are required for salvage purpose.) These vessels, together with all salvage equipment and personnel, are to be prepared for immediate salvage operations under the direction of the Allied Representatives, completing with fuel where necessary for this purpose.

  5. The movement of transport on the inland waterways of GERMANY may continue, subject to orders from the Allied Representatives. No vessels moving on inland waterways will proceed to neutral waters.

Naval aircraft

12. The German high Command will forthwith direct that:--

  1. German naval aircraft are not to leave the ground or water or ship pending directions from the Allied Representatives;

  2. naval aircraft in the air are to return immediately to their bases.

Neutral shipping

13. The German High Command will forthwith direct that all neutral merchant ships in German and German-controlled ports are to be detained pending further directions from the Allied Representatives.

Orders relating to sabotage, scuttling, safety measures, pilotage end personnel

14. The German High Command will forthwith issue categorical directions that:--

  1. no ship, vessel or craft of any description is to be scuttled, or any damage done to their hull, machinery or equipment.

  2. all harbour works and port facilities of whatever nature, including, telecommunications and radar stations, are to be preserved and kept free from destruction or damage, pending further directions from the Allied Representatives, and all necessary steps taken and all necessary orders issued to prohibit any act of scuttling, sabotage, or other wilful damage.

  3. all boom defenses at all ports and harbours are to be opened and kept open at all times; where possible, they are to be removed.

  4. all controlled minefields at all ports and harbours are to be disconnected and rendered ineffective.

  5. all demolition charges in all ports and harbour works are to be removed or rendered ineffective and their presence indicated.

--39--

  1. the existing wartime system of navigational lighting is to be maintained, except that all dimmed lights are to be shown at full brilliancy, and lights only shown by special arrangement are to be exhibited continuously. In particular:--

    1. HELIGOLAND Light is to be burnt at full brilliancy.

    2. The buoyage of the coastal convoy route from the HOOK OF HOLLAND to HAMBURG is to be commenced, mid-channel light buoys being laid six miles apart.

    3. Two ships are to be anchored as mark vessels in the following positions:--

          54°20'N, 5°00'E.
          54°20'N, 6°30'E.

      These ships are to fly a large black flag at the masthead by day and by night are to flash a searchlight vertically every 30 seconds.

  2. all pilotage services are to continue to operate and all pilots are to be held at their normal stations ready for service and equipped with charts.

  3. German Naval and other personnel concerned in the operation of ports and administrative services in ports are to remain at their stations and to continue to carry out their normal duties.

Personnel

15. The German High Command will forthwith direct that except as may be required for the purpose of giving effect to the above special orders

  1. all personnel in German warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships and other craft, are to remain on board their ships pending further directions from the Allied Representatives.

  2. all Naval personnel ashore are to remain in their establishments.

16. The German High Command will be responsible for the immediate and total disarmament of all Naval personnel on shore. The orders issued to the German High Command in respect of the disarmament and war material of land forces will apply also to naval personnel on shore.

--40--

APPENDIX 'E'
to Memorandum No. 1

SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE SUPREME COMMANDER, AEF TO THE GERMAN
HIGH COMMAND (RLM -- INCLUDING OKL & RDL)
RELATING TO AIR FORCES

PART I -- GENERAL

Definition of Air Forces

1. For the Purpose of these orders, the term German Air Force is deemed to include all formations, units and personnel of the Luftwaffe, including all civilian personnel engaged in aviation together with German civil controlled aeronautical and flak establishments, and the auxiliary organizations named in para 2 below, but not including the Hermann Goering Parachute Panzer Corps, G.A.F. Field Divisions, Parachute Divisions, Fortress Battalions Flieger Regiments, or units of the same transferred or attached to the German Army.

Auxiliary organizations to be placed under Command

2. Members of the following auxiliary organizations will immediately be placed under command of the appropriate German Air Force Commanders who will be responsible for their disarmament and discipline as well as their maintenance and supply where applicable, to the same extent and degree as for units of the German Air Force:--

  1. National Sozialistiche Flieger Korps (NSFK).

  2. Heimat Flak.

  3. Flak Units operating under control of the German Air Force.

  4. Elements of the National Sozialistiches Kraftfahrer Korps (NSKK) attached to the German Air Force.

  5. Women auxiliaries.

  6. Every Non-German formation or unit serving with or under the control or command of any part of the German Air forces, as defined above.

  7. Every person not belonging to an organization referred to above who is serving with or attached for duty to a formation or unit under German Air Force command or authority.

  8. Such other persons, units or organizations as the Allied Representatives may at any time specify for this purpose.

Representatives of the German High Command to Report within 48 hours

3. Air Force representatives of the German High Command and of all Luftflotten and Luftgaue in DENMARK, the German occupied areas of the NETHERLANDS and the areas of GERMANY defined in paragraph 1 of the special Orders to the German High Command (OKW) will report within 48 hours of the surrender to ________________________________ at ______________________________________ and will bring with them the following information, and adequate staff with detailed knowledge thereof:

  1. Outline order of battle by chain of Command together with locations and addresses of all G.A.F., Luftflotten, Fliegerkorps, Luftwaffen Kommando, Fliegerdivision, Jagdkorps, Jagddivision, Luftgau, Airfield Regional Command, Flak Korps, Flak Division, and Flak Brigade Headquarters, with names of Commanders.

--41--

  1. Locations and addresses of all units of the auxiliary organizations referred to in para. 2 above, with names of commanders.

  2. Locations of all operational units together with types and numbers of aircraft in such units.

  3. Locations of all departments of RLM, including full official name and address of each department; name and appointment of senior officer or official of each department and chart of organisation of RLM.

  4. Locations of all departments of Luftgaue Headquarters, including full official name and address of each department, and chart of organization of each Luftgau Headquarters.

  5. Outline of the organization for the air defense of GERMANY, in the WEST including fighter defenses, flak defenses, meteorological service, balloon barrages, early warning system, fighter control and aircraft safety organization.

  6. Lists of all airfields, landing grounds, seaplane bases and alighting areas within the areas defined in this paragraph.

  7. The general plan of administration and supply of the German Air Force, including major depots and perks of all kinds and major routes of communications.

  8. Estimate of the number of days reserve rations held at G.A.F. units.

  9. Information as outlined below regarding telecommunications under the control of the authorities defined in this para. and adequate Signals Staff with detailed knowledge thereof.

    1. Details of all telecommunications (including Radar), both military and civil, of the German Air force (including para-military organizations under para. 2 above) down to and including Airfield Regional Commands, Gruppen or corresponding formations.

    2. Complete information relative to landlines, demolitions, explosives, and the like of all telecommunications installations and their buildings.

Representatives of German Air Forces in NORWAY to report within 48 hours

4. Representatives of German Air Forces in NORWAY to report within 48 hours after the surrender is effective as follows:-- One party by unescorted plane painted all white to DREM Airfield P.0002; one party by sea to a position 56°47'00" NORTH and 01°13'00" WEST where they will be met and convoyed to ROSYTH, and will bring with them the following information and staff officers with detailed knowledge thereto.

  1. Outline order of battle and location of Headquarters of all German Air Forces in NORWAY with names of Commanders.

  2. Locations of all operational units in NORWAY together with types and numbers of aircraft in such units.

  3. Outline of the organisation for the air defense of NORWAY including fighter defenses, flak defenses, meteorological service, balloon barrages, early warning system, fighter control and aircraft safety organization.

--42--

  1. Lists of all airfields, landing grounds, seaplane bases and alighting areas in NORWAY.

  2. The general plan of administration and supply of German Air Forces in NORWAY, including major dumps and parks of all kinds and major routes of communication.

  3. Estimate of the number of days reserve rations held at GAF units in NORWAY.

  4. Information regarding telecommunications under the control of the German Air Force in NORWAY as outlined below.

    1. Details of all telecommunications (including Radar), both military and civil, of German Air Forces in NORWAY down to and including Airfield Regional Commands or corresponding formations.

    2. Complete information relative to landmines, demolitions, explosives and the like in all telecommunications installations and their buildings

Information required within 14 days after surrender takes effect

5.

  1. Detailed Order of battle

    Detailed order of battle of all GAF formations and units together with their locations, strengths and functions, including the following,

    1. Flak formation units, stating whether manned by German Air Force personnel, Heimatflak or personnel.

    2. Non-operational units and establishments at which there are aircraft, specifying numbers and types of aircraft.

    3. Units holding marine craft, specifying numbers and types of craft.

    4. Liquid fuel (including diesel oil) stocks of 100 tons and more, specifying approximate extent and nature of holding.

    5. Ammunition (including bomb, flying bomb and rocket-bomb, and rocket projectile) depots and dumps, and stores of Chemical warfare and Bacteriological weapons, specifying approximate extent and nature of holding.

    6. All other GAF units (including mobile units) engaged in supply and maintenance specifying functions.

    7. Complete information about the G.A.F. meteorological organization together with the names, positions and index numbers of all reporting stations surface and upper air, established since 1939.

    8. List of all GAF training establishments specifying location and nature of training.

    9. Signals Units specifying location and function.

    10. Research and Development units specifying location.

  2. Maps giving accurate locations within the areas defined of

    1. All airfields, landing grounds, seaplane bases and alighting areas.

    2. All static balloon and flak sites.

--43--

  1. Full details of the organization for the air defense of GERMANY in the WEST together with full details of the fighter defense, Flak defense, balloon barrage, early warning system, fighter control and aircraft safety organization.

  2. Full detail of the telecommunications organization of the German Air Force including wireless line, wired wireless and RV networks and organization for the purpose defined in subparagraph c) above.

Restriction of Flying

6. All German and German controlled aircraft, both civil and military, will be grounded immediately, removed clear of runways and/or strips, and their guns will be unloaded and bombs removed.

Balloon Barrages

7. All balloons will be hauled down, deflated, packed and safeguarded.

Meteorological Services

8. All German operated or German controlled meteorological services wherever located will continue to function without change other than those indicated in paragraphs, 8 and 9 or as ordered by the Allied Representatives.

9. Wireless broadcasts of meteorological instructions will be made in clear, in the standard international meteorological code. Such brodcasts will continue to be made at the same time from the same station, and on the same frequencies as were used immediately before the surrender and will include the full number of reports.

10. Meteorological recording flights will not be made.

11. Past records of weather observations, both surface and upper air made at meteorological stations will be left intact and made available on demand to Allied Representatives. All meteorological stations will be guarded.

Marine Craft

12. All GAF or GAF controlled marine craft in harbour will remain in harbour pending further directions from the Allied Representatives.

13. All GAF or GAF controlled marine craft at sea will report their positions in plain language immediately to the nearest British, US or Soviet Coast Wireless Telegraphy Station on 500 kc/s (600 metres) and will proceed to the nearest German or Allied port or such ports as the Allied Representatives may direct, and will remain there pending further directions from the Allied Representatives. At night they will show lights and display searchlights with beams held vertically.

14. Craft whether in port or at sea will immediately train all weapons fore and aft. Torpedo tubes will be unloaded and breech blocks will be removed from guns.

Airfields

15. All airfields, landing grounds and sea-plane alighting areas will immediately be cleared of obstructions and will where necessary and as far as station resources permit be made serviceable as quickly as possible and will be maintained in a serviceable condition.

16. Serviceable airfield equipment and facilities will be kept in good order. Damaged. and unserviceable airfield equipment and facilities will be repaired as quickly as possible and will be maintained in serviceable condition.

--44--

PART II -- DISARMAMENT

Responsibility for Disarmament

17. The German High Command will be responsible for the immediate and total disarmament of all air forces in accordance with these orders and any subsequent orders which may be issued by the Allied Representatives.

Method of Disarmament

18. War material as listed in the special orders to OKW with the exceptions therein stated will remain in site and will be held intact and in good condition at the disposal of the Allied Representatives. Such special action as is required with certain types of equipment is set out in paragraphs 19 and 27 below.

Aircraft

19. Except as specifically authorized by these orders or by the Allied Representatives all aircraft will be immobilized by one or more of the methods stated below, but under no circumstances will engines and aircraft be damaged in any way during this procedure. A uniform method of immobilization will be used for aircraft of each type.

  1. Removing one of the essential aerofoil surfaces from each aircraft e.g. rudder or elevator.

  2. Removing the main fuel pumps to the aircraft power units.

  3. Removing the propellers.

20. The following equipment will be removed from all aircraft.

  1. Guns (all types) and ammunition.

  2. Bombs.

  3. Gun sights and bomb sights.

  4. Bomb racks and gun turrets.

  5. Rockets.

  6. Radio.

21. All aircraft will be concentrated and safeguarded and all items removed from aircraft under paragraphs 19 and 20 will be segregated from aircraft, concentrated and safeguarded.

Flying Bombs and Rocket-propelled Weapons

22.

  1. All flying bombs will be immobilized by the removal of fuses, detonators, and fuel pumps.

  2. All weapons and projectiles propelled by rockets or similar devices will be immobilized by the removal of essential parts of mechanism.

23. Flying bombs and rocket propelled weapons and projectiles will be concentrated and safeguarded and all items removed from flying bombs and rocket propelled weapons and projectiles under paragraphs 22 a. and b. will be segregated, concentrated and safeguarded.

Anti-aircraft Guns

24. Heavy and light anti-aircraft guns under the control of the German Air Force will be neutralised immediately by the removal of the essential parts of the mechanism. Parts so removed will be segregated from guns, concentrated and safeguarded. Ammunition will also be concentrated and safeguarded. Under no circumstances will guns or equipment be damaged in any way during this procedure.

--45--

Small Arms

25. The exception of such weapons as are authorized in the special Orders to OKW to be retained for guard purposes, all small arms, including machine guns, will be withdrawn from individuals, concentrated and safeguarded.

Explosives and Gas Bombs and Equipment

26. Explosives. All explosives (including bombs, ammunition and pyrotechnics) will be concentrated and safeguarded. No ammunition will be withdrawn and safeguarded.

27. Gas Bombs and Equipment. Gas bombs and gas spray containers will be concentrated or safeguarded. If any bombs or containers are filled with gas, precautions will be taken against leakage.

War Material not held by GAF Units or in Transit

28. All Air Force materials located in factories and held by agencies other than GAF units, will remain in site pending further instructions.

29. In the absence of further orders material in transit may proceed to its destination.

Depots

30. All personnel at depots will remain at their stations pending further instructions and no depot or park will be closed down or disbanded without instructions from Allied Representatives.

Listing of War Material

31.

  1. Stocktaking will be conceded forthwith of all war material of whatever nature and wherever situated which was intended for use by the German Air Forces, or has at any been in use by the German Air Forces. Lists of such war material will immediately be prepared by German commanders concerned covering material held at all depots, dumps, stations, temporary installations factories, research centres and elsewhere. They will be compiled on a standard form, a specimen of which is attached as an annexure to these Orders.

  2. These lists, which will be prepared in quadruplicate, will be completed within two months of the cessation of hostilities. Priority in listing will be given to implements of war.

32. German authorities will carry out the Orders given by Allied representatives in surveying the control and disposal of war material. The system of accounting for receipts and issues of equipment as prescribed by the German regulations will continue. All records, inventories, stock states, etc. of war material at present or previously held in all installations will be made available as required by Allied Representatives.

Provision of Services

33 Any services tat may be ordered by Allied Representatives in connection with the treatment and disposal of war material will be provided, and in particular the necessary labour personnel, both skilled and unskilled, and any plant or equipment together with operating perrsonnel that may from time be required.

Responsibility for Delivery of War Material

34. When ordered to hand over and deliver any items of war material the German authorities will be fully responsible, unless otherwise instructed, for arranging its evacuation and delivery to the place nominated and for ensuring that it is handed over in good order together with any accessories that may be required. They will remain responsible for this material until it has been duly accepted by the Allied Representatives.

--46--

Annexure to Appendices 'C' and 'E'

Specimen form for Listing Equipment

LIST OF EQUIPMENT HELD AT ______ Location of Unit/Dump/Depot/Installation Sheet No. ______
REPORTED BY ____________________ Date ____________________
REPORT NO. _______________ COVERING PERIOD _______________ TO _______________

(1)
Serial No.

(2)
German
Type
Number
(Ar der
Stoffglied-
erung)
(3)
Description

(4)
Service-
able

(5)
Unser-
viceable

(6)
Total

(7)
Remarks
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE: Columns 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 to be completed by the German Commander concerned. After approval by the Allied Supervising Officer, the list will be forwarded through German channels to the Wehrkreis or Military District concerned. Allied Supervising Officers will forward one copy through Allied channels to Control Staffs concerned. CERTIFICATE: I certify that this is a true and correct statement of equipment held by the Unit/Dump/Depot/Installation under my command.
  Countersigned ____________________
Allied Supervising Commander

____________________
(organization)

Date ____________________

  Signed ____________________
Commanding Officer (German)

____________________
(organization)

--47--

APPENDIX 'F'

MEASURES THAT MAY BE TAKEN TO ENFORCE THE TERMS OF
SURRENDER OR IN THE EVENT OF NO SURRENDER TO COMPEL
THE ENEMY TO COMPLY WITH THE LAWS OF WAR

General

  1. Definitions

    1. Sanctions

      The Instrument of Surrender will provide for an immediate cessation of hostilities and for compliance on the part of the enemy with the regulations, orders and enactments promulgated by or on behalf of the Supreme Commander. The measures which may be taken to enforce these terms are properly described as sanctions. They include the judicial and disciplinary measures set out in 'ECLIPSE' Memorandum 19, together with such exceptional military measures as may be necessary in the event of continuous and widespread evasion of the Surrender Terms and/or disobedience of the enactments and orders of the Supreme Commander.

    2. Reprisals

      Should no surrender take place and Organized resistance be continued by elements of the German armed forces or by civilians, the Allied Forces may be compelled to enforce compliance with the rules of war on the part of such military personnel or civilians. Acts done for this purpose are properly termed reprisals; they are normally illegal and may only be resorted to in the event of the commission by the enemy of illegal acts of warfare.

  2. Limitations.ot the use of Sanctions and Reprisals.

    Neither reprisals nor sanctions, apart from judicial or disciplinary measures, may be employed except as a lest resort when all other measures to enforce the terms of surrender or compliance with the Laws of War have failed.

    In no case will reprisals be taken against Prisoners of War.

    Measures which may be taken

  1. Subject to the above the measures described in paragraphs 4 to 6 below may be taken either as sanctions or reprisals.

  2. Forced Evacuation of Communities

    In cases of recurrent sniping or similar action against the security of the forces of occupation, of such character that specific offenders cannot be identified and organized community participation of some sort is apparently involved, orders may be given for enforced evacuation of all or part of the city, town or village in which the hostile action occurred, as may be deemed necessary to make such action effective.

  3. Destruction of Communities

    If the measures described in para. 4 above prove ineffective or their carrying out would involve a disproportionate danger to the forces of occupation, the destruction of all or part of a city, town or village nay be resorted to either by bombing, or by artillery fire, or by burning. An operation of this type should not be resorted to unless sufficient notice has first been given to the inhabitants to permit their prompt evacuation of the area. The use of bombing is discussed in para. 6 below.

--48--

  1. Bombing

    Conditions may arise where serious or widespread hostile acts are being committed by the Germans. Under such circumstances, bombing or other forms of air action may be employed as a military measure subject to the following conditions.

    1. The decision to resort to air action on a major scale rests with the Supreme Commander.

    2. If in the opinion of an Army Group Commander action within the capacity of the occupying air forces should be resorted to, he will request--such action through normal channels. No air action as a military measure will be undertaken without the authority of the Army Group Commander concerned.

    3. The principles relating to the use of air action within the capacity of the occupying air forces will be as follows:--

      1. Immediate application of the attack as soon as the requirement arises.

      2. The continuation of the attack at high intensity until the object has been achieved.

      3. Disregard of danger to civilian property which may be incidental to air action against a military target in the vicinity.

      4. Extensive publicity at air action which has been taken, as a deterrent to other offenders:

      5. Air action should be confined to the area in which hostile acts are being committed.

  2. Destruction of Private Property

    Private property which has been illegally used for sniping or other hostile action may be destroyed if such action is considered necessary for the. security of the occupying forces or as a deterrent to the enemy.

Hostages

    1. The taking of hostages is a further means of enforcing obedience to the terms of Surrender or compliance with the laws of War. It will in no case be resorted to without the prior authority of the Supreme Commander. The execution of hostages is not regarded with favour and will never be carried out in the absence of authority of the Supreme Commander.

    2. One of the uses to which hostages may be put after the occupation of the area by Allied forces is to force them to accompany military parties into buildings or areas which, after being cleared or inspected, are suspected of having been subsequently illegally mined or booby trapped, or to compel them to ride on trains or other forms of transportation liable to be damaged by illegal acts of sabotage in occupied territory.

    3. In the event authority for taking hostages is granted., they will be selected in an equitable manner and notification of such selection given to the community. This notification will contain an announcement as to the proposed use of the hostages involved, and a statement that the consequences of any illegal acts will fall upon such hostages.

Authority to order the use of sanctions or reprisals

  1. Army Group Commanders have power, except as limited by paras 6 and 8a, to order the use of sanctions and reprisals, and may delegate their authority in this matter to the extent necessary to ensure the prompt imposition of such sanctions and reprisals.

--49--

AIR STAFF
SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (FWD)
Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff (Air)

REF: SH AIR/TS 959/Air Plans 4 April 1945
SUBJECT: Operation "ECLIPSE" -- Memorandum No. 4 -- AIR LIFT PLAN

TO: See Distribution List.

1. The "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Plan is issued for the information and guidance of officers who require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of planning and executing "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations.

2. Part of this plan has already been put into operation, the remainder will be put into effect as and when required. Minor details of organisation and procedure laid out in the plan should not be regarded as rigid since these will be suspectible to adjustment according to the circumstances that arise.

3. Air Commands and Agencies not under command of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, are requested to give any assistance that may be required of them in the preparation and execution of this Plan.

For the Deputy Supreme Commander:

/signed/
J.M. ROBE
Air Marshal
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air).

--50--

DISTRIBUTION LIST

NO. OF COPIES
COPY NO:
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force. 1-30
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group. 31-51
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group. 52-96
Commander-in-Chief, 21 Army Group. 97-121
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army. 122-127
Commanding General, Communications Zone, ETO. 128-152
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional). 153-162
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air Force. 163-172
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force. 173-182
Air Officer Commanding, No. 38 Group, RAF. 183-184
Air Officer Commanding, No. 46 Group, RAF. 185-186
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Force in EUROPE. 187-191
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Force in FRANCE. 192-196
Commanding General, MTOUSA. 197-198
Supreme Allied Commander, MEDITERRANEAN (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in Italy). 199-208
Commanding General, UNITED STATES Strategic Air Forces. 209-223
Commanding General, MEDITERRANEAN Allied Air Forces. 224-225
The Secretary, The Admiralty. 226-233
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington D.C. 234-235
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office. 236-255
Adjutant General, War Department, Washington D.C. (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 256-280
General Officer Commander-in-Chief, Scottish Command. 281-283
The Under Secretary of State, Air Ministry (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command). 284-303
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command. 304-313
Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington D.C. 314-345
Secretary Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet. 316-317
UNITED STATES Group Control Council (GERMANY). 318-332
Control Commission for GERMANY (BRITISH element). 333-350
SHAEF Mission to DENMARK. 351-354
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:-
Supreme Commander. 355
Deputy Supreme Commander. 356
Chief of Staff. 357
Deputy Chief of Staff. 358
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air). 359
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) Rear. 360-364
Chief Administrative Officer. 365
Secretary General of Staff. 367-368
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1. 369-373
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2. 374-398
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3.

399-468
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4. 469-490
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5. 491-505
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2. 506-507
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3. 508-509
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4. 510-513
Allied Naval Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF). 514-516
Adjutant General. 517-519
Chief, Engineer Division. 520-523
Chief, Air Defense Division. 524-526
Chief, Signal Division. 527-535
Chief, Air Signal Division. 536-537
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division. 538-543
Chief, Public Relations Division. 544-545
Chief, Medical Division. 546
Political Officer, BRITISH. 547
Political Officer, US. 548

--51--

  COPY NO:
War Diary. 549-551
French Military Mission for GERMAN Affairs (thro' SHAEF Mission FRANCE). 552-557
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army. 558-563
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, SHAEF). 564
Special Force Headquarters. 565
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, SHAEF). 566-567
Special Operations Executive. 568
Allied Commission (AUSTRIA) (Air Force Division). 569
SHAEF Mission (FRANCE). 570
SHAEF Mission (HOLLAND). 571
SHAEF Mission (BELGIUM). 572
Nucleus Static District Staffs (Attention Colonel Martling) c/o Army Ground Forces Division, US Group Control. Council. 573-577
Historical File US. 578
Historical File BR. 579
File SH AIR/TS 959/Air Plans. 580

--52--

SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN

OBJECT

1. The objects of this Memorandum are to set out the machinery for Air Lift in "ECLIPSE" and to allocate general responsibilities for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Operations. Arrangements for certain particular Air Lift tasks are set out in greater detail in Appendices attached to this Memorandum.

TASKS

2 The Air Lift tasks to be executed during "ECLIPSE" may be summarised as follows:--

  1. The movement of specialist and other personnel and their accompanying equipment into GERMANY, including the air delivery of PWX Contact Officers to P.W. camps or their vicinities.

  2. Supply of scheduled emergency requirements to Ground Forces and Air Force advancing into GERMANY, including BERLIN District Command.

  3. Provision of ADLS Services, including those required for PR.

  4. The emergency delivery of food and medical supplies to Allied P.W.

  5. The evacuation of Allied P.W.

  6. Any other Air Lift tasks not previously envisaged and arising out of "ECLIPSE" conditions.

3. There is no intention in this Memorandum to refer to Airborne operations, the resupply of Airborne forces, or the delivery of supplies by parachute or glider under plans made by the First Allied Airborne Army.

CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH "ECLIPSE" AIR LIFT TASKS MAY BE IMPLEMENTED

4. Operation "ECLIPSE" is the military continuation of "OVERLORD" from the moment of a GERMAN surrender until control in GERMANY is taken over from the Supreme Commander by the Tripartite Government or by separate UNITED STATES and BRITISH Commanders. The definition of "surrender" is as follows:

  1. When the GERMAN Government and/or GERMAN High Command formally sign the instrument of surrender,

    or

  2. When the major portion of the GERMAN forces opposing us has capitulated or been overpowered. In this alternative, a decision will be taken by the Supreme Commander, as to when "OVERLORD" gives place to "ECLIPSE", and an arbitrary date for the changeover will be fixed.

It is considered that the latter of these alternatives is more likely.

5. The first day of Operation "ECLIPSE" will be known as 'A' Day.

--53--

6. It is clear, therefore, that the conditions under which "ECLIPSE" may be implenented are very variable and will have a considerable effect on the Air Lift tasks to be undertaken. The further the Allied forces advance into GERMANY before the final collapse occurs, the smaller will be the scope of "ECLIPSE" operations and of the Air Lift tasks related thereto. These in turn will be further affected by the conditions prevailing inside GERMANY at the time.

7. Plans must therefore, be sufficiently flexible to allow for widely varying conditions. It may be that it will be necessary to implement certain "ECLIPSE" Air Lift tasks before 'A' Day "ECLIPSE" is proclaimed; it is also possible that ''ECLIPSE" conditions nay occur in some parts of GERMANY while "OVERLORD" conditions prevail elsewhere.

AIR LIFT RESOURCES AVAILABLE

8. Subject to the operational requirements, the air lift resources that will be available will be as under:--

  1. Heavy Bomber Aircraft

    The number of aircraft that will be available will depend on the number and scope of other commitments at the time. At maximum, it will account to the figures quoted below, but it is unlikely that these will be achieved if any other commitments are existant.

    USSTAF -- Approximately 1800 B.17 and B.22 aircraft -- 38 Groups of 48 aircraft per group.

    RAF Bomber Command -- Approximately 1000 Lancaster and Halifax aircraft.

  2. Troop Carrier Lircraft

    Ater the requirements of Airborne operations (and their Air resupply of Airborne Forces) have been met, the balance of the troop carrier resources of the First Allied Airborne Army will be made available for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations under the operational direction of GATOR. At maximum, these will comprise approximately 1,400 troop carrier aircraft.

9. The above resources do not include those of the USSTAF Air Technical Service Command which will not be available for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations, but which will continue to be controlled by the Commanding General, USSTAF.

METHOD OF OPERATION

ECLIPSE GATOR

10. In order to execute the tasks enumerated in para 2 above, the present GATOR organisation will be expanded to include representatives of the following Staff Divisions and outside agencies. This expanded organisation will be known as ECLIPSE GATOR:--

--54--

11. It is emphasised that ECLIPSE GATOR is merely a means of expediting normal staff procedure between SHAEF Staff Divisions and outside agencies. The individual representatives of ECLIPSE GATOR will remain at all times responsible to their normal service chiefs to whom they will refer for instructions and guidance as requisite.

12. ECLIPSE GATOR will be activated by SHAEF after co-ordination with associated agencies, and will consist Forward and Rear echelons built up on the existing GATOR organisation as follows:--

Each of the three echelons of ECLIPSE GATOR will be coordinated by a senior officer appointed by the Deputy Supreme Commander.

13. It is not envisaged that ECLIPSE GATOR will be activated in its entirety at one step. Rather it is the intention that the existing GATOR organisation will be built up gradually by adding the above ECLIPSE increments as and when required.

14. At a time to be decided by .the Deputy Chief of Staff (Air), the "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Committee will be disbanded, and ECLIPSE GATOR will assume the planning responsibilities of the latter in addition to its responsibilities as an executive body.

15. The "ECLIPSE" increments of GATOR will be disbanded by SHAEF as soon as Air Lift requirements can again be handled by the . existing GATOR organisation.

Bids

16. General

Bidders for air lift will include any of the Naval, Ground Force, Air Force or other agencies participating in "ECLIPSE".

17. Bids for Movement of Personnel (see para. 2 (a) above)

Preplanned bids into movement of specialist and other personnel into GERMANY are already being submitted to the "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Committee who will accept, reject or modify them as necessary. On the disbandment of the "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Committee this task will be undertaken by ECLIPSE GATOR. When "ECLIPSE" occurs all those bids will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR for implementation in the light of the available Air Lift resources and of the other Air Lift tasks arising at the time (see the remainder of para. 2 above). Bids for the movement of personnel that arise after "ECLIPSE" has begun will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29 and SHAEF Administrative Memorandum No.18.

18. Bids for Supply of Scheduled and Emergency Requirements of Ground and Air Forces advancing into GERMANY (see para. 2 (b) above)

These bids will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR in accordance with the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29 and SHAEF Administrative Memorandum No. 18. It is the intention that Army Groups, Com Zone and Tactical Air Forces should continue to receive scheduled air supply as heretofore and, subject to any over-riding commitments that may arise, ECLIPSE GATOR will allocate air lift permanently for this purpose.

19. Bids for ADLS Services (see para 2 (c) above)

Bids for scheduled ADLS Services will be submitted to CASO, SHAEF, as heretofore according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 9. CASO will then be responsible for obtaining the necessary air lift from ECLIPSE GATOR. Bids for special ADSL Services will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR.

--55--

20. Bids for the Emergency Delivery of Food and Medical Supplies to Allied P.W. (see para. 2 (d) above)

It is envisaged that a proportion on of bids for the emergency dropping of food and medical supplies to Allied P.W. will originate at ECLIPSE GATOR Forward as a result of intelligence received by SHAEF. Army Groups may, however, bid to ECLIPSE GATOR for such supplies to P.W. in areas over-run by our ground forces. These, and bids for air landing supplies for P.W., will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29, and Administrative Memorandum No. 18 (see also Appendix 'E' to this Memorandum). Bids for dropping will be met from the SHAEF stockpile in the UK; bids for air landing will normally be met from the stockpiles set up by 21 Army Group/Com Zone on the Continent.

21. Bids for the Air Evacuation of Allied P.W. (see para. 2 (e) above)

Bids for the Air Evacuation of Allied P.W. will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No 29 and Administrative Memorandum No. 18. Sick and wounded P.W. will be evacuated under the same arrangments as for combat casualties. (see Appendix 'F').

22. Any other bids (see para. 2 (f) above)

Any other bids arising during "ECLIPSE", and not covered by the above paragraphs, will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR as they occur.

23. Allocation of Tasks

In the light of the conditions prevailing at the time, ECLIPSE GATOR will decide the allocation of tasks between USSTAF, RAF Bomber Command and Troop Carrier Formations, and will communicate those decisions, together with appropriate details of each requirement, to the Air Agencies concerned. The responsibility for making broad allocations of aircraft for air lift purposes will rest with ECLIPSE GATOR Forward who will also co-ordinate the activities of ECLIPSE GATOR Rear echelons.

24. The ECLIPSE GATOR Rear echelons will be responsible for arranging the movement of personnel and supplies to and from airfields outside GERMANY, and for co-ordinating the air ground movement as a whole. Should circumstances necessitate any policy change of programme, ECLIPSE GATOR Rear echelons will refer the matter for decision to ECLIPSE GATOR Forward.

PRIORITIES

25. The general priorities for Air Lift during "ECLIPSE" will be as laid down by the Supreme Commander, AEF, and modified by him from time to time. The current order of priorities is attached at Appendix 'D'. Within the framework of these priorities ECLIPSE GATOR will be responsible for deciding the relative priorities of tho various Air Lift tasks. The decision veil be taken by the G-3 representatives on ECLIPSE GATOR Forward. In cases of doubt, or if a change in fundamental priorities appears to be necessary, he will refer to the Chief of Staff, SHAEF, for a decision through the normal G-3 channels.

AIR TRANSPORT SERVICES

26. The air transport services provided by the BRITISH and UNITED STATES Air Transport Commands will continue to operate during "ECLIPSE". These organisations will not, however, carry out any air transport flights to or from new locations on the Continent without the prior permission of SHAEF, obtained through. ECLIPSE GATOR.

SIGNALS

27. The Signals Plan for the main communication facilities, required by ECLIPSE GATOR is at "Appendix 'C' -- Signals Plan for ECLIPSE GATOR Organisation".

CONTROL OF PERSONNEL MOVEMENT

28. It will be necessary for all personnel movement by air to be strictly controlled. In particular, it is probable that many unauthorised

--56--

persons, including especially undesirable GERMAN Nationals, will attempt to escape from GERMANY in Allied aircraft employed on the evacuation of P.W. and other tasks. It will be the responsibility of Agencies despatching and receiving personnel to ensure that adequate arrangements are made to screen personnel moving by air; Air Agencies will be responsible for ensuring that only those persons authorised by the despatching agencies are carried in their aircraft.

ALLOCATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF AIRFIELDS

29. ECLIPSE GATOR will request Air Staff, SHAEF for allocation of such existing airfields as may be necessary for the execution of air movement and supply under the provisions of this Memorandum.

30. All requests for the construction of now airfields for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift purposes (including rehabilitation of any existing airfields) will be made by ECLIPSE GATOR on Air Staff, SHAEF. The responsibility for the execution of such construction as may be approved will be determined by Air Staff, SHAEF, in consultation with the Air Force Engineers, SHAEF. In general this responsibility, not only for construction, but also for the maintenance and development of airfields allocated for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift tasks will be as follows:--

  1. For such airfields as may be located in US areas, the Commanding General, USSTAF.

  2. For such airfields as nay be located in BRITISH areas, the Commander-in-Chief, 21 Army Group.

RESPONSIBILITIES

ECLIPSE GATOR Forward

31. ECLIPSE GATOR Forward will be responsible for:--

  1. Deciding broad allocations of Air Lift tasks to USSTAF, RAF Bomber Command and Troop Carrier Formations.

  2. Allotting relative priorities to Air Lift tasks within the priorities framework laid down by the Supreme Commander, AEF, the decision being obtained through G-3 channels.

  3. Co-ordinating the activities of ECLIPSE GATOR Rear Echelons.

  4. Making application to Air Staff, SHAEF for the allocation and/or construction of such airfields as may be necessary for Air Lift purposes.

ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK)

32. ECLIPSE CATOR Rear (UK) will be responsible for:--

  1. Amplifying and transmitting Air Lift tasks to the appropriate agencies responsible for ground movement and supply in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  2. Co-ordinating the activities of all Air/Ground Agencies in .the UNITED KINGDOM that are participating in the execution of Air Lift tasks.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR Forward and other agencies as appropriate of the progress and result of Air Lift operations carried out from the UK, and of the availability of aircraft allotted to Air Lift operations.

--57--

  1. Co-ordinating its activities with those of ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (Continent).

ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (Continent)

33. ECLIPSE CATOR Rear (Continent) will be responsible for:--

  1. Amplifying and transmitting Air Lift tasks to the appropriate agencies responsible for ground movement and supply on the Continent.

  2. Co-ordinating the activities of all Air and Ground agencies on the Continent that are participating in the execution of air lift tasks.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR Forward and other agencies as appropriate of the progress and result of Air Lift operations carried out from the Continent, and of the availability of aircraft allotted to Air Lift operations.

  4. Co-ordinating its activities with those of ECLIPSE CATOR Rear (UK).

Individual Responsibilities of ECLIPSE GATOR Representatives

34. The individual responsibilities of ECLIPSE GATOR representatives are set out in Appendix 'A'.

Bidders

35. Bidders will be responsible for taking certain executive action to assist the implementation of their bids. Where those responsibilities aire not covered by existing Memoranda, ECLIPSE GATOR will issue appropriate instructions accordingly.

Other Agencies

36. The responsibilities of Air and other Agencies participating in "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations are set out in Appendix 'B'.

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS

37. Detailed instructions on various aspects of "ECLIPSE" Air Lift will be found in the following Appendices attached to this Memorandum:--

--58--

APPENDIX 'A' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF ECLIPSE
GATOR REPRESENTATIVES

GENERAL

1. The corporate responsibilities of ECLIPSE GATOR are laid down in "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 4. This Appendix defines the additional responsibilities with which individual representatives are charged.

CHAIRMEN

2. Each of the three echelons of ECLIPSE GATOR will be co-ordinated by a chairman appointed by the Deputy Supreme Commander, to whom each of the chairmen will be responsible for the corporate functioning of his echelon of ECLIPSE GATOR. These chairmen will be assisted by deputy chairmen as requisite.

REPRESENTATIVES

Representatives of SHAEF Staff Divisions

3. A-2 Representatives will be responsible for:--

Obtaining, collecting and providing ECLIPSE GATOR with all intelligence required for air lift operations.

4. A-3 Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on the air operational aspect of air lift.

  2. Deciding priorities on questions of applies for Air Forces.

  3. Selecting the air agencies for executing air lift tasks.

  4. Ensuring that decisions to use aircraft are passed to the appropriate Air agencies through their ECLIPSE GATOR representatives.

  5. Operationally directing troop carrier aircraft employed on "ECLIPSE" Air Lift tasks (other than Airborne operations and the resupply thereof).

  6. Securing information from the Tactical Air Forces regarding local conditions which may affect Air Lift operations.

  7. Initiating action for allocation and/or construction of airfields for air lift purposes.

5. A-4 Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Providing secretariat and accommodation for all three echelons of ECLIPSE GATOR.

  2. Advice on priorities affecting Air Forces.

  3. Advice on the selection of Air Agencies for air lift basics.

  4. The Air logistical/administrative aspects of the operation.

  5. In conjunction with G-4 representatives receiving and presenting all bids submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR.

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6. G-1 PWX Representatives will be responsible for:--.

7. G-3 Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Policy decisions regarding overall priorities.

  2. In conjunction with G-4 Representatives, deciding priorities on questions of supplies to Ground Forces.

  3. Securing information from Army Groups and SHAEF regarding local conditions that may affect air lift operations.

8. G-4 Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. In conjunction with A-4 representatives receiving and presenting all bids for air lift submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR.

  2. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the ratio of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted in areas over-run by our Ground Forces.

  3. Ensuring that instructions to implement ground movement and supply are issued to the appropriate authorities through their ECLIPSE GATOR representatives.

  4. In conjunction with G-3 representatives deciding priorities on questions of supplies for Ground Forces.

  5. Advice on priorities on questions of supplying and evacuating Allied P.W.

Appointed Representatives of Associated Operating Agencies

9. USSTAF Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on the employment of USSTAF aircraft.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR decisions to the appropriate USSTAF formations.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress and result of "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations undertaken by USSTAF and of the availability of USSTAF aircraft for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations.

10. RAF Bomber Command Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on the employment of RAF Bomber Command aircraft.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR decisions to Headquarters RAF Bomber Command.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress and result of "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations undertaken by RAF Bomber Command, and of the availability of RAF Bomber Command aircraft for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations.

11. First Allied Airborne Army Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Securing information from the Task Force Commanders of Airborne operations seising centres in GERMANY, regarding local conditions which may affect Air Lift.

  2. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted into areas captured and controlled by Airborne Forces.

--60--

  1. Co-ordinating details of the First Allied Airborne Army's operations with ECLIPSE GATOR operations.

12. War Office Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR instructions to implement ground movement and supply to the appropriate authorities under War Office control in the UK.

  3. Co-ordinating with Air ministry and Com Z (UK Base), details of ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

13. Com Zone (UK Base) Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR instructions to implement ground movement and supply to the appropriate authorities under UK Base Control in the UK.

  3. Co-ordinating with War Office and Air Ministry details of ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

14. Air Ministry Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice on ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR instructions to implement ground movement and supply to the appropriate authorities under Air Ministry control in the UK.

  3. Co-ordinating with War Office and Com Zone (UK Ease), details of ground movement and supply problems in the UK.

15. Com Z. and 21. Army Group Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Advice regarding ground movement and supply problems on the Continent.

  2. Transmitting ECLIPSE GATOR instructions to implement ground movement and supply to the appropriate authorities under their control on the Continent.

  3. Mutual co-ordination of ground movement and supply problems on the Continent.

16. BERLIN District Command Representatives will be responsible for:--

  1. Securing information from Headquarters BERLIN District Command, in BERLIN, regarding local conditions that may affect air lift.

  2. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted in BERLIN.

  3. Co-ordinating details of the movement of personnel and supplies into BERLIN.

--61--

APPENDIX 'B' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

RESPONSIBILITIES ON AIR AND OTHER AGENCIES

USSTAF

1. USSTAF will be responsible for:--

  1. Implementing the air lift tasks allotted to USSTAF by ECLIPSE GATOR. This will include the loading into aircraft of emergency supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  2. Co-ordinating detailed allocations of USSTAF aircraft to air lift missions with ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK or Continent as appropriate), so as to tie-in with ground movement and supply requirements.

  3. In conjunction with the appropriate Tactical Air Force, providing all necessary facilities for the operation of USSTAF aircraft on air lift tasks; this will include the reconnaissance of forward airfields and the establishment of forward control and servicing parties as requisite.

  4. In conjunction with Com Zone (UK Base), arranging for the movement to USSTAF airfields in the UK of food and medical supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  5. In conjunction with Com Zone (Continent), arranging for the reception of evacuated P.W. at airfields in FRANCE.

  6. In conjunction with Com Zone (UN Base), arranging for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W. at Air Ministry airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  7. In conjunction with Com Zone (UK Base), and Air Ministry arranging for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. at USSTAF airfields, in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  8. In conjunction with Com Zone (including UK Base), arranging for the emergency reception of UNITED STATES P.W. who, through weather or other causes may be landed at airfields not intended for their reception, both in the UNITED KINGDOM and on the Continent.

  9. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress and result of "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations undertaken by USSTAF, and of the availability of USSTAF aircraft for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations.

RAF Bomber Command

2. RAF Bomber Command will be responsible for:--

  1. Implementing the air lift tasks allotted to RAF Bomber Command by ECLIPSE GATOR. This will include the loading into aircraft of emergency supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  2. Co-ordinating detailed allocations of RAF Bomber Command aircraft to air lift missions with ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK or Continent as appropriate) so as to tie-in with ground movement and supply requirements.

--62--

  1. In conjunction with the appropriate Tactical Air Force, providing all necessary facilities for the operation of RAF Bomber Command aircraft on air lift tasks; this will include the reconnaissance of forward airfields and the establishment of forward control and servicing parties as requisite.

  2. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress and result of air lift operations undertaken by RAF Bomber Command, and of the availability of RAF Bomber Command aircraft for "ECLIPSE" air lift operations.

Troop Carrier Groups/Commands

3. Troop Carrier Groups/Commands will be responsible for:--

  1. Implementing the air lift tasks allocated to them by ECLIPSE GATOR.

  2. In conjunction with the appropriate Tactical Air Force, providing all necessary facilities for the operation of Troop Carrier aircraft on air lift tasks; this will include the reconnaissance of forward airfields and the establishment of forward control and servicing parties as requisite.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress and result of air lift operations carried out by Troop Carrier aircraft and of the availability of troop carrier aircraft for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations.

Tactical Air Forces

4. The Tactical Air Forces will be responsible for:--

  1. Providing any air reconnaissance required in connection with air lift tasks; this will include the air reconnaissance of P.W. camps in GERMANY.

  2. In conjunction with USSTAF, RAF Bomber Command and Troop Carrier Groups Commands providing all necessary facilities for the operation of aircraft on air lift tasks; this will include the reconnaissance of forward airfields and the establishment of forward control and servicing parties as requisite.

  3. In conjunction with their associated Amy Groups, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for Air Lift to supply or evacuate Allied P.W. in their areas.

  4. Advising ECLIPSE GATOR on the allocation of forward airfields in their areas for supply or evacuation purposes.

21 Amy Group (including GOC L of C)

5. 21 Army Group (including GOC L of C) will be responsible for the following tasks within the 21 Army Group area:--

  1. Provision, packing, movement to airfields and loading into aircraft of supplies for emergency delivery by air.

  2. Unloading emergency supplies flown in to airfields within the 21 Army Group area.

  3. Movement to and from airfields, including forward airfields, of all personnel, equipment and stores, being transported under "ECLIPSE" air lift arrangements.

  4. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted in areas under 21 Amy Group control.

--63--

  1. In conjunction with the Second Tactical Air Force, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for air lift for emergency supplies for Allied P.W. in the 21 Army Group area.

  2. In conjunction with the Second Tactical Air Force, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for air lift to evacuate Allied P.W. uncovered in the 21 Army Group area.

  3. Administration of Allied P.W. uncovered in the 21 Army Group area. This will include accommodation, documentation, movement to airfields, medical arrangements and security control.

  4. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress of 21 Arm y Group operations for the air evacuation of Allied P.W.

Twelfth and Sixth Army Groups

6. Twelfth and Sixth Army Groups will be responsible for:--

  1. Unloading emergency supplies flown in to forward transport airfields within their areas.

  2. Movement of personnel, equipment and stores to and from forward transport airfields in their areas.

  3. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted in areas under their control.

  4. In conjunction with their associated Tactical Air Force and Coin Zone, bidding to ECLIPSE CATOR for air lift for emergency supplies for Allied P.W. in their areas.

  5. In conjunction with their associated Tactical Air Force and Com Zone, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for air lift to evacuate Allied P.W. uncovered in their areas.

  6. Administration of all Allied P.W. uncovered in their areas. This will include accommodation, movement to airfields, medical arrangements and security control.

  7. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the progress of their operations for the air evacuation of Allied P.W. in their areas.

Com Zone (Continent)

7. Com Zone (Continent) will be responsible for the following tasks within the Communications Zone on the Continent:--

  1. Provision, packing, and movement to airfields of supplies for emergency delivery by air.

  2. Moving to and from airfields, personnel, equipment and stores to be transported under "ECLIPSE" Air Lift arrangements, including evacuated Allied P.W.

  3. In conjunction with Sixth and Twelfth Army Groups, and their associated Tactical Air Forces, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for air lift for supply and evacuation of Allied P.W. in Sixth and Twelfth Army Group areas.

  4. In conjunction with USSTAF arranging for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W. at the airfields in FRANCE to which a proportion of these will be evacuated.

  5. Accommodation and disposing of UNITED STATES P.W. evacuated to airfields on the Continent.

--64--

  1. Providing temporary accommodation for any BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. landed at airfields within the Communications Zone pending transfer to the UNITED KINGDOM.

  2. In conjunction with USSTAF, making arrangements for the emergency reception of Allied P.W., who, through weather or other causes, may be landed at airfields on the Continent not intended for their reception.

Com Zone (UK Base)

3. Com Zone (UK Base) will be responsible for the following tasks in the UNITED KINGDOM:--

  1. Provision, packing, and movement to airfields of supplies, for emergency delivery by air, other than supplies for dropping to P.W., see sub. para. (b) and (c) below.

  2. Providing packed rations and medical supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  3. In conjunction with USSTAF, arranging for the movement to USSTAF airfields of packed rations and medical supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  4. In conjunction with the War Office and Air Ministry, moving to and from airfields all other personnel, equipment and stores to be transported under "ECLIPSE" air lift arrangements, including evacuated Allied P.W.

  5. In conjunction with USSTAF arranging for the reception of UNTIED STATES P.W. at USSTAF airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  6. In conjunction with USSTAF and Air Ministry, arranging for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W. at Air Ministry airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM, including the provision of mobile reception teams as appropriate.

  7. In conjunction with USSTAF and Air Ministry, arranging for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. at USSTAF airfields in tho UNITED KINGDOM.

  8. In conjunction with USSTAF, making arrangements for the emergency reception of UNITED STATES P.W. who, through weather or other causes, may be landed at airfields not intended for their reception, both in the UNITED KINGDOM and on the Continent.

  9. Accommodating and disposing of UNITED STATES P.W. evacuated to airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

War Office

9. War Office will be responsible for the following tasks in the UK:--

  1. Provision, packing, movement to airfields, and loading into aircraft of supplies for emergency delivery by air other than supplies for dropping to P.W., see sub-para. (b) below.

  2. Provision and movement to airfields of packed rations and medical supplies for dropping to Allied P.W.

  3. In conjunction with Air Ministry and Com Zone (UK Base), arranging for the movement to and from airfields in the US of all other personnel, equipment and stores being transported under "ECLIPSE" Air Lift arrangements, including evacuated Allied P.W.

  4. In conjunction with the Air ministry, making arrangements for the emergency reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. who, through weather or other causes, may be landed at airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM that are not intended for their reception.

--65--

  1. Accommodating and disposing of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. after those have been evacuated to the UNITED KINGDOM.

Air Ministry

10. Air Ministry will be responsible for the following tasks in the UNITED KINGDOM:--

  1. In conjunction with the War Office and Com Zone (UK Base), arranging for the movement to and from airfields of personnel, equipment and stores being transported under "ECLIPSE" air lift arrangements, to include Allied P.W. evacuated by air.

  2. Arranging for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. at Air Ministry airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  3. In conjunction with Com Zone (UK Base) and USSTAF, arranging for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. at USSTAF airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  4. In conjunction with Com Zone (UK Base), and USSTAF, arranging for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W. at Air Ministry airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM.

  5. In conjuration with the War Office, making arrangements for the emergency reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. who, through weather or other causes, may be landed at airfields not intended for their reception in the UNTITED KINGDOM.

First Allied Airborne Army

11. First Allied Airborne Army will be responsible for:--

  1. Providing sufficient liaison to ensure that the Airborne operations of the First Allied Airborne Army are dovetailed in with the air lift operations undertaken by ECLIPSE GATOR.

  2. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted into areas captured and controlled by Airborne Forces.

BERLIN District Command

12. BERLIN District Command will be responsible for:--

  1. Informing ECLIPSE GATOR of the rate of flow at which specialist and other personnel can be accepted in BERLIN.

  2. Co-ordinating details of the movement of personnel and supplies into BERLIN.

  3. In consultation with the Air Command BERLIN District, bidding to ECLIPSE GATOR for air lift for evacuation of Allied P.W. from BERLIN.

--66--

APPENDIX 'C' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

SIGNALS PLAN FOR ECLIPSE GATOR ORGANISATION

OBJECT

1. The object of this Appendix is to provide for the signal communication required for the functioning of the expanded GATOR (ECLIPSE GATOR) organisation.

PROVISION OF CIRCUITS

2. No direct communications in the form of either speech or teleprinter circuits, will be provided for the exclusive use of ECLIPSE GATOR. However, one teletype circuit will be provided between Air Staff, SHAEF Forward and Air Staff, SHAEF Rear at STANMORE with first priority for traffic allocated to ECLIPSE GATOR.

3. Telephone speech communications required will be available through switchboards as indicated below:--

  1. From ECLIPSE GATOR Forward through SHAEF Forward Air Ops. Board to:--

    1. USSTAF Main.

    2. Second Tactical Air Force (RAF).

    3. Ninth US Air Force.

    4. First Tactical Air Force (Provisional).

    5. Bomber Command, RAF.

    6. ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK).

  2. From ECLIPSE GATOR Forward through SHAEF Forward Manual Board to:--

    1. Commander, BERLIN District.

    2. 21 Army Group.

    3. 12 Army Group.

    4. 6 Army Group.

    5. War Office.

    6. Com Zone.

    7. Com Zone (UK Base).

    8. First Allied Airborne Army.

  3. From ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) through Headquarters, Fighter Command, STANMORE, board for all communications.

  4. From ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (Continent) through Headquarters, SHAEF Main Board for all communications.

4. Teletype and radio messages will be passed through the normal communications channels of the headquarters at which the portion of ECLIPSE GATOR concerned is located; ECLIPSE GATOR Forward, ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) and ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (Continent) using the normal facilities of Air Staff, SHAEF Forward, Headquarters, RAF, STANMORE, and Headquarters SHAEF Main, respectively.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROVISION OF COMMUNICATIONS

5. CASO, Air Staff, SHAEF, will be responsible for arranging for the provision of the following communications and connections:--

--67--

  1. Allocation of one teletype circuit between Air Staff, SHAEF Forward and Air Staff SHAEF Rear, for primary but not exclusive use, of ECLIPSE GATOR.

  2. Telephone connections from ECLIPSE GATOR Forward to SHAEF Forward switchboard and SHAEF Forward Air Ops. Switchboard.

  3. Telephone connections from ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) to Headquarters, RAF STANMORE, switchboard.

  4. Telephone connections from ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (Continent) to SHAEF Main switchboard.

6. It will be the responsibility of any command operating at airfields on the Continent to provide any wireless equipment and personnel required to open up W/T channels from the airfields. Any equipment and personnel required for aerodrome control purposes should be included.

7. CASO, Air Staff, SHAEF, will be responsible for allocating frequencies required for specific locations under para. 6 above, upon application from the command concerned.

--68--

APPENDIX 'D' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

AIR LIFT PRIORITIES "ECLIPSE"

PRIORITY I

Operational Requirements

1. To include, in the following order, air lift required to:--

  1. Conduct bomber and airborne operations, and maintain air threat, including protection of Allied Prisoners of War.

  2. Effect emergency resupply of ground forces.

  3. Effect air evacuation of casualties, including sick and wounded Allied P.W.

PRIORITY II

Requirements to complete the defeat of GERMANY and to further the War against JAPAN

2. To include air lift for specialists who are required to seize and/or exploit vital targets (including first Priority 'T' Force targets).

PRIORITY III

Requirements for relief and maintenance of Allied Prisoners of War

3. To include airlift for introducing PWK Contact Officers into Prisoner of War camps ¬and for the dropping of urgently needed supplies onto camps.

PRIORITY IV

Requirements for the control of the GERMAN War Machine

4. To include air lift for specialists required to seize and/or control certain important Ministries, Second Priority 'T' Force targets, press and radio agencies and key armament factories.

PRIORITY V

Requirements for initiating the establishment of law and order in GERMANY

5. To include air lift for specialists required to seize and/or control certain less important Ministries. Third Priority 'T' Force targets, transportation organisation, public utilities, financial and economic agencies, and for the introduction of advance parties of Military Government Staffs.

PRIORITY VI

Requirements for Air Evacuation of Allied P.W.

6. To include air lift for evacuating P.W. other than sick and wounded cases included in Priority I above. Whenever possible, the air evacuation of P.W. will be phased-in with other operations of higher priority.

PRIORITY VII

Other Requirements

7. To include the introduction by air of important but non-essential officials.

--69--

APPENDIX 'E' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

AIR LIFT PLAN FOR EMERGENCY DELIVERY OF
FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES FOR ALLIED
PRISONERS OF WAR

OBJECT

1. To use air lift to drop emergency food and medical supplies to Allied Prisoners of War in the SHAEF sphere of GERMANY from 'A' Day "ECLIPSE" until their maintenance is assured by air landed supplies or ground L. of C. These arrangements to be extended .to P.W. in the SOVIET sphere so far as agreement with the USSR and our own resources permit.

2. Allied Force Headquarters, MEDITERRANEAN, are making similar plans for emergency delivery of supplies to Allied P.W. in AUSTRIA. Should weather, or other causes, prevent AFHQ from carrying out all or part of their commitments, they may call upon SHAEF for assistance in completing their task. Such requests will be given equal priority, with tasks to feed in the SHAEF sphere. AFHQ will render similar assistance to SHAEF so far as their resources permit.

3. There is no intention in this plan to refer to airborne, or other operations, undertaken with the object of protecting Allied P.W. from maltreatment or massacre by the enemy. This matter is the subject of a separate study.

COMMENCMENT OF THE OPERATION

4. The dropping of supplies to Allied P.W. will begin as and when ordered by the Supreme Commander, AEF. It is intended that this should be on 'A' Day "ECLIPSE", or as soon afterwards as practicable. It must be remembered, however, that the conditions under which "ECLIPSE" will occur are very uncertain; it .is possible that the dropping of supplies to P.W. may begin before 'A' Day; it is also possible that "ECLIPSE" conditions may occur in some parts of GERMANY, while "OVERLORD" conditions prevail elsewhere.

SCOPE OF THE OPERATION

Numbers of Allied P.W.

5. The number and distribution of Allied P.W. in GERMANY is currently as follows:--

SHAEF Sphere

SOVIET Sphere

AUSTRIA

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 105,000

80,000

14,700
UNITED STATES 29,000

44,000

4,400
FRENCH 360,000

SOVIET 400,000

Other Allied Nationals 200,000

TOTAL: 1,054,000

Nature of Commitment

6. It is estimated that 60% of Allied P.W. in the SHAEF sphere will require to be fed from the air. Allowing for greatly increased effort on good flying days in order to build-up supplies at P.W. camps against days when air delivery will not be possible, it is calculated that the maximum effort in any one day will not exceed:--

--1--

USSTAF - 440 Heavy Bomber Sorties.
RAF Bomber Command - 320 Heavy Bomber Sorties.
(For details of aircraft and loading, see paras. 11 -- 13 and 24 below).

7. The duration of this commitment will, of course, depend upon the conditions under which "ECLIPSE" is implemented, but it is considered that, in general, it should be completed within 14 days.

CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH ALLIED P.W. ARE HELD IN GERMANY

8. A proportion of P.W. including all BRITISH and UNITED STATES Officers and aircrews, are confined in wired camps under strict guard. The great majority, however, are held in working camps in which they are confined by night only, going out each day to work. While BRITISH and UNITED STATES personnel in working camps are generally closely guarded, the status of many P.W. of other nationalities approximates more closely to that of displaced persons. The number of P.W. in any one camp varies from less than 100 in small working camps, or component camps of working camps, to over 30,000. It is known that the standard of rations is low, and it is believed that, but for Red Cross parcels, the death rate from starvation would be high.

9. P.W. camps are generally dispersed throughout GERMANY, and are not concentrated in any one district, many camps are located in thinly populated areas. It is unusual for a P.W. camp to be situated close to airfields, and the majority are from 10 to 30 miles distant from the nearest airfield.

10. Recent RUSSIAN advances have caused large movements of P.W., which have been moved from East to West; the majority of these movements having been made on foot. It is probable that such movements will be intensified as the Allied forces advance still further into GERMANY in the latter stages before "ECLIPSE". When collapse occurs, therefore, we must expect to find that many large last minute changes have been made in the distribution of P.W. Moreover, there are likely to be considerable numbers of P.W. not located in any camp, since they will be in transit from one camp to another when the collapse occurs.

GENERAL METHOD OF SUPPLY

11. From the above, it will be seen that the vast majority of Allied P.W. are detained in camps which may be many miles distant from the nearest airfields. Moreover, our P.W. are likely to be most in need of assistance in the period between 'A' Day "ECLIPSE" and the over-running of their, camps by our advancing armies. During this period, the necessary airfields for "air landed" supply operations could be obtained only by airborne operations, on a very large scale for which resources are not available. Further, even if airfields could be secured in this way. it would be generally impracticable to introduce sufficient transport to convey the supplies from the captured airfields to the P.W. camps or places where P.W. have collected.

12. Accordingly, it is intended that, initially, food and medical supplies for P.W. camps shall be dropped from the air directly onto the camps, or their immediate vicinities. Owing to their range and suitability for dropping operations, the heavy bomber aircraft of USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command made available for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift Operations (see "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 4, para. 8), will be employed on this task whenever practicable. Later, as the P.W. camps are over-run, but before the ground L. of C. is adequate to maintain the P.W., supplies may be air landed on adjacent airfields for distribution by Allied Ground Forces. Such air landing of supplies will, however, be dealt with as for normal air resupply of Ground Forces, vide SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29 and SHAEF Administrative Memorandum No. 18; this aspect is not covered by this paper; the supplies will be provided from Army Group resources.

--2--

13. When employed on dropping supplies to P.W. the heavy bomber aircraft of USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command will operate from their normal airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM, to which supplies for P.W. will be distributed by War Office and Com Z (UK Base) (in conjunction with USSTAF). Supplies will be loaded into aircraft under arrangements to be made by USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command. Owing to the scope of the operations, it is the intention that the majority of supplies, other than medical supplies, will be free-dropped, as this method will permit aircraft to carry larger loads. Medical supplies will be packed in containers and dropped by parachute.

INTELLIGENCE ON P.W. CAMPS

14. Intelligence for air lift operations in aid of P.W. in GERMANY is being collected by SHAEF (A-2 Division) and will be collated, published and distributed to all concerned by Air Ministry. This Intelligence will be in the form of. "Target" data, and as far as possible, these "Target Sheets" will contain the following information; it must be remembered, however, that detailed intelligence of certain aspects of P.W. camps is very difficult to obtain:--

  1. Locations of P.W. camps with number of P.W. by Nationality, and, in the case of UNITED STATES and BRITISH P.W., by Service if possible.

  2. A small scale air photograph of each camp and its surroundings.

  3. A large scale air photograph of each camp, annotated to show detailed layout.

  4. Information on local terrain with particular reference to suitability for airborne operations.

  5. Locations of airfields in the vicinity of P.W. camps, and normal airfield data relating thereto.

  6. A small scale air photograph of each airfield and its surroundings.

  7. A large scale air photograph of each airfield annotated to show detailed layout.

  8. Information on road and other communications between P.W. camps and airfields.

  9. Such information as can be obtained relating to:--

    1. Camp Guards and Defences.

    2. Flak and other defences in the neighbourhood of camps and adjacent airfields.

    3. Local Military and para-military formations.

    4. Information on the local population, including food situation and probable attitude to P.W.

15. This intelligence will be distributed to ECLIPSE GATOR Echelons, Tactical Air Forces and Air Agencies concerned.

16. The above information will constitute the basic intelligence for "ECLIPSE" Air Lift operations for feeding P.W., and will form a basis for calculating the supplies required by any camp in need, and for selection of Dropping Zones. It must be appreciated, however, that large changes in the distribution and situation of P.W. are likely to take place immediately before and after 'A' Day "ECLIPSE". When "ECLIPSE" is implemented, therefore, the following action will be undertaken to ascertain the current position in regard to P.W.:--

--3--

  1. Tactical Air Forces will make frequent reconnaissances, daily if possible, of all P.W. camps and their vicinities in their areas. Subject to range considerations and to agreement with the RUSSIANS, these reconnaissance flights will be extended to include camps in the RUSSIAN sphere. P.W. are being instructed as to the signals to be displayed to Reconnaissance aircraft. (For details of signals see Annexure 'I').

  2. Recce teams under SHAEF control will be introduced into the areas of P.W. camps, and other areas where the presence of numbers of P.W. is suspected, and will report back by wireless as to the onditions obtaining. These teams are being instructed as to the method of marking D.Z. for the dropping of food if required.

  3. PWX Contact Officers will be introduced into P.W. camps. In certain cases these officers may be introduced by air, but the majority are likely to accompany forward elements of Allied Forces advancing into GERMANY.

17. By the above means. supplemented by information from other sources, it is hoped to obtain sufficient intelligence for ECLIPSE GATOR to make the following decisions:--

  1. Which P.W. camps and/or collection of P.W. require food or medical supplies.

  2. Approximate quantity of supplies required at each location.

  3. Method of delivery.

METHOD OF DELIVERY

18. The following are the methods of supply envisaged:--

  1. Before camps or locations of P.W. are over-run:--

    1. Dropping within the confines of P.W. camps. (This will be attempted only when Intelligence indicates that P.W. are strictly confined).

    2. Dropping in the immediate vicinity of P.W. camps - D.Z. to be selected by the agency operating the aircraft after consideration of target data.

    3. Dropping onto D.Z. indicated by Reconnaissance Teams.

  2. After camps or P.W. locations are oven-run by Allied Ground Forces; it is estimated that at least 72 hours will elapse before the ground L. of C. will be able to pick up the extra load required. Air supply by either of the following methods must, therefore, continue for a limited period:--

    1. Dropping in the immediate vicinity of P.W. camps or P.W. locations, as indicated by local Ground Forces. In order to conserve rations packed for free-dropping this method will be resorted to only as a last resort.

    2. Air landing on suitable airfields in the vicinity of camps and/or locations. Ground Forces to undertake local transport and distribution of supplies after delivery to airfields.

--4--

19. This last method falls within the arrangements made for normal air resupply of Ground Forces, the procedure for which is set out in SHAEF Operations Memorandum No. 29 and Administrative Memorandum No.18. Air Lift for this purpose will be controlled by ECLIPSE GATOR who will allot such tasks to USSTAF, PAF Bomber Command or Troop Carrier formations, after consideration of all the factors concerned.

PROVISION, PACKING AND LOADING OP RATIONS

20. Provision

21.The estimated total commitments against this reserve are:--

22. All the above rations are packaged for free-dropping and are held in a common pool for use as required. It is the intention, however, that as far as possible, ETOUSA rations will be dropped from USSTAF aircraft only, the larger number of War Office Rations being available for dropping by either USSTAF or RAF Bomber Command as required. Supplies for air landing will normally be drawn from Army Group resources.

23. Type of Rations and Method of Packing

  1. War Office Rations

    Those consist of bulk rations comprising such foodstuffs as sugar, flour, salt, tea, dried eggs, dried milk, etc., packed loose in 11 oz. sacks, which, for free-dropping, are themselves contained inside another 11 oz. sack.

  2. ETOUSA Rations

    These consist of standard US 10 in 1 and K Rations (supplemented by D Rations). Rations are packed in 45 lb. cases for free-dropping.

24. Method of Stowing in aircraft and dropping

  1. War Office Bulk Rations

    1. Lancaster. Rations arc packed into Mark VA small bomb containers and are also stowed on the ellipses of the bomb bay doors and on improvised slats placed across the bomb bay doors. Trials, which are proceeding, have shown that up to 6,270 lbs. of rations, can be carried thus on the bomb bay doors and in the small bomb containers. Dropping tests have resulted in a dispersal of 175-yards by 25 yards of the rations carried on the bomb bay doors, and a closer pattern from the contents of the small bomb containers released in salvo.

--5--

    1. B.17 and B.24 Aircraft. 4,000 lbs. of rations are stowed inside the bomb bays on hinged floors which, when released, have given a concentrated pattern within 200 square yards. The floors can be reloaded in flight and by this means it should be possible to deliver up to 5,600 lbs. of rations on each aircraft sortie. 90 to 95% recovery can be anticipated from War Office bulk rations free-dropped in this way.

  1. ETOUSA Rations

    1. Lancaster. It is not intended to drop ETOUSA rations from Lancaster aircraft.

    2. B.17 and B.24 Aircraft. 5.600 lbs. of 10 in 1 and K rations can be free-dropped using the hinged floors referred to in para. (a) (ii) above. The average recovery rate is 90%.

  2. Medical Supplies

    Medical supplies will be packed in containers/panniers and dropped by parachute. The containers and their parachutes will bo attached to the bomb racks in the normal way.

METHOD OF OPERATION

Bidding and Allocation of Tasks

25. All intelligence regarding Allied P.W. will be routed through SHAEF and made available to ECLIPSE GATOR Forward as it becomes available. This intelligence will include the reports of Jedburgh Teams. ( 'VICARAGE' Force) and of air reconnaissance carried out by Tactical Air Forces. All this information will be considered by ECLIPSE GATOR Forward who will allocate air lift tasks for dropping supplies accordingly. Detailed arrangements for the execution of these tasks will be co-ordinated by ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK).

26. In addition, Array Groups may formulate bids for dropping or air landing supplies to Allied P.W. uncovered in their own areas. In consultation with their associated Tactical Air Force, and Com Zone as appropriate, Army Groups will submit such bids to ECLIPSE GATOR according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29 and Administrative Memorandum No. 18.

27. Allocations of tasks for dropping supplies will be received by USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command who, in consultation with ECLIPSE CATOR Rear (UK) will arrange for the detailed allocation of aircraft to particular air supply missions. ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) will co-ordinate the movement of supplies to despatching airfields. Should circumstances necessitate any policy change of programme, ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) will refer the matter for decision to ECLIPSE GATOR Forward.

Movement of Supplies to Airfields

28. Owing to the need for flexibility and the lack of suitable accommodation at airfields, it will not be possible for appreciable stocks of supplies to be held in readiness at airfields during the operation, or for airfields to be prestocked in advance of "ECLIPSE". In order, therefore, to provide an adequate and timely flow of supplies to airfields, the following action will be taken:--

  1. ETOUSA Rations

    As it is intended that these rations should be dropped from USSTAF aircraft only, Com Z (UK Base) is arranging to transfer their stocks of ETOUSA rations to US Army Air Forces Depots in the UK as designated bry USSTAF. The rations will then be transferred to airfields under USSTAF arrangements as and when required.

--6--

  1. War Office Rations

    It is intended that these rations, which are at present held by War Office, should he equally available for use by both USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command. War Office is, therefore, investigating the possibility of distributing their stocks to depots throughout the UK which have convenient access to USSTAF and RAF Bomb or Command airfields. These airfields are being designated to War Office by RAF Bomber Command and USSTAF. When the rations are required they will be moved to the airfields by War Office. This movement should be completed within 12 hours of instructions reaching the War Office.

  2. Medical Supplies

    War Office and Com Z (UK Base) are arranging to distribute suitable quantities of appropriate medical supplies in a similar manner to that outlined in sub-paras. (a) and (b) above

  3. Final Movement to Airfields

    Under the general co-ordination of ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) supplies will be moved to airfields by the appropriate agencies as and when required. ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK) will be responsible for initiating this movement in time for initial commitments to be implemented as soon as '"ECLIPSE" conditions occur.

Loading

29. Loading into aircraft of supplies for dropping to P.W. will be carried out by USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command as appropriate.

Delivery of Supplies

30. USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command will free-drop or parachute the supplies to the required localities as prescribed by ECLIPSE GATOR.

Abortive Sorties

31. In order to provide for the needs of aircraft returning from abortive sorties, and who cannot land safely without jettisoning their loads, jettison areas will be laid down by ECLIPSE GATOR in consultation with all concerned.

Reports on Air Lift Operations

32. USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command will inform ECLIPSE GATOR of the result and progress of their operations.

RESPONSIBILITIES

33. The responsibilities of the various agencies is as set out in Appendix 'B'.

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ANNEXURE I to
APPENDIX 'E' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

IMPROVISED GROUND STRIP CODE FOR USE BY ALLIED P.W.

Single Strip  --  All's Well.
 
Parallel Strips  --  Camp in Danger.
 
Cross  --  Medical Supplies urgently required.
 
'L'  --  Starving.
 
Aircraft will acknowledge with a coloured pyrotechnic signal.

P.W. have been instructed that strips should not be less than twelve feet by two feet, and that one of the above signals should be permanently displaced in an exposed position away from buildings or shadows; also that an improvised pyrotechnic or smoke signal will assist in attracting attention of recce pilots.

--8--

APPENDIX 'F' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

AIR LIFT PLANS FOR AIR EVACUATION OF
ALLIED PRISONERS OF WAR

OBJECT

1. To use air lift to expedite the evacuation of Allied P.W. from the SHAEF sphere of GERMANY, and subject to agreement by the RUSSIANS, of UNITED STATES and BRITISH P.W. from the RUSSIAN sphere.

2. It is intended, however, that air evacuation should supplement rather than supplant other methods of moving P.W. out of GERMANY.

3. Allied Force Headquarters, MEDITERRANEAN are making similar plans for the air evacuation of Allied P.W. in AUSTRIA and it is possible that they may call upon SHAEF for assistance in carrying out their task. Such requests will be given equal priority with tasks to evacuate Allied P.W. from the SHAEF sphere. AFHQ will render similar assistance to SHAEF so far as their resources permit.

NUMBERS AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALLIED P.W. IN GERMANY

4. The number and distribution of Allied P.W. in GERMANY are currently as follows:--

  SHAEF Sphere

SOVIET Sphere

AUSTRIA
       
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 105,000

80,000

14,700
UNITED STATES 29,000

44,000

4,400
FRENCH 360,000

   
SOVIET 400,000

   
Other Allied Nationals 200,000

   
       
TOTAL:

1,054.000

   

5. P.W. camps are generally dispersed throughout GERMANY, and are not concentrated in any one district. Many camps are located in thinly populated areas; it is unusual for a P.W. camp to be situated close to airfields, and the majority are from 10 to 50 miles distant from the nearest airfield.

6. Recent RUSSIAN advances have caused large movements of P.W., which have been moved from East to West; the majority of these movements having been made on foot. It is probable that such movements will be intensified as the Allied Forces advance still further into GERMANY in the latter stages before "ECLIPSE". When collapse occurs, therefore, we must expect to find that many large last minute changes have been made in the distribution of P.W. Moreover, there are likely to be considerable numbers of P. W. not located in any camp, since they will have been in transit from one camp area to another when the collapeb occurred. As many P.W. are mixed with foreign workers and other displaced persons, it will be necessary to sort them before they can be evacuated.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

7. From the above, it will be seen that the vast majority of Allied. P.W. are detained in camps, which may be many miles distant from the nearest airfield. It will not be possible therefore for air evacuation of P.W. to begin until the camp areas have been over-run by our Ground Forces, and sufficient transport and administrative facilities have been provided for the movement of P.W. from the camps or other localities, to the airfields concerned.

--1--

8. In addition, it will be practical to evacuate by air only those nationalities of P.W. for whom reception facilities are available outside GERMANY. Such facilities are being prepared in the UNITED KINGDOM for the reception of BRITISH COMONWEALTH P.W. and in the UNITED KINGDOM and FRANCE for UNITED STATES P.W.; and it is possible that the FRENCH Government may make similar provision for a limited number of FRENCH P.W. P.W. of Nationalities for whom no reception facilities are available outside GERMANY will be retained in GERMANY until their own countries are ready to receive them. This, of course, does not preclude the possibility of ad hoc arrangements being made to evacuate these P.W. by air, should this be necessary for operational reasons.

9. The present plan is, therefore, concerned only with the air evacuation of UNITED STATES and BRITISH P.W., though the arrangements described therein may be extended to other Nationals later, so far as our resources and operational requirements permit.

AIRCRAFT TO BE USED

10. In. the early stages of "ECLIPSE" when Allied Forces first over-run GERMANY, there are unlikely to be adequate facilities, or stocks of petrol, at forward airfields in the REICH, for large scale refuelling of aircraft. It is, therefore, desirable that the aircraft employed on evacuating P.W. should be able to fly to selected airfields in GERMANY and thence to the UNITED KINGDOM or FRANCE without refueling.

11. For this reason, it is the intention to employ the heavy bomber aircraft of USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command on this task whenever possible. Owing to their range, these aircraft will, in general, be able to operate from their normal bases in the UNITED KINGDOM without using intermediate staging airfields or more than emergency refueling facilities at the evacuation airfields in GERMANY, thus greatly simplifying the operation.

12. These aircraft, however, require large airfields for their operation, their normal maximum requirement being hard runways of not less than 5.000 feet, though a take-off run of 4.500 feet may be acceptable in certain circumstances. However, this would be subject to determination by the authorities vested with operational control of the aircraft concerned. As the majority of airfields in GERMANY do not meet these requirements, it will be necessary to supplement the operations of USSTAF and RAF Bomber Command by the use of Troop Carrier Aircraft (c.47). The airfield requirements for those latter aircraft are such that they should be able to operate from most of the airfields likely to be available, but owing to their range, they will generally require refueling facilities either on the spot or intermediately between GERMANY and the UNITED KINGDOM or FRANCE.

CAPACITY OF AIRCRAFT

13. The capacity of the aircraft to be used for evacuating P.W. is as

INTELLIGENCE

14. SHAEF (A-2 Division) is collecting Intelligence on P.W. camps in GERMANY, with special reference to Airborne operations, the dropping of food supplies, and the air evacuation of P.W. (For further details see Appendix 'E'). This Intelligence, which will be collated and published by Air Ministry, and issued to all concerned will form the basic Intelligence for air evacuation operations; it will be supplemented by air and ground reconnaissance when "ECLIPSE" occurs.

--2--

ORGANISATION IN SHAEF SPHERE OF GERMANY FOR EVACUATION OF ALLIED P.W.

15. In the SHAEF sphere of GERMANY, Army Groups will be responsible for administering all Allied P.W. from the time these are uncovered by our advancing forces until they are evacuated by air or other means. The administrative services required of Army Groups will include transportation of P.W. to airfields of embarkation, accommodation, medical services and security control. In carrying out those tasks Army Groups will be assisted by SHAEF PWX Officers.

16. Army Groups will then hand over to the Air Agencies operating aircraft those P.W. which are to be evacuated by air. In this respect, the responsibility of these Air Agencies will be limited to transporting P.W. designated to them by Army Groups from GERMANY to selected airfields in the UK or FRANCE, as appropriate. Those Air Agencies, in conjunction with the appropriate tactical Air Force, will provide all necessary facilities for the operation of their aircraft for this purpose, including the reconnaissance of forward airfields and the establishment of forward control and servicing parties as requisite. It is the intention that on any one airfield in GERMANY there will be only one Air Agency engaged in evacuating P.W. As far as possible, airfields will be allocated exclusively for this purpose.

17. As far as possible each aircraft load despatched from GERMANY will consist of P.W. of one Nationality and category only. Separate arrangements will be made for sick and wounded P.W., see para. 30 below.

18. Similar arrangements to those outlined in paras.15, 16, and 17 above are being made by AFHQ in respect of AUSTRIA, should ECLIPSE GATOR resources be called upon to assist in the evacuation of P.W. from that area.

RECEPTION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND FRANCE

Reception Camps

19. Camps are being organised to receive and process P.W. arriving from GERMANY. For BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. those camps are located in the UK, but owing to shortage of accommodation. they arc necessarily dispersed throughout the country; the majority being in the South of ENGLAND. Similar camps for UNITED STATES P.W. are being arranged in the South of ENGLAND and in North-Eastern FRANCE. Camps for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. are intended for one category of P.W. only, e.g. RAF BRITISH Army, AUSTRALIANS, etc. Camps for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W. will be organised on a common basis, and UNITED STATES P.W. will not be divided according to Service. It is the intention to land P.W. at airfields convenient for access to the camps catering for the category of nationality of the P.W. carried in the aircraft.

Airfields of Landing

20. In the UK

Suitable airfields on which BRITISH COMMONWEALTH and UNITED STATES ex-P.W. are to be landed in the UK are being selected by Air Ministry and USSTAF in conjunction with War Office and Com Zone (UK Base).

21. In FRANCE

Suitable airfields on which UNITED STATES ex-P.W. are to be landed in FRANCE are being selected by USSTAF in conjunction with Com. Zone.

Reception Arrangements at Airfields

22. Airfields for the Reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W.

At airfields for the reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W., Air ministry or Com. Zone UK Base (in conjunction with USSTAF) as appropriate, will make all necessary arrangements to receive and process returning P.W.,

--3--

and jointly with the War Office, despatch them by surface transport to the appropriate reception camp. The responsibility of the Air Agency transporting the P.W. will be limited to landing them on the airfields and handing them over to the appropriate reception authorities. Every endeavour will be made for the reception arrangements to be of the highest possible standard. Arrangements will include disinfestation and medical facilities.

23. Airfields in the UK for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W.

At airfields in the UK for the reception of UNTIED STATES P.W., Air Ministry or Com Zone (UK Base) (in conjunction with USSTAF) as appropriate, will make all necessary arrangements on similar lines to those made for BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W.

24. Airfields in FRANCE for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W.

At airfields in FRANCE for the reception of UNITED STATES P.W., Com Zone in conjunction with USSTAF will make all necessary arrangements as outlined above. In FRANCE, however, Com Zone wil be entirely responsible for moving evacuated P.W. from the airfields of landing to the reception camps.

25. Mutual Assistance and Flexibility

Owing to weather and other causes, it is inevitable that a number of P.W. will be landed at airfields not primarily intended for P.W. of their nationalities or category. Reception arrangements at airfields will, therefore, provide for the emergency reception of P.W. of both Nationalities and all categories. In addition there will be UNITED STATES representation at BRITISH COMMONWEALTH airfields and vice versa. For this purpose USSTAF and Com Zone (UK Base) are organising a number of mobile reception teams to be held available in the vicinity of groups of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH airfields; appropriate arrangements for the same purpose will be made by War Office and Air Ministry in respect of UNITED STATES airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM. The emergency reception of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. landed at UNITED STATES airfields on the Continent will be the responsibility of Com Zone.

26. In addition, it is probable that P.W. will be landed at airfields, both in the UNITED KINGDOM and on the Continent, which are not intended for the reception of P.W. at all. In such cases it will be the responsibility of the local airfield commander to report such instances to ECLIPSE GATOR through the usual command channels. Pending action for the disposal of such P.W., the local airfield commander will make such ad hoc arrangements for their accommodation as may be possible in the circumstances.

RATE OF EVACUATION

27. It is estimated that the maximum rate of arrival of P.W. by air in the UNITED KINGDOM and FRANCE will not exceed a peak maximum of 20,000 in any one day, divided as under:--

--4--

MEDICAL

General

28. Ground Force authorities despatching P.W. from GERMANY will carry out all medical screening necessary to ensure that P.W. passed to Air Agencies for evacuating are physically fit to be transported by air and that infectious cases are quarantined.

Disinfestation

29. Ground Force authorities despatching P.W. from GERMANY will ensure that disinfestation has been completed before P.W. are passed to Air Agencies for evacuation.

Sick and Wounded P.W.

30. Sick and wounded P.W. will be evacuated in accordance with existing prescribed procedure for medical evacuation of Allied Forces in the Field.

PERSONNEL RETURNS

31. Air Agencies despatching P.W. from GERMANY will maintain records of all P.W. despatched, and will give the pilot of every returning aircraft a manifest giving details of the P.W. carried in the aircraft. In these tasks they will be assisted by SHAEF PWX Officers. On arrival in the UNITED KINGDOM or FRANCE pilots will surrender their manifests to the reception authorities checking the arrival of P.W. A copy of each manifest will be retained by the despatching authority for reference if required. The method of preparing manifests will be laid down by ECLIPSE GATOR.

32. Reception authorities at airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM and FRANCE will maintain records of all P.W. received. Each day they will notify War Office and/or Com Zone (UK or FRANCE), as appropriate, of the names, category and disposal action taken in regard to the P.W. received during the past 24 hours.

SECURITY

33. All agencies releasing P.W. for air lift will be responsible for making adequate arrangements to ensure that all P.W. so released have been cleared by security.

34. Air Agencies transporting P.W. will be responsible for making adequate arrangements to ensure that only P.W. released for air lift are carried in their aircraft.

35. Authorities controlling reception airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM, or FRANCE, will be responsible for making adequate arrangements to ensure the early detection and apprehension of stowaways or unauthorised persons landed on their airfields.

Bidding, and Allocation of Tasks

36. Army Groups in conjunction with their associated Tactical Air Forces, will formulate bids for the air evacuation of Allied. P.W. in their areas. All these bids will be submitted to ECLIPSE GATOR according to the procedure laid down in SHAEF Operational Memorandum No. 29 and Administrative memorandum No. 18.

37. These bids will be co-ordinated by PWX representatives and submitted for consideration at ECLIPSE GATOR which will decide the priorities and allocate air lift tasks to USSTAF, RAF Bomber Command and/or Troop Carrier Formations. ECLIPSE GATOR will arrange with Air Staff SHAEF for the allocation of airfields in GERMANY from which air evacuation will take place.

--5--

38. These decisions will he transmitted by ECLIPSE GATOR to all concerned.

Organisation for the Despatch of P.W. from GERMANY

39. Air Organisation

The Air Agency, in conjunction with the appropriate Tactical Air Forces selected will take the necessary steps to organise the purely flying side of despatch of P.W. from GERMANY. This will include reconnaissance of airfields, and provision of all necessary facilities for the operation of their aircraft therefrom, including flying controls

40. Ground Organisation

Army Croups will arrange for the transportation of P.W. from camps to selected airfields, and for all administrative services up to the moment of embarkation in aircraft.

Evacuation of P.W.

41. P.W. will then be moved to evacuation airfields, embarked in aircraft, and transported to the appropriate airfields in the UNITED KINGDOM or FRANCE. This operation will be co-ordinated by ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK or Continent as appropriate) who will advise air agencies of the reception airfields to be used, having regard to the current situation in reception camps, and who will warn receiving agencies of the approximate numbers and category of P.W. to be expected at various airfields.

Reception of P.W.

42. The Air Agencies will land. P.W, on the designated reception airfields where they will hand them over to the reception agencies, who will distribute the P.W. to reception camps as quickly as possible. The movement of P.W. from airfields to reception camps will be co-ordinated by ECLIPSE GATOR Rear (UK or Continent as appropriate) in conjunction with the Agencies concerned.

RESPONSIBILITIES

43. The responsibilities of the various agencies concerned are as set out in Appendix 'B'.

AIR EVACUATION OF P.W. FROM THE SOVIET SPHERE

44. The USSR is being approached with a view to obtaining their agreement to extend the arrangements described in this paper to cover UNITED STATES and BRITISH COMMONWEALTH P.W. in the SOVIET sphere. Details of the plan for air evacuation of P.W. from the SOVIET sphere will be promulgated as soon as the necessary arrangements have been made with the USSR.

45. It is possible, however, that a proportion of BRITISH COMMONWEALTH and UNITED STATES P.W. in the SOVIET sphere will be evacuated via the International Zone of BERLIN, in which case the arrangements described in this Appendix will apply; the BERLIN District Command and Air Command BERLIN District undertaking the responsibilities allotted to Army Groups and Tactical Air Forces.

--6--

APPENDIX 'G' to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO.4
OUTLINE AIR LIFT PLAN
SH AIR/TS 959/AIR PLANS

MOVEMENT OF SPECIALIST PERSONNEL

OBJECT

1. To outline the procedure to be adopted by formations desiring to use air lift for movement of Specialist personnel into GERMANY.

SCOPE

2. This Appendix covers all Specialist personnel who are required to be moved into GERMANY to accomplish the tasks outlined in the "ECLIPSE" Plan, para. 42, and is intended to cover their movement and administration until such time as these are resumed through normal channels.

BIDS

3. Bids will be submitted according to the procedure laid down in para. 17 of this Memorandum.

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT

Feeding

4. All personnel are to carry three days rations to be drawn through the formation-sponsoring their movement.

Personal Equipment

5. The scale of personal equipment to be taken, and the overall weight of personal baggage, exclusive of rations, arms and ammunition will be limited to 100 lbs. per person.

Specialist and Other Equipment

5. Only essential items of specialist and other equipment are to be taken by air, and all items are to be capable of being manhandled.

Packing

7. All items to be taken by air are to be securely packed, and packing material used is to be as light as possible to keep the total weight to a minimum.

Marking of Equipment

8. All packages of equipment are to be prominently marked as follows:--

  1. Personal Baggage -- with the individual's name, number and unit Serial number.

  2. Other Equipment -- with unit designation, all packages being numbered consecutively.

Medical Arrangements

9. The medical arrangements as now laid down for Allied Expeditionary Force personnel will apply.

--1--

Currency

10. The financial arrangements as now laid down will apply.

SECURITY

11. All civilian personnel scheduled to move into GERMANY during the "ECLIPSE" phase, will be processed from a counter-intelligence angle in accordance with the established procedure for movements from the UK and Liberated Europe. This processing will be completed in advance of the movement, so as to enable personnel to be air lifted without delay.

12. The Agency operating the aircraft will be responsible for making adequate arrangements to prevent movement of unauthorised persons either into or out of GERMANY.

APPOINTMENT OF CONDUCTING OFFICERS

13. All formations and organisations bidding for air lift are to detail a Conducting Officer, who will be responsible for ensuring that all bids for his party are rendered in the correct form, and all amendments reported to ECLIPSE GATOR in accordance with the procedure laid down by ECLIPSE GATOR.

14. This officer will be responsible for maintaining nominal rolls/rosters of all personnel of his party/unit, so that they will be available as required. He will make plans to ensure that his party/unit are concentrated at the location given on the bidding forms as the location on A minus 4 (or at other points as required).

WARNING ORDER

15. A warning order for movement will be given by ECLIPSE GATOR, and maximum notice possible will be given. As soon as the warning order is given, all personnel who are required to be moved by air, are to be available for movement from their estimated location at 12 hours notice.

PHASES OF MOVEMENT

16. Movement by air will fall into three phases:--

  1. First Phase

    Movement to Departure Airfield

    When the time comes for the party/unit to be air lifted, the Conducting Officer will be given instructions through normal channels for his party to move to a specific airfield. It will be the responsibility of the Conducting Officer to ensure that his party reports in accordance with those instructions, in the state of preparation prescribed in this Appendix, and at the appointed time. The Conducting Officer will be responsible for making the necessary arrangements for the movement of his party unit to the airfield, arrangements being carried out by normal movements procedure.

  2. Second Phase

    Embarkation on Airfield

    Embarkation on the airfields will be the responsibility of the formation controlling the airfield. Accurate documentation (i.e. manifests, etc) will be important from a security standpoint and from other angles. To facilitate this task particular attention is called to para. 14 of this Appendix.

--2--

  1. Third Phase

    From Arrival Airfield to Destination

    1. Provision of transportation in GERMANY for the movement of passengers and stores from airfields to the final destinations will be the responsibility of the local Ground Force Commander. It is to be clearly understood that transportation will be provided on a severely restricted basis, particularly in the early stages.

    2. BERLIN District Command. An advanced echelon headquarters will be responsible for introducing a transport platoon of jeeps and for commandering such transportation as can be made available for use of Specialist personnel. A limited quantity of MT fuel, for use in such transport, will be available.

ADMINISTRATION OP SPECIALIST PERSONNEL

17. The Administration, feeding, provision of POL, etc., of Specialist personnel when they arrive in GERMANY, will be undertaken by the local Ground Force Commander until such time as administration is resumed through normal channels.

--3--

  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials MER
12 February 45

AG 381-1 SIG-AGM APO 757 (Main)
12 February 1945

SUBJECT: "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 6

TO : See Distribution

1. Reference is made to Operation "ECLIPSE" - Appreciation and Outline Plan, file SHAEF (44) 34 dated 10 November 1944.

2. Forwarded herewith is Memorandum No. 6 to Operation "ECLIPSE" (SHAEF/521l/1/Sigs, dated 10 February 1945).

3. This supersedes the Memorandum No. 6 issued as an appendix to the previous plan forwarded under cover of letter SHAEF/521l/l/Sigs, dated 5 October 1944.

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

T. J. DAVIS
Brigadier General,
USA Adjutant General

2 Incls:
Incl 1 -- Distribution List
Incl 2 -- "ECLIPSE" Memo No. 6

 

ECLIPSE MEMORANDUM NO. 6
DISTRIBUTION LIST

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, 1-5 427-446
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group, 6-20 493-498
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group, 21-40 482-486
Commander-in-Chief, 21st Army Group, 41-65
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army, 66-71
Commanding General, Communications Zone, ETQ, 72-96
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional), 97-106
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air-Force, 107-116
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force, 117-126
Air Officer Commanding No 38 Group, RAF, 127-128
Air Officer Commanding No 46 Group, RAF, 129-130
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in EUROPE, 131-135
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in FRANCE, 136-140
Commanding General, ETOUSA, 141-142
Supreme Allied Commander MEDITERRANEAN (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in ITALY),

143-152
Commanding General, UNITED STATES Strategic Air Forces, 153-167
Commanding General, MEDITERRANEAN Allied Air Force, 168-169
The Secretary, The Admiralty, 170-174 454-456
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department WASHINGTON, DC, 175-176
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office,

177-196
Adjutant General, War Department, WASHINGTON, DC (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 197-221
General Officer, Commanding-Chief, Scottish Command 222-223 458
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry, (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command),

224-243
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command, 244-253
Combined Chiefs of Staff, WASHINGTON, DC, 254-255
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet, 256-257
UNITED STATES Group Control Council (GERMANY), 258-267 463-467
Control Commission for GERMANY (British Element), 268-277 468-470
SHAEF Mission to DENMARK, 278-281
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:--  
Supreme Commander, 282
Deputy Supreme Commander, 283
Chief of Staff, 284
Deputy Chief of Staff, 285
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air), 286
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air)(Rear), 287-291
Chief Administrative Officer, 292
Deputy Chief Air Staff , 293
Secretary General Staff, 294-295
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, 296-300
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, 301-325
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, 326-345
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, 346-365 475-476
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5, 366-380 477-481
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2, 381-382
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3, 383-384
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4, 385-388
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), 389-391
Adjutant General, 392-394
Chief, Engineer Division, 395-398
Chief, Air Defense Division, 399-401
Chief, Signal Division, 402-410
Chief, Air Signal. Division , 411-412
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division, 413-418
Chief, Public Relations Division, 419-420
Chief, Medical Division, 421
Political Officer, British, 422
Political Officer, US, 423
War Diary, 424-426

 

French Military Mission for GERMAN Affairs (through SHAEF Mission FRANCE),

487-492
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army, 447-452
Commanding General, Southern Line of Communications, 453
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, Supreme Headquarters, AEF),

457
Special Force Headquarters , 459
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF), 460-461
Special Operations Executive, 462
Allied Commission (AUSTRIA) (Air Force Division), 471
SHAEF Mission (FRANCE), 472
SHAEF Mission (HOLLAND), 473
SHAEF Mission (BELGIUM) 474

 

APPENDIX to
SHAEF (44) 34
10 November 1944
SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Signal Division
 
SHAEF/5211/1/Sig   10 February 1945

OPERATION 'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 6.

SIGNAL COMMUNICATIONS AND RADAR

GENERAL SIGNAL COMMUNICATION RESPONSIBILITIES

SUPREME COMMANDER AEF

1. Combined Signal arrangements affecting all Forces will be coordinated and promulgated by the Supreme Commander AEF.

2. The Supreme Commander AEF is responsible for the coordination of all Supreme Headquarters, AEF, Special Orders to the GERMAN High Command relating to all GERMAN Telecommunications. A copy of these Orders is included in 'ECLIPSE' Memorandum No. 1 and in Supreme Headquarters AEF 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction.

3. The Supreme Commander AEF is responsible for arranging all direct communication channels between his Headquarters and those of subordinate commanders, and with Supreme Headquarters AEF Military Missions.

GROUND FORCES

4. Commanders Groups of Armies and/or Forces, assisted in the case of US areas by the Communication. Zone, will be responsible for providing all signal communications within their respective areas of responsibility, including those required for their lines of communication for the Ground and Naval Forces, as well as the long distance land line communications for the Air Forces as outlined in Supreme Headquarters AEF 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction.

5. The responsibilities for the Signal Communications of the CG U.S. Communication Zone are detailed in the Supreme Headquarters AEF 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction.

AIR FORCES

6. The Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force will be responsible for:

  1. Coordinating the communication requirements of the Air Forces taking part in the operation, including the air aspects of the First Allied Airborne Army.

  2. Coordination of the communications requirements of R.A.F. Transport Command and Army Air Force Transport Command for their participation in the operation.

  3. Coordination of the planning of the Signals Communications of the Air Disarmament Control Formations with those of the Control Commission for Germany (British element) and the U.S. Group-Control Council (Germany).

  4. Air Despatch Letter Services.

7. The commanding Generals Ninth U.S.A.F., First Tactical Air Force,

--1--

(Provisional) A.O.C.-In-C. 2nd Tactical Air Force, the A.O.C.-in-C. Fighter command R.A.F. and the Commanding General First Allied Airborne Army will be responsible for the detailed planning and provision of the Signals requirements for their respective commands in collaboration where necessary with the appropriate Army and Naval Formations.

NAVAL FORCES

8. The Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief Expeditionary Force will lay down the organization affecting the Continent, including Naval W/T shore to shore communications, in consultation with the Admiralty, COMNAVEU and home Commanders-in-Chief.

9. Other Naval Commanders-in-Chief will be responsible for communications within their commands, including those required for movements and operations at sea.

10. Allocation of Headquarters Ships and Fighter Direction Tenders will be made by the Admiralty who will be advised by the Allied Naval C-in-C Expeditionary Force.

11. In order to release Naval personnel for service in other theatres, they will normally be used only for duties which cannot be performed by other forces. Army Commanders will, therefore, undertake all practicable signal commitments for Naval authorities.

OPERATIONS 'APOSTLE' NORWAY AND 'NESTEGG' CHANNEL ISLANDS

12. The Signal Plans previously prepared for 'APOSTLE' NORWAY AND 'NESTEGG' CHANNEL ISLANDS will be placed into effect in the event these Operations are phased in with Operation 'ECLIPSE'.

COORDINATION OF COMBINED AND JOINT SIGNAL COMMUNICATIONS

13. When Army, Navy or Air formations/units are assigned common missions, appropriate Signal Boards will be formed to effect necessary coordination in signal communication. The Chairman will be the Senior Signal Officer on the Board.

14. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PROVISION OF COMMUNICATIONS

RESPONSIBILITY FOR ARRANGING LATERAL AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS NOT ALREADY EXISTING

  From To Responsibility Remarks
a. Supreme Head-
quarters AEF
Force (and latter district) Commander BERLIN Supreme Headquarters AEF Facilities to Force (and latter district) Commander BERLIN will serve all Supreme Headquarters AEF agencies.
b. Supreme Head-
quarters AEF
Supreme Headquarters AEF Military Mission DENMARK Supreme Headquarters AEF  
c. Force (and latter
District) BERLIN
21 Army Group 21 Army Group For arrangement through Supreme Headquarters
d. Force (and latter
District) BERLIN
Twelfth Army Group Twelfth Army Group

--2--

  From To Responsibility Remarks
e. BERLIN VIENNA Supreme Headquarters AEF and Allied Forces Headquarters  
f. BERLIN U.K. Supreme Headquarters AEF  
g. BERLIN U.S.A. Communication Zone  
h. BERLIN BREMEN Enclave Supreme Headquarters AEF  
i. BERLIN Ports in British Zone Supreme Headquarters AEF  
j. 21 Army Group Force NORWAY 21 Army Group  
k. Supreme Head-
quarters AEF Military
Mission DENMARK
Force NORWAY Supreme Headquarters AEF  
l. Sixth Army Group
(from Twelfth
Army Group when
Headquarters Sixth
Army Group is with-
drawn)
Force AUSTRIA Sixth Army Group and Force AUSTRIA For arrangement through Supreme Headquarters AEF and Allied Force Headquarters
m. BREMEN Enclave HANOVER Corps District HQ 21 and Twelfth Army Groups  
n. Forces in Liber-
ated Countries.
Adjacent Forces
in Liberated
Countries
Mutual arrangement  

PRESS

15. Communication facilities for Press accredited correspondents of all nations will be arranged by Commanders Groups of Armies and/of Forces for the respective areas under their command.

COMMUNICATIONS WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL ZONE AND COMMUNICATIONS ThrOUGH AREAS CONTROLLED BY RUSSIA

16. Requirements for communications, within the International Zone and Communications through areas controlled by RUSSIA will be referred to the CSO, Supreme Headquarters AEF, for such agreements as necessary.

DISARMAMENT MOBILE UNITS

17. Communications for disarmament mobile units will be provided by the Army and Air and Naval Commanders under whom they are operating,

COMMUNICATIONS FOR ALLIED PRISONERS OF WAR

18.

  1. The Special Orders to the German Government provide that existing German communications for Prisoner of War Camps will remain in operation after the surrender and that certain additional communications will be provided for these camps.

  2. Irrespective of whether these provisions are carried out, it will be the responsibility of Army Groups, assisted in the case of U. S. Army Groups by

--3--

    Communications zone, within their respective areas of operation, to provide the Signal Communications required by the PWX organisation.

DISPLACED PERSONS

19. The signal communications, used for controlling the movement of refugees and displaced persons must largely depend on the availability of existing civil telecommunications. The establishment of an Army system of signal communications for this purpose is beyond Army resources. Where a military organization is set to control movement, it will be the responsibility of the formations providing the troops to find the necessary communications, both within the organization employed, and to the superior headquarters concerned.

GENERAL SIGNAL POLICIES

RELATIONSHIP WITH OPERATION 'OVERLORD'

20. AS A GENERAL POLICY THE SIGNAL ORGANIZATION IN OPERATION FOR 'OVERLORD' WILL REMAIN IN FORCE FOR OPERATION 'ECLIPSE' AND' WILL BE ALTERED ONLY WHERE NECESSARY TO SATISFY THE NEEDS OF THE SPECIAL CONDITIONS OBTAINING IN OPERATION 'ECLIPSE'.

PRIMARY MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

21. During Operation 'ECLIPSE' reliance for military communications will be based on wireless, although wire systems will be exploited to the fullest extent and will be the normal means for clearing traffic loads.

SIGNAL SECURITY

22. During Operation 'ECLIPSE', the codes and ciphers prescribed for use in Operation 'OVERLORD' will be used except that the codes and ciphers normally held only at and above Divisional headquarters and corresponding Air and Naval level will not be transported by air into enemy held territory, or taken further forward than the headquarters at which they are normally held until such time as the risk of compromise through capture can be discounted.

TRANSMISSION SECURITY

23. The normal rules regarding transmission security will apply. On VHP links the security precautions to be taken on each link will be laid down by the appropriate commander after assessment of the security measures feasible and the liability of the link in question to interception.

RADIO SILENCE

24. Throughout the operation radio silence will not be imposed by the Supreme Commander AEF either at sea or on the Continent. Special instructions regarding radio silence may, however, be issued by Army Group and corresponding Air and Naval Commanders.

RADIO FREQUENCIES

25. Radio Frequency requirements will be submitted to the Supreme Commander for coordination. Commanders holding 'OVERLORD' allotments will be prepared to relinquish frequencies for new radio links to be opened after "A" Day.

26. Existing radio links which continue in operation after "A" Day will use the frequencies already allotted to them for Operation 'OVERLORD'.

RADAR

27. The Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force will be responsible for:

  1. The planning, provision, and coordination of the aircraft warning systems in the U.K. and on the Continent for the purposes of the Operation.

  2. The planning, provision and coordination of the coastal radar for

--4--

    surface watching purposes in the U.K. and on the Continent, for the purposes of the Operation.

  1. Arranging with the Air Ministry for the establishment and operation in the U.K. and on the Continent of such Ground Navigational Radar Stations (Gee, G.H. and OBOE) as are required to provide Radar Navigational Aid to Naval and Air Forces operating in support of the Operation, It is not intended that this shall affect the present direct channels by which arrangements are made for developing the radar navigational requirements of the Strategic Air Forces.

  2. Coordinating in consultation with the Air Ministry the operation and coding of Radar Ground Beacons used to provide navigational aid in the U.K. and on the Continent for the purposes of the Operation.

EMPLOYMENT AND CONTROL OF CIVIL AND GERMAN MILITARY TELECOMMUNICATIONS

28. A Long Lines Control organization will be established for the control of the repair and maintenance, for military purposes, of the long line wire system in GERMANY, the allocation of circuits for long lines services, the extension of long line facilities to adjacent areas and the extension of cross Channel circuits into GERMANY.

29.

  1. Army Group and Force Commanders in conjunction with the appropriate Naval and Air Commanders will take over control of all Civil and GERMAN Military Telecommunications located within their respective zones.

  2. The following quotation from SHAEF Military Occupation Handbook is repeated for guidance:

    "para 65. Military District Commanders in Germany will be responsible, within their districts, for the control of all GERMAN military and para-military telecommunications through the Wehrkreis organisation and of all civil telecommunications through the military Government Staff".

30. Allied telecommunication personnel for control of the OKW, OKH, OKL, OKM and REICHSPOST at the Ministerial Level will be provided by the Control Commission for GERMANY (BRITISH Element) and U.S. Group Control Council (GERMANY).

31. In the BRITISH and US zones of occupation in GERMANY Military Government PTT officers will be available to assist Army Group and Force Commanders in the control of telecommunications. In addition certain officers of the Control Commission (BRITISH Element) and US Group-Control Council (GERMANY) may also be available to Army Group and Force Commanders for this task.

32. As a general rule civil trunk circuits appropriated for Allied use will be terminated on military switchboards. All telecommunication facilities required for military purposes will be operated under Allied military supervision.

33. Army Group and Force Commanders will be responsible for providing means for the detection and location of unauthorized communication facilities in their respective spheres of responsibility.

SURRENDERED WAR MATERIAL

34.

  1. A list of signal items to be handed in initially by the GERMAN Land Forces is contained in 'ECLIPSE' Memorandum No. 1 Appendix 'D, Annexure 1 and in the Supreme Headquarters AEF 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction.

  2. The removal, concentration and guarding of signal items peculiar to the GERMAN Air Force is dealt with in 'ECLIPSE' Memorandum No. 16.

--5--

  1. The surrender of signal items peculiar to GERMAN Naval Forces will be dealt with in accordance with the policy in Supreme Headquarters AEF Military Occupation Handbook, Chapter V, Part V.B.

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS AEF 'ECLIPSE' SIGNAL INSTRUCTION

35.

  1. 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction lays down detailed signal policies applicable to the Operation under the following headings:

    General Signal Policies

    Responsibilities for Providing Communications

    Control of German Telecommunications

    W/T and R/T Communications

    VHF and UHF Radio Systems

    Landline Communication

    Cross-Channel Submarine Cable Systems

    Messenger Services

    Radio Aids to Navigation

    Radar

    Signal Security

    Codes and Ciphers

    Interception

    Procedures

    Civilian and German Military Signal Personnel

    Signal Personnel for Special Assignments

    Signal Stores and Equipment

    EFM and SCM Telegraph Services

    Communications for Press, Press Censorship and Psychological Warfare

    Broadcast Stations

    Civil Affairs

    Signal Communications for non-English-Speaking Allies

    Communications for Prisoners of War and Displaced Persons

    Disarmament and Surrendered War Material

  2. 'ECLIPSE' Signal Instruction also contains the proposed diagrams showing radio and line communications to be established for Supreme Headquarters AEF and for that portion of the AEF and the Control Staffs in BERLIN. Further details of the Communication Plan for Supreme Headquarters AEF and for BERLIN will be published in Signal Orders.

  3. The Naval/Signal Plan is being issued in the form of planning memoranda which will be revised as the situation changes.

  4. An Outline Air Signal Plan is being issued assan Appendix to the Outline Plan.

--6--

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2
MAIN HEADQUARTERS.

GBI/AOCC/387-3/1

30 January 1945

Copy No._____
Memorandum No. 7
To PS-SHAEF (44) 34

ECLIPSE MEMORANDUM NO. 7
INTELLIGENCE OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND PLAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION I Introduction Page 1
SECTION II Probable Conditions in GERMANY after Collapse and Their Intelligence Implications Page 3
SECTION III General Military Organization Page 6
SECTION IV The Immediate Seizure of Intelligence Objectives Page 8
SECTION V Operational Intelligence Page 10
SECTION VI Counter Intelligence Page 13
SECTION VII Allocation of Civil Censorship Responsibilities in GERMANY Page 18
SECTION VIII (A) Army Radio Security, Signal Intelligence and Telegraph and Telephone Security Page 21
SECTION VIII (B) Air Signal Intelligence and Radio Security Page 23
SECTION IX The Handling of Captured Enemy Documents Page 25
SECTION X Interrogation of Prisoners of War and Civilian Suspects Page 30
SECTION XI Miscellaneous Intelligence including Economic and JAPANESE Intelligence Page 32
SECTION XII Scientific and Technological Intelligence and the Relationship of CIOS to Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F. Page 34
SECTION XIII The Intelligence Organization at BERLIN Page 36
SECTION XIV Naval Intelligence Plan Page 38
SECTION XV Outline Plan for the Exploitation of Air Intelligence Objectives Page 40
ANNEX A

Counter Intelligence Directive -- Pre-Surrender Period.  
ANNEX B

List of Nazi Party Organizations.  
MAP MA

Map Illustrating Military. Districts, Naval and Air Hqs, together with Wehrkreis. and Wehrersatz-Inspektion Hqs.  
MAP MB

Map Illustrating Censorship Districts.  

 

  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials: MER
5 March 1945

AG 381-1 GBI-AGM APO 757 (Main)
5 March 1945

SUBJECT: ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7 -- Intelligence Occupational Requirements
TO: See distribution

1. Attached is Change No. 1 to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7, reference AOCC/387-3/l, dated 30 January 1945.

2. For the information of all concerned additions or changes to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7 will be issued as Changes numbered in sequence.

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

/signed/
H. H. NEWMAN
Colonel, AGD
Assistant Adjutant General

1 Incl:
Change 1 to ECLIPSE
Memo No. 7

DISTRIBUTION:
(See Page 2)

 

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 7
DISTRIBUTION LIST

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 1-5 427-466 499-503
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group 6-20 493-498
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group 21-40 482-486
Commander-in-Chief, 21st Army Group 41-65
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army 66-71
Commanding General, Communications Zone, ETO 72-96
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) 97-106
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air Force 107-116
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force 117-126
Air Officer Commanding, No 38 Group, RAF 127-128
Air Officer Commanding, No I46 Group, RAF 129-130
Commander, United States Naval Forces in Europe 131-135
Commander, United States Naval Forces in France 136-140
Commanding General, MTOUSA 141-142
Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in Italy) 143-152
Commanding General, United States Strategic Air Forces 153-167
Commanding General, Mediterranean Allied Air Force 168-169
The Secretary, The Admiralty 170-174 454-456
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 175-176
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office 177-196
Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D.C. (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 197-221
General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command 222-223 458
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry, (Including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command) 224-243
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command 244-253
Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. 254-255
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet 256-257
U.S. Group Control (Germany) 258-267 463-467
Control Commission for Germany (British Element) 268-277 468-470
Supreme Hq, AEF Mission (Denmark) 278-281
Supreme Headquarters, AEF  
Supreme Commander 282
Deputy Supreme Commander 283
Chief of Staff 284
Deputy Chief of Staff 285
Deputy Chief of- Staff (Air) 286
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) (Rear) 287-291
Chief Administrative Officer 292
Deputy Chief, Air Staff 293
Secretary General Staff 294-295

--1--

Distribution (Cont'd)

ACOS, G-1 296-300
ACOS, G-2 301-325
ACOS, G-3 326-345
ACOS, G-4 346-365 475-476
ACOS, G-5 366-380 477-481
ACOS, A-2 381-382
ACOS, A-3 383-384
ACOS, A-4 385-388
ANCXF (SHAEF) 389-391
Adjutant General 392-394
Chief, Engineer Division 395-398
Chief, Air Defense Division 399-401
Chief, Signal Division 402-410
Chief, Air Signal Division 411-412
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division 413-418
Chief, Public Relations Division 419-420
Chief, Medical Division 421
Political Officer, British 422
Political Officer, U.S. 423
War Diary, G-3 424-426
French Military Mission for German Affairs (Thru Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (France)) 487-492
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army 447-452
Commanding General, SOLOC 453
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, Supreme Hq, AEF) 457
Special Force Headquarters 459
OSS, c/o G-3 Division, Supreme Hq, AEF 460-461
Special Operations Executive 462
Allied Commission (Austria) (Air Force Division) 471
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (France 472
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Holland) 473
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Belgium) 474
Supreme Hq, AEF,. G-2 Division (for files) 524-581

--2--

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7 - Intelligence Occupational
Requirements and Plan.

Change No. 1. DISPOSAL OF GERMAN SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

Plans have been prepared to effect the complete disarmament and disbandment of the German forces, to destroy GERMANY's material War potential and to prevent the creation and development of a new WEhrMACHT. To this end, it is planned, among other measures, to eliminate the German General Staff. As a complementary measure, it is believed that one of the most potent safeguards against the formation of a powerful German Military machine in the future is the control of all German scientists and industrial technologists. These technical experts would play as important a part in the rebirth of the German War machine as the General Staff. They constitute, therefore, a continuing danger to United Nations security.

2. As a first step towards insuring that this potential source of danger will not be available for the .creation of a new German War machine, a working group is being organized under the direction of the Counter-Intelligence Sub-division, G-2 Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, Representatives from the Control Council/Commission will be asked to participate. This working group will perform the following functions:

  1. Collect, correlate, examine and study all pertinent information on the functions and capabilities of individual German scientists: and industrial technologists, their relations to the present German War effort and their probable future activities, and prepare lists of persons to be detained.

  2. Prepare recommendations regarding the eventual disposition of individuals detained, as a result of the above examinations. The intention of the recommendations will be to remove from direct contact with GERMANY or German nationals all those individuals believed to be capable of contributing substantially to the re-creation of GERMANY as a first class military power.

3. Lists will be supplied to Army Groups of German Scientists and Technologists who are to be detained pending further instructions.

4. It is considered that responsibility for this matter will rest eventually with the Tripartite Council. At the end of the Supreme Commander, AEF, period, the working group referred to above will transfer its records and recommendations to such agency as may be designated by the Control Council Commission.

--3--

ANNEX B
To 'ECLIPSE'
Memorandum No. 7

LIST OF NAZI ORGANIZATIONS DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES:

CATEGORY I

Offices and organizations which will be disbanded and cease to function at once, and in the case of whish no problem of the disarmament and disbandment of para-military formations arises. Dissolution must cover all branch offices.

CENTRAL OFFICES OF THE REICKSLEITUNG AND REICH ASSOCIATIONS.

  1. Party Chancery (Partei-Kanzlei)

  2. Fuhrer's Chancery (Kanzlei der Fuhrers der NSDAP)

  3. Organization of Germans Abroad (Auslandsorganisation)

  4. Offices in Germany ┤f the National Union for German Elements Abroad (Volksbund fur das Deutschtum im Ausland)

  5. Centre for "Volksdeutsche" (Volksdeutschmittelstelle)

  6. Party Scrutiny Commission for the Protection of National Socialist Literature (Parteiamtliche Prufungskommission zum Schutze des NS-Schrifttums)

  7. Office of the Reich Organization Leader (Reichsorganisationsleiter der NSDAP)

  8. Office of the Reich Treasurer of the Party (Reichsschatzmeister der NSDAP)

  9. Supreme Party Court (Oberstes Parteigericht) and subordinate courts

  10. Office of the Fuhrer's Commissioner for the Supervision of the whole intellectual and ideological training and education of the Party (Beauftragte des Fuhrers fur die Uberwachung der gesamten geistigen und weltanschaulichen Schulung und Erziehung der NSDAP)

  11. Office of the Propaganda Leader of the Party (Reichspropagandaleiter der NSDAP)

  12. Office of the Reich Leader for the Press (Reichslelter fur die Presse) together with the publishing houses and printing works owned by the party and controlled by him.

  13. Office of the Reich Press Chief of the Party (Reichspressechef der NSDAP)

  14. Reich Office for the Agrarian Population (Reichsamt fur das Land-volk)

  15. Head Office for Public Health (Hauptamt fur Volksgesundhelt); together with

  16. Reich League of Doctors (NSD-Arztebund)

  17. Head Office for Technology (Hauptamt fur Technik)

  18. Party League of German Technicians (NS-Bund Deutscher Technik)

  19. Head Office for Teachers (Hauptamt fur Erzieher); together with

  20. Party League of Teachers (NS-Lehrerbund)

  21. Head Office for Local Government (Hauptamt fur Kommunalpolitik)

  22. Head Office for Officials (Hauptamt fur Beamte); together with

  23. Reich League of German Officials (Reichsbund der Deutschen Beamten)

  24. Office of the Party Commissioner for all Racial Questions (Beauf-tragte der NSDAP fur alle Volkstumsfragen)

  25. Racial-Political Office of the Party (Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP)

  26. Office of Genealogical Research (Amt fur Sippenforschung)

  27. Colonial Office of the Party (Xolonialpolit-isches Amt der NSDAP); together with

  28. Reich Colonial League (Reichskolonialbund)

  29. Foreign Office of the Party (Aussenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP)

  30. Reichstag Party of the NSDAP (Reichstagsfraktion der NSDAP)

  31. Reich Leadership of Women (Reichsfrauenf uhrung and the NS-Frauenschaft); together with

  32. German Women's Association (Deutsches Frauenwerk)

--1--

  1. Reich Student Leadership (Reichsstudentenfuhrung); together with

  2. National Socialist German Students' League (NSD-Studentenbund); and

  3. German Students' Association (Deutsche Studentens haft)

  4. National Socialist German Lecturers Association (NSD-Dozentenbund)

  5. Party League of Lawyers (NS-Rechtswahrerbund)

  6. Party League of Old Students (NS-Altherrenburd del Deutschen Studenten)

  7. Reich League of German Families (Reichsbund Deutsche Familie)

  8. Party Association for Physical Training (NS-Reichs und fur Leibesubungen)

  9. NS-Ex-Servicemen's League (NS-Keichskriegerbund)

  10. Reich Chamber of Culture (Reichskulturkamimer)

  11. German Local Government Union (Deutscher Geineindetag)

There are a number of pseudo-scientific Academies and Institutes of a Nazi character, and their dissolution should therefore be provided for:--

  1. German Academy (Deutsche Akademie -- Munich)

  2. Institute for Research into the Jewish Problem (Institut fur Judenforschung -- Frankfurt-a-M)

  3. Institute for Germanism Abroad (Institut fur das Deutschtum im Ausland -- Stuttgart)

  4. State Academy for Race and Health (Staatsakademie fur Rassen -- und Gesundheitspflege -- Dresden)

REGIONAL AND LOCAL OFFICES OF PARTY ADMINISTRATION

These can be disbanded at once, except for the regional and local departments administering the affairs of the organizations listed in Category III, for which special instructions will be required:--

  1. The Gauleitung in each Party Gau of Reichsgau.

  2. The Kreisleitung in each Party Kreis.

  3. The Ortsgruppenleitung in each Party Ortsgruppe.

  4. The Offices of Zellenleiter and Blockleiter.

NOTE:-- It is unlikely that there are many real offices under No. 4, but it is added to cover the seizure of any records which may be in the hands of these minor party officials.

CATEGORY II

Para-military Organizations. Dissolution includes the suppression of the central regional and local, office, and training establishments, the disbanding of the associations, and the demobilisation of para-military and police formations.

  1. S.A. (Sturmabteilungen), including the SA-Wehmannschaften or pre-military training centres.

  2. S.S. (Schutzstaffeln)¬ including the Armed-SS (Waffen-SS) and the SD (Sicherheitsdienst).

  3. NSKK (NS-Kraftfahrerkorps or Motor Corps).

  4. NSFK (NS-Fliegerkorps or Flying Corps).

  5. Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend, or HJ).

  6. Reich Labour Service (Reiphsarbeitsdienst, or RAD).

  7. Todt Organization (OT).

CATEGORY III

Organizations which will be dissolved at once except for such of their beneficial functions as may be allowed to continue on a temporary basis.

--2--

  1. Head Office for Popular Welfare (Hauptarat fur Voikswohlfahrt); together with

  2. National Socialist Welfare Organization (NS-Volkswohlfahrt or NSV).

  3. Winter Help Organization (Winterhilfswerk, or WHW).

  4. Head Office for War Victims. (Haupiemt fur Kriegsepfer); together with

  5. Society far the Care of War Victims (NS-Kriegsopfarversorgung, or NSKOV).

  6. German Labour Front (Deutschearbeitsfront, or DAF).

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION I

INTRODUCTION

1. As the occupation of GERMANY proceeds, it will be necessary to commence setting up the Intelligence organization required to undertake the large additional commitments with which Intelligence staffs will be faced. The character of this Intelligence organization must depend on the form of the organization designed to control GERMANY during the period of the Supreme Commander's responsibility, and must be so constructed that it will facilitate the transition to the final layout as planned by the U.S. Group Control Council for the AMERICAN sphere and the BRITISH Control Commission for the BRITISH sphere.

2. This Memorandum is designed to define the Intelligence responsibilities involved in the occupation of GERMANY and, where appropriate, to prescribe suitable measures and policies. It must be read in conjunction with the Appreciation and Outline Plan of Operation ECLIPSE (SHAEF (UK) 34 of 10 Nov 44), and the Military Occupation Handbook.

3. The Plan of Operation ECLIPSE divides our operations into two main phases, according to the priorities of the tasks to be undertaken. These phases, which will almost certainly overlap, are:

Primary phase. An advance by our forces, conducted with the maximum speed that is consistent with security, designed to secure especially important strategic areas, including BERLIN, deep inside GERMANY, and to extend our air threat.

Secondary phase. The redistribution of our forces to establish firm control throughout the Supreme Commander's spheres of occupation in GERMANY; to carry out the disarmament and disposal of enemy forces in GERMANY aid any still remaining in occupied countries; and to adjust the dispositions of national forces to coincide ultimately with the national zones of occupation.

4. During these phases there are fourteen main tasks connected with Intelligence which it will be the responsibility of the Supreme Commander to initiate. The majority of them will be commenced simultaneously by the appropriate Intelligence staffs and they are not set out below in any order or priority.

  1. The immediate seizure of Intelligence objectives.

  2. The establishment of Port, Frontier and Travel Security Control.

  3. The arrest and Intelligence control of:

    1. Persons whose names appear on the Black Lists.

    2. All General Staff Corps officers (and equivalent Naval and Air officers) who have not been taken into custody as prisoners of war. These will be held pending receipt of further instructions as to their disposition.

    3. Persons in certain specified positions of authority and members of certain prescribed organizations.

  4. The elimination of the National Socialist Party and all its affiliates, and the prevention of their rebirth in any form.

  5. The disposal of the GERMAN General Staff.

  6. The destruction of the GERMAN organization for espionage, sabotage and subversive activities.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION I (cont'd)

  1. The organization for monitoring authorized telecommunications and for the detection and location of unauthorized telecommunications.

  2. The establishment of an organization for. the censorship of civil communications (other than public dissemination services) in GERMANY.

  3. The provision of detailed Intelligence on the organization of the GERMAN armed forces in order to facilitate demobilization and disarmament, and the checking of information supplied by the GERMANS.

  4. The preservation and scrutiny of documents and archives in order to acquire maximum knowledge of GERMAN methods and organization.

  5. The securing of information regarding GERMAN military, scientific and technical developments and their application both to peace and war.

  6. The securing of economic Intelligence, as defined in Section XI.

  7. The securing of Intelligence for the prosecution of the war against JAPAN.

  8. The initiation of military Intelligence research studies as necessary.

5. In addition to the above Intelligence tasks, Counter-Intelligence personnel will render such assistance as circumstances may permit in locating and arresting war criminals, but the compilation of lists of war criminals is not the duty of Intelligence staffs.

6. In order to carry out these tasks, it will be necessary for all the Services to reorganize their Intelligence facilities and to make additional Intelligence personnel available. Plans have been drawn up to this end, and the details are contained in the various Sections of this Memorandum. The guiding principle is that, so far as is practicable; continuity in personnel, methods and channels should be observed. It is anticipated that the majority of the Intelligence staffs of Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F. and the headquarters under its command will require to be absorbed into the Control Council/Commission organization when the Supreme Commander hands over his responsibilities. It is therefore important that the Intelligence personnel who will ultimately be part of these organizations should be introduced to their eventual spheres of responsibility as early as possible, and remain there.

7. As events are developing at present, the operational stage will lead gradually into ECLIPSE condition. In such circumstances it will be necessary for Intelligence plans for 'ECLIPSE' to be put into effect, either partially or wholly during the operational stage in areas occupied behind the lines.

8. Where areas which will ultimately be in the BRITISH sphere have been initially occupied by the U.S. or FRENCH forces, BRITISH Intelligence Officers will be attached to U.S. or FRENCH units. The responsibility for all Intelligence matters will rest with the U.S. Commander, and during this period, the BRITISH Intelligence staffs will not operate in an executive capacity, unless so directed by the tactical commander concerned. The reverse procedure will operate if BRITISH forces occupy areas which will ultimately become a U.S, responsibility. It is the duty of Army Groups to make these arrangements, and Commanders should endeavour so far as possible to ensure that all arrangements made conform where practicable to the eventual layout contemplated.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION II

PROBABLE CONDITIONS IN GERMANY AFTER
COLLAPSE AND THEIR INTELLIGENCE IMPLICATIONS

9. Once the pressure of war demands has been removed, the bulk of the GERMAN population may appear apathetic under the shock of defeat. It must not, however, on that account be assumed that they will not be bitterly resentful of and hostile to the occupying powers. Their outward behaviour will probably be largely conditioned by caution and the desire to obtain food and the other necessities of life. Although it is possible that only a small percentage of the total population will be disposed actively to engage in anti-Allied activities, which in itself will present Counter Intelligence with an enormous problem, great numbers of the people are likely to be in full but passive sympathy with the active minority. It is important that we should not be deceived by this passivity and conclude that it is due to any change of heart. Ninety percent of GERMANS, even those who are professedly anti-Nazi (and there will be many) believe in the superiority of the GERMAN race and would give their whole-hearted support to a third attempt to dominate the world.

10. As far as the active resistant minority is concerned, it will be extremely difficult to identify the fanatical Party member, as he will be deliberately unobtrusive -- the more compromised may "take to the woods" -- and will probably possess the additional complication of false papers. If this small minority is effectively organized, years of Counter Intelligence watchfulness may be necessary to eradicate it. Action will require to be directed not only at its activities inside GERMANY, but also at those which it will undoubtedly seek to foster abroad outside GERMANY. Those who attempt overt action in the early days of occupation present less of a problem; they will represent the continuation of the war on a reduced scale, and Operational Intelligence will have to prolong its function until they are liquidated.

11. On the other hand, the GERMAN population may well divide itself into rival groups. Friction between these groups may result in civil disturbances in certain areas, particularly in the more politically conscious, large cities. It will therefore be one of the main functions of Intelligence to follow closely the trends of civil dissensions.

12. The rapidity with which effective control is gained over those areas not occupied by Allied Forces in the first stages will be highly important in view of the way in which sectional interests by agitation, opportunist action and probably terrorism may quickly try to take advantage of confusion. Intelligence will be a prime factor in achieving early mastery of such situations, and the importance of early seizure of Intelligence targets of all types must not be underestimated. In fact, if our action in the early stages is prompt and efficient, the subsequent resistance, whether overt or covert, will be correspondingly smaller.

13. It is considered that the SS generally are more likely to be the prime movers of continued armed resistance, whether overt or covert, than the Wehrmacht proper; though these SS elements will probably absorb many members, even units, of the army and GAF who feel no purpose in or desire to return to civil life. This form of resistance, by dramatizing its patriotism and its loyalty to its leaders might, although it is unlikely, try to make some desperate

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION II (Cont'd)

last stand against overwhelming Allied odds (e.g. a final rally in defence of the FUEHRER'S Hq. or BERCHTESGADEN). It is also possible that guerilla war will continue in the BLACK FOREST area or more possibly in the BAVARIAN ALPS for example, for some time after the defeat of the main GERMAN armies. This should present no greater problems than those expected of a small localized campaign, the length of the resistance will largely depend on the supply possibilities open to the guerillas.

14. It may be said that the SS and the armed forces are inextricably fused, but it is considered highly probable that the GERMAN army will have its own plans for its future, irrespective of the upstart and ephemeral Party army. The General Staff Corps has a much stronger tradition; is adept at long-term planning, and may try for a time, by serving obvious Allied needs in GERMANY, to disarm Allied suspicions and encourage a sense of uselessness among the Armies of occupation, particularly in view of the demands of the war in the Far East. By chameleon changes, they will seek to become police, instructors of various kinds, business men, civil servants and research workers; many will be anxious to gain maximum, military experience (and incidentally expert knowledge of foreign countries and languages) in the immediate post-war years as soldiers of fortune in any current campaigns, hoping to return to GERMANY at an opportune moment. Hence the need for an unremitting check on all such persons throughout their careers.

15. The elimination of the Nazi Party and its affiliates and the prevention of their rebirth is one of our declared objectives. But in order finally to eradicate GERMAN militarism, it must also be one of our main tasks to destroy the GERMAN General Staff (and equivalent Naval and Air Staffs) root and branch, as it is this organization rather than the Nazi Party which fosters and encourages GERMANY'S military aspirations to dominate the world using as its tool whatever political or national agencies the years may throw up. Its destruction can best be accomplished by isolating its members and depriving it of its dossiers, files and records, so that it can neither study the lessons of this war nor have any sound basis on which to prepare for the next; by keeping track of its more prominent and efficient members, especially those between the ages of 25 and 35, and depriving them of all opportunities for continued military study and experience; and finally by fostering among former officers a conviction of irrevocable and final defeat and impotency in face of Allied power and exploiting all methods which will keep them from uniting on a common basis.

16. The probable existence as mentioned above of fanatical elements bent on carrying on the struggle by underground means immensely increases the dangers to be anticipated from sabotage. Already there is evidence of thorough and widespread preparations for this. A further factor in the situation is the immense knowledge and experience of sabotage technique gained by the GERMANS in their efforts to combat the ceaseless sabotage activities of the resistance groups against the GERMAN forces of occupation.

17. To compete with this, Counter Intelligence will have to keep constant watch for the agents of the GERMAN underground, search for their concealed headquarters and systems of Communications, and their hidden dumps of material; and advise upon the necessary counter sabotage measures. Communications are vital to the functioning of any underground movement. To discover and destroy the communication systems employed by agents is therefore a matter of primary Importance. The problem of defeating GERMAN underground activities and sabotage requires above all constant alertness from all formations and all combat troops, in whom must be instilled and maintained a counter sabotage

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION II (Cont'd)

consciousness which can he relied upon for all emergencies.

18. Allied control of war material and disarmament is likely to be extremely complex and difficult. The unprecedented use of mines, tunnels, caves and underground workshops for war industrial purposes for example, will have resulted in a vast range of potential arms depots and factories, many of which will lend themselves to concealment. Intelligence will obviously have a most important function to perform in this connection, and will have to exert itself constantly in order to thwart the numerous and changing forms of evasion and obstructionism.

19. This Section should be read in conjunction with Chapter XIII of the Military Occupation Handbook, "GERMAN Evasion and Obstruction of the Terms of Surrender", where a number of the points touched on above are developed in greater detail.

20. In conclusion, it is of the utmost importance that when counter-measures of any kind are necessary, they should be taken with the greatest dispatch. Vigour and promptitude in our actions are the surest means of impressing the GERMAN people; and demonstrating to them that this time we "mean business".

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION III

GENERAL MILITARY ORGANIZATION

21. It has been said already in Section I that the character of the Intelligence organization to be created must depend on the form of organization designed to control GERMANY. It is therefore necessary to give a brief description of the organization planned for Military Government, in order to provide a background against which the succeeding Sections can be read.

22. The general co-ordination and control of Western and Southern GERMANY is vested in the Supreme Commander, A.E.F. The boundary between the Supreme Commander's sphere of responsibility and the RUSSIAN sphere is shown on map attached at MA, which also shows the eventual boundaries between the BRITISH and AMERICAN spheres, together with the boundaries of the Military Districts. BERLIN will be a tripartite U.S./BRITISH/ RUSSIAN area.

23. In Western and Southern GERMANY it is planned that there will be six Military Districts, of which four are in the BRITISH sphere and two in the U.S. sphere. BREMEN and BREMERHAVEN will form a separate U.S. enclave. (N.B.: Map MA shows four U.S. Military Districts instead of two, and must be amended accordingly). It should be noted that the Military Districts do not conform to the Wehrkreis organization, but where a Wehrkreis has been dispersed in the course of Allied advance, a substitute Wehrkreis organization will be established to serve Allied needs and this organization will conform to the boundaries of the Allied Military Districts concerned.

24. Intelligence policy in all its aspects will be formulated by Supreme Headquarters. Army Groups will be responsible for the detailed planning of the Intelligence organization for their respective spheres, and for the initiation of all necessary Intelligence measures to implement the policy laid down. They will keep Supreme Headquarters informed of the progress made in their planning, and it will be the responsibility of Supreme Headquarters generally to co-ordinate these plans, to ensure that they proceed along similar lines, and that no divergences occur which might create a gap in the overall picture.

25. Intelligence staffs at various levels will require extra personnel to enable them to carry out the additional tasks with which they will be faced. Army Groups will be responsible for the preparation and approval of the necessary Tables of Organisation and War Establishments, and for the assembly of personnel. A certain number of officers are being recruited by Supreme Headquarters and arrangements have been made to train them in the various special occupational tasks, after which they will be at the disposal of Army Groups to assist in fillings the vacancies created. These training facilities will also be available for any officers whom Army Groups choose to nominate.

26. The existing Corps Intelligence Staff should be the nucleus around which should be built up the Military District Intelligence organization. It must be strengthened and expanded by the provision of Intelligence increments suitable for dealing with the special O.I. and C.I. tasks arising from the occupation, in addition to the ordinary Corps responsibilities. The nucleus of these staffs should be introduced into their final spheres of responsibilities at the earliest possible moment. Corps Intelligence Staffs should be so organized that, in the event of transfer of Corps Headquarters from a Military District, appropriate Intelligence echelons may be detached to provide for the smooth continuation of Intelligence activities.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION III (Con'd)

27. BERLIN will form to all intents and purposes an extra Military District under a District Commander responsible directly to Supreme Headquarters. Details of the organization and of the division of responsibilities between the District Commander's Intelligence Staff and those of the Control Council/Commission at BERLIN will be found in Section XIII.

28. The Naval and Air organization for control and disarmament is of necessity somewhat different, in order to meet their special requirements. Particulars are given in Section XIV and XV respectively.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION IV

THE IMMEDIATE SEIZURE OF INTELLIGENCE OBJECTIVES

29. Intelligence objectives (known herein as targets) consist of the sources from which Intelligence may be obtained. Targets may include any of the following:

  1. Records and documents.

  2. Persons.

  3. Experimental, and Research Stations.

  4. Materiel.

  5. Headquarters of all kinds.

  6. Ministries.

  7. Industrial Plants.

  8. Naval, Army and Air establishments and installations.

30. The early seizure and exploitation of targets are essential.

31. It will be the responsibility of Supreme Headquarters to furnish to Army Groups and others concerned information on targets which are of interest to the following agencies:

  1. Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee of the Combined Intelligence Committee (representing both U.S. and BRITISH Ministries).

  2. Counter Intelligence.

  3. Operational Intelligence.

  4. Signal Intelligence.

  5. Censorship.

  6. Japanese Intelligence.

  7. Naval Intelligence.

  8. Air Intelligence.

  9. Control Council/Commission.

Agencies other than the above will have targets which they desire to exploit. It will be the responsibility of these agencies to furnish Supreme Headquarters with the necessary information concerning these targets.

32. Army Groups will arrange to seize and guard those targets in their areas of advance, and will arrange for co-ordinating their exploitation by all interested agencies. Army Groups will remain responsible for all arrangements for guarding and exploitation of Intelligence objectives in GERMANY until the responsibility can be delegated to the Corps District Commander or other competent authority in whose area the targets are situated. When the concentration of targets in any one area so warrants, it will be the responsibility of Army Groups to create special forces, known as "T" Forces, to seize guard and exploit targets. Some of the agencies listed in paragraph 31 above have organized Intelligence assault units and teams. Army Groups on the instructions of Supreme Headquarters will co-ordinate the operations of these units within Army Group zones of responsibility.

Paragraph 33. Existing paragraph is rescinded and the following substituted:--

"Special operations are envisaged against BERLIN and KIEL. Operation against KIEL may be carried out either by airborne or ground forces, as circumstances dictate. In the case of BERLIN, "T" Force specialists will be introduced under the direction and control of the District Commander, BERLIN. The nomination of a "T" Force Commander for KIEL will be made by 21 Army Group. Supreme Headquarters will furnish additional Intelligence personnel for these operations and for ensuring that the requirements of all interested agencies are covered."

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION IV (Con'd)

34. Reference should be made to Section XII for further details on CIOS, and the handling of CIOS objectives after their seizure by "T" Forces.

35. The Naval and Air responsibilities in connection with the seizure of Intelligence targets are set out in Sections XIV and XV, which deal with the Naval and Air Intelligence Plan.

--9--

GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION V

OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

36. After the cessation of organized resistance in GERMANY, Operational Intelligence staffs at various levels will be faced with commitments considerably larger in degree than they have handled hitherto. Apart however from the circumstances in which they will be operating, there will be little change in their basic functions.

37. Whereas, at present, Supreme Headquarters has been responsible for much of the long-term research on operational Intelligence in order to free the Army Groups to deal with problems of the battle, in the later stages of ECLIPSE this will be largely altered. The Operational Intelligence staffs within Army Groups will then have to do the bulk of this work, and thus they will be confronted with a mass of information requiring analysis and evaluation for use by their own Disarmament and Disbandment staffs. The main role of Supreme Headquarters will bo to supplement this information where possible and produce the necessary Intelligence guidance on long-term policy to enable Army Groups to fulfill their tasks. For this purpose, the Operational Intelligence staffs with Army Groups will need to be strengthened and their organization readjusted.

38. Operational Intelligence will very largely be collected locally by Intelligence staffs. Their greatest sources of information will be documents, the information, volunteered or demanded from the GERMANS, and interrogation reports.

39. The information will be required for various purposes, which can be broadly set out as follows.

  1. Tactical requirements.

  2. Checking of information supplied by the GSHMAFS.

  3. Planning requirements.

  4. Military Intelligence research.

  5. Technical Intelligence.

TACTICAL REQUIREMENTS

40. Responsibility for Operational Intelligence in its present form will continue though on a diminished scale commensurate with such operations as may be in progress. This may take the form of punitive expeditions against guerilla activity. It will still be necessary for O.I. staffs to brief Commanders on all aspects of tactical Intelligence, especially in the early stages of occupation, required in establishing control over the GERMAN armed forces and in taking the first steps towards their disarmament.

41. In order that Operational Intelligence staffs can properly fulfill these requirements, they will need to work in close contact with Counter Intelligence staffs, who will be following closely all matters connected with underground movements. They will also require to follow the political trends in their areas.

CHECKING OF INTELLIGENCE SUPPLIED BY THE GERMANS

41. GERMAN Commanders will be instructed on surrender to submit immediately information regarding Order of Battle, locations, strengths, equipment and stocks. It will, however, be essential that such information is subject to constant checks, both as to its veracity and its completeness, to prevent any attempts at evasion or concealment. For this reason, O.I. staffs must maintain their own Order of Battle and estimates in as much detail as possible,

--10--

GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION V (Con'd)

so that they may have a yardstick with which to measure the GERMAN estimates. Documents should prove invaluable in this respect.

PLANNING REQUIREMENTS

43. Operational Intelligence staffs will be required to provide the Intelligence on which the plans for the disarmament and disbandment of the GERMAN armed forces are based. This Intelligence will be largely derived from study of documents to be found locally, and information volunteered or extracted from GERMAN administrative staffs, supplemented by the results of such study and analysis as is performed at Supreme Headquarters or War Office/Dept. Work on this will probably prove the most onerous of the tasks of O.I. staffs. In certain areas, where almost all records have been destroyed, it may prove necessary to recreate such records as are required, by the use of interrogation and reference to every existing source of Intelligence records.

44. It will be necessary and advisable to initiate enquiries on:

  1. How GERMANY fought the war in all its army aspects.

  2. The accuracy of our own Intelligence.

  3. The collation of certain long-term Intelligence, such as topography or engineer Intelligence.

The scope and requirements in this respect will be laid down by Supreme Headquarters in due course, and information must be collected on which such research studies can be based.

TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE

45. The normal tasks of Technical Intelligence will continue in the occupational period, and will be handled in accordance with Intelligence Directive No. 3. After the cessation of hostilities, there will obviously be no further open developments in GERMAN armaments; Technical Intelligence will in this respect have diminishing opportunities, but at the same time search for what technical developments have been made and are being used in secret will have to be more widespread. In addition, Technical Intelligence will be required to help in certain disarmament problems and will require to keep close touch with CIOS parties in GERMANY.

AIR RECONNAISSANCE

46. During the ECLIPSE period the need for Air Reconnaissance, both, visual and photographic, will remain. It will be devoted mainly to checking that GERMAN troop concentrations are being carried out as directed; that there is no unwarranted rail activity; and that dumps and installations are not being interfered with. Photographic interpreters will be required to continue their functions in this respect. Consideration should also be given to long-term plans for Air Reconnaissance for survey, topographical and other purposes.

RESPONSIBILITIES OR SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

47.

  1. Supply of Operational Intelligence to the Supreme Commander and the provision of such appreciations as are required.

  2. To. supply supplementary information to Army Groups and Control Council/Commission of: Intelligence on:

    1. GEMAN army, its personnel, organization and materiel.

    2. Topography.

    3. Supply and transportation.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION V (Con'd)

  1. The overall co-ordination of Military Intelligence research.

  2. Liaison with Control Council/Commission and BRITISH and U.S. Service Ministries and agencies. Liaison with the RUSSIANS through the Control Council/Commission.

  3. Training of personnel if required hy Army Groups.

Intelligence Officers from ANCXF will work in close co-operation with O.I. staffs at Supreme Headquarters, so that Intelligence matters which are of common interest to the two Services may he handled as hitherto on a fully co-ordinated basis.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

  1. Establishment and organization of static O.I. staffs throughout their spheres of responsibility.

  2. Necessary WE/TO action and obtaining of personnel.

  3. Training of personnel.

  4. Transmission to Supreme Headquarters of Intelligence as required for planning disarmament and disbandment.

BERLIN

49. The Intelligence organization at BERLIN is dealt with separately in Section XIII.

--12--

GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION VI

COUNTER INTELLIGENCE

50. The first few weeks after the cessation of hostilities will he a critical and difficult time for Counter Intelligence staffs, particularly those at lower formations. It is vital for the future of Counter Intelligence control in GERMANY that the initial phase of the operation be successful. To achieve this, it will he necessary for nuclei of the C.I. staffs, who are eventually to be responsible in each Military District, to be trained in their particular missions and in the particular problems of their areas, and held in readiness to be introduced at the earliest possible moment to their respective spheres.

51. Supreme Headquarters and Army Groups will have supplied to them in advance an analysis of all the background, information available, but from then on these C.I. staffs will have to deal with all the manifold problems confronting them with little more than general policy guidance from above. The raw material of Counter Intelligence will be close at hand, and C.I. staffs will have to assume the responsibility of analysing it themselves and of setting up the records they require. It is only when the situation clarifies and the first rush dies down that the work of building up an interrelated system of records and control on the basis of the information obtained during this period can be commenced.

52. A Counter Intelligence Directive for the Pre-Surrender Period has already been issued, and is attached at Annex A for reference: it sets out in detail the tasks which will confront Counter Intelligence staffs and the manner in which they will be handled in the Pre-Surrender period. After the cessation of hostilities, similar problems will have to be faced, though they will assume greater proportions, and the principles already laid down in this Directive will therefore remain operative. An enlarged organization will, however, be required.

53. A broad description of the main problems is recapitulated below, in order that their importance may be emphasized.

PORT, FRONTIER AND TRAVEL SECURITY

54. The closing of all frontiers of GERMANY, followed by establishment of security control over all traffic crossings, will be a necessary step in order to prevent the escape of wanted persons and the flow of unauthorized communications.

55. A proclamation has been prepared for issue, forbidding anyone, regardless of nationality, to cross the frontiers except by Allied authority. Any unauthorized persons attempting to make such crossings will therefore automatically be treated as suspect.

56. At sea, Naval Authorities are responsible for taking such measures as the situation permits for the prevention of illicit communication between sea and shore and illegal entry or exit by sea along the coast line, coordinating such measures with the appropriate Military Security Officer, who is responsible in the port and on shore.

57. Further instructions will be issued regarding movement between the RUSSIAN and ANGLO-AMERICAN spheres of responsibility, and also across the GERMAN-AUSTRIAN frontier, where special regulations will apply.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION VI (Con'd)

ARREST AND DETENTION

58. Personality Cards containing names of persons who may constitute a danger to Allied security have been prepared and are being supplied to Army Groups.

59. It will be the responsibility of Commanders to ensure that their Counter Intelligence staffs in the field take all measures to seek out and arrest all the persons mentioned in Appendix B to the Pre-Surrender Directive attached, together with all members of the Abwehr and Geheimefeldpolizei, as well as all General Staff Corps Officers (and equivalent Naval and Air officers) who have not been taken into custody as prisoners of war. In addition to the WAEFEN SS officers listed in Appendix B to the Pre-Surrender Directive, all WAFFEN SS N.C.O.'s down to and including the rank of SCHARFUEhrER will also be arrested. The growing tendency for members of the WAFFEN SS to be drafted into standard WEhrMACHT Divisions means that special care will have to be taken in screening disarmed GERMAN troops to ensure that officers and N.C.O.'s of the WAFFEN SS do not escape through haying shed their Identity. Arrangements for providing specialist personnel for carrying out arrests will be the responsibility of Army Groups. It may also be necessary for Commanders to provide combat troops to assist in the making of arrests, for escorts to take arrested persons to internment camps, and for prevention of escapes.

60. Internment camps, to which all apprehended persons will be sent, will be established in accordance with requirements by Commanders. The Intelligence control will be the responsibility of Intelligence staffs to be allocated for this purpose by Commanders. Arrangements will also be made by Army Groups for interrogation facilities to be provided at Internment camps as necessary. Further particulars regarding interrogation are given in Section X.

61. Lists of addresses of Gestapo Hqs, Abwehr Hqs, Party Hqs, etc. are being supplied to Army Groups, covering the towns and districts on the axis of advance. Commanders will arrange for the seizure of such premises. In the larger towns, special "T" Forces will be used, and their tasks will include arrests, seizures of headquarters, etc. In the case of smaller towns and districts along the axis of advance, it will be the responsibility of the Counter Intelligence staff to ensure that seizures of premises are carried out.

62. Where premises are seized at the request of Counter Intelligence, all persons found will be detained pending the arrival of Counter Intelligence Officers. All documents will be seized and preserved for expert examination. Any evidence of torture instruments or methods, together with names and such other particulars as can be obtained of all GERMAN personnel involved in such practices, will be carefully preserved and reports rendered to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, for further action.

ELIMINATION OF THE NAZI PARTY AND PREVENTION OF ITS REBIRTH

63. The National Socialist Party and ail its affiliates will be dissolved by proclamation, which will be issued by the Supreme Commander. Lists of the various organizations of the Party are set out at Annex B. The arrest of all officials of the Party, as set out in Appendix B to the Pre-Surrender Directive, will be the first step in destroying the Party machinery. It will be the responsibility of Military Government to reorganize and supervise such portions of the GERMAN Police Force as maybe retained after its purging has been carried out in conjunction with Counter Intelligence.

64. The further steps necessary for the elimination of the National Socialist Party will be taken by Military Government in close consultation with Counter Intelligence.

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SECTION VI (Con'd)

65. It is certain that die-hard elements of the Party will go underground, and endeavour to organize for the rebirth of the National Socialist movement under some other guise. It will be the particular responsibility of Counter Intelligence staffs to seek out any indications of such a movement and to arrange for its elimination.

DISPOSAL OF THE GERMAN GENERAL STAFF

66. Attention was drawn in Section II to the importance of destroying root and branch the GERMAN General Staff, including equivalent staffs of the Luftwaffe and Oberkommandomarine. It is the responsibility of G-2 Supreme Headquarters to collect lists of all officers of the General Staff, which will be sent to Naval Commands, Army Groups and Air Staffs for co-ordinated action. All General Staff Corps officers (and equivalent Naval and Air officers) who have not been taken into custody as prisoners of war, and other officers who have adverse records, or who are on the Counter Intelligence Personality Cards or listed as War Criminals and any officer who is regarded as potentially dangerous, will be detained. These will be held under Intelligence control pending receipt of further instructions as to their disposition. Lists of officers to be detained will be supplied by Supreme Headquarters.

67. Certain GERMAN staff officers who have been detained will be required to return to their posts at the various headquarters and installations to assist in the process of disarmament and demobilization. Surveillance of these will be arranged by Counter Intelligence in consultation with other military authorities concerned.

PREVENTION OF GERMAN ESPIONAGE, SABOTAGE AND SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES

68. Normal Counter Intelligence activities against enemy espionage, sabotage and subversive activities will be continued. In occupied enemy territory vigilance must be redoubled. Troops will be constantly on the watch for suspicious actions, and they should be encouraged to report such activities to their Unit Security Officer. Active operations being over, it will be more than ever necessary to watch against subversive activities in the shape of attempts made:

  1. To win sympathy for the GERMANS by complaints of the harshness of their treatment and their present conditions of want, hunger, etc.

  2. To try to set Allied troops against each other by emphasizing differences of pay, or opportunities for leave, etc.

  3. To win over troops to political movements.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

69. Supreme Headquarters will be responsible for the following:

  1. Direction of Counter Intelligence policy in GERMANY.

  2. Arrangements for the supply of all necessary Counter Intelligence information. In order to discharge this function, Supreme Headquarters will undertake the maintenance of a central Card Index of suspect personalities, and research on all subjects of Counter Intelligence interest. So far as is practicable and necessary, not less than three copies of these Personality Cards, reference books and files will be kept so that at the appropriate time, adequate records can be passed to the BRITISH Control Commission and U.S. Group Control Council, with a third set in reserve.

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SECTION VI (Con'd)

  1. Policy regarding disposal of all arrested suspects.

Paragraph 69. Existing sub-paragraph (iv) is rescinded and the following substituted:

  1. "General policy regarding security measures at ports, airports, coastlines and frontiers, and travel into and out of GERMANY (see Annex "A", SECTION IV). In order to ensure the necessary uniformity of procedure concerning travel into and out of the Supreme Commander's area of responsibility in GERMANY, Counter Intelligence personnel will receive, through command channels, instruction on travel security matters as issued by Supreme Headquarters, AEF, from C.I. staff of the Military Districts. The provision of tactical troops for frontier patrol purposes is not a C.I. matter, and will continue as an operational responsibility of Army Groups. See paragraph 70 (viii).

  2. The setting up of a joint C.I. and O.I. organization for interrogation. For particulars of this, see Section X, "Interrogation".

  3. Technical research on sabotage and advice to Army Groups concerning measures to be taken.

  4. The canalizing of information from the Counter Intelligence Services in all liberated countries into a central agency. This will be controlled by Supreme Headquarters through a War Room in LONDON and will be carried out on an integrated (ANGLO-AMERICAN) basis with full representation of all interested Intelligence Services, BRITISH; and AMERICAN. Information obtained through this War Room will be sent direct to Army Groups, as well as to Supreme Headquarters.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

70. Army Groups will be responsible for the following:

  1. Detailed planning of measures to implement the policy-laid down by Supreme Headquarters.

  2. Initiation and execution of all Counter Intelligence measures in their respective spheres in conformity with the policy laid down by Supreme Headquarters.

  3. Build-up and organization of Army Groups and Corps (Military District) C.I. staffs.

  4. WE/TO action with War Office and ETOUSA and the obtaining of the necessary personnel.

  5. Training and provision of specialist personnel to assist Counter Intelligence staffs in their task of arresting suspect persons and certain categories of GERMAN officers and officials.

  6. Organisation of central registry and records systems at Army Group Hqs.

  7. Interchange of information.

  8. Provision of tactical Units for frontier patrol purposes.

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30 January 1945

SECTION VI (Con'd.)

ORGANIZATION AT BERLIN

71. Counter Intelligence measures in the BRITISH and U.S. areas of the International Zone in BERLIN will be the responsibility of the District Commander. A special Counter Intelligence staff, on an integrated basis and organized on similar lines to the C.I. staff of a Military District, will form part of the staff of the District Commander BERLIN. It will be so constituted that it can split into its BRITISH and AMERICAN components on the termination of Supreme Commander's command. This staff will have the following tasks:

  1. To carry out all Counter Intelligence measures deemed necessary in the Supreme Headquarters area of responsibility in BERLIN, including arrangements for all arrests and detentions.

    Paragraph 71: Existing sub-paragraph (ii) is rescinded and the following substituted:

    "To seize and exploit all Counter Intelligence objectives in the Supreme Headquarters area of responsibility in BERLIN."

72. During the Supreme Headquarters period, Counter Intelligence staffs will be assigned by the Control Council/Commission to work as separate U.S. and BRITISH entities, under the direction of Supreme Headquarters, to form the U.S. and BRITISH representation on all matters of Counter Intelligence interest and policy discussed with the RUSSIANS. In .addition, they will represent Supreme Headquarters requirements relating to Counter Intelligence to the GERMAN central administration. They will also include elements which will take care of all Counter Intelligence interests and requirements at OKW, OKH, etc. The channel for passing Intelligence to Supreme Headquarters and for receiving requests for information from Supreme Headquarters will be through the C.I. staff of the District Commander BERLIN. For all Counter Intelligence purposes, this staff will receive similar information to that given to the Army Groups. It will maintain its records in triplicate.

73. For further particulars of the Intelligence organization at BERLIN, see Section XIII.

BREMEN-BREMERHAVEN ENCLAVE

74. Counter Intelligence in the enclave will be a U.S. responsibility. The relationship between the C..I. staff working-in the enclave and the C.I. staff of Military District in which the enclave is situated will be a matter for mutual agreement between the Army Groups.

NAVY AND AIR

75. For particulars of Naval and Air Counter Intelligence staffs, see Section XIV and XV respectively. These staffs will work in close cooperation with Army C.I. staffs.

LISTS OF ARRESTED PERSONS

76. It will be necessary for a record of all persons arrested and their locations to be held centrally, so that immediate information is available to ascertain whether a suspect has already been arrested and where he is held. Plans are being prepared and further instructions defining responsibilities and procedure will be issued later.

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30 January 1945

SECTION VII

ALLOCATION OF CIVIL CENSORSHIP RESPONSIBILITIES IN GERMANY

77. Under ECLIPSE conditions it will be necessary to establish an organization for censorship of civilian communications (other than Public information services) as an Intelligence activity, based on CCS.271.

78. The experience of both the BRITISH Postal and Telegraph Censorship Department (B.P. & T.C.) and the U.S. Office of Censorship has demonstrated that effective censorship of civilian communications is dependent upon the centralization of the technical direction of, and control over, censorship activities. Operations requiring uniformity of action which can result only from centralized direction include items such as:

  1. The reopening of communications Channels.

  2. The routings of communications.

  3. The percentage of examination to be undertaken within various categories of communications.

  4. The application of watch lists.

  5. The allocation of information derived from a censorship examination.

  6. The detection and control of secret writing.

  7. The co-ordination with civilian censorship organizations of other nations.

79. Moreover, since obviously national systems of communication channels must conform to the pattern set by the physical facilities available to transmit the messages, it follows that effective economical censorship can be exercised only at the central points created by those physical facilities. The areas served by these central communications points may, or may not, coincide with areas established for the purpose of Military Government. On the basis of a detailed survey of communication routings, it is necessary to delineate six Civil Censorship Districts in GERMANY. (See. MAP MB.)

80. The responsibilities for the establishment and operation of censorship of Civilian communications in GERMANY are assigned to Supreme Headquarters, Army Groups, to the District Commander BERLIN, and to U.S. and BRITISH elements of the Control Council/Commission, as follows:

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPREME HEADQUARTERS

81.

  1. Establishment of Civil Censorship policy.

  2. Establishment and maintenance of liaison with other Allied Censorships including those of GREAT BRITAIN, UNITED STATES, U.S.S.R, and European liberated countries.

  3. The maintenance of necessary relationships on censorship matters with War Office, Air Ministry, Admiralty, War Department, Navy Department, and other governmental departments and bureaus.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1 30 January 1945

SECTION VII (Con'd)

  1. Co-ordination of censorship operations of all Civil Censorship operating units within Army Group/District Commander (BERLIN) areas to ensure uniform, effective censorship.

  2. Co-ordination of routings, jurisdictions and such other technical problems of censorship operations with other Allied censorships.

  3. Determination of requirements of user agencies.

  4. Collection and approval of watch list names submitted by governmental and military agencies above Army Group level.

  5. Distribution of information derived from censorship operations.

Paragraph 81. Add to existing paragraph:

  1. Publication of Civil Censorship operational requirements in serially numbered "Civil Censorship Memoranda" addressed to the A C of S, G-2 / BGS(I) of Army Groups / District Commander, BERLIN."

    [___procedure laid down by Supreme Headquarters. This will include the establishment and operation of Censorship District Stations at HAMBURG, DORTMUND, COLOGNE, FRANKFURT, STUTTGART and MUNICH, and of the out-stations necessary for travel control and the control of telephone, telegraph and wireless traffic (not including radio broadcasting and press dispatches).]

  1. Collection and approval of watch list names from Army Group or lower echelons.

  2. Distribution of information derived from censorship operations to Army Group and lower echelons.

  3. Application for W/E necessary for operation in 21 Army Group area. This will include application for the necessary Allied technical civilian personnel. (NOTE: The T/D & A required for U.S. Forces has been authorized and application has been made for U.S. technical civilian personnel. Arrangements are under way to make personnel, equipment and supplies available as required).

  4. Recruitment of indigenous or displaced persons for civilian censorship.

  5. Administration of all censorship personnel, within their respective jurisdictions.

  6. In areas occupied by Allied troops prior to the complete control of GERMANY, the Army Group will ensure the impounding of all mails in postal channels and the protection of the records, files and transmission tape in electrical communications centres pending instructions from the Supreme Commander.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DISTRICT COMMANDER BERLIN

83.

  1. Establishment of censorship control over any radio communications in the U.S. or BRITISH areas of Greater BERLIN (excluding radio broadcasting stations).

  2. Establishment and operation of civil Postal and Telegraph censorship in BERLIN, if the Supreme Commander finds it impracticable for such censorship to be undertaken at the

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION VII (Con'd)

    District Stations operating under Army Croups. If a BERLIN station is necessary, the BRITISH personnel required will be attached from Supreme Headquarters, and U.S. personnel from the approved T/D & A for Civil Censorship in Northwest EUROPE.

  1. Application for W/E necessary to carry out responsibilities in (i) above. U.S. personnel required will he furnished from the approved T/D & A for Civil Censorship in Northwest EUROPE.

84. U.S. and BRITISH elements of the Control Council/Commission will undertake such censorship responsibilities as may he delegated by the Supreme Commander.

BREMEN AND BREMERHAVEN ENCLAVE

85. Civil censorship in the U.S. enclave in BREMEN and BREMERHAVEN will be accomplished by mutual arrangement between Army Groups.

BRITISH LIAISON OFFICERS WITH U.S. FORCES

86. Where areas which will ultimately be in the BRITISH sphere have been initially occupied by U.S. Forces, BRITISH Censorship Liaison Officers will be attached to U.S. formations. The responsibility for civil censorship will rest with the U.S. Commander and during this period the BRITISH Censorship Liaison Officers will not operate in an executive capacity, unless so directed by the tactical commander concerned.

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS.TO CONTROL COUNCIL/COMMISSION

87. When the Supreme Commander hands over control to the Control Council/Commission, it is anticipated that the functions assigned to Supreme Headquarters in paragraph 81 will be assumed by the Control Council/Commission, and that responsibilities of Army Groups will remain unchanged. Decision on this will be determined when the plans of the Control Council/Commission are fully developed.

NAVAL AND AIR CENSORSHIP

88. Naval and Air censorship liaison officers will be attached to Supreme Headquarters as laid down in paragraphs 174 and 198.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION VIII (A)

ARMY RADIO SECURITY AND SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE,
TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE SECURITY

RADIO SECURITY

89. Monitoring of illicit W/T networks using procedure other than that used by the Wehrmacht (e.g., Abwehr procedure or some form of amateur procedure) will be the responsibility of the Radio Security Service.

90. The location by forward D/R of illicit transmitters whose existence is established by the Radio Security Service will be carried out:

  1. In the U.S. area by a Twelfth Army Group Mobile D/P Unit.

  2. In the Br. area by a 21 Army Group Mobile D/R Unit.

The D/F Units above will maintain direct contact with the headquarters of the Radio Security Service in U.K., from whom they will receive their technical direction.

91. As soon as possible, the Radio Security Service will establish a station in GERMANY for monitoring traffic which is not audible in U.K.

ARMY SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE -- U.S. AREA

92. "Signal Intelligence Units will be under the operational control of the Headquarters to which they are assigned, and under the technical direction of S.I.D., European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army."

93. The functions of the Signal Intelligence Units will be as follows:

  1. Interception of traffic passing on unauthorized W/T networks which use military procedure.

  2. Any special tasks allotted by War Department.

  3. Assisting, if requested, in the interception and location by D/F of W/T networks which are the responsibility of the Radio Security Service.

  4. Monitoring, as requested, of any authorized civil, military or police W/T networks.

ARMY SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE - BRITISH AREA

94. Signal Intelligence Unit will be under the operational control and technical direction of 21 Army Group. Their functions will be as follows:

  1. Interception of traffic passing on unauthorized W/T networks which use military procedure.

  2. Any special tasks allotted by War Office.

  3. Assisting, if requested, in the interception and location by D/F of W/T networks which are the responsibility of the Radio Security Service.

  4. Monitoring, as requested, of any authorized civil, military or police W/T networks.

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30 January 1945

SECTION VIII (A) (Con'd)

CO-OPERATION OF RADIO SECURITY SERVICE AND SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE

95. For a time there may be an overlap between the work of Radio Security and that of Signal Intelligence. Underground agencies may be found using military and not Abwehr procedure. Military guerilla forces may use Abwehr or improvised amateur procedure if they have with them wireless operators from Abwehr, etc., organizations. Thus, Signal Intelligence may find itself producing C.I. information, while Radio Security may find itself producing O.I. information. The operation of the Radio Security Service, of Army Groups' Signal Intelligence organizations, and of the Air Signal Intelligence organization (see Section VIII (B)) must therefore be closely coordinated. Supreme Headquarters will be responsible for arranging the necessary co-ordination.

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH SECURITY

96. Army Groups will be responsible within their respective areas for such monitoring of wire circuits as is required for:

  1. C.I. purposes (including detection of unauthorized communications).

  2. Censorship.

  3. Maintenance of their own Signal Security.

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30 January 1945

SECTION VIII (B)

AIR SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE AND RADIO SECURITY

97. The monitoring of illicit radio networks is primarily the responsibility of the Radio Security Service, but for some time after the cessation of hostilities it will be difficult, if not impossible to establish clear-cut responsibilities as between Radio Security and Air Signal Intelligence.

CO-OPERATION RADIO SECURITY AND AIR SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE

98. For a period it is certain that there will be an overlap between the work of Air Signal Intelligence and Radio Security. Air Signal Intelligence may be producing Counter Intelligence information and Radio Security may produce air information. The operation of Air Signal Intelligence and Radio Security must be closely co-ordinated, together with Army Signal Intelligence. (See Section VIII (A)). Supreme Headquarters Main and Supreme Headquarters (Air) Main will be responsible for arranging the necessary close co-ordination.

AIR SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE -- U.S. AREA

99. Signal Intelligence Units will be under the operational control of IX Air Force and 1st T.A.R. (Prov.). The operational function of the Units will have ceased and they will be available for the monitoring of illicit traffic passing on W/T or R/T.

100. It is not anticipated that the enemy will employ R/T for illicit transmission, and it may be presumed that the major responsibility will be W/T monitoring. This will be undertaken by the W/T Unit under IX Air Force.

101. The functions of Signal Intelligence Units will be:

  1. Interception of traffic passing on unauthorized W/T or R/T networks employing G.A.F. procedure.

  2. Monitoring, as requested, of any authorized G.A.F. W/T or R/T networks.

  3. Monitoring, on request, and if sets are available, of any authorized military and/or police networks.

  4. Assisting, if requested, in the interception of W/T networks which are the responsibility of the Radio Security Service.

  5. Any special tasks allocated by War Department.

AIR SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE -- BRITISH AREA

102. Signal Intelligence Units will be under the operational control of 2nd T.A.F. The operational function of the Units will have ceased and they will be available for the monitoring of illicit or authorized traffic passing on W/T or R/T.

103. It is not anticipated that the enemy will employ R/T for illicit transmissions and it may be presumed that the major responsibility will be W/T monitoring. This will be undertaken by the W/T Unit under 2nd T.A.F.

104. The functions of the Signal Intelligence Units will be:

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30 January 1945

SECTION VIII (B) (Con'd)

  1. Interception of traffic passing on unauthorized W/T or R/T networks employing G.A.F. procedure.

  2. Monitoring, as requested, of any authorized G.A.F. W/T or R/T networks.

  3. Monitoring, as requested, and if sets are available, of any authorized military and/or police networks.

  4. Assisting, if requested, in the interception of W/T networks which are the responsibility of the Radio Security Service.

  5. Any special tasks allocated by Air Ministry.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION IX

THE HANDLING OF CAPTURED ENEMY DOCUMENTS

THE PROBLEM OF DOCUMENTS

105. The vital importance of Intelligence obtained from captured enemy documents has at all times been realized, and directives have been issued on their seizure, exploitation end evacuation. In the ECLIPSE period the general principles of the inter-Service handling of documents hitherto in force will continue to govern the policy adopted.

106. As the occupation of GERMANY proceeds and is finally completed, documents will become available in greater quantity than ever before, and will present a whole series of new problems. Documents will be of much wider application than those found in countries previously occupied by the enemy, in that they will be essential in all aspects of Military Government both during and long after the period of Supreme Headquarters control.

107. During the operational phase, the main emphasis must be on quick sorting of documents so that those of operational importance are immediately exploited, and the information contained made available to those who require it. The problem in any area of GERMANY in which organized resistance has ceased is of an entirely different character. The continued evacuation of documents will prove impossible because of their great bulk and volume; it will be inadvisable because their removal would hamper the establishment of Civil control, the process of disarmament and disbandment, and the tasks of research. It will, therefore, be necessary for documents personnel to select for evacuation through normal channels to Supreme Headquarters Document Centre only such documents as are of immediate general importance. The remainder will so far as possible be left in site after arrangements have been made for their safeguarding. Documents which cannot be so left must be carefully collected in central repositories to await final disposition.

108. The general principle for the handling of documents is that every case must be dealt with on its merits; no standard procedure can be laid down in advance to meet every contingency. Documents personnel must use their own discretion in each case according to the circumstances. The essential thing is that whatever action is taken should be recorded, so that if documents are moved, whether locally or outside GERMANY, whether singly or in bulk, there may always be immediate information available as to their present location at the Document Centre of the Military District from which they have been removed.

109. This procedure will apply to all persons or agencies handling or examining documents. A great number of agencies will be searching for documents, and it is required that all such agencies register themselves with the Document Centre of the District in which they will be operating. It must be impressed on them that, although they are free to collect what documents they require, permission to take them direct out of the country without passing through the normal channels must be obtained from the Document Centre concerned, and the removal registered there. There are represented at Supreme Headquarters many Ministries and agencies who will require to see documents for action in GERMANY before they are evacuated, and Document Centres must therefore ensure that no documents are evacuated direct which might prove of interest to such representatives.

110. The vast majority of documents will, however, remain "in situ". It will therefore be necessary to notify all interested agencies of what is available and where it is to be found. This will be done by each Document Centre preparing and circulating locally lists of the documents

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SECTION IX (Con'd)

available in their areas, arranged by the locations where they are to be found and wherever possible by the categories into which they fall. Copies of these lists will be sent to Supreme Headquarters Document Centre, who will disseminate them as required, together with lists of documents of immediate general importance held at Supreme Headquarters or evacuated through them.

111. It is of course obvious that there will be types of documents which can only be efficiently evaluated in WASHINGTON or LONDON, or which require detailed analysis and research. These classes of documents will be sent to Supreme Headquarters Document Centre for action.

112. A more difficult problem arises regarding the selection of documents which as a matter of policy must not be left in GERMANY. These are papers such as those dealing with the war efforts and organization of the armed forces and the Party, and the War Diaries and studies of the various campaigns. To leave such documents intact in GERMANY would give any future GERMAN General Staff the groundwork for creating a fresh military machine and the data for an examination of their errors in strategy and tactics in this war. It will be necessary for all such documents to be specially listed and marked as documents that must eventually be evacuated or destroyed. Careful trace must be kept of all such papers, and periodic investigation made to see which can now be regarded as wholly exploited and ready for evacuation or destruction. Lists of the type of document which should be so treated on grounds of policy are being prepared and will be circulated for guidance.

113. It must also be borne in mind that there are certain types of documents which it may be necessary to reproduce for the archives of the three occupying Governments. Instructions regarding these will be issued from time to time by Supreme Headquarters.

114. Special efforts will be made to secure all records and plans of the following:

  1. The central GERMAN government, GERMAN military organizations, organizations engaged in military research, and such other governmental agencies as may be deemed advisable.

  2. The Nazi party and affiliated organizations.

  3. All police organizations, including security and political police.

  4. Nazi economic organizations and industrial establishments.

  5. Institutes and special bureaus established in GERMANY devoting themselves to race, political and similar research.

  6. Records relating to JAPAN (see Section XI).

115. The possibility must be borne in mind that the GERMANS will have had copies made of certain documents, the preservation of which they consider vitally important for the future, and will have concealed them. All Intelligence staffs should be on the alert for any signs that such action may have been taken, and it will be a Counter Intelligence responsibility to investigate any such indications.

DOCUMENT PROCEDURE

116. A brief summary is given below of the policy to be adopted in handling documents:

  1. All documents seized must be safeguarded.

  2. Only documents of immediate general importance will be evacuated.

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30 January 1945

SECTION IX (Con'd)

  1. Such evacuation will be through established military channels to Supreme headquarters Document Centre.

  2. No documents will be removed by anybody without the permission of the local Document Centre.

  3. Every document so removed must be registered at the local Document Centre.

  4. Location lists of documents will be circulated.

  5. On no account will documents of military importance be returned to the GERMANS without adequate arrangements being made for their safeguarding by us, or their return.

  6. Attention is directed to Supreme Headquarters Directive dealing with the preservation of archives, and to the General List of Archives in Western Germany which gives particulars of the Archives and records of especial importance to Military Government and other more specialized agencies, or which are worthy of preservation for their historical and cultural value.

  7. The greatest care should be taken when removing documents to remove them in the order in which they are found, and to disarrange them as little as possible. It is especially important that documents dealing with any piece of machinery or equipment, e.g., Radar, should not be separated from the material to which they refer.

  8. Documents of purely C.I. interest, which C.I. do not wish to hold locally, may be evacuated through O.I. channels. After exploitation by C.I, they will normally be passed to the Supreme Headquarters Document Centre. C.I. may, if they desire, retain any document important for counterintelligence operations. Both these measures will be taken only on the authorization of the Senior Intelligence Officer at the Headquarters concerned."

  9. Certain classes of Signal and Cypher documents will be evacuated through Signal Intelligence channels, in accordance with Section VII of Supreme Headquarters Intelligence Directive No. 8, dated 7 May 1944.

RESPONSIBILITIES OR SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

117.

  1. Establishment of central Document Centres at Supreme Headquarters and at BERLIN.

  2. Co-ordination of all matters of inter-Service or inter-Divisional relationship regarding documents.

  3. Direction on the types of documents which must be left "in situ" and those which are required for ultimate evacuation from GERMANY or destruction, as a matter of policy.

  4. Selection and arrangement for making available to the Allied Governments of records required by them.

  5. Liaison with M.I.R.S. War Office and M.I.R.S. War Dept. on documents policy, problems and procedure.

  6. Detailed analysis of documents as required.

  7. Receiving and complying with requests for information on documents.

  8. Supply of copies of documents held at Document Centres.

  9. Circulation to all concerned of location lists of documents.

  10. Arrangements for provision of reproduction facilities and personnel for Supreme Headquarters and BERLIN Document Centres.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1 30 January 1945

SECTION IX (Con'd)

118.

  1. Arranging for seizure and safeguarding of documents.

  2. Detailed planning for the handling of documents throughout their areas of responsibility in accordance with the policy laid down in this Memorandum.

  3. Establishing and organizing of Document Centres. It is anticipated that a Document Centre will be ultimately required at each Corps District Hq.

  4. WE/TO action with War Office and ETOUSA, and the provision of personnel both to handle documents and to run the reproduction machinery.

  5. Indenting for all equipment required in their areas, including microfilm and laboratory apparatus.

  6. Arranging for compliance with all requests for documents held locally, either by producing the original or copies.

It is reiterated that the mass of documents to be handled will far surpass anything previously encountered in this field. In view of the importance of documents for every aspect of Military Government, it is essential that adequate provision of personnel and equipment to handle the task is made.

BERLIN.

119. From the purely military point of view, the biggest and most important collection of documents should theoretically be found In BERLIN or neighborhood. It will therefore be necessary to create a Document Centre of suitable proportions with adequate reproduction resources. This Centre must be initially constructed on an integrated basis, and will be established and organized by Supreme Headquarters under the G-2 Advance Section. Supreme Headquarters will arrange for the supply of the necessary equipment. It must be so organized that it can function appropriately after the termination of the Supreme Commander's control. The procedure for the handling of documents will be as laid down in paragraph 116. BERLIN Document Centre will be required to fulfil the demands of Supreme Headquarters, Army Groups and the Control Council/Commission for copies of the important documents which it is probable will be discovered in the various Ministries. It will circulate lists of documents by locations in the same way as other Document Centres.

NORWAY, DENMARK, AND THE CHANNEL ISLANDS

120. Arrangements have been made for documents personnel to be available to accompany any forces liberating these territories. Normal document procedure will be adopted and documents evacuated through Supreme Headquarters channels.

NAVAL DOCUMENTS

121.All Naval documents will be handed, or where this is impracticable, reported as quickly as possible to the nearest Naval Authority, preferably to Naval Intelligence Officers at the ports (see Section XIV, paragraph 167).

122. Naval Intelligence is responsible for informing Army and Air Intelligence Staffs of any matters of military or air interest arising from Naval documents.

123. Documents of inter-Service interest exploited by Army or Air Staffs will subsequently, if applicable, be passed by them to the Navy.

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SECTION IX (Con'd)

AIR FORCE DOCUMENTS

124. Air Force documents, including documents concerning the GAF Supply Services and the organization of the GERMAN aircraft industry must be handed as quickly as possible to the nearest Air Force or Air Corps Interrogator normally at District Hq. These will be evacuated through Air Force/Air Corps channels.

125. As some GAF documents contain information of importance to ground forces, it is the responsibility of the Air Interrogator to inform Intelligence staffs of the contents of such documents and make them available for inspection.

126. Documents other than Air Force (Luftwaffe) documents which interest Air Intelligence will first be exploited by the Army Intelligence and will then be passed to the nearest Air Interrogator. These documents will be returned after exploitation through normal Army channels.

DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR DOCUMENTS

127. Such documents in the custody of the protecting power will be respected.

128. Documents not in the custody of the protecting power will be guarded pending instructions from Supreme Headquarters as to their disposal. They may be copied but NOT confiscated.

129. If substantial reason exists for believing diplomatic or consular premises were used for warlike operations, the protecting power may be asked for permission to search the premises. If this permission is delayed unreasonably, a detailed report will be rendered to the Supreme Commander, who will decide whether or not the search is to be initiated.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1 30 January 1945

SECTION X

INTERROGATION OF PRISONERS OF WAR AND CIVILIAN SUSPECTS

POLICY OF INTERROGATION

130. In the occupation period, the shift in emphasis from the interrogation needs of Operational Intelligence to those of Counter Intelligence, which has already commenced as our forces enter GERMANY, will become more pronounced. An increase in the number of interrogators trained in Counter Intelligence methods will therefore be required.

TYPES OF PERSONS TO BE INTERROGATED

131.

  1. Ordinary PW or disarmed GERMANS of purely O.I. interest.

  2. Ordinary PW or disarmed GERMANS with a C.I. background.

  3. Civilians, such as Party officials, members of the SD, Gestapo, etc., who have been arrested on C.I. instructions.

  4. Internees in concentration camps.

  5. Technical, scientific, economic, financial, etc., experts.

ORGANIZATION OF DETAILED INTERROGATION CENTRES

132. On the BRITISH side the present U.K. organization, CSDIC (UK) and Camp O2O will be transferred in part to the Continent by the end of this year, and will operate as a Detailed Interrogation Centre. It is intended that this Detailed Interrogation Centre should be called forward to a location in GERMANY by Army Group when appropriate.

133. On the AMERICAN side, Detailed Interrogation Centre (US) will continue to operate at present location until such time as the AMERICAN area is occupied by its permanent garrison, at which time it will move to the Corps area occupied by the senior AMERICAN Hq and continue its operation. Mobile Interrogation Units will be available to move successively on call to Corns areas as they are occupied by AMERICAN forces. IPW terms and CIC detachments, augmented by GERMAN-speaking personnel, will remain attached to AMERICAN occupation forces. Those units will be reinforced as teams and detachments of divisions and armies not involved in the occupation become available. Detailed Interrogation Centres (US), Mobile Interrogation Units, and IPW teams will be given a maximum amount of C.I. training and will be augmented by C.I. personnel so that each unit is capable of conducting both Intelligence and Counter Intelligence interrogation.

134. Selectees for detailed interrogation will be sent to Detailed Interrogation Centres. Special arrangements will normally have to he made according to circumstances for the interrogation of GERMAN financial, economic, scientific, etc., experts.

CIVILIAN INTERNMENT CAMPS

135. When the Supreme Headquarters area of GERMANY has been fully occupied, or when Military Districts are set up in the rear of our advancing forces, internment camps for civilian suspects will be established as required by Commanders. The Intelligence control of these camps will be the responsibility of Intelligence staffs to be allocated for the purpose by Commanders. It is desirable that internment camps should bo set up in the immediate neighborhood of PW camps, to facilitate interrogation problems.

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SECTION X (Con'd)

It will also be necessary for Commanders to make arrangements for certain types of PW of C.I. interest to be segregated and held, pending instructions for their final disposal.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

136.

  1. Preparation of questionnaire giving guidance on O.I. and C.I. interrogation and the selection-of suitable PW.

  2. Negotiations with the appropriate authorities regarding the establishment of Detailed Interrogation Centres.

  3. To be the channel through which all requests for Intelligence from interrogation are submitted by U.S. and BRITISH Ministries, outside Headquarters and other Divisions of Supreme Headquarters, and passed for action.

  4. To be the channel through which Intelligence obtained from interrogation is passed back to U.K. and U.S.

  5. To co-ordinate when necessary the work of Detailed Interrogation Centres.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

137.

  1. Setting up of the necessary interrogation facilities.

  2. Provision of interrogators. These should be drawn from existing Army Group interrogation personnel.

  3. WE/TO action as necessary with War Office and ETOUSA.

NAVAL INTERROGATION

138. The procedure for Naval Interrogation will be as laid down in Section XIV.

AIR INTERROGATION

139. It is not generally intended that Air representation at Detailed Interrogation Centres established outside the UNITED KINGDOM will consist of more than screening officers. Air Interrogators will be attached or given access to interrogation centres and internment camps, and will be given facilities to interrogate persons anywhere likely to be in possession of information of Air interest.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1 30 January 1945

SECTION XI

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE
INCLUDING ECONOMIC AND JAPANESE INTELLIGENCE

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE

140. It will be necessary to provide certain types of economic and industrial Intelligence as required by J.I.C. (Supreme Headquarters) and Army Groups in the fulfillment of their tasks. It will also be necessary to investigate how the GERMAN economy was used to fight the war, both in the domestic and foreign field. It will not be the responsibility of Intelligence staffs to supply such economic information and appreciations as fall within the normal responsibilities of the relevant branches of Military Government, nor to provide detailed technical information of a financial nature.

141. It must nevertheless be appreciated that, in order to implement Allied policy, Military Government staffs will require all available information on GEHMAN economy and industry. The bulk of this information will only be obtainable in GERMANY and in the GERMAN language, and Intelligence staffs should therefore be prepared to co-operate with Military Government staffs in seeking out and interpreting such factual information. At Supreme Headquarters this will be accomplished by officers from G-5 Division being attached to G-2 Economic Section and working together with G-2 Economic officers to provide the economic and industrial Intelligence required by Military Government.

JAPANESE INTELLIGENCE

142. It will be a task of primary importance to secure any Intelligence available in GERMANY regarding JAPAN. For some years there has been an interchange of information between the GERMANS and the JAPANESE. If is possible therefore that Intelligence may be available on JAPANESE Order of Battle, dispositions, intentions, manpower, equipment, technical developments, economy, industry, etc. Such information may prove invaluable in the prosecution of the war against JAPAN, and the seizing and forwarding of it to Supreme Headquarters must be considered as a matter of high operational priority. Commanders will ensure that "T" Forces and all Intelligence staffs are instructed to pay specific attention to the seizure of any documents or other information relating to JAPAN. All such material will be handled as prescribed in Supreme Headquarters Intelligence Directive No. 24, dated February 1945.

STATIC INTELLIGENCE

143. Supreme Headquarters Intelligence Directive No. 21 sets out details of this, and how it is to be handled.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

144.

  1. Formulation of policy for economic research.

  2. Provision of Economic advisers to Army Groups as required by them.

  3. In conjunction with Army Groups, the investigation of how the GERMAN economy was used to fight the war.

  4. The preliminary sorting and transmittal to the appropriate Ministries of JAPANESE Intelligence.

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SECTION XI (Con'd)

  1. Provision of Intelligence Officers for special JAPANESE investigations in Army Group areas as required.

  2. Advice and assistance to Army Groups as required on the collection of JAPANESE Intelligence.

  3. Overall co-ordination of research into static Intelligence.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

145.

  1. Initiation within their spheres of the necessary measures for the collection of economic and JAPANESE Intelligence.

  2. Arrangements to co-ordinate the provision of static Intelligence.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XII

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE
RELATIONSHIP OF CIOS TO SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E.F.

146. The GERMANS have made very considerable progress in their science end technology since the beginning of the war. It is vital for future security that their developments in this field, particularly insofar as they have been adapted for war purposes, be discovered and fully investigated and exploited. Every effort will be made by the GERMANS to conceal or destroy the information relating to such work, and it is essential that such attempts should be prevented wherever possible.

147. In order to facilitate the handling of these and similar problems, the Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee of Combined Intelligence Committee (the CIOS of CIC) has been set up in LONDON. Its function is to co-ordinate requests from U.S. and BRITISH Ministries, Departments and other agencies, which are of such a nature that they do not fall within the normal scope of Military Intelligence staffs. CIOS forwards the coordinated requests to Supreme Headquarters which allocates them to the appropriate formations for action. Responsibilities for seizure are defined in Section IV.

148. When exploitation of CIOS objectives by experts commences, the results acquired will fall into four broad categories:

  1. Documents. No document will be removed unless it has first been registered with the nearest Document Centre.

  2. Materiel. This will normally be evacuated through established military channels. It will never be taken out of GERMANY direct, without the nearest Intelligence staff being notified, and that staff will be responsible for forwarding the information to Supreme Headquarters.

  3. Persons. In the first instance, all persons on the CIOS Black List will be detained, together with any other persons who appear to be in possession of information likely to be of value to CIOS. It will be the responsibility of Intelligence staffs to determine as early as possible whether such persons should remain under detention or whether they may be released with restrictions as to movement and with instructions to report, at regular intervals. It must be remembered that persons on the CIOS Black List will be experts of all kinds, including scientists and research workers, many of whom may be in possession of information which the GERMAN General Staff are particularly anxious to conceal from us. Great discretion must be exercised in the handling of these experts, and adequate precautions must be taken to protect them both before they have given information and afterwards, but they must not be so handled that the very restrictions imposed influence them against giving information. In some cases persons on the CIOS Blacklist may also be included on the Counter Intelligence Personality Cards. Such persons will be handed over immediately to Counter Intelligence, who will be responsible for producing them for questioning by CIOS experts when required.

  4. Reports of Experts. A copy of every report made will be sent by CIOS to Supreme Headquarters, together with all associated information obtained.

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30 January 1945

SECTION XII (Con'd)

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, A.E..F.

149.

  1. Advice to the Supreme Commander regarding the acquisition an exploitation of information concerning scientific, technological and kindred subjects.

  2. Co-ordination of all investigating agencies in the scientific and technological field.

  3. Advice on the scientific and technological requirements of CIOS in the field.

  4. In conjunction with CIOS Secretariat, arrangements for the experts designated by CIOS to visit the objectives they desire to exploit after seizure, and the overall co-ordination of such visits.

  5. Overall co-ordination of investigation of CIOS targets.

  6. Dissemination of Information acquired which may affect operations in conjunction with CIOS.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF ARMY GROUPS

150.

  1. Co-ordination of exploitation of CIOS targets in their respective spheres.

  2. Arrangements for setting up facilities throughout their area for the investigation of targets and for assistance to visiting experts.

151. In connection with (ii) above, it must be appreciated that for some considerable time after targets have been seized, there will be a continual coming and going of experts who desire to exploit targets in Military Districts. These experts will be requiring transport, direction as to how to find their target, interpreters, interrogation facilities, access to documents, etc. It will therefore be necessary for Military District Intelligence staffs to make arrangements whereby the requirements of experts can be efficiently and smoothly handled.

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30 January 1945

SECTION XIII

THE INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION AT BERLIN

152. BERLIN will ultimately be an international zone divided up into three parts between the forces of the U.S.A., U.K., and U.S.S.R. As such, it has special Intelligence requirements, which differ in many respects from those elsewhere in Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F. GERMANY. There will be three distinct Intelligence functions to perform in BERLIN.

  1. The normal functions which are carried out in each Military District.

  2. The obtaining of information from GERMAN Ministries, OKW, etc.

  3. Liaison with the RUSSIANS on Intelligence matters.

153. It is planned that the setting up of control in BERLIN will take place in three stages:

  1. "T" Force Intelligence experts.

  2. Intelligence staff of the District Commander.

  3. Control Council/Commission Intelligence staffs.

  4. G-2 Advance Section, Supreme Headquarters.

155. The functions and composition of these staffs will be as follows:

Paragraph 155. Existing sub-paragraph (i) is rescinded and the following substituted:

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XIII (Con'd)

    1. Technical experts from Ministries for exploitation of CIOS objectives.

  1. Intelligence Staff of the District Commander. The local government of BERLIN in the initial period is a responsibility of the District Commander. The U.S./BRITISH sectors of BERLIN will to all intents and purposes form an extra Military District under him. His Intelligence staff will have to carry out similar tasks in BERLIN as are carried out by the strengthened Corps staffs at Military Districts. They will supply any Operational Intelligence required by the District Commander, and will initiate all Counter Intelligence measures deemed necessary, including all arrests and detentions. FS/CIC sections will be allotted, together with such specialist troops as may be necessary. The District Commander will be responsible for establishing an interrogation centre, and his Intelligence staff will make all arrangements to facilitate the visits of investigating experts, and to co-ordinate static Intelligence. They will not have any responsibility as regards OKW or OKH or the Ministries, and they will maintain liaison with the RUSSIANS only on matters of local Intelligence.

  2. Control Council/Commission Intelligence Staffs. These staff will not be integrated, though it is planned that they will work as a team under a single co-ordinating head, who will act as the channel of communication with the District Commander. They will be under the command of Supreme Headquarters, and will be introduced in two ways:

      Delete existing sub-paragraph (iii) (a) and substitute:

      "(a) Certain Intelligence officers will go in early with the Intelligence Staff of the District Commander to act as reconnaissance parties."

    1. Reconnaissance parties will advise the Supreme Commander on the calling forward of further Intelligence elements.

    Their Intelligence functions will be four-fold:

    1. All Intelligence relations with OKW, OKH, OKL, OKM and all Intelligence dealings with GERMAN Ministries.

    2. The supply of detailed Intelligence to the Control Council/Commission planning staffs.

    3. Liaison with the RUSSIANS on all necessary points of Intelligence interest to the Control Council/Commission.

    4. Liaison with the RUSSIANS on matters of Intelligence policy at the direction of the Supreme Commander.

  3. An advance section of G-2, Supreme Headquarters will be brought forward to BERLIN, and will work with the Control Council/Commission on all matters of special Intelligence interest to Supreme Headquarters, particularly in connection with the Ministries and RUSSIAN liaison. It will also be responsible for establishing a Document Centre at BERLIN, as set out in Section IX, paragraph 119.

156. The Naval and Air Intelligence organizations at BERLIN are set out in Sections XIV and XV respectively.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XIV

NAVAL INTELLIGENCE PLAN

157. In order to implement the principles of the ECLIPSE Intelligence Plan, the Naval-Organization will be as follows:

SEIZURE OF INTELLIGENCE OBJECTIVES - ECLIPSE PRIMARY PHASE

I58. Naval Intelligence targets are shown in the CIOS list which has been issued to all concerned.

I59. Naval forces available consist of the R.N. Intelligence Unit, known as No. 30 Assault Advanced Unit, the U.S.N.; Intelligence Unit known as the Forward Intelligence Unit, and NAVTECMISEU. No. 30 Assault Advanced Unit and similar U.S. Intelligence units have operated in NORTH AFRICA, ITALY and FRANCE. No. Assault Advanced Unit will consist of approximately 350 officers and men with vehicles, including communication vans. The composition of the Forward Intelligence Unit will be determined by COMNAVEU. One troop of No. 30 Assault Advanced Unit (approximately 50 men) have been trained in parachute descent and are available for operations of. this nature. NAVTECMISEU will have approximately 200 technicians available.

160. Naval Intelligence Units will operate mainly in the coastal belt or in other areas where priority Naval targets may be located. "T" Forces will deal with Naval targets in other areas, and conversely, Naval Intelligence Units will deal with non-Naval targets in their areas of operation. It follows that plans for operations by these units will be closely co-ordinated with those of "T" Forces, and for this purpose, an officer of No. 30 Assault Advanced Unit and a Staff Officer (I) U.S. are available on ANCXF's staff.

161. Naval Intelligence Units will reach their targets either with the first seaborne convoy entering a port, or overland, or by air, in accordance with the situation. Their actual operation in the field will be under the command of the Military Commander of the area in which they will operate, and he will provide all possible assistance.

ECLIPSE SECONDARY PHASE

162. Apart from the Naval Intelligence Staffs at ANCXF's Hq and G-2 Supreme Headquarters, a Forward Naval Intelligence staff under ANCXF will be established at BERLIN. At a later stage, when BRITISH and UNITED STATES Flag Officers are appointed to BERLIN, they will have their own Intelligence staffs, into which the ANCXF Forward Intelligence Staff may be absorbed.

163. In addition, Staff Officers Intelligence will be stationed at the following ports:

164. It is the intention that, where practicable, the members of the above staffs should remain after the period of Supreme Commander's responsibility, and continue to serve under the Control Council/Commission.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
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SECTION XIV (Con'd)

165. The above Naval staffs, apart from their specialized duties with regard to Naval Intelligence, will supply Supreme Headquarters, the Control Council/Commission and other appropriate authorities with all necessary Naval Intelligence. They will cooperate with the Intelligence staffs of other Services in implementing the provisions of this Memorandum. It is especially to be noted that Intelligence which may be of value in the war against JAPAN is to be treated with the highest priority.

PRISONER OF WAR INTERROGATION

166. Naval Interrogators will be attached to Detailed Interrogation Centres as and when they are established, as set out in Section X. In addition, small teams of Naval Interrogators will be available to visit prisoner of war or internment camps as necessity directs. Apart from interrogation on the spot, it will be the duty of these interrogators to select prisoners with special knowledge of Naval value for further detailed interrogation in the UNITED KINGDOM or elsewhere.

DOCUMENTS AMD EQUIPMENT

167. In general Naval Documents and equipment seized by the Army or Air Force will be handed over to the nearest Naval Authority either direct or through Corps Hq, whichever is the quicker. Documents or equipment seized by Naval Units and which are of interest to the other Services will be handed to the Intelligence Officer at the nearest Corps or Air Force Hq. During the Primary Phase the Naval Authority mentioned above may well be No. 30 Assault Unit or U.S. Forward Intelligence Unit.

168. In the Secondary Phase, when District Document Centres are established, as set out in Section IX, Naval personnel will be attached to that at HAMBURG and to the Document Centres at Supreme Headquarters and BERLIN. Naval Sub-Centres will be established at KIEL and BREMEN. In addition, Naval document specialists will be available to visit other Document Centres to assist in the disposal of documents of Naval interest.

169. Equipment will be handled in both the Primary and Secondary Phases, as set out in paragraph 167.

170. Flag Officers and Naval officers-in-charge of GERMAN ports will be given appropriate extracts from the CIOS target list for their particular areas, and will be instructed to facilitate the expeditious return to the U.K. of captured items.

SECURITY

171. BRITISH Naval Staff Officers (Security) will be available. Initially they will be with ANCXF and will be transferred to Control Commission when this takes over. They will be employed in the principal areas of Naval interest.

172. United States Navy Count or Intelligence Officers will be attached to each United States Flag Command.

173. Naval Security and Counter Intelligence Officers will work in close cooperation with Army Security Officers, as set out in Section VI, and will be primarily responsible for the security of Naval Establishments and security matters of maritime interest.

CENSORSHIP

174. Naval Liaison Officers will be attached to G-2, Supreme Headquarters to ensure that Naval censorship conforms with the general regulations laid down, and to provide Naval guidance where required for any civil censorships controlled by Supreme Headquarters, as described in Section VII.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XV

OUTLINE PLAN FOR THE EXPLOITATION OF AIR
INTELLIGENCE OBJECTIVES DURING THE ECLIPSE PERIOD

DEFINITIONS

175. For general convenience, captured or surrendered installations, material, documents and persons of particular interest to the Allied Air Force Intelligence organizations are referred to in this document as Intelligence Objectives or Targets.

176. By exploitation of Intelligence Targets is meant the seizure, safeguarding, preliminary interrogation of persons, and their subsequent evacuation and the. recording, preliminary scanning and subsequent evacuation of documents (either in the form of originals or photostat copies) to the appropriate collating authorities.

AUTHORITY

177. The responsibility for the seizure and exploitation of all Air Intelligence targets during ECLIPSE period will rest with the Supreme Commander, until such time, as authority is vested in the Tripartite Control Council/Commission.

AIR INTELLIGENCE OBJECTIVES

178. Air Intelligence targets during the ECLIPSE period which will be investigated will include:

  1. Intelligence objectives which will provide information necessary for the disarmament, demobilisation and demilitarisation of the G.A.F. and its associated para-military associations.

  2. Intelligence targets which will be of paramount importance toward hastening the termination of the war against JAPAN. Such objectives are:

    1. Intelligence concerning JAPANESE plans, Air-Force order of battle, operations, aircraft production, production of other war material and other target data.

    2. Intelligence concerning GERMAN scientific and technical developments, the application of which to Allied air technique will further our ability to wage total war against JAPAN.

    3. Intelligence which will provide a check on the effectiveness of Allied air operations as well as a check on the accuracy and completeness of Air Intelligence estimates with the view of improvement in each case of future use against JAPAN.

  3. Intelligence targets which will provide technical Intelligence for research purposes.

  4. Intelligence targets which will form the basis of a comprehensive study of G.A.F. administration, operations, supply and Intelligence organizations.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XV (Con'd)

  1. Intelligence targets which will facilitate the maintenance of order and discipline during the ECLIPSE period and prevent any attempt at evasion, concealment or destruction.

ORGANIZATION

179. Subject to co-ordination with the Supreme Commander, A.E.F., Air Ministry and USSTAF are jointly responsible for:

  1. The provision of Air Intelligence for Disarmament purposes through appropriate channels to the Supreme Commander.

  2. The formation of Intelligence policy for Disarmament problems.

180. Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F, Air Staff (A-2 Division) is responsible for the dissemination and direction of the Intelligence Disarmament policy laid down jointly by the Air Ministry and USSTAF to the Tactical Air Forces under the control of SHAEF (AIR).

MACHINERY FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT

181. During the ECLIPSE period, Intelligence objectives will be exploited by:

  1. Normal air Intelligence gathering agencies now in the field (whose staffs will be augmented as necessary) including technical Intelligence and air P/W interrogation teams.

  2. By staffs of U.S. and BRITISH Air Disarmament formations and

  3. By special investigations and missions whose activities and projects have been co-ordinated with C.I.O.S.

182. During the early stages of ECLIPSE period, normal air Intelligence gathering agencies following the advancing armies will continue, as at present, to exploit air Intelligence Objectives. Upon the occupation of GERMANY after surrender or collapse of resistance, air Intelligence agencies and staffs will be attached or made available to. U.S. and R.A.F. Disarmament staffs as circumstances require for specialised Intelligence investigations.

183. For primary Air Intelligence in that portion of GERMANY occupied .by U.S. Forces, which will ultimately form part of the BRITISH zone in GERMANY, R.A.F. Intelligence personnel will be attached to USAAF Ninth Air Force Headquarters, and to such other lower formations as may be agreed upon, under functional supervision of the R.A.F. Disarmament Staff, 2nd T.A.F. The reverse procedure will apply in the BREMEN/BREMERHAVEN area, functional supervision of Disarmament Units in the latter case being exercised by Ninth Air Force.

EXPLOITATION OF INTELLIGENCE OBJECTIVES

184. Intelligence staffs will be attached to field formations of USAAF/RAF Disarmament formations, when deployed, for the purpose of screening and reporting to higher headquarters the presence of Intelligence objectives of interest to SHAEF, USSTAF or Air Ministry. Intelligence staffs will determine by examination of Intelligence objectives whether documents should be evacuated or remain "in situ". Commanders of Disarmament formations, with assistance where required of Army Group "T" Forces or nearest Military Headquarters, will ensure that all documents are safeguarded until they have been examined by qualified Intelligence personnel.

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XV (Con'd)

185. Target Lists have been prepared by the Combined Intelligence Objective Sub-Committee (C.I.O.S.) and other appropriate agencies as set out in Section IV, listing in the appropriate order of priority Intelligence Objectives under each of the categories outlined in paragraph 178 above. These will be amended by them from time to time as new information is obtained.

186. C.I.O.S. is established to receive, approve and co-ordinate all requests of BRITISH and U.S. Governmental departments for Intelligence of military or political significance which will become available as Allied Forces advance in the area of the authority of the Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Forces (SCAEF), exclusive of the combat Intelligence which SCAEF would normally seek, or normal technical Intelligence to be obtained through existing provisions for the examination of captured equipment, personnel and documents and of the Intelligence requirements of the BRITISH Secret and Security Services and O.S.S. (SI). Target lists of air objectives which it is desired to include in the CIOS Black List should be forwarded where appropriate with the corresponding Intelligence information necessary before seizure and exploitation to the C.I.O.S. After final allocation of priority, the "T" Sub-Division will forward those Air Intelligence targets to Special "T" Forces, Special Air Force investigating teams or agents, or the "T" Force (Army Group) concerned for their seizure and/or exploitation.

187. Special operations, will be mounted against particular cities or areas, in which there are concentrated a large number of Intelligence Objectives. Special Army Group "T" Forces will be organized to seize and guard Intelligence Objectives in these areas. Intelligence Targets ("T") Sub-Division, Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F. will be responsible for forwarding to Army "T" Forces dossiers on priority Intelligence targets, as determined in accordance with paragraph 185, within those areas necessary for planning the seizure operations to appropriate Army Groups. Qualified air personnel, charged with the investigation of all Air Intelligence Objectives within these areas, will be attached to teams of specialists and interrogators arranged by the Intelligence Targets ("T") Sub-Division, Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F., which will be transported to these areas for the express purpose of examination and exploitation of Intelligence Objectives.

188. Priority Intelligence targets outside of the special areas covered above will be investigated by various Air Force or other teams, operating with the approval of Supreme Headquarters. Such teams will be briefed by their respective headquarters and overall co-ordination, of effort will be accomplished through Supreme Headquarters.

189. Where air teams are not available for exploitation of Air Intelligence objectives, by arrangement with Army Groups, seizure of such objectives will be entrusted to "T" Force Army Groups. Air target lists and briefing information relating to such Air Intelligence Objectives in each Army Group's area, or along its contemplated axis of advance, which require action by the "T" Force Army Group, will be forwarded through C.I.O.S. (where appropriate), and Intelligence Targets ("T") Sub-Division, Supreme Headquarters, to the Army Group concerned for seizure and exploitation.

EVACUATION OF DOCUMENTS AND DISSEMINATION OF INTELLIGENCE

190. Existing Technical Intelligence and/or Prisoners of War Interrogation teams will continue to collect, and in the case of the latter, receive from the Army Document Sections at Corps level or above, documents of operational and other significance to air Intelligence. Documents of operational significance will be passed through normal Air Force channels with all possible speed.

191. As far as possible, such documents as are to be evacuated will be sent through Air Force channels to USSTAF and Air Ministry, as the case may be, or to a combined document research agency to be created by them. Until

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GBI/AOCC/387-3/1
30 January 1945

SECTION XV (Con'd)

modified by USSTAF, or Air Ministry, present procedures for combined handling of air documents shall continue in effect.

192. After collation and evaluation of documents by USSTAF or Air Ministry as the case may be, or by a combined document research agency to be created by them, resulting air Intelligence will be passed to lower formations as far as possible, through established Air Force channels. C.I.O.S. through its secretariat will produce and disseminate to its member agencies, copies of the investigation reports of all teams connected with C.I.O.S.

TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE

193. Although most of the primary Intelligence objectives appear in the C.I.O.S. Black List, and will be covered by Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee experts, the normal method of collecting technical Intelligence in the field by specialised Intelligence Officers or teams will continue and the examination and evacuation of Intelligence Objectives will be carried out in accordance with provisions made in A.E.A.F., Air Staff Policy and Operational Instruction No. 15.

INTERROGATION

194. Specialized Air Force Interrogators will be attached or have access to all Interrogation Centres, Internment Camps (Military and Civil) and any official or civilian having specialised knowledge of Intelligence Objectives of interest to the Air Forces, as described in paragraph 178. In general, it is not intended that Air representation at Detailed Interrogation Centres on the Continent will consist of more than screening officers.

SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE

195. This forms the subject of separate inter-Service instruction (as set out in Section VIII (B).)

COUNTER INTELLIGENCE

196. Certain RAF C.I. personnel will be made available to augment existing C.I. staffs and will collaborate in the execution of C.I. functions. In addition, it may be necessary, in areas of special Air importance or interest, to provide an added number of C.I. Air officers with specific Air Functions. Existing USAAF C.I. personnel will be increased so far as possible and close liaison will be maintained by USSTAF and its subordinate formations with appropriate Army C.I. personnel.

197. Security personnel will be attached to Air Formations for internal affairs to carry out the normal duties of Security.

CENSORSHIP

198. RAF Intelligence Personnel will be attached to G-2 Division, Supreme Headquarters, to care for special air interest and to provide air guidance where required for civil censorships controlled by Supreme Headquarters, A.E.F, as set out in Section VII, USAAF censorship interests will be effected by appropriate liaison.

--43--

ANNEX A

  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
SECRET
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials:
16 Sept 1944

AG 350.09-4 GBI-AGM APO 757 (Fwd)
16 September 1944

SUBJECT: Counter-intelligence Directive -- Pre-surrender Period -- Germany.
TO: See Distribution.

1. The inclosed Directive for Allied Counter-intelligence operations during the pre-surrender period in Germany is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.

2. In all cases of conflict between attached Directive and Intelligence Directive Number 7, this headquarters, the attached Directive will govern.

By command of General EISENHOWER:

/s/ E. C. Boehnke
E. C. BOEHNKE
Colonel, AGD.
Adjutant General.

DISTRIBUTION:
100 -- Hq, 21 Army Group
200 -- CG, Twelfth Army Group
100 -- CG, Sixth Army Group
100 -- CG, Communications Zone
50 -- Air C-in-C, Allied Expeditionary Air Force
10 -- Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force
40 -- G-2 Div, Supreme Hq, AEF.
2 - AG Records, Supreme Hq, AEF

 

COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE DIRECTIVE -- PRE-SURRENDER PERIOD

GERMANY

SECTION I             General Considerations
SECTION II       Military Security
SECTION III       Civil Security
SECTION IV       Port, Frontier and Travel Security
APPENDIX 'A'       Relationship between Counter-Intelligence and
Military Government (Public Safety)
APPENDIX 'B'       Arrest and Detention

--1--

SECTION I -- GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

1. The following directives are issued to cover the period during which military operations are still proceeding within Germany. The continuance of military operations beyond the German frontier may result from the development of either of the two following situations:

  1. The German High Command, having decided to continue organized resistance even after the evacuation of the occupied countries, the Allied forces will require to defeat the German Army on German soil.

  2. In the event of the collapse or surrender of the German armed forces, it may be found that there is no central authority competent to carry out the Allied surrender terms. It may therefore be necessary for the Allies to occupy Germany in the face of sporadic and semi-organized resistance by die-hard remnants of the German Army and the Nazi Party. The advance into Germany may, therefore, take place in conditions of chaos and internal disorder.

2. Whichever of these two situations develops, operations within Germany can be considered as a prolongation of operations in liberated territory. It follows, therefore, that the basic principles outlined in Intelligence Directive Number 7 (Counter-intelligence), SHAEF/9SX/INT dated 5 February 1944, will continue to apply. The attached directives contain the necessary modifications and alterations which are applicable to conditions of military operations in hostile territory.

3. Counter-Intelligence has a vital part to play in the eventual control of Germany during the post-surrender period. While fighting is still in progress, however, and until reasonable stable conditions can be achieved, the first considerations must be the security of the military forces and their operations. The scope of the present directives does not, therefore, attempt to cover the long-term tasks which will ultimately be the responsibility of Counter-Intelligence after the cessation of hostilities. The existing resources of Counter-Intelligence staffs with formations will be fully employed in coping with day-to-day problems and should therefore devote themselves to such problems rather than to longer term national and political issues. Detailed plans for the organization of Counter-Intelligence in areas as they become static, and eventually for the whole of the Anglo-American areas of responsibility in Germany, as they become static, will be forwarded to you in due course. Nevertheless, a start should be made, so far as is practicable, on all control measures which are the basis of the future Counter-Intelligence organization in Germany. During this initial phase, special Counter-intelligence staff increments will be in process of formation and some personnel from these should be available to augment existing Counter-Intelligence resources so soon as conditions permit in non-operational and pacified areas.

4. In their advance across Europe, the Allied Forces are receiving valuable cooperation and assistance from the civil authorities and population. It would be well to assume that no such assistance or cooperation will be forthcoming in Germany, and even if proffered it should only be accepted after the closest scrutiny. The German people will be totally mobilized against an Allied invasion and must be regarded as suspect, both collectively and individually, until definitely proved to the contrary.

--2--

SECTION II -- MILITARY SECURITY

1. The principles of military security as laid down in Section III of Directive Number 7 will hold good when the battle moves on to German soil.

--3--

SECTION III -- CIVIL SECURITY

1. Spheres of Responsibility. The respective responsibilities of Counter-Intelligence and Military Government (Mi. Gov.) will continue as previously laid down. At Appendix A will be found a definition of these responsibilities as they will apply to the occupation of Germany. In view of the magnitude of the tasks which will have to be undertaken both by Counter-Intelligence and Military Government, close cooperation and consultation will be more than ever essential.

2. Security Regulations. During the campaigns in liberated territories security restrictions have been framed with as much regard as possible for the civilian population. In formulating security regulations for Germany, Counter-Intelligence staffs will bear in mind the fact that the security of military operations will take priority over the convenience of the civilian population.

3. Control and Disposal of the German Police Forces. It will be the responsibility of Mil. Gov. to reorganize and supervise the activities of such sections of the German Police Forces as are required for the maintenance of law and order. In this connection, attention is drawn to the Mil. Gov. Public Safety Manual of Procedure, and in particular, to Section VI which also deals with the formation of a Special Branch to assist Counter-Intelligence staffs in carrying out their responsibilities. The main organization to be retained will be.the Ordnungspolizei, which will be strictly controlled after purging of undesirable members. The only section of the Sicherheitspolizei to be retained will be the Kriminalpolizei, which will be instructed to carry on its functions not under the control of the central Berlin office, but as a part of the local police administration. Particular care will be needed in the purging of members of this organization in view of its close association with the German Secret Police Service. In all questions relating to the arrest or dismissal of German police officials, Mil. Gov. detachments will work in close cooperation with Counter-intelligence staffs.

4. All police records will be seized. The seizure of records of the SIPO, SD and GESTAPO will be the responsibility of Counter-intelligence and in view of their importance will be regarded as a primary Counter-Intelligence target. Mil. Gov. detachments will be responsible for seizing the records of other police organizations, but if no Mil. Gov. detachment is available, CI personnel will seize and insure the guarding in place of such records. Mil. Gov. staffs will make available to CI staffs all police records which they hold of CI-interest and Counter-Intelligence will make available to Mil. Gov. detachments all records seized by them which might be of use in the day-to-day administration and operation of the civil police forces.

5. Relations with Police and Other Civilian Authorities. Military Government staffs and detachments will be the channel for dealing with police and other civilian authorities wherever possible. After the initial contact has been made in conjunction with Mil. Gov., CI personnel may maintain day-to-day contact upon routine matters, but will keep Mil. Gov. Public Safety Officers informed.

6. Arrests and Detention. It will be the primary responsibility of Counter-Intelligence to insure that all persons are arrested whoso activities are likely to constitute a danger to the security of Allied interests. The numbers of these persons are considerable (See Appendix B), and in consequence, it will be necessary for CI staffs to call upon the services of combat troops and Mil. Gov. detachments to assist them in their task of arrest and subsequent detention. It will be the responsibility of G-1 Division/"A" Branch to insure the provision of the necessary internment camps.

--4--

7. Officials. The arrest of civilian officials on the ground of their political unreliability is primarily a responsibility of Counter-Intelligence in consultation with Mil. Gov. In addition to persons whose names are contained in the CI Black Lists, certain categories of officials will be arrested by reason of the appointments held. A list of these categories and approximate numbers will be found at Appendix B.

8. CI staffs will be responsible for making available to Mil. Gov. staffs information in their possession relating to officials and for recommending the arrest of persons whose names are contained in CI Black Lists. Mil. Gov. staffs will consult CI staffs in cases where doubt exists as to the reliability of an official. Should it be necessary for O.I. personnel to arrest an official, Mil. Gov. detachments will be informed of the action taken as soon as possible.

9. Political Organizations. All political organizations and activities in Germany which constitute a danger to the Allied forces will be forbidden.

10. Black and White Lists. CI staffs will receive detailed information on personality cards regarding persons to be arrested when found. The White Lists contain the names of persons believed to be friendly to the Allies. These persons should, however, still be closely scrutinized before reliance is placed on them, since it must be determined whether they are pro-ally and not merely anti-Nazi.

11. Passes and Permits. Mil. Gov. staffs and detachments will be responsible for the preparation of and the issuance of passes, permits and exemptions from. security restrictions, but will work in close coordination with CI staffs in determining the applicable policy and in the implementation of that policy. Exemptions from security restrictions will be reduced to the minimum and the security of the Allied forces will at all times take priority over such considerations as the welfare and convenience of the civilian population.

12. While Mil. Gov. detachments will be primarily responsible for the issuance of passes and permits, and may make limited use of the local police for this purpose if sufficiently reliable, CI personnel will be supplied with forms for the issuance of passes and permits in special circumstances.

13. Civilian Communications. All classes of civilian communications will be suspended and will not be reopened without the authority of the G-2 Division of this headquarters.

14. Processing of Suspects and Disposal of Enemy Agents. Security control posts will be sited to prevent and intercept civilians moving from behind the Allied lines to enemy held territory as well as those entering the Allied lines. It should be borne in mind that the considerable numbers of displaced persons presently in Germany, some of whom may be found in the forward areas, constitute a large source of personnel suitable for employment by the German Intelligence Service.

15. Special interrogation facilities will be available for Counter-Intelligence purposes at civilian annexes of prisoner of war interrogation centers at corps, army, and army group level, and Counter-Intelligence staffs of lower echelons/formations will send appropriate cases to those annexes for Interrogation. In addition to these facilities for the interrogation of large numbers of suspects, separate places of detention will be required for:

  1. Known agents under special interrogation or awaiting trial.

  2. Persons dangerous to the security of the Allied forces against whom the evidence is insufficient for trial but sufficient to warrant internment.

--5--

Internment camps will be established and administered by the G-1 Division/"A" Branch of each Army, but Counter-Intelligence staffs will assume responsibility for the Intelligence control of places of detention for suspects of all categories. Insofar as practicable, the Army Group facilities will be used to replace the facilities now being used in the United Kingdom for the interrogation of agents of particular importance. Counter-Intelligence staffs at Army Group level will, however, return to the United Kingdom those cases which are of such importance as to warrant further detailed interrogation. The ultimate disposal of a captured enemy agent will be decided by the Counter-Intelligence staff at Army Group.

16. Prosecutions against captured enemy agents of any nationality will be within the jurisdiction of U.S. and British military courts. In Germany Counter-Intelligence personnel and staffs will bear an increased responsibility in the collection and preservation of evidence, since local authorities will not be available to render assistance.

--6--

ANNEX "A"

SECTION IV PORT, FRONTIER AND TRAVEL SECURITY IN GERMANY.

A. GENERAL

  1. Introduction

    Special problems of port, frontier and travel security will arise as the Allied advance progressively uncovers the frontiers of GERMANY. These problems will not change in character, but will increase in magnitude in the post-surrender period. This directive, therefore, applies equally to the pre-surrender period and to ECLIPSE conditions in GERMANY.

  2. Counter-intelligence policy as a whole will be to concentrate attention on "containing" GERMANY as it is occupied. At the same time, responsibility for Counter-Intelligence measures in liberated countries will progressively be handed over to the indigenous authorities.

  3. Objects

    The objects of port, frontier and travel security in GERMANY are:

    1. Immediate task:

      to prevent as far as possible the escape of "wanted" persons;

    2. Long-term task:

      to establish a strict security control of all traffic into and out of GERMANY, to assist in the detection of the movements of the agents and communications of hostile underground and subversive organizations;

    3. Incidental task:

      to assist in the detection of attempts at evasion of terms of surrender through the unauthorized movements of goods and currency.

  4. Responsibilities

    The enforcement of security restrictions at ports, airports, coastlines, and frontiers is a command responsibility. Under the policies laid down by this headquarters, Army Group Commanders are responsible for restricting travel into and out of GERMANY to the authorized minimum, and for the security checking of authorized travellers.

--1--

  1. German Authorities

    In the first instance, the existing German control authorities (e.g. Grenzpolizei, Customs, VGAD, Wasserschutzpolizei, etc.) must he removed and will not be allowed to function. Pending the formation of new national control authorities, any elements of the Schutzpolizei and Gendarmerie considered to be reliable, may he utilized to assist in control at ports and frontiers. When personnel of any purged and reorganised German control authorities are allowed to function, they will operate under strict C.I. control.

B. PORT SECURITY.

  1. Geographical Responsibility of Port Counter-Intelligence Officers.

    The normal areas of responsibility of the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer is that of the Base Sub-Area (British)/Port (U.S.) Commander.

    1. Army.

      The security of the dock area, including control of exit and entry is the responsibility of the Base Sub-Area (British)/Port (U.S.) Commander.

    2. Navy.

      The security of naval stores and installations ashore and all the physical security measures afloat, are the responsibilities of the Naval Officer in Charge. These measures include gangway guards; examination of hulls externally and internally for infernal machines, measures for the seaward defence against saboteurs and patrols to prevent escapers".

      The line of demarcation of responsibility should be taken arbitrarily as high water mark, but it is obvious that the closest cooperation must exist between the security officers of the two services."

      [smeared out] The U.S. Naval Post Security Officer (Commerce and Travel Officer) under the direction of the naval officer in charge will be responsible for the internal security of U.S. Merchant Ships.

    3. Royal Air Force.

      Dock sections of Royal Air Force Security Personnel will be available for supervising the disembarkation of Royal Air Force Personnel and Stores. In Counter-Intelligence matters they will operate under the general supervision of the Army Port Counter-Intelligence Officer.

--2--

    1. Co-ordination.

      All security measures will be co-ordinated by the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer. While attached to the staff of the Base Sub-Area (British)/Port (U.S.) Commander, the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer will act as advisor on Counter-Intelligence matters to naval and other authorities in the Port.

  1. Duties of Port Counter-Intelligence Officers.

    Port Control. Within the port the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer will be responsible for:--

    1. Planning and supervising the control of entry to, and exit from the dock area, from the landward side and from ship to shore;

    2. Recommending measure for the protection of installations and ships from sabotage;

    3. Establishing the necessary security check and control of civilian labour and personnel, and persons with business in the port, to whom passes are issued for entry into the dock area;

    4. Checking crew lists of merchant ships and advising on security measures relating to crews, including shore leave;

    5. Searching any small craft for Counter-Intelligence purposes;

    6. The security control of all civilian travel through the port.

  2. Civil Security.

    The civil security responsibility of the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer will include:--

    1. The investigation of and reporting upon all suspected cases of espionage, and sabotage or leakage of information.

    2. Such immediate action in regard to suspects, including arrest as may seem expedient or, after reference, may be ordered by Counter-Intelligence staffs.

    3. Advising the Base Sub-Area (British)/Port (U.S.) Commander on security measures to be imposed on the civilian population in the area.

    4. Liaison with any authorized civilian Port authority on Counter-Intelligence matters.

--3--

      In all matters relating to civil security, the Port Counterintelligence Officer will maintain close liaison with the appropriate Military Government Detachment.

C. COASTLINE SECURITY.

  1. General.

    Within the sector assigned to the Base Sub-Area (British)/Port (U.S.) Commander, the Port Counter-Intelligence Officer will be responsible for the establishment and co-ordination of measures to prevent illicit communication between sea and shore, and illegal entry or exit along the coastline. Measures ashore relating to the security of the coastline will be co-ordinated with any security measures taken by naval authorities.

  2. German-Baltic Coast.

    Special security measures will have to be taken in conjunction with the Naval authorities on the Baltic Coastline from LUBECK to FLENSBURG in view of the possibility of traffic to and from SWEDEN by boat.

    These measures should include the immobilization of small vessels and a strict control of any fishing allowed.

    Supreme Headquarters AEF cable FWD-15053 of 16 September 194 to 21 Army Group calls for the provision of adequate Allied Expeditionary Force guards for this coastline.

D. FRONTIER SECURITY.

  1. Classification of Frontiers.

    1. Priority I.

      Special attention must be given to:--

      1. German-Swiss frontier;

      2. German-Danish frontier in view of the access the give to neutral countries.

    2. Priority II.

      On the western frontiers of GERMANY, considerable assistance is to be expected from the control systems set up by the authorities of the liberated countries concerned.

    3. Priority III.

      Special control of the Austria-German Frontier will be necessary in order:

--4--

      1. to prevent the escape of wanted Germans to AUSTRIA and possible SOUTHEAST EUROPE;

      2. to assist in the establishment of an independent AUSTRIA and to emphasise the difference in the objects of the Allied occupation of AUSTRIA;

      Supreme Headquarters AEF will be responsible for maintaining liaison with Allied Force Headquarters to agree plans for control of Austro-German Frontier.

    1. Priority IV.

      The German-Czech border will probably be uncovered last. Here too, eventually assistance from the Czech frontier control authorities is hoped for. Co-ordination of frontier control measure with the Russians will also probably be necessary.

  1. Frontier Guards.

    1. Priority I frontiers.

      Supreme Headquarters AEF cable FWD-15053 of 16 September 1944 to 21 Army Group and Sixth Army Group calls for the provision of adequate AEF frontier guards for:--

      1. German-Swiss frontier;

      2. German-Danish frontier.

    2. Priority II frontiers.

      1. To avoid unnecessary duplication and to effect the maximum economy of personnel, it is intended that control of these frontiers should as far as possible be manned and operated jointly by AEF forces and those of the liberated Allied Governments.

      2. French, Belgian, Dutch and Luxemburg authorities have been asked to specify what forces they will be prepared to deploy on their frontiers with GERMANY. Their replies will be transmitted to Army Groups concerned.

      3. In order to define responsibilities under this joint control scheme, particularly as regards the disposal of persons detected crossing the frontier without authority, the various Supreme Headquarters AEF Missions are being briefed by this Headquarters to negotiate the necessary agreements with their respective Governments.

--5--

  1. Prohibited Zone.

    An operational instruction will be issued by this Headquarters under which Army Groups will be responsible for arranging the evacuation of all but essential civilians from a belt up to five kilometers in depth from the frontier inside GERMANY. This will simplify the control problem and reduce the number of troops required as frontier guards.

  2. Inter-Zone Boundaries.

    No attempt will be made to set up any fixed security control of movement across the boundaries between the Russian/Supreme Headquarters AEF zones or between the British/U.S. zones.

  3. Duties of FS/CIC personnel on Frontier Control Duty.

    These will include:

    1. making preliminary investigations into and interrogation of persons detected attempting to cross the frontier without authority;

    2. checking and arranging for the documentation of any civilians allowed to remain in the prohibited zone and any frontaliers who may be permitted to cross frontiers;

    3. organising security patrols and snap checks on possible unauthorised routes;

    4. reporting on the efficiency of the frontier control and giving advice to the local Military Commander as to the disposition of AEF frontier guards.

E. TRAVEL SECURITY.

  1. General.

    1. The general policy will be to restrict travel into and out of GERMANY to the essential minimum.

    2. Supreme Commander, AEF will be responsible for:

      1. the determination, of travel policy and the issue of directives to implement that policy;

      2. all matters of travel security involving coordination with authorities of U.K., U.S.A., RUSSIA, liberated neutral and other countries and Allied Force Headquarters, and other theatres.

--6--

    1. Array Group Commanders will be responsible for ensuring that only authorised travellers are allowed to enter or leave GERMANY.

  1. Travel Permit Scheme.

    1. Control of the issue of permits to enter or leave GERMANY will be centralised at Supreme Headquarters AEF.

    2. Detailed instructions are at present contained in letter, this Headquarters, subject: "Security Control of Civilian Travel into and out of German Territory Controlled by Supreme Headquarters AEF", reference AG 350.09-4 GBI-AGM, dated 12 September 1944. The permit provisions of this directive are at present being incorporated in an Administrative Memorandum, which will also cover the movement and transportation side.

  2. Travel Security Directives.

    1. In order to ensure uniformity of procedure throughout the Supreme Headquarters AEF area, Counter-Intelligence personnel at ports, airports and frontiers will continue to receive directives on travel security matters as issued by Supreme Headquarters AEF. These directives will be transmitted through Army Groups, who will be consulted before the issue of directives on major policy.

    2. If Army Groups desire a directive to be amended or a new one to be issued, they will refer the matter to Supreme Headquarters AEF.

  3. Channels of Communication.

    1. Policy directives and instructions on port, airport, frontier and travel security will be issued through command channels.

    2. Information, travel records and reports on port, airport, frontier and travel security will be transmitted through Intelligence channels.

    3. When the stage is reached in GERMANY that a substantial volume of travel is allowed and that communications facilities permit, Supreme Headquarters AEF, will, if necessary, deal direct with Counter-Intelligence personnel, at ports, airports and frontiers on individual cases. If such direct communication becomes necessary, the Army Groups/Zone Headquarters concerned will in every case be kept informed.

--7--

  1. Travel Security Black List.

    1. The basis of this will be an Index of all non-German "wanted" persons which is being prepared by E.D.S.

    2. To this will be added names of all suspects expected to attempt to enter or leave GERMANY.

    3. This list will be compiled at and maintained by Supreme Headquarters, AEF. It will be distributed as in paragraph 20 (b) above.

  2. Air Travel.

    The provisions of Intelligence Directive; this Headquarters, No. 22 of 15 November 1944, subject: "Travel Security and Clearance of personnel arriving at or departing from airfields in Continental Northwest Europe", will continue to apply in GERMANY.

  3. Displaced Persons.

    The movement of displaced persons constitutes a special problem, for which detailed instructions will be issued as laid down in paragraph 20.

--8--

APPENDIX 'A'

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE AND MILITARY<,br>GOVERNMENT (PUBLIC SAFETY)

1. Although Counter-Intelligence and Public Safety have recognisably distinct functions, they have in many respects an identity of interest which makes them complementary.

  1. Whereas Counter-Intelligence is primarily concerned with the discovery and supervision of secret subversive activities, the main task of Public Safety is through the medium of a reorganized German Police Force, to establish secure conditions for the civil administration to function.

  2. It is essential that at all levels there should be frequent consultation on matters of policy and that collaboration in action should be continuous.

2. In order to achieve the maximum of agreement and cooperation Counterintelligence should, in all suitable areas, form joint committees of Counterintelligence, and Public Safety representatives and, where necessary, of representatives of other interested bodies, to consider policy and action on matters of Counter-Intelligence or Security interest.

3. It is desirable that the respective responsibilities of Counter-Intelligence and Public Safety should be clarified so that they can work harmoniously and efficiently from the beginning of the occupation.

4. Responsibilities of Counter-Intelligence in broad terms include:

  1. The protection of Allied interests from espionage and sabotage and from subversive activities.

  2. The formulation of Counter-intelligence policy.

  3. The collection and study of information relating to underground and subversive political movements.

  4. The liquidation of German Military Intelligence, the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst) and German Secret State Police (GESTAPO).

  5. The arrest and investigation of officials and members of prescribed German organizations and of individuals whose activities are a danger to the security of Allied interests.

5. Responsibilities of Public Safety in broad terms include:

  1. The purging, re-organization and re-activation of the German Police.

  2. The operation and control of German police in accordance with Military Government requirements.

  3. The formulation and execution of policy for the establishment and maintenance of Law and Order.

  4. The enforcement of Security measures in conjunction with Counter-Intelligence.

  5. The investigation of public officials and of applicants for public office.

--1--

  1. The responsibilities in paragraphs 4 and 5 are not exclusive. Counter-intelligence and Public Safety each has an interest, varying in degree, in matters for which the other has the major or ultimate responsibility. Any definition of functions, therefore, must be regarded more as a guide than as a delimitation.

--2--

APPENDIX 'B'
ECLIPSE MEMO NO. 7

ARREST AND DETENTION

1. When the Allied Forces occupy GERMANY it will be necessary to arrest and detain a considerable number of persons in order to achieve the two main objects of safeguarding the security of the Allied Forces and accomplishing the destruction of Nazi organizations.

2. In addition to the named persons who constitute the Black Lists, the categories of suspects listed in paragraph 3, below, will also be arrested and detained. Persons will be subject to arrest if they have at any time held a rank or appointment falling within the automatic arrest categories listed below, with the following exceptions:

  1. Persons dismissed by the Nazis on grounds of political unreliability, and

  2. Persons who retired from such appointment before 1933.

3.

  1. THE GERMAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES.

    1. All personnel of Amter (Departments) I, II, III, IV, VI, Militarisches Amt (formerly Abwehr) and VII of the Reichssicherheitshaptemt (RSHA, or National Department of Security) together with the out-stations and organizations dependent on or controlled by any of these departments.

    2. All personnel of the Geheinie Feldpolizei (GFP, or Secret Field Police).

    3. All personnel of the Reichssicherheitsdienst (Reich Security Service).

  2. THE SICHERHEITSPOLIZEI. (Sipo, or Security Police).

    1. All personnel of the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo, or, Secret State Police), including the Grenzpolizei (Grepo, of Frontier Police).

    2. All officials down to and including the rank of Oberst (Colonel), in the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo, or Criminal Police).

  3. HIGHER POLICE OFFICIALS.

    1. High Government Officials in the Police Hierarchy.

    2. All Polizeiprisidenten and Polizeidirektoren.

    3. All Oberprasidenten in Prussia.

--1--

    1. All Regierungsprasidenten.

    2. All Landrate.

    3. All Hohere SS -- und Polizeifuhrer.

    4. All Befehlshaber der Ordnungspolizei.

    5. All Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei.

  1. THE ORDNUNGSPOLIZEI (Orpo, or Regular Uniformed Police).

    All officers down to and including the rank of Oberst (Colonel) or equivalent in the following branches:

    1. Schutzpolizei (Schupo, or Protection Police).

    2. Feuerschutzpoiizei (F Schupo, or Fire Protection Police).

    3. Gendarmerie (Gend, or Rural Police).

    4. Wasserschutzpolizei (SW, or Waterways Protection Police).

    5. Luftschutzpolizei (L Schupo, or Air Raid Protection Police).

    6. Technische Nothilfe (Teno, or Technical Emergency Corps).

    7. Verwaltungspolizei (Administrative Police).

    8. Hilfspolizei (Hipo, or Auxiliary Police).

  2. PARAMILITARY ORGANIZATIONS.

    1. Waffen SS (Armed SS) -- All officers and NCO's down to and including the rank of Scharfuller, all ranks of the Totenkopfverbande (TV, or Death's Head Formations ) and all SS-Helferinnen or SS-Kriegshelferinnen (SS Female Auxiliaries).

    2. Allgemeine SS (General SS) -- All officers and NCO's (except those who hold only nominal SS rank by reason of their being in the Orpo or Kripo, and have not taken an active part in SS work) down to and including the rank of Unterscharfuhrer and all SS-Helferinnen or SS-Kriegshelferinnen.

    3. Sturmabteilung (SA, or Storm Troops) -- All officers down to and including the rank of Sturmbannfuhrer.

    4. Hitler Jugend (HJ, or Hitler's Youth) -- All officers down to and including the rank of Stammfuhrer and equivalents in the Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM, or League of German Girls).

--2--

APPENDIX "B" (cont'd)

    1. Nationalsozialistisches Kraftschrkorps (NSKK, or National Socialist Motor Corps) -- All officers down to and including the rank of Staffelfuhrer.

    2. Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK, or National Socialist Aviation Corps) -- All officers down to and including the rank of Sturmbannfuhrer.

    3. Reichsarbeitzdienst (RAD, or Compulsory National Labour Service) -- All officers down to and including the rank of Arbeitsfuhrer.

  1. NAZI PARTY OFFICIALS.

    1. Administrative officials of the Party down to and including the post of Amtsleiter at Ortsgruppe level

    2. All members of the Party down to and including the rank of Gemeinschaftsleiter.

  2. CIVIL SERVANTS (Hoherer Dienst)

    1. All members of the Hoherer Dienst (Higher Grade) appointed since 1 March 1939.

    2. All Civil Servants down to and including the rank of Ministerialrat or equivalent, irrespective of date of appointment.

--3--

ANNEX B
To ECLIPSE
Memorandum No. 7

LIST OF NAZI ORGANIZATIONS DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES

CATEGORY I

Offices and organizations which will he disbanded and cease to function at once, and in the case of which no problem of the disarmament and disbandment of para-military formations arises. Dissolution must cover all branch offices.

CENTRAL OFFICES OF THE REICHSLEITUNG AND REICH ASSOCIATIONS

  1. Party Chancery (Partei-Kanzlei)

  2. Fuhrer's Chancery (Kanzlei des Fuhrers der NSDAP)

  3. Organization of Germans Abroad (Auslandsorganisation)

  4. Offices in Germany of the National Union for German Elements Abroad (Volksbund fur das Deutschtum im Ausland)

  5. Centre for "Volksdeutsche" (Volksdeutschmittelstelle)

  6. Party Scrutiny Commission for the Protection of National Socialist Literature (Partoiamtliche Prufungskommission zum Schutze des NS-Schriftturns)

  7. Office of the Reich Organization Leader (Rciehsorganisationsloiter der NSDAP)

  8. Office of the Reich Treasurer of the Party (Reichsschatzmeister der NSDAP)

  9. Supreme Party Court (Oberstes Parteigericht) and subordinate courts

  10. Office of the Fuhrer's Commissioner for the Supervision of the whole intellectual and ideological training and education of the Party (Beauftragte des Fuhrers fur die Uberwachung der gesamten geistigen und weltanschaulichen Schulung und Erziehung der NSDAP)

  11. Office of the Propaganda Leader of the Party (Reichspropagandaleiter der NSDAP)

  12. Office of the Reich Loader for the Press (Reichsleiter fur die Presse) together with the publishing houses and printing works owned by the party and controlled by him

  13. Office of the Reich Press Chief of the Party (Reichspressechef der NSDAP)

  14. Reich Office for the Agrarian Population (Reichsamt fur das Landvolk)

  15. Head Office for Public Health (Hauptamt fur Volksgesundheit); together with

  16. Reich League of Doctors (NSD-Arztebund)

  17. Head Office for Technology (Hauptamt.fur Technik)

  18. Party League of German Technicians (NS-Bund Deutscher Technik)

  19. Head Office for Teachers (Hauptamt fur Erzieher); together with

  20. Party League of Teachers (NS-Lehrerbund)

  21. Head Office for Local Government (Hauptamt fur Kommunalpolitik)

  22. Head Office for Officials (Hauptamt fur Beamte); together with

  23. Reich League of German Officials (Reichsbund der Deutschen Beamten)

  24. Office of the Party Commissioner for all Racial Questions (Beauftragte der NSDAP fur alle Volkstumsfragen)

  25. Racial Political Office of the Party (Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP)

  26. Office of Genealogical Research (Amt fur Sippenforschung)

  27. Colonial Office of the Party (Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP); together with

  28. Reich Colonial League (Reichskolonialbund)

  29. Foreign Office of the Party (Aussenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP)

--1--

  1. Reichstag Party of the NSDAP (Reichstagsfraktion der NSDAP)

  2. Reich Leadership of Women (Reichsfrauenfuhrung and the NS Frauenschaft); together with

  3. German Women's Association (Deutsches Frauenwerk)

  4. Reich Student Leadership (Reichsstudentenfuhrung); together with

  5. National Socialist German Students' League (NSD-Studentenbund); and

  6. German Students' Association (Deutsche Studentenschaft)

  7. National Socialist German Lecturers Association (NSD-Dozentenbund)

  8. Party League of Lawyers (NS-Rechtswahrerbund)

  9. Party League of Old Students (NS-Altherrenbund der Deutschen Studenten)

  10. Reich League of German Families (Reichsbund Deutsche Familie)

  11. Party Association for Physical Training (NS-Reichsbund fur Leibesubungen)

  12. NS-Ex-Servicemen's League (NS-Reichskriegerbund)

  13. Reich Chamber of Culture (Reichskulturkammer)

  14. German Local Government Union (Deutscher Gemeindetag)

There are a number of pseudo-scientific Academies and Institutes of a Nazi character, and their dissolution should therefore be provided for:

  1. German Academy (Deutsche Akademie -- Munich)

  2. Institute for Research into the Jewish Problem (Institut fur Judenforschung -- Frankfurt-a-M)

  3. Institute for Germanism Abroad (Institut fur das Deutschtum im Ausland -- Stuttgart)

  4. State Academy for Race and Health (Staatsakademie fur Rassen und Gesundheitspflege -- Dresden)

REGIONAL AND LOCAL OFFICES OF PARTY ADMINISTRATION

These can be disbanded at once, except for the regional and local departments administering the affairs of the organizations listed in Category III, for which special instructions will be required:

  1. The Gauleitung in each Party Gau of Reichsgau.

  2. The Kreisleitung in each Party Kreis.

  3. The Ortsgruppenleitung in each Party Ortsgruppe.

  4. The Offices of Zellenleiter and Blockleiter.

NOTE: It is unlikely that there are many real offices under No. 4, but it is added to cover the seizure of any records which may be in the hands of these minor party officials.

CATEGORY II

Para-military Organizations. Dissolution includes the suppression of the central, regional and local office, and training establishments, the disbanding of the associations, and the demobilisation of para-military and police formations.

  1. S.A. (Sturmabteilungen), including the SA-Wehrmannschaften or pro-military training centres.

  2. SS (Schutzstaffeln), including the Armed-SS (Waffen-SS) and the SD (Sicherheitsdienst).

  3. NSKK (NS-Kraftfahrerkorps, or Motor Corps).

  4. NSFK (NS-Fliegerkorps, or Flying Corps).

  5. Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend, or HJ).

  6. Reich Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst, or RAD).

  7. Todt Organization (OT).

--2--

CATEGORY III

Organizations which will he dissolved at once except for such of their beneficial functions as may be allowed to continue on a temporary basis.

  1. Head Office for Popular Welfare (Hauptamt fur Volkswohlfahrt); together with

  2. National-Socialist Welfare Organization (NS-Volksvrohlfahrt or NSV).

  3. Winter Help Organization (Winterhilfswerk, or WHW)

  4. Head Office for War Victims (Hauptamt fur Kriegsopfer); together with

  5. Society for the Care of War Victims (HS-Kriegsopferversergung, or NSKOV).

  6. German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront, or DAF).

--3--

SUPRENE HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
G-3 Division (Main)

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 9

PRIMARY DISARMAMENT OF THE GERMAN LAND FORCES
AND SHORT TERM DISPOSAL OF SURRENDERED WAR MATERIAL

OBJECTS OF PRIMARY DISARMAMENT

1. Primary disarmament of the German forces will be carried out with the following objects in view, in order of priority.

  1. To prevent a continuance or renewal of hostilities.

  2. To safeguard the deployment of the Allied Expeditionary Force during operation 'ECLIPSE'.

  3. Thereafter to facilitate the establishment of law and order in the Supreme Commander's area of responsibility.

2. The subsequent stages of disarmament are those designed to bring under control all stocks of weapons and equipment not in the hands of units, the destruction of factories and war production plants, the final disposal of war material, and the final immobilisation or destruction of fortifications.

ARMY RESPONSIBILITY FOR DISARMAMENT

3. The disarmament of the following German armed forces will be an army responsibility.

  1. The German Army.

  2. The GAF Field Divisions (now part of the German Army)

  3. The Herman Goering Panzer Division (GAF)

  4. All para-military organisations with the exception of the NSFK and the Heimat Flak.

4. The disarmament of all German naval forces will be an Allied Naval responsibility, but the Amy will be responsible for assisting in the primary disarmament of the following naval forces on shore at the request of the naval authorities.

  1. Naval coast artillery

  2. Naval infantry

  3. Naval flak units

  4. Other naval personnel on shore

5. The disarmament of all German air force units, with the exception of the Herman Goering Panzer Division and the G.A.F. Field Divisions, will be the responsibility of the Allied Air Forces, but the Army will be responsible for assisting in the primary disarmament of the following air force and associated units at the request of the Allied Air Force authorities.

  1. G.A.F. airborne troops

  2. G.A.F. Flak organization, including Heimat Flak

  3. N.S.F.K.

--1--

6. The disarmament of all German police forces and of civilians will be the responsibility of Military Government officers, but the Army will be responsible for assisting in the actual disarmament as required.

7. The channel of responsibility for disarmament in its widest sense will follow normal command channels and no separate disarmament organization will be set up. Disarmament will be affected in accordance with the policies laid down in the SHAEF Post Hostilities Handbook.

ARMY RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SHORT TERM DISPOSAL OF WAR MATERIAL

8. The responsibility for the control and safeguarding of German Amy, and para military war material rests with the Allied Commander in whose area the material is located.

9. Except in the case of dumps formed by the German field formations it may not be possible in air cases to impose direct and immediate control of surrendered war material. That is to say, where it is not possible to station allied personnel at a depot or installation, control will be exercised by a very close supervision over the German Headquarters which would normally control the material, and by means of surprise checks, insure that any orders issued to the responsible German Headquarters are in fact being passed on and carried out by the German personnel at the dumps and depots.

10. Maintenance, classification and inventory of surrendered war material may be carried out by German personnel under Allied supervision. Allied commanders will ensure that adequate care and maintenance parties are attached to all dumps and depots where they are required. Strict Allied supervision will be necessary to ensure that material is properly maintained and to prevent sabotage. This is the responsibility of the Allied commander in whose area the stores are located. Further detailed instructions regarding the disposal of war material are contained in the SHAEF Post Hostilities Handbook. Lists of the material which the Germans must initially hand over and lists of material which they may initially retain are contained in Appendix 'A'.

11. While the custody and disposal of German Naval and Air Force war material will be an allied Naval and Air Force responsibility respectively, guard will be provided by the Army for important dumps of material at the request of the Naval or Air authorities.

12. Material which is common to the German Army, Navy, and Air Force will be turned over to the Army where conditions make it desirable, by the Allied Naval and Air Force authorities. Where any orders to the German Naval or Air Force authorities are necessary in respect of such material, these must be transmitted through the Allied Naval and Air Force authorities.

13. Salvage or scrap (i.e. non repairable war material, for which the Supreme Commander has no use in the theater of operations) will be the responsibility of the Amy. Any orders to the German Navy or Air Forces in respect of such material will be issued by Allied Naval or Air Force authorities respectively.

ORDERS TO THE GERMAN FORCES

14. The fullest possible use will be made of the existing German military machine, and orders will be issued through the recognised German channels of command wherever they survive the process of occupation. In areas where the Wehrkreis organization has been dispersed by the Allied advance, it will not subsequently be recommitted. Any necessary reconstitution of the German military organization will be made on a Corps District basis.

--2--

15. Details of the orders relating to disarmament and the disposal of surrendered war material which must be issued to the German military authorities in the event of a general surrender or of local capitulations are contained in 'ECLIPSE' Memorandum No. 1.

16. In order to avoid confusion and to obviate opportunities for duplicity on the part of the Germans, it is desirable that the channels of communication to the German authorities in connection with war materials, once established, should not be changed.

ADDITIONAL STAFFS FOR DISARMAMENT AND CONTROL PURPOSES

17. Staff increments will be required at Corps District, Army and Army Group levels to enable the headquarters concerned to carry out the extremely onerous tasks involved in the thorough demilitarization of GERMANY.

18. In addition, small mobile disarmament units will be required to carry out a survey of the disarmament problem and to keep a check on German disarmament. It is considered that these will be required on a provisional scale of three for each Corps District.

19. The Corps District staff increments and the mobile disarmament units will be deployed during the advance into GERMANY, behind the advancing armies. Their functions will be to assist the local Commander to organize the process of disarmament, to carry out a survey of the work to be done, and take control of whatever may be left of the Wehrkreis organizations. They will later be absorbed into the Corps District organization.

20. Where United States forces occupy areas which will eventually form part of the British zone, the US commanders concerned will be fully responsible for disarmament. However, in the interests of continuity, British disarmament staffs as described above, will be introduced into these areas cinder commend of the US commanders concerned. These staffs will have liaison status unless the US commanders choose to make them executive. Their primary task will be to familiarize themselves with the district in order that continuity may be obtained when the redeployment of forces occurs. The sane will apply in cases where British forces occupy areas which will eventually form part of the US zone.

21. In the sectors in which French forces are operating, disarmament will be the responsibility of the local French Commander. Disarmament staffs as described above, will, however, be integrated on a US/French basis.

22. 21st Army Group and Twelfth Army Group in conjunction with Sixth Army Group will decide the composition of the disarmament staff increments which are required on the British and US sides respectively and will submit their requirements to the War Office and European Theater Commander respectively after coordination with SHAEF and the British Control Commission or US Control Group.

23. The responsibility for the provision of these disarmament staffs or units will fail in the main upon Amy Groups, but schools have now been established in the UNITED KINGDOM for the training of key personnel for those staffs and units and it is consequently to be expected that a nucleus of trained personnel will be made available for assignment to Army Groups on or before the cessation of hostilities.

--3--

APPENDIX 'A'
'ECLIPSE' Memo No. 9

LIST OF WAR MATERIALS TO BE HANDED IN BY THE GERMANS

SECTION I

1.

  1. Rifles, carbines, muskets, revolvers and pistols of all calibres.

  2. Heavy, medium and light machine guns, heavy, medium and light automatic guns and machine pistols of all calibres, their carriages, mountings and accessories.

  3. Guns, howitzers, mortars and spigot projectors of all natures and calibres, as well as their carriages, mountings and accessories. All rocket apparatus, breechless or recoilless guns and flame throwers, their carriages, mountings and accessories.

  4. Projectiles, fixed ammunition and cartridge, filled and unfilled, for the weapons in a. b. and c. above, and all fuses, tubes or contrivances to explode or operate them.

  5. Grenades, bombs, mines, demolition charges, rockets and self-propelling projectiles of all kinds, smoke, artificial mist, incendiary and chemical charges of all types, filled or unfilled; all means for exploding or operating them.

  6. Bayonets, swords, daggers, lances, other side arms.

SECTION II

2.

  1. Armoured fighting vehicles, including tanks, armoured cars and self-propelled guns, multi-axled motor vehicles, wheeled, tracked or semi-tracked, designed for military use. All types of special military vehicles, such as wireless, ammunition, bridging or mobile workshops.

  2. Mechanical and self-propelled carriages for any of the weapons listed in the above categories.

  3. Railway rolling stock, especially adapted for war purposes in war.

  4. Armour of all types used for protective purposes in war.

  5. Transport vehicles (prime movers and trailers, wheeled, tracked or semi-tracked), whether moved by mechanical or other means, of the types used for war purposes. Harness for pack military equipment.

SECTION III

3.

  1. Range finding, sound ranging and acoustic apparatus; aiming and computing devices for fire control, including predictors and plotting apparatus; direction of fire instruments; gun sights; fuse setters; calibration equipment of all kinds for the calibration of guns, fire control, radio and all other types of equipment for war purposes.

--1--

  1. The following types of signal equipment:--

    1. All radio/wireless transmitting sets and/or transceivers with ancillary equipment held by formations below Army Headquarters and at corresponding Naval Commands.

    2. All secrecy equipment whether designed for wire or radio.

    3. All code and cipher systems including cipher machinery and secret writing and equipment with full information regarding their method of working.

    4. Copy of all sign documents.

    5. Copy of all frequency allotments.

    6. All Radar equipment utilised by ground forces.

    7. All military and civil radio broadcast and communications stations.

    8. All signal dumps of the field array.

    9. See also Air instructions contained in Appendix 'A'.

  2. Searchlights and their means of direction and control.

  3. Monoculars, binoculars and telescopes for war purposes.

  4. Military survey instruments and all equipment for flash spotting, sound ranging or any other means of detecting and locating guns, mortars or rockets.

  5. Maps, map reproduction material and survey data for countries outside the boundaries of GERMANY.

  6. Engineering tools, equipment, plant and stores specially adapted for military purposes. Bridging material of military types on fixed or floating supports infantry footbridges, pneumatic boats, assault boats and assault boat motors.

  7. All camouflage, dazzle and decoy devices.

SECTION IV

4.

  1. Propellents, explosives, pyrotechnics, liquefied gases, and any components destined or suitable for the propulsion, explosion, charging, filling of, or use in connection with, the war material in the above categories.

  2. Asphyxiating, lethal, toxic, incapacitating, or similar substances and products in any form intended or capable of being used for war purposes. All contrivances, weapons and containers intended for their use, storage or transport.

  3. Gas masks and collective protective devices for military purposes and all defensive equipment (including chemicals and clothing), whether for individual or collective use, which are capable of being used to detect or protect against the war material designated in the present categories.

  4. Gasolines, oils and greases used for the operation or maintenance of any of the war materials previously mentioned.

--2--

LIST OF WAR MATERIALS TO BE INITIALLY RETAINED BY THE GERMANS

SECTION I

5. Minimum number of rifles together with ammunition for same required for authorised armed guards.

SECTION II.

6.

  1. Cargo trucks on the scale of one per each hundred men for supply purposes.

  2. Staff cars on the scale of one per ten officers.

  3. The minimum number of engineer, signal, railway and medical services unarmoured technical vehicles required to maintain lines of communication and to care for the sick and wounded.

  4. Horse drawn vehicles may be retained, together with horses, mules, and the necessary type harness.

SECTION III

7.

  1. All signal equipment except that in the "List of War Material to be handed in by the GERMANS", sec paragraph 3b. above.

  2. Necessary maps may be retained for adm purposes.

  3. Engineer tools, equipment, bridging material, plant and stores, necessary to maintain lines of communication.

SECTION IV

8.

  1. Necessary gasoline, oils and greases for two weeks operation of vehicles which are not placed in dumps.

MISCELLANEOUS

9. All remaining war material and stores not specifically included in the list of war materials to be handed in initially.

--3--

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (MAIN)
AIR STAFF

9 March 1945.

REF: SH AIR/TS 969/Air Plans
SUBJECT: "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 10.
TO: See Distribution List.

1. Reference Operation "ECLIPSE" -- Appreciation and Outline Plan, SHAEF (44) 34, dated 10 November, 1944, herewith copy of "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 10.

2. All concerned are requested to take action as appropriate with the instructions contained in the attached Memorandum. It should be read in conjunction with the above-mentioned Appreciation and Outline Plan, and the relevant memoranda connected therewith.

For Deputy Supreme Commander:

J.M. ROBB,
Air Marshal,
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air).

 

OPERATION "ECLIPSE"
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 10

DISTRIBUTION LIST

  COPY NO.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force. (539-543)
1-25
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group. 26-40
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group. 41-65
Commander-in-Chief, 21 Army Group. 66-90
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army. 91-96
Commanding General, Communications Zone, ETO. 97-121
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army. 122-127
Commanding General, Scottish Line of Communications. 128
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional). 129-148
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force. 149-168
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second Tactical Air Force. 169-188
Commanding General, IX Troop Carrier Command. 189-193
Air Officer Commanding, No. 38 Group, RAF. 194-195
Air Officer Commanding, No. 46 Group, RAF. 196-197
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in EUROPE. 198-202
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in FRANCE. 203-207
Commanding General, MTOUSA. 208-209
Commanding General, ETOUSA. 210-219
Supreme Allied Commander, MEDITERRANEAN (including copies for:-- Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in ITALY). 220-229
Commanding General, MEDITERRANEAN Allied Air Forces. 230-236
Commanding General, UNITED STATES Strategic Air Forces in EUROPE. 237-261
The Secretary, The Admiralty. 262-267
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington DC. 268-269
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office. 270-289
Adjutant General, War Department, Washington DC (including copies for: OPD and Civil Affairs Division). 290-314
Special Operations Executive. 315
General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command. 316-317
Special Force Headquarters. 318
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry, including copies for: Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command. 319-338
Commanding General, UNITED STATES Army Air Forces, Washington DC. 339-340
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command. 341-350
Combined Chiefs of Staff, WASHINGTON. DC. 351-353
UNITED STATES Joint Chiefs of Staff, WASHINGTON DC. 354-355
The Secretary, Chief of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet. 356-357
UNITED STATES Group Control Council (GERMANY). 358-367
Control Commission for GERMANY (BRITISH ELEMENT). 368-377
Allied Commission (AUSTRIA). 378-379
SHAEF Mission (FRANCE). 380-381
SHAEF Mission (BELGIUM). 382-383
SHAEF Mission (HOLLAND). 384-385
SHAEF Mission (DENMARK). 386-387
SHAEF Mission (NORWAY). 388-389
   
SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE.  
   
Supreme Commander. 390
Deputy Supreme Commander. 391
Chief of Staff. 392
Deputy Chief of Staff. 393

 

  COPY NO.
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air). 394
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) Rear. 395-404
Chief Administrative Officer. 405
Deputy Chief of Air Staff. 406
Secretary General Staff. 407-408
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 Division. 409-410
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 Division. 411-420
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 Division. 421-430
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 Division. 431-440
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 Division. 441-450
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2 Division. 451-460
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3 Division. 461-470
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4 Division. 471-480
Adjutant General. 481-482
Chief, Engineer Division. 483-487
Chief, Air Defence Division. 488-492
Chief, Signal Division. 493-502
Chief, Air Signal Division. 503-512
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division. 513-517
Chief, Public Relations Division. 518-519
Chief, Medical Division. 520
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). 521-523
USSTAF Liaison Officer (SHAEF). 524
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance). (c/o Air Staff, SHAEF). 525
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, SHAEF). 526-527
Political Officer, BRITISH. 528
Political Officer, US. 529
War Diary. 530
Historical File (BR). 531
Historical File (US). 532
File SH AIR/TS 969/Air Plans. 533
Air Staff, SHAEF (Rear) Liaison Section. 534-538

 

APPENDIX 'C' TO
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 10.

FUNCTIONS OF UNITED STATES AND BRITISH
AIR DISARMAMENT ORGANISATION DURING THE "ECLIPSE" PERIOD

AIR DISARMAMENT FORMATIONS/STAFFS-(including USAAF Control Wings/RAF Group Air Disarmament Staffs, etc.)

1. The following will he the main functions of Air Disarmament Formations/Staffs operating under Ninth Air Force/Second TAF:--

  1. To confirm that the instrument of surrender and the Supreme Commander's instructions to the GAF have been received by appropriate GAF Headquarters and have been passed on for action by subordinate GAF formations and units.

  2. To supervise the continuance of such functions of GAF Headquarters as are required for Air Disarmament purposes.

  3. To obtain information with regard to the conditions prevailing within the sphere of responsibility of the formation.

  4. To obtain intelligence.

  5. To control and co-ordinate the activities of their subordinate air disarmament units.

  6. To maintain close liaison and co-ordination with:--

    1. Appropriate Army and Naval Disarmament Formations.

    2. Adjoining Air Disarmament Formations (both UNITED STATES and BRITISH).

    3. Representatives of the Allied Economic Control Organisation.

  7. To make arrangements for Army guards required for Air Disarmament purposes.

  8. To supervise and control the disarmament of GAF communications.

  9. To organise Allied Air Disarmament communications (including Meteorological, Air Transport, ADLS, and DRLS communications).

  10. To maintain records, as required, of GAF aircraft equipment and supplies, and to forward such equipment returns as may be required by higher authority.

  11. To allocate between GAF units within the sphere of responsibility of the formation, requirements for issue of aircraft, equipment and supplies for Allied and United Nations purposes.

  12. To co-ordinate action by Air Disarmament Detachments and Squadrons for the disposal (including destruction or rendering unserviceable) of GAF aircraft, equipment, installations and supplies.

AIR DISARMAMENT WINGS SQUADRONS AND TEAMS

2. The following will be the main functions of R.A.F. Air Disarmament Wings and U.S.A.A.F. Squadrons and Teams.

--1--

  1. As soon as possible after surrender, to pay initial visits to all GAF units with the following objects:--

    1. To confirm that the GAF Commanding Officer and his subordinate officers and men understand the instrument of surrender and the Supreme Commander's instructions issued to the GAF as applicable to them.

    2. To check that the action required by the terms of surrender and the Supreme Commander's instructions has been taken by the Unit.

    3. To take appropriate action in respect of any breach of or failure to carry out, the terms of the surrender and of the Supreme Commander's instructions.

    4. To search for and safeguard any items of enemy war material required for technical research.

    5. To check in detail the numbers and types of aircraft, and check broadly the numbers of motor vehicles and weapons, and the quantities, natures and grades of ammunition and fuel, oils and lubricants held by the unit.

    6. To complete for submission to next higher headquarters a general report on the unit.

    7. To seal, where practicable, stocks of fuel, oils and lubricants, arms and ammunition.

    8. To check arrangements for guarding of aircraft, arms and ammunition.

    9. To check the numbers of arms and quantities of ammunition issued for guard purposes.

    10. To check fire fighting arrangements.

    11. To check GAF channels of supply for fuel, oils and lubricants, ammunition, supplies and equipment, and to confirm continuance of ration supplies to the unit.

    12. To make arrangements for the removal of essential parts of aircraft, telecommunications equipment and weapons to centralised dumps, where they may be effectively controlled.

  2. To give orders for, and supervise such concentrations of, GAF aircraft, weapons or ammunition as may be required for ease of guarding or other reasons.

  3. To take action as appropriate to the circumstances for the closing of any GAF units, and the transfer of their personnel and equipment to other units.

  4. To obtain from GAF units, and submit to next higher Headquarters such lists of GAP aircraft, equipment and supplies as may be required for record purposes.

  5. To supervise the maintenance and servicing of GAF aircraft, equipment and supplies.

  6. To supervise the administration of GAF units with particular reference, to their use of supplies and equipment.

--2--

"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 10.

PRIMARY DISARMAMENT OF GERMAN AIR FORCES OPPOSING
US AND SHORT TERM DISPOSAL OF ENEMY WAR MATERIAL.

PART I - GENERAL.

OBJECT.

1. The object of this paper is to set out the policies and plans to be adopted for the primary disarmament of the German Air Forces.

DEFINITIONS.

2. The term "primary disarmament" means those immediate and initial steps necessary to separate the German Air Forces from their arms. It is assumed that the Air Disarmament Organisation will have certain responsibilities in respect of war plants, factories, laboratories, research and scientific establishments engaged in performing functions for the GAF or dealing with aeronautical war material, but these responsibilities will be the subject of separate instructions.

3. The term "German Air Forces" as used in this paper includes all formations, units and personnel, (other than the Hermann Goering Panzer Division), forming part of the German Air Force and all formations, units and personnel of the Heimatflak and National Sozialistische Fliegerkorps (Nazi Party Flying Corps).

METHOD OF EFFECTING PRIMARY DISARMAMENT OF THE GAF.

4. The primary disarmament of the GAF will be effected by the following measures:--

  1. Issue by the Supreme Commander, AEF, to the GAF High Command and/or to the German headquarters or commands controlling the German Air Forces in the Supreme Commander's sphere of responsibility, of special orders directing faction to be taken by German Air Forces within such sphere after formal surrender or after capitulation, or capture of any portion of the GAF (See "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 1).

  2. Establishment of control over GAF formations controlling the German Air Forces in the Supreme Commander's sphere of responsibility by means of:--

    1. Orders by the Supreme Commander, AEF, for Commanding Officers and representative staff members of appropriate German headquarters to report to designated Allied Headquarters.

    2. Despatch, as conditions permit or require, of appropriate Allied Air Disarmament Representatives to such German Headquarters, with a view to ensuring compliance with the orders issued under para. 4(a) above.

  3. Initial action, as appropriate, by advancing Allied land forces, for the concentration of GAF personnel and the safeguarding of their weapons.

--1--

  1. Supervision and checking of disarmament by means of:

    1. Visits to GAF units by necessary Allied air disarmament personnel.

    2. Aerial reconnaissance.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR PRIMARY DISARMAMENT OF THE GERMAN AIR FORCE.

5. The responsibility for primary disarmament of the GAF rests upon the following Commanders (hereinafter referred to collectively as "Air Force Commanders").

  1. Commanding General, Ninth Air Force.

    1. The Commanding General, Ninth Air Force, will be responsible for the primary disarmament of the German Air Force within the areas occupied from time to time by the Twelfth and Sixth Army Groups, and as soon as practicable in the United States Zone of Occupation in GERMANY including the BREMEN/BREMERHAVEN Enclave.

    2. The First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) will take over the primary disarmament responsibilities of the Ninth Air Force within the areas occupied from time to time by the Sixth Army Group, until such time as they may be assumed by the Ninth Air Force.

  2. Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second TAF.

    The Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second TAF will be responsible for the primary disarmament of the GAF within the areas occupied from time to time by the 21 st. Army Group, and, as soon as practicable, in the British Zone of Occupation.

6. The responsibilities for primary disarmament of German Air Forces within the US and British Sectors of the BERLIN area will be the subject of a separate directive.

INTER-SERVICE RESPONSIBILITY.

7. In accordance with the definition at para. 3 above, primary disarmament of' the GAF Flak organisation (including Heavy and Light AA, Searchlights, Balloon Barrage and Heimatflak.) GAF Airborne Troops and the Nazi Party Flying Corps will be subject to initial action by Allied land forces under para. 21 below, a responsibility of the appropriate Allied Air Force. Army assistance will be provided for effecting primary disarmament. Primary disarmament of the Hermann Goering Panzer Division and of the GAF Field Divisions (which are an integral part of the German Army) will be an Allied Army responsibility. Flak Units manned by personnel of the German Navy will be a Naval responsibility. Their actual disarming will, however, be effected by the Land Forces at the request of the Naval authorities.

AIR DISARMAMENT CONTROL PROCEDURE.

8. The responsibilities, of the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second TAF under para. 5(b) above will be exercised through the special Disarmament Staffs and detachments which are being placed at his disposal under SHAEF arrangements as described in Chapter IV, Part IV, of the "Military Occupation Handbook".

9. A diagram of the USAAF Air Disarmament organisation is attached at Appendix 'A' and a diagram of the RAF. Air Disarmament organisation is attached at Appendix 'B'. The former represents that organisation which is to be

--2--

assumed upon the initiation of the primary phase of Operation "ECLIPSE". This organisation will he subject to modification prior to the conclusion of Operation "ECLIPSE" as a consequence of the adjustment of national forces as provided for in 'Operation "ECLIPSE" -- Appreciation and Outline Plan'. The latter diagram shows the organisation in the final stages of the occupation of the British Zone; during the earlier stages it may be necessary to make modifications in the organisation in order to meet changes in the operational situation, but the basic principles of the organisation are to be maintained throughout.

10. For primary disarmament in those portions of the areas described in para. 5 (a) above, which will ultimately form part of the British Zone in GERMANY RAF Disarmament formations will be attached to and come under the operational command of the USAAF Ninth Air Force Headquarters and/or First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) Headquarters. Movement of such RAF disarmament formations into GERMANY will be first co-ordinated with the Commanding General, Ninth Air Force.

11. The reverse procedure will apply in the BREMEN/BREMERHAVEN area. Movement of USSTAF Air Disarmament units into this area will be first co-ordinated with the Air Officer Commanding-In-Chief, Second Tactical Air Force.

12. During the process of primary disarmament the Commanding General, Ninth Air Force, and the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Second TAF will each maintain liaison officers at the Headquarters of the other and at such subordinate Headquarters as they may agree upon, and USSTAF will maintain liaison officers at Supreme Headquarters, AEF, to insure close co-ordination of all primary disarmament activities.

13. The tasks and responsibilities of the USAAF and RAF Air Disarmament formations during the "ECLIPSE" period are set out at Appendix 'C'.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF SURRENDERED GAF WAR MATERIAL

14. Subject to initial action by Allied land forces under para. 22 below, the responsibility for the control and safeguarding of GAF war material rests with Air Force Commanders, acting through their respective subordinate commanders.

15. In addition to the strictly air material the GERMAN Air Force will surrender, a great deal of material of common user nature will also become available and will be consolidated and turned over to the Ground Forces in accordance with the policies, methods and procedure established in SHAEF Administrative Memorandum No. 5. In respect to such common user items as become available from GERMAN Air Force installations the policies, methods and procedure set forth in the pertinent sections of Administrative Memorandum No. 5 will govern. A list of war material initially to be surrendered by the GERMAN Forces is contained in "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 1 and the Occupational Handbook.

16. It may not be possible to impose direct control over GAF war material by stationing Allied personnel at every GAF establishment. Control may be effected

  1. by exercising a very close supervision over the German Staffs or Headquarters which would normally control or may be created to control the material, and by means of surprise checks, insuring that any orders issued to the appropriate German authority are, in fact, being passed on to, and carried out by, the German units or establishments concerned;

  2. by means of visits to German establishments by Air Disarmament mobile detachments, teams and squadrons;

--3--

  1. by order to the ground force Commander concerned to provide static guards in cases where the above measures are inadequate.

17. In order to avoid confusion and to obviate opportunities for duplicity on the part of the Germans it is essential that instructions for the seizure, holding and disposal of GAF war materials should be canalised through Air Disarmament formations, Staffs and Units. It will be the duty of the Air Force Commanders, acting through their respective air disarmament staffs and organisations, to insure that such instructions are received, understood and carried out by the Germans.

MAINTENANCE OF SURRENDERED AND CAPTURED ENEMY WAR MATERIAL

18. Such limited maintenance, within the available resources, as may be necessary for the preservation of surrendered and captured GAF war material, will be the responsibility of Air Force Commanders, using German personnel where available and practicable. Close supervision will be exercised over the care and maintenance of such material to prevent loss, damage and sabotage.

SURVEY AND RECORDING OF GAF WAR MATERIAL.

19. Air Disarmament formations, staffs and units will be responsible for preparing and forwarding such records and inventories of GAF war material as may be required by higher authority. The necessary instructions on this subject will be issued to Air Force Commanders.

PART II - OUTLINE PLAN TO CARRY OUT PRIMARY DISARMAMENT

20. The outline plan set out below has been formulated to meet either of the following conditions:--

  1. A formal German surrender coupled with retention by the GAF High Command of sufficient control to ensure obedience by GAF formations and units to the orders issued by the Supreme Commander.

  2. Collapse of German resistance accompanied by loss of control by the GAF High Command and/or higher formations in the field.

INITIAL MEASURES ON FORMAL SURRENDER

21. If formal surrender occurs, the following, initial measures will take effect:--

  1. The general standstill order contained in the instrument of surrender will apply to the GAF and detailed instructions for the demobilisation of aircraft will either have been issued by the Supreme Commander, AEF, (directly or through Air Force Commanders) to the GAF High Command, or will be issued to GAF representatives under para. (b) below.

  2. Representatives of the German Air Ministry and of all Luftflotte or other headquarters controlling GAF units within the Supreme Commander's sphere of responsibility, will be ordered by the Supreme Commander to report to a selected Allied Headquarters to receive instructions.

  3. Orders for the removal of armament and radio equipment from enemy aircraft, for the neutralisation of weapons, including anti-aircraft and small arms, and for the concentration (under unit arrangements)

--4--

    and guarding of detached items of armament and wireless equipment and all ammunition stocks, will either have been issued by the Supreme Commander, AEF, to the GAF High Command, or will be issued to GAF representatives under para. (b) above.

INITIAL ACTION BY ALLIED LAND FORCES ON SURRENDER OR COLLAPSE.

22. Pending the arrival of Air Disarmament personnel under para. 22 below, Allied land forces over-running GAF installations will take such action for the concentration of GAF personnel and the safeguarding of their weapons as may be required for the security of Allied forces, or as may be agreed between appropriate Military and Air Force Commanders.

ACTION BY AIR DISARMAMENT FORMATIONS ON SURRENDER OR COLLAPSE.

22. It is expected that prior to surrender or collapse of organised resistance, the United States and British Air Forces will have made initial deployment of Air Disarmament Staffs and formations behind the advancing Allied Armies within the areas described in para. 5 (a) and (b) above. Following the surrender or collapse, United States and British Army formations moving forward into GERMANY will be accompanied by Air Disarmament Wings, teams and/or squadrons, which will be responsible for insuring the disarmament of all GAF units located within the general area through which Allied Army formations have advanced. They will include, or be accompanied by, specialist army units for flak disarmament.

23. All Disarmament Wings, teams and/or squadrons, will not be able to operate at an extended distance from Allied Army formations but will be accompanied, in order that they may have local independence of movement, by an escort provided by the Army RAF Regiment or US AAA Battalions as appropriate. Stronger support will be obtained by Air Force Commanders from the appropriate Military Authorities, when circumstances require it and resources permit.

DESPATCH OF CONTROL STAFFS TO GERMAN AIR MINISTRY AND GAF HEADQUARTERS.

25. As soon as conditions permit, a Reconnaissance Party provided by the US Group Control Council, and the British Control Commission, will be despatched under SHAEF arrangements to the German Air Ministry. Such Reconnaissance Party will call forward further elements as required for central control. If required for efficient control below German Air Ministry level, selected officers (to be provided from Air Disarmament formations, staffs and units or from the occupying Air Forces, as appropriate) may be despatched under arrangements to be made by Air Force Commanders to appropriate GAF headquarters, with the functions of ensuring that the terms of the surrender and of the Supreme Commander's instructions to the GAF are being carried out, and of exercising administrative control and supervision over the headquarters and their subordinate formations and units.

AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE

26. Reconnaissance sorties will be flown by Allied aircraft to check, so far as practicable, the action taken by the GAF under the orders issued to them, and to observe conditions generally.

TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF AIR DISARMAMENT UNITS.

27. The specific tasks and responsibilities of Air Disarmament Wings, teams and squadrons are set out in Appendix 'C', para. 2.

28. Selection of sites for the centralised dumps for essential parts of aircraft, weapons, and telecommunications equipment (see para. 2(a)(xii) of Appendix 'C') and, where necessary, the provision of Army or Air Force

--5--

guards for such dumps will be the responsibility of Air Force Commanders in conjunction with appropriate Military Authorities.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR TECHNICAL RESEARCH.

29. Lists of items (extracted from the Air Technical "black list") of enemy war material required, for technical research will be furnished by SHAEF and USSTAF to Air Force Commanders, together with detailed instructions for the safeguarding, recording and disposal thereof. Where such material is encountered in areas occupied by British Forces, it should be reported immediately to Air Technical Intelligence, Headquarters Second TAF (Main), and where encountered in areas occupied by US Forces, to the Director of Intelligence, USSTAF, and adequate arrangements are to be made, calling for any necessary assistance from higher authority, for the safeguarding of the material.

PRESERVATION OF GAF DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS.

30. Air Force Commanders are to preserve and safeguard all GAF records, charts, plans and other documents. Detailed instructions as to further action will be issued by Air Force Commanders.

--6--

APPENDIX to
"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM NO. 10

RAF AIR DISARMAMENT ORGANISATION
(see footnote)

Organization Chart

Footnotes:

1. Until is it practicable to dispose the four Group HQ's of Second TAF in the vicinity of the four Military District HQ's within the British Zone, it may be necessary temporarily to separate Air District Disarmament Staffs from their parent Group Headquarters.

2. One or more of the Air District Disarmament Staffs will initially be under the operational command of US Army Air Forces in areas in the British Zone occupied by US Forces.

 

"(Reference: Appendix "A"
ELIPSE" Memo No 10)

INITIAL ORGANISATION, USSTAF AIR DISARMAMENT UNITS
PRIMARY PHASE, OPERATION ELIPSE"

Organization Chart

NOTE: A -- IX Air Defense Command is source for all AAA personnel shown with air disarmament units.

 

  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials MER
28 December 1944

AG 381-7 GE-AGM
SHAEF/G-5/1043
CORRECTED COPY APO 757 (Main)
28 December 1944

SUBJECT: 'ECLIPSE' Memoranda Nos. 12, 13 and 14
TO: See Distribution.

1. Reference is made to Operation 'ECLIPSE' -- Appreciation and Outline Plan, file SHAEF (44) 34 issued on 10 Nov 44.

2. Forwarded herewith for appropriate action are Memoranda Nos. 12, 13 and 14 to Operation 'ECLIPSE'.

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

/signed/
T.J. DAVIS,
Brigadier General, USA,
Adjutant General.

4 Incls:
Incl 1 -- Distribution List
Incl 2 -- 'ECLIPSE' Memo No. 12
Incl 3 -- 'ECLIPSE' Memo No. 13
Incl 4 -- 'ECLIPSE' Memo No. 14

CORRECTED COPY
DESTROY ALL OTHERS

 

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDA NOS. 12, 13 & 14
DISTRIBUTION LIST

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 1-5
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group 6-20
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group 21-40
Commander-in-Chief, 21 Army Group 41-65
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army 66-71
Commanding General, Communications Zone, European Theatre of Operations, U.S. Army 72-96
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) 97-106
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air Force 107-116
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force 117-126
Air Officer Commanding No. 38 Group, RAF 127-128
Air Officer Commanding No. 46 Group, RAF 129-130
Commander, United States Naval Forces in Europe 131-135
Commander, United States Naval Forces in France 136-140
Commanding General, Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, U.S. Army 141-142
Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in Italy) 143-152
Commanding General, United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe 153-167
Commanding General, Mediterranean Allied Air Force 168-169
The Secretary, The Admiralty 170-174
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 175-176
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office 177-196
Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D.C.(including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 197-221
General Officer, Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command 222-223
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command) 224-243
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command 244-253
Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. 254-255
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet 256-257
United States Group Control Council (Germany) 258-267
Control Commission for Germany (British Element) 268-277
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Denmark) 278-281
   
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:  
   
Supreme Commander 282
Deputy Supreme Commander 283
Chief of Staff 284
Deputy Chief of Staff 285
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 286
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) (Rear) 287-291
Chief Administrative Officer 292
Deputy Chief of Air Staff 293
Secretary General Staff 294-295
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 296-300
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 301-325
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 326-345
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 346-365
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 366-380
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2 381-382
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3 383-384
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4 385-388
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 389-391
Adjutant General 392-394
Chief, Engineer Division 395-398
Chief, Air Defence Division 399-401
Chief, Signals Division 402-410
Chief, Air Signals Division 411-412
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division 413-418
Chief, Public Relations Division 419-420
Chief, Medical Division 421
Political Officer (British) 422
Political Officer (U.S.) 423
War Diary 424-426
French Military Mission for German Affairs (through SHAEF Mission FRANCE) 427-432

 

SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
 
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials: RN
11 February 1945

AG 381-1 GE-AGM APO 757 (Main)
11 February 1945

SUBJECT: "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 12
TO: See Distribution

1. Reference is made to letter, this headquarters, AG 381-7 GE-AGM (SHAEF/G-5/1043), dated 28 December 1944, which forwarded as one inclosure, "ECLIPSE'' Memorandum No. 12.

2. There is attached a revised version of "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 12, which should be substituted for the copy inclosed with letter mentioned in paragraph 1, above. It is requested that all superseded copies of Memorandum No. 12 be destroyed.

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

/signed/
T. J. DAVIS
Brigadier General, USA
Adjutant General

2 Incls:
Incl 1 - Distribution List
Incl 2 - ''ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 12 (Revised)

 

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDANOS. 12, 13 & 14
DISTRIBUTION LIST

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 1-5
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group 6-20
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group 21-40
Commander-in-Chief, 21 Army Group 41-65
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army 66-71
Commanding General, Communications Zone, European Theatre of Operations, U.S. Army 72-96
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) 97-106
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air Force 107-116
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force 117-126
Air Officer Commanding No. 38 Group, RAF 127-128
Air Officer Commanding No. 46 Group, RAF 129-130
Commander, United States Naval Forces in Europe 131-135
Commander, United States Naval Forces in France 136-140
Commanding General, Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, U.S. Army 141-142
Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in Italy) 143-152
Commanding General, United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe 153-167
Commanding General, Mediterranean Allied Air Force 168-169
The Secretary, The Admiralty 170-174
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 175-176
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office 177-196
Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D.C. (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 197-221
General Officer, Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command 222-223
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command) 224-243
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command 244-253
Combined Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. 254-255
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet 256-257
United States Group Control Council (Germany) 258-267
Control Commission for Germany (British Element) 268-277
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Denmark) 278-281
   
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:  
   
Supreme Commander 282
Deputy Supreme Commander 283
Chief of Staff 284
Deputy Chief of Staff 285
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 286
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) (Rear) 287-291
Chief Administrative Officer 292
Deputy Chief of Air Staff 293
Secretary General Staff 294-294
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 296-300
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 301-325
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 326-345
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 346-365
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 366-380
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2 381-382
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3 383-384
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4 385-388
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 389-391
Adjutant General 392-394
Chief, Engineer Division 395-398
Chief, Air Defence Division 399-401
Chief, Signals Division 402-410
Chief, Air Signals Division 411-412
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division 413-418
Chief, Public Relations Division 419-420
Chief,. Medical Division 421
Political Officer (British) 422
Political Officer (U.S.) 423
War Diary 424-426

 

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 427-446
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army 447-452
Commanding General, Southern Line of Communications 453
The Secretary, The Admiralty 454-456
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, Supreme Headquarters, AEF) 457
General: Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command 458
Special Force Headquarters 459
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF) 460-461
Special Operations Executive 462
United States Group Control Council 463-467
Control Commission for Germany (British Element) (Air Force Division) 468-470
Allied Commission (Austria) (Air Force Division) 471
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (France) 472
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Holland) 473
Supreme Hq, AEF, Mission (Belgium) 474
Supreme Headquarters, AEF:  
G-4 Division (for Log Plans) 475-476
G-5 Division (for DPX) 477-481
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group 482-486

 

SUPREFE HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
G-5 Division

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM No. 12

DIGEST OF CIVIL AFFAIRS CONSIDERATIONS IN LIBERATED TERRITORIES

(FRANCE, BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS, LUXEMBOURG, DENMARK AND NORWAY)

EFFECT OF GERMAN SURRENDER ON LIBERATED TERRITORIES.

1. The effect of surrender upon liberated countries will not be uniform. Complete liberation of some countries has preceded surrender, and administrative machinery has been and, continues to be, evolved to meet the special requirements of individual countries. The effect of surrender, therefore will depend, in the case of each country, upon the date of that surrender, and upon the stage which has been reached in the particular country at that time.

2. It is contemplated that it will be possible to fix a date of cessation of military responsibility for liberated countries. After such date Civil Affairs responsibilities under that name cease to exist, and become the concern of national governments dealing with each other through normal governmental channels. In the case of DENMARK and NORWAY the fixing of such a date will depend upon the conditions in which liberation of these countries is achieved after surrender. In the case of FRANCE, BELGIUM, and THE NETHERLANDS the date of cessation of military responsibility will be affected by, but not necessarily depend on, German surrender. Factors that will directly influence the fixing of such dates are the existence of a stable national administration and the ability of the National Authorities to initiate and carry out an adequate import procurement program of their own. Their ability to accomplish this will depend largely upon the availability of shipping.

3. The different situations and varying development of the liberated territories make a uniform plan impossible. Certain general considerations apply, and are referred to hereunder: but the detailed development and divestment of Civil Affairs responsibility will be the subject of individual directives produced to meet the specific requirements of the various countries.

RESPONSIBILITIES DURING MILITARY PERIOD

4. In each of the Liberated Countries (except DENMARK) an agreement has been made with the Government-in-Exile (or, in the case of FRANCE, the French Provisional Government) which defines the arrangements agreed to between the respective parties relating to civil administration and jurisdiction within the liberated areas.

5. It is not intended that Military Government will be established in any liberated territory. If, however, the national authorities in any area affected by military operations are not in a position to take the action, necessitated by the military situation, then the Supreme Commander has power and authority to take such action as may be required.

6. It is the Supreme Commander's intention that the exercise of governmental and civil administrative functions and powers by the national authorities shall be as comprehensive as possible, and that all such action even in Military Zones shall, from the first, be undertaken by the indigenous authorities, in accordance, when necessary, with his requirements.

7. The Combined Chiefs of Staff have placed upon the Supreme Commander the responsibility for planning relief supplies/stores for hiatus areas, and for handing such supplies/stores over to the national authorities at ports or other approved terminals. Nevertheless situations may well arise (as for instance in Western HOLLAND) which will force the Supreme Commander to delegate responsibility for civil relief in hiatus areas to Army Group Commanders -- even though this may involve a diversion of military effort.

8. It will be, whenever possible, the responsibility of the national authorities to effect the distribution of relief supplies/stores. In the event of

--1--

their being unable to discharge this responsibility, it will be necessary for Supreme Commander to provide the minimum assistance to ensure effective distribution .

COMMAND

9. The conduct of Civil Affairs operations is a command responsibility. The command and staff channel runs from Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force to subordinate commanders, with direct communication with the Civil Affairs staffs of commanders on matters peculiar to Civil Affairs. The maximum possible use will be made of the technical channel.

10.

  1. In FRANCE, BELGIUM, and THE NETHERLANDS Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force Missions have been established. In the case of FRANCE and BELGIUM the Missions are accredited to, and work through, the Provisional Government. In the case of THE NETHERLANDS, the Mission is accredited to THE NETHERLANDS Government; but pending the incorporation of THE NETHERLANDS Military Administration in the normal Governmental machinery, the G-5 component of the Mission will continue to work with that administration.

  2. There is no Supreme Headquarters Mission to LUXEMBOURG. Civil Affairs responsibilities are undertaken by a G-5 component under command of appropriate Army Group.

  3. A SHAEF Mission (DENMARK) has been set up in LONDON. The G-5 component of this Mission will either go into DENMARK with the whole Mission in the Primary Phase, or part of it may be allotted to the Task Force Headquarters as a temporary measure.

  4. The position in regard to NORWAY is particularized in paras 23-25.

11. The G-5 Component of the Mission in each country will be responsible, through the Head of the Mission for providing supply and relief estimates for the whole of the Liberated Territory and for such other Civil Affairs tasks as may be allotted to it by Supreme Headquarters.

12. The Civil Affairs personnel of SHAEF Missions will be intergrated on US/UK basis. Other CA personnel will not normally be intergrated.

SUPPLIES

13. The policy of the Supreme Commander, which shall be implemented by the Military Commander, is that:--

  1. Full use is made of indigenous resources.

  2. To the extent permitted by the military situation, local transportation facilities will be utilized for the distribution of all resources -- indigenous and imported.

  3. Imported relief supplies/stores are restricted to those necessary to meet the minimum essential requirements of the civilian population -- to avoid widespread disease and unrest.

  4. An adequate system of accountancy is set up to cover the transfer of Civil Affairs supplies/stores to the National Authorities.

  5. Imported Civil Affairs supplies/stores are utilized for relief purposes.

14. Responsibility for supply, maintenance and evacuation rests upon the Military Commander in the area under his command. As soon as possible after the establishment of the Supreme Headquarters Mission to a particular country, the Mission will become responsible for receiving, from the National Government of that country, all estimates of requirements for the entire country. The Mission will screen and consolidate these requirements and, after co-ordinating them with the Military Commander having Civil Affairs supply responsibility within the country will transmit the screened requirements to Supreme Headquarters.

--2--

15. Supreme Headquarters, after presenting to and receiving approval of these requirements from the Combined Chiefs of Staff will allocate the supplies for calling forward in the military shipping program and for distribution when received, to the National Authorities. Allocation calling forward and distribution procedures are included in current instructions.

DENMARK

16. DENMARK possesses no government in exile, and therefore no overall agreement has been made with the national authority. Attention is being given to the preparation of draft agreements for presentation to a government when established.

17. Paras 20 and 21 of the Outline Plan envisage in effect three possible contingencies in DENMARK.

18. Under Case 'A' the Supreme Headquarters Mission, including its G-5 component, will take up its situation in DENMARK in response to the Danish Government's invitation. Under Case 'B' and Case 'C' the Military Commander may be allotted part of the G-5 component of the Mission to assist him, such personnel reverting to the Mission on its establishment or at such other time as the Supreme Commander may direct.

19. Under Case 'A', and when practicable under Case 'B', the Danish Government will be responsible for all civil government and for the distribution, transportation, and accounting for supplies/stores handed over to it at the appropriate port or ports. Supplies/stores will be called forward to the appropriate ports by Supreme Headquarters Mission (DENMARK) which will also be responsible for assisting, commenting on, and forwarding to Supreme Headquarters the demands put forward by the Danish Government.

20. Under Case 'C' the restoration of law and order will, in common with all other Civil Affairs activities, be a command responsibility and Civil Affairs operations will follow the military plans.

21. From the supply aspect, direct relief requirements will not be high. DENMARK is an asset and not a liability from the point of view of European relief as a whole. It will, therefore, be of great importance to supply, not only the minimum relief requirements in accordance with established policy, but also sufficient raw materials (in particular coal, oil, and cattle food) to enable DENMARK to resume her place as an exporting country. The disposal of Danish surpluses is subject to approval by Supreme Headquarters.

22. The following Civil Affairs organization required for DENMARK has been prepared in readiness.

  1. Case 'A' -- to be provided by Supreme Headquarters, AEF

    1. G-5 component of the Supreme Headquarters Mission (DENMARK)

    2. Two Civil Affairs Port Detachments.

  2. Case 'B' and Case 'C' -- to be provided by Supreme Headquarters, AEF

    1. Personnel detached from the G-5 component of Supreme Headquarters Mission (DENMARK)

    2. Two Civil Affairs Port Detachments.

--3--

NORWAY

23. The responsibility for Civil Affairs in NORWAY has been delegated by the Supreme Commander to Military Joint Commander NORWAY, who will be responsible for the executive control of all Civil Affairs matters within that part of NORWAY which falls within the Supreme Commander's responsibility.

24. A SHAEF Mission to NORWAY has now been established and accredited to the King of NORWAY; its Headquarters is, at present, in EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND. While Headquarters Force 134 remains in being, the Mission will be comprised of designated British and US members of Force 134 acting in a dual capacity. When the time comes for Headquarters Force 134 to be dissolved or withdrawn from NORWAY such personnel will remain as an Integrated Mission and at that time a WE/TO will be approved.

25. Civil Affairs personnel for NORWAY will be found from 2/19 Civil Affairs Unit, at present in EDINBURGH under command of Commander, Force 134. This unit includes personnel for Civil Affairs Staff of Headquarters, Force 134, who will act in the dual capacity referred to above during the continuance of Force 134, and thereafter on the dissolution of Headquarters, Force 134 will remain as the G-5 component of the Mission. Personnel for deployment in CA Detachments in NORWAY will also be found from 2/19 Unit.

--4--

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 13

DIGEST FOR MILITARY GOVERNMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR GERMANY

RESPONSIBILITY

l. The Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, is initially responsible for the establishment of Military Government in areas of GERMANY, occupied by force, under his command. At the time of the inception of Operation 'ECLIPSE' Military Government will have been established and in operation in those areas of GERMANY already occupied. Until combined command is terminated, the Supreme Commander will be fully responsible for establishing and maintaining complete Military Government of the areas of GERMANY (including all or part of Greater BERLIN) occupied by troops under his command.

2. Army Groups will be responsible for Military Government of the areas occupied by troops under their commands. Military Government Staff and Detachments will be generally of the nationality of the Army Group Commander responsible for the area. French Military Government personnel will, however, be employed in areas occupied by French troops.

3. Until the termination of the period of the Supreme Commander's responsibility, it is the responsibility of Supreme Headquarters to:

  1. Direct and coordinate the conduct of Military Government on a regional basis by Army Group Commanders in areas for which they are responsible.

  2. Direct the Military Government activities of the US and British elements of the Control Commission/Council at the ministerial level in BERLIN and coordinate the activities of these elements one with the other and with those of Army Group Commanders in their areas of responsibility. The Control Commission/Council will be the channel of communication between the Supreme Commander and German central authorities.

  3. Direct the Military Government activities within Supreme Commander's, Allied Expeditionary Force area of BERLIN.

4. Policies initiated during the period of the Supreme Commander's responsibility will have implications in the subsequent period. Therefore, such policy will be fully coordinated with agreed Control Commission/Council policy.

POWERS

5. During hostilities in GERMANY the Supreme Commander will possess supreme legislative executive and judicial rights of an occupying power, subject to the rules of International Law. Subsequent to surrender or upon the complete defeat of the German armed forces, the Supreme Commander will possess supreme authority with respect of GERMANY. The Supreme Commander's authority and power will be delegated to Array Group Commanders responsible for areas in GERMANY occupied by their Groups of Armies and may be redelegated by them, in their discretion, to subordinate Commander. Since Military Government is a command responsibility, its exercise within the general policies, directives and instructions laid down by the Supreme Commander will be a matter of the Army Group Commanders' discretion.

6.

  1. The Supreme Commander will be Military Governor of the area of GERMANY for which he is responsible. All proclamations, laws and ordinances will be stated as being issued by order of Military Government.

  2. Actions taken by Array Group and subordinate Commanders in many fields such as censorship, travel control and the requisition and procurement of labour and other resources will rely on the authority of the Supreme Commander as Military Governor. Such actions must necessarily conform to the general policies regulating the conduct of Military Government as laid down by the Supreme Commander.

--1--

  1. Initial contacts with German civilians and German civil administrative authorities by agencies and forces of Army Group and subordinate Commanders involving matters in which the Commander's powers under Military Government may be exercised should be made where possible through Military Government Detachments at the appropriate level of government.

OBJECTIVES OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT

7. The following are the primary objectives of Military Government:

  1. Enforcement of the terms of surrender.

  2. Imposition of the will of the Allies upon a defeated GERMANY.

  3. Restoration and maintenance of law and order as far as the Military situation permits.

  4. Care, control and repatriation of displaced United Nations nationals, and minimum care necessary to effect control of enemy refugees and displaced persons.

  5. Apprehension of war criminals.

  6. Elimination of Nazism -- Fascism, German militarism, the Nazi Hierarchy and their collaborators.

  7. Protection of United Nations property control of certain properties and conservation of German foreign exchange assets.

  8. Preservation and establishment of suitable civil administration to the extent required to accomplish the above objectives.

DIRECTIVES AND MILITARY GOVERNMENT HANDBOOK

8. The Supreme Commander has issued a Directive to Army Group Commanders for Military Government of GERMANY prior to defeat or surrender (Reference AG 014.l-1(Germany) GE-AGM dated 9 November 1944). This Directive may be amended or superseded in accordance with such policy as may be decided upon under 'ECLIPSE' conditions. Military Commanders will carry out their Military Government responsibilities in accordance with instructions issued by Amy Group Commanders under the above Directive or any subsequent Directive issued by the Supreme Commander.

9. A Handbook for Military Government in GERMANY prior to defeat or surrender (December 1944 Edition) has been issued for the Guidance of Military Government Officers; supplementary Technical Manuals will also be issued. Part I of this Handbook sets forth the basic policy governing the organisation and administration of Military Government in the period prior to the defeat or surrender of GERMANY. Part II has been reserved for any future modifications that may be required for the post-defeat or post-surrender period. Part III contains general and functional matters of concern to Military Government Officers in the field which should prove applicable in any period of the occupation. Military Government Officers will follow this Handbook unless otherwise directed by Army Group Commanders, and subordinate Commanders to whom Military Government authority has been delegated.

COMMAND

10. Military Government of GERMANY is a command responsibility. In the initial stages of the advance into GERMANY Military Government will be carried out on an ad hoc basis in accordance with the tactical areas of command. As the situation stabilizes, it will be possible to establish Military Districts, which will correspond in general with German administrative boundaries (Regions). The basic unit for military Government will then be the Military District, i.e., the Military District Commander will be directly responsible for the efficient working of the Military Government machine provided for the whole Region under his control. This in no way removes from the subordinate Commander the responsibility for taking direct action when the security of the forces under his command is prejudiced. Likewise, it does not preclude the Military District Commander from allotting such responsibilities to subordinate Commanders in connection with Military Government as he may see fit.

--2--

11. When a Military Government Region is split between two Military Districts the Commander in whose area the Regional capital falls will have Military Government control of the whole Region. Where a Military District encompasses the capitals of two or more Regions the Military District Commander will be responsible for all such Regions, Regional Military Government Detachments will be provided in such cases for the capitals of such Regions. Where practical, Military District Commanders will endeavour to conform the deployment of divisions and lower tactical units to the boundaries of subordinate political Regions employed in Military Government.

12. Army Group Commanders are responsible for providing lateral liaison between their areas of responsibility and between all subordinate echelons within their areas as required to maintain consistency of policy in local regulations and to facilitate administration. This will be provided in addition to the general coordination exercised by the Supreme Commander.

13. Where US forces occupy areas which will eventually form part of the British Zone, the US Commanders concerned will be fully responsible for Military Government. However, in the interests of continuity, British Military Government liaison and intelligence officers will be introduced into those areas under command of the US Commanders concerned. A similar procedure will be followed where British forces occupy areas which will eventually form part of the US Zone.

14. French forces will be responsible for Military Government within their area of occupation in accordance with the directions and policies issued by the Supreme Commander and by the appropriate Army Group, even if such areas will eventually form part of the US or British Zones. Military Government Staffs for these areas will initially be integrated on a US/FR or BR/FR basis.

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION

15.

  1. A Military Government technical channel of communication will operate between Supreme Headquarters and the Military Government Staffs and Regional Detachments and may embrace the BR/US elements of the Control Commission/Council. From the outset, such functions as Finance, Economies and Legal will utilize this channel freely for technical guidance, etc. However, command channels will be employed on all matters which affect tactical operations or concern the security of Allied troops.

  2. As military security permits and in accordance with instructions to be issued by the responsible Military Commanders, technical policy and technical instructions on other Military Government functional matters will be communicated through such technical channels direct to regional or other administrative units of Military Government. The Military District Commander, when designated, will be kept informed of all Military Government technical instructions. He will suspend execution of any such technical instructions only when, in his judgment, such suspension is required by local conditions within his district. Any such action will be reported to higher authority.

16. The German civil administrative channel will be, when possible, employed for communicating instructions from one echelon of civil administration to another. Any Communications on matters of concern to Military Government emanating from agencies of the control government in Berlin (whether or not authorized by Military Government Officers at that level) must be cleared by the subordinate agency with the Regional Military Government authorities. Action will only be taken by the subordinate German civil agency on orders from the Regional Military Government Officer.

THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT ORGANISATION

17.

  1. The Military Government resources of a Military District will consist of:

    1. Appropriate Military Government/G-5 Staffs at Corps and Divisional Headquarters.

    2. Military Government Detachments at Regional and subordinate centres of civil administration.

--3--

  1. It is contemplated that Military Government Staffs will be largely concerned with liaison duties and normal staff work incident to the chain of command; and that Military Government Detachments will be the Military District Commander's executive on all matters concerning Military Government.

  2. Existing Civil Affairs Staffs of Formations/Units detained for GERMANY, will not be disbanded but may be reduced, replaced or reinforced as required by Army Group Commanders.

  3. Personnel of Civil Affairs Staffs of Formations/Units, relieved of responsibility for the conduct of Civil Affairs or Military Government in Western Europe, may be transferred to new Formations/Units given such responsibility, or disbanded and employed to provide personnel for Military Government in GERMANY.

  4. Army Group Commanders will be responsible for the movement and phasing of this personnel into GERMANY and ultimate attachment of the cadres to the tactical units destined for the areas in which they are specialized.

  5. These cadres will be augmented as and when possible by personnel withdrawn from Civil Affairs Detachments and Formations/Units Staffs in liberated territories, up to the estimated requirements for full minimum operating Military Government control.

  6. All personnel withdrawn from Civil Affairs Detachments and Formation/Unit Staffs in liberated territories will be collected on a one nation basis at temporary depots to be set up at suitable locations in liberated territories. At these depots they will be reorganised and reallotted to appointments on Military Government Staffs or Detachments in GERMANY.

18. Military Government personnel when deployed will be administered by the nearest service unit. Personnel for local administration of Military Government Detachments will be provided by European Civil Affairs Divisions for the US Detachments, and for British Detachments will be found from the local administrative personnel in the Military Government groups allotted to the 21 Army Group.

DISARMAMENT AND DISBANDMENT OF THE GERMAN FORCES AS AFFECTING MILITARY GOVERNMENT

19. Primary disarmament of the German land, air and naval forces will be carried out in accordance with Memoranda 9, 10 and 11.

20. The plan for the Disbandment of the German Armed Forces will be issued separately.

21. Military Government is directly interested in:

  1. Disarmament because of the

    1. Effect on economics.

    2. Disposal of war material which may be utilized for Military Government purposes.

  2. Disbandment because

    1. Means must be provided to satisfy demands for trained labour required by the Military Forces or for civilian activities necessary for the attainment of the objectives of the Supreme Commander.

    2. of the need to prevent dispersal of disbanded members of the Armed Forces into areas which cannot absorb them owing to shortages of food and shelter.

22. It is therefore essential that close liaison is maintained between Military Government Officers and such Military Staffs and Units responsible for Disarmament and Disbandment.

--4--

"ECLIPSE" MEMORANDUM 14

CONTROL OF DISPLACED PERSONS

GENERAL

1. Displaced persons will be dealt with in accordance with Supreme Headquarters AEF Outline Plan for Refugees and Displaced Persons (all operations) AG 383.7-1 GE-AGM dated 3 June 1944. Administrative Memorandum No. 39 dated 18 November 1944, and subsequent instructions to be issued by this Headquarters.

2. In liberated Allied territory responsibility for the control of displaced persons is as. follows

  1. In Interior Zones Allied governments are wholly responsible. Supreme Headquarters AEF Missions will advise and, when necessary, secure assistance of military commanders.

  2. In Forward areas military commanders are responsible. If military conditions permit, they may delegate partial responsibility to Allied local authorities. They will however in all cases retain overall responsibility, and will ensure that the necessary accommodation and supplies are made available to the local authorities concerned.

  3. Military commanders will discharge their responsibility in liberated territories through the medium of Civil Affairs staffs and detachments.

3. In Germany, the liberation, care and repatriation of United Nations displaced persons is a major Allied objective. All available resources at the disposal of military commanders will be employed to accomplish it, as a direct military responsibility.

OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE

4. Military personnel allotted to displaced persons work will accompany forward units advancing into Germany, and will be deployed at key points wherever large concentrations of displaced persons are encountered.

5. Canalization of Movement

  1. Displaced persons who have to bo removed from areas where fighting is still in progress will be assembled at Collecting Points and directed back to Transit Point/Areas where they will be given food, temporary shelter and first aid, before evacuation to Assembly Centres in rear areas. They will not be moved back across international frontiers to countries other than their country of origin unless operational necessity makes such movement imperative.

  2. United Nations displaced persons who are uncovered in areas of Germany where organized resistance has ceased, will be located, collected into Assembly Centres as necessary, and cared for as a direct military responsibility, until they can be repatriated.

  3. The repatriation of United Nations displaced persons will be coordinated by Supreme Headquarters AEF, in accordance with arrangements worked out between Supreme Commander AEF and Allied governments concerned, with the least possible delay. Military commanders will arrange for their transport to Reception Centres in their countries of origin. Thereafter their own governments will assume full responsibility for them.

6. Standfast

It is obviously imperative that displaced persons outside areas

--1--

where fighting is still in progress be instructed by every available means, including proclamations, broadcasts and leaflets, to standfast. Displaced persons who attempt self-repatriation, particularly those in the interior of Germany, may expose themselves to grave danger before they reach the frontiers. At the same time, Allied governments might be faced with the problem of providing for masses of destitute and desperate people before they were in a position to set up any organized machinery for dealing with them.

7. Border Control

  1. In Germany. All movement into and out of Germany will be strictly controlled by the Allied military authorities. Allied occupational troops will be used as frontier guards, and frontier control posts to deal with authorized traffic will be set up and manned by Counter-Intelligence personnel. Displaced persons who arrive at frontiers without proper documentation will, after they have been examined by Counter-Intelligence personnel, be directed to the nearest Assembly Centre.

  2. In Allied Countries.

    1. The governments of France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands are establishing Border Control Stations near the German frontier, to pick up displaced persons attempting self-repatriation.

    2. These governments are also establishing Reception Centres near the German frontier to receive their nationals repatriated by Allied military authorities.

    3. Repatriation will be effected in conformity with the registration procedures laid down in Supreme Headquarters AEF AG Memorandum 39, Displaced Persons and Refugees in Germany (18 November).

    4. Supreme Headquarters AEF Missions concerned will screen requests for assistance from Allied governments and will make necessary arrangements to secure such Allied military personnel and supplies as may be required for border control purposes.

    5. When operating in military zones such Allied military personnel will be controlled by the military commander of the zone. When operating in Interior Zones, it will be controlled by the Supreme Headquarters AEF Mission concerned.

8. Enemy, ex-enemy and co-belligerent displaced persons.

The procedures indicated in paras 5-7 above will be employed for enemy, ex-enemy and co-belligerent displaced persons, except that:--

  1. In Germany these persons, will be a responsibility of the German authorities, under the supervision of military government personnel.

  2. They will in no case be accommodated in the same Assembly Centres as United Nations displaced persons.

  3. They will be repatriated when it is in the interests of the military or Allied authorities, and convenient to the Allied military authorities in their country of origin.

  4. Stateless persons, and persons persecuted because of their race, religion or activities in favour of the United Nations, including persons of German origin, will be treated as United Nations displaced persons, provided that their loyalty to the Allies has been determined.

9. Maintenance and Supply.

Every effort will be made to provide for the care and well-being

--2--

of United Nations displaced persons awaiting repatriation. In Germany, German authorities will be required, as directed by military commanders, to provide supplies, services and facilities for United Nations national as a matter of priority over the needs of the German population. Imported military Government supplies will be called forward when local resources are not available.

ESTIMATE OF SITUATION

10. There are now estimated to be 3,685,000 displaced persons in the area which will be under Supreme Headquarters, AEF control in Germany, 3,405,000 in the area under Russian control and 995,000 in Austria. The care of these people and their ultimate disposition is an international problem of the first magnitude, affecting in varying degrees the governments of 19 different countries.

11. Concentrations of displaced persons likely to be uncovered in each of the Regierungsbezirke in the Supreme Commander AEF zones in Germany are as follows:--

PROVINZ REIGERUNGSBEZIRKE DISPLACED PERSONS
POPULATION
(a)
BADEN Freiburg 10,000
  Konstanz 34,000
  Karlsruche 17,000
  Mannheim 19,000
  Sub-Total 80,000
     
BAVARIA Oberbayern 250,000
  Schwaben 35,000
  Niederbayer und Oberpfalz 23,000
  Oberfranken und Nittelfranken 233,000
  Mainfranken 41,000
  Sub-Total 582,000
     
HANNOVER Hannover 210,000
  Hildesheim 90,000
  Braunschweig 210,000
  Luneberg 146,000
  Stade 135,000
  Bremen 60,000
  Aurich 50,000
  Oldenburg 33,000
  Osnabruch 80,000
  Sub-Total 1,014,000
     
HESSEN Kassel 4,000
  Wiesbaden 308,500
  Darmstadt 4,000 (b)
  Sub-Total 316,500
     
RHEINPROVINZ Dusseldorf 382,000
  Aachen 56,000
  Koln 117,000
  Koblenz 31,000
  Trier 31,000
  Sub-Total 617,000
     
SCHLESWIG Hamburg 93,000
  Kiel 72,000
  Sub-Total 165,000
     
WESTFALLEN Munster 45,000
  Arnsberg 312,000
  Lippe 20,000
  Minden 33,000
  Sub-Total 410,000

--3--

PROVINZ REIGERUNGSBEZIRKE DISPLACED PERSONS
POPULATION
(a)
WESTMARK   255,000
     
WURTEMBURG   245,000
     
  GRAND TOTAL 3,685,000

  1. These figures include Italian displaced persons. They do not, however, include other enemy or ex-enemy displaced persons.

  2. Area east of Rhine only.

  3. Includes approximately 35,000 estimated to be in area of Darmstadt west of Rhine.

12. 40% of these displaced persons are of western origin and can therefore be repatriated at a comparatively early date, whereas the remaining 60% are of eastern or southern origin and are likely to be a long term military commitment. From 15 to 20% of these displaced persons are women. There are upwards of 150,000 children.

UNRRA

13.

  1. The Supreme Commander AEF-UNRRA Agreement signed on 25 November 1944 provides that UNRRA shall participate to the fullest extent practicable in dealing with this problem during the military period in order to facilitate a smooth transfer of full responsibility to that agency as soon as military conditions permit. UNRRA staff and field personnel will therefore be employed by military commanders at all levels.

  2. For operations in Germany UNRRA will as the agent of Supreme Commander AEF:--

    1. Co-ordinate the activities of ail foreign voluntary societies.

    2. Employ as part of UNRRA Allied administrative personnel made available by Allied governments for work in connection with displaced persons.

ALLIED LIAISON OFFICERS FOR REPATRIATION

14. The displaced persons problem will be dealt with on an international basis.

  1. The Supreme Commander AEF has arranged with the Allied governments concerned to provide Liaison Officers for Repatriation for operations in forward areas in Allied countries, where the administration of Assembly Centres for United Nations displaced persons is a direct responsibility, and in Germany. These officers are being accredited to Supreme Commander AEF.

  2. In addition, Allied governments have arranged to interchange such liaison officers, and to employ them both in Zones of the Interior and in forward areas, wherever the Allied authorities are responsible for the administration of Assembly Centres. These officers are being accredited to the Allied governments concerned. However, Liaison Officers for Repatriation accredited to Allied governments will not carry out their functions in forward areas without the prior consent of military commanders concerned.

--4--

  1. The function of Allied Liaison Officers for Repatriation will be to assist military commanders or Allied local authorities in the care and control of their nationals, and in particular to help their nationals in matters concerning repatriation. No displaced person will be repatriated unless his repatriation visa has been stamped by an accredited liaison officer of his own nationality. On their side, the Allied governments have agreed that they will accept all displaced persons who can establish a bona fide claim to be their nationals.

STATELESS PERSONS

15. There will be a residue of displaced persons who do not wish to return to their own countries, or who are stateless. Provided that these persons do not fall within the category of war criminals, they will not be forcibly repatriated. Their ultimate care and disposition will be the responsibility of the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees.

--5--

  SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Auth: SC, AEF
Initials RN
15 February 1945

AG 381-1 PRD-AGM APO 757 (Main)
15 February 1945

SUBJECT: "ECLIPSE" Memorandum No. 16
TO: See Distribution

1. Reference is made to Operation "ECLIPSE" Appreciation and Outline Plan, file SHAEF (44) 34, dated 10 November 1944.

2. Forwarded herewith is Memorandum No. 16, "Public Relations Considerations and Plan" to Operation "ECLIPSE".

By direction of the Supreme Commander:

/signed/
T.J. DAVIS
Brigadier General, USA
Adjutant General

Incl: As stated

DISTRIBUTION:
(See pages 2 & 3)

--1--

APFEHDIX to
SHAEF (44) 34
10 November 1944
 
 
Supreme Headquarters
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
Public Relations Division
 
 
 
Copy Number___________

PRD 387-20

ECLIPSE MEMORANDUM NO. 16

PUBLIC RELATIONS CONSIDERATIONS AND PLAN

1. OBJECT

Complete, equitable and expeditious news, pictorial, and broadcast coverage of Operation ECLIPSE.

2. ANNEXES

Annexes to this plan in course of preparation will give the details for the Public Relations coverage of the various phases of the operation.

3. PROCEDURES

Operation ECLIPSE is a military continuation of operation OVERLORD; therefore there will be no change in general procedures as outlined for operation OVERLORD except where specifically detailed.

4. DETAILED BLOCK ALLOTMENTS

The existing principle as regards block numbers and the allocation of individuals into vacancies will continue to operate on the basis already adopted under Public Relations plan OVERLORD, with such variations as circumstances may require.

5. ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS DIVISION

The mounting of the operation and the setting up of a forward Public Relations party in Berlin will involve major changes in the present organization of the Public Relations Division, and the following arrangements will, therefore, be made:--

  1. As soon as Supreme Headquarters, AEF (Main) moves forward and it is possible to provide adequate Press and Radio communication facilities at the new location, Public Relations Division will move to Supreme Headquarters, AEF (Main). From that time all Public Relations Division activities in Paris with the exception of a small Rear echelon will be terminated.

  2. Public Relations Division will then be distributed as follows:

      PRD Main -- At SHAEF Main: PRD Main will be responsible for Direction and Policy and will service Correspondents at SHAEF Main.
      PRD London   -- Will be responsible for the carrying out of all PRD functions and of censorship liaison with the Ministry of Information and other appropriate bodies.
      PRD Rear
      Paris
      -- Will be primarily responsible for the movement of US Paris Correspondents entering the Communications Zone on the Continent, for advising the French Censorship in Paris and for insuring that correspondents' copy emanating from the front is handed over to the commercial transmission agencies in Paris.

--1--

6. FUTURE ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY

The responsibility for Public Relations matters will be assumed by the Allied Control Authority in Germany after the termination of the combined command. Each national component of the Authority will include Public Relations representatives on its staff.

In order to ensure smooth transfer of public Relations functions to the Allied Control Authorities in Germany close coordination will be maintained between the U.S. and British components of Public Relations Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF, and the U.S. Group Control Council and Control Commission for Germany (British Element) respectively.

7. COMMUNIQUES, PRESS CENSORSHIP AND COPY PROCEDURE

The detailed procedure for the preparation of communiques, for press censorship, and for copy procedure will be contained in the various Annexes to this plan.

8. COMMUNICATIONS

Within the AEF sphere of responsibility, it will be the responsibility of the Supreme Commander through his Chief Signal Officer, in collaboration with the Chief, Public Relations Division, to arrange and exercise general control of all communications which may be available for the Press. Press communications plans for the various phases of the operation will be prepared to meet as far as possible the requirements of the press as presented by the Public Relations Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF. A special Air Courier Plight of long range fighter aircraft will be provided as necessary. Naval Dispatch Boat Service will also be available from certain British and U.S. controlled ports. In all causes, the meeting of requirements for the Press will be subject to operational requirements.

9. USE OF PWD COMMUNICATIONS IN GERMANY

Psychological Warfare Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF, will assist the Public Relations Division in the radio transmission of press copy over any facilities which the Psychological Warfare Division may have under its control in Germany provided however, that this does not interfere with the mission of the Psychological Warfare Division as set forth in ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 15.

--2--

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 16
DISTRIBUTION LIST

  Copy Nos.
Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force 1-5 427-446
Commanding General, Sixth Army Group 6-20 493-498
Commanding General, Twelfth Army Group 21-40 482-484
Commander-in-Chief, 21st Army Group 41-65
Commanding General, First Allied Airborne Army 66-71
Commanding General, Communications Zone, ETO 72-96
Commanding General, First Tactical Air Force (Provisional) 97-106
Air Officer Commanding, Second Tactical Air Force 107-116
Commanding General, Ninth Air Force 117-126
Air Officer Commanding No. 38 Group, RAF 127-128
Air Officer Commanding. No. 46 Group, RAF 129-130
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in EUROPE 131-135
Commander UNITED STATES Naval Forces in FRANCE 136-140
Commanding General ETOUSA 141-142
Supreme Allied Commander MEDITERRANEAN (including copies for Commander-in-Chief, Allied Armies in ITALY) 143-152
Commanding General, UNITED STATES Strategic Air Forces 153-167
Commanding General, MEDITERRANEAN Allied Air Force 168-169
The Secretary, The Admiralty 170-174 454-456
Chief of Navy Operations, Navy Department, WASHINGTON DC 175-176
The Under Secretary of State, The War Office 177-196
Adjutant General, War Department, WASHINGTON, DC (including copies for OPD and Civil Affairs Division) 197-221
General Officer, Commanding-in-Chief, Scottish Command 222-223 458
The Under Secretary of State, The Air Ministry, (including copies for Air Officers Commanding-in-Chief Bomber Command, Coastal Command and Transport Command) 224-243
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Fighter Command 244-253
Combined Chiefs of Staff, WASHINGTON, DC 254-255
Secretary, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Offices of the War Cabinet 256-257
UNITED STATES Group Control Council (GERMANY) 258-267 463-467
Control Commission for GERMANY (British Element) 268-277 468-470
SHAEF Mission to DENMARK 278-281
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force:--  
Supreme Commander 282
Deputy Supreme Commander 283
Chief of Staff 284
Deputy Chief of Staff 285
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) 286
Deputy Chief of Staff (Air) (Rear) 287-291
Chief Administrative Officer 292
Deputy Chief Air Staff 293
Secretary General Staff 294-295
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1 296-300
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 301-325
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 326-345
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4 346-365 475-476
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 366-380 477-481
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2 381-382
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-3 383-384
Assistant Chief of Staff, A-4 385-388
Allied Naval Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 389-391
Adjutant General 392-394
Chief, Engineer Division 395-398
Chief, Air Defense Division 399-401
Chief, Signal Division 402-410
Chief, Air Signal Division 411-412
Chief, Psychological Warfare Division 413-418
Chief, Public Relations Division 419-420
Chief, Medical Division 421
Political Officer, British 422
Political Officer, US 423
War Diary 424-426

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  Copy Nos.
French Military Mission for GERMAN Affairs (through SHAEF Mission FRANCE) 487-492
Commanding General, Fifteenth Army 447-452
Commanding General, Southern Line of Communications 453
Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Bomber Command (Advance) (c/o Air Staff, Supreme Headquarters, AEF) 457
Special Force Headquarters 459
OSS (c/o G-3 Division, Supreme Headquarters, AEF) 460-461
Special Operations Executive 462
Allied Commission (AUSTRIA) (Air Force Division) 471
SHAEF Mission (FRANCE) 472
SHAEF Mission (HOLLAND) 473
SHAEF Mission (BELGIUM) 474
Public Relations Division (Spares) 499-548

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SUPREME HEADQUARTERS
ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

'ECLIPSE' MEMORANDUM NO. 18.

WAR CRIMINALS AND SECURITY SUSPECTS

GENERAL

1. This Memorandum is in amplification of this Headquarters letter, 000.5-2 GE AGM dated 14 Dec 44 which lays down the procedure for the investigation of war crimes during the period of active operations. It covers, in addition, the period between the cessation of hostilities and the assumption of authority by the Allied Control Staffs in GERMANY which, for the purpose of this directive, is described as the Static Period.

2. Army Group/National Zone Commanders are responsible for the identification, apprehension and detention of all persons within their Zones of responsibility who fall into one or other of the following categories:--

  1. War Criminals

    Perpetrators of atrocious acts against civilians of allied and liberated countries and against members of the Armed Forces of the Allies who are not included in (b) below.

  2. Security Suspects

    1. Persons whose names appear on the Supreme Headquarters personality cards and certain members of Nazi organisations (see Appendix 'B' of Counter-intelligence Directive Pre-Surrender period GERMANY, dated 16 September 44, reference AG 350.09 GBI-AGM).

    2. Other persons subsequently detained as Security Suspects.

Responsibility with regard to the trial of such persons is as set out in paras 16 - 17 below.

3. Army Group/National Zone Commanders have been provided by G-2 Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, with the names and/or official positions of persons in category (b) (i), and in so far as the information is available, G-1 will provide the names of those in category (a). If names are not available, as accurate a description as possible will be furnished.

IDENTIFICATION AND APPREHENSION

4. In both the period of active operations and in the static period, a Detention Report will be prepared, in triplicate, by the Officers Commanding, Prisoner of War, Detention or Concentration Camps, for each person apprehended or taken prisoner of war who falls within the above categories. It is essential that these reports should contain sufficient evidence, including finger prints and photograph to establish identity. Copies will be distributed as follows:-

5. A Central Registry of all such persons will be maintained by G-1 Division, Supreme-Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force. At the termination of the Supreme Commander's period of responsibility, the Registry will be handed over to the appropriate Allied Control Staffs in GERMANY. The Records so maintained will be available for the information of all concerned.

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Detention Reports and other forms (see Appendices 'A', 'B' and 'C') will be printed hy this Headquarters and distributed to all interested parties, together with detailed instructions.

A number of persons falling within the categories enumerated in para 2(a) and (b) above are already held as Prisoners of War on the Continent or have been evacuated to the UK, USA or CANADA. A request has been submitted to the War Department and the War Office to prepare and forward to SHAEF, detention report on all such persons in their hands.

While it is desirable from the aspect of war crime investigation that as few persons as possible falling within the above categories shall, in future, be evacuated from the Continent, it is appreciated that during the operational period, the evacuation of some of the more dangerous elements amongst Prisoners of War materially reduces the risk of escapes and must, therefore, be accepted.

Officers Commanding Prisoner of War Camps and Civilian Annexes, will, however, be instructed to proceed immediately on receipt of the necessary forms, with the compilation of detention reports, in respect of all persons falling within the prescribed categories whom it is intended to retain in camps on the Continent. Copies of such reports will be distributed as in para 4 above. Arrangements will be made, where possible, for these persons to be segregated in separate camps or annexes to existing camps; they will not be included among those Prisoners of War who may be handed over to FRENCH or other allied ownership at a later date.

In cases where such persons are evacuated after a detention report has been completed, the date and place to which they are evacuated will be notified to G-1 Division, SHAEF, on the form at Appendix 'B', and a copy of the detention report normally retained by the Commandant of the Camp will accompany the prisoner and be handed over to the authorities to whose care he is transferred. Similarly, transfers between Camps on-the Continent will also be notified to G-1 Division, SHAEF, on the form attached at Appendix 'C' and the detention report will accompany the prisoner to the new camp.

DETENTION

7. During the Period of Active Operations.

All persons detained will be treated either as Prisoners of War, if entitled to such status, or as civilian detainees, to whom should be granted the protection and privileges afforded by the Geneva Convention to Prisoners of War.

8. In the Static Period.

  1. All persons falling within the categories mentioned in para 2(a) and (b) will be concentrated in Camps separate from other Prisoners of War, and a further segregation will be made of those specifically charged with criminal acts.

  2. All such persons will be kept under strict military discipline and will perform all the work necessary to maintain their camps.

  3. Those who are located in detention or concentration camps in GERMANY will, as far as possible, be maintained from GERMAN resources. If this should prove impracticable. Rations will be issued on a scale not exceeding 2,000 calories per man per day.

INVESTIGATION

9. The principle has been accepted that each country must be responsible for the final investigation of the war crimes alleged to have been committed against its own nationals.

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10. During the Operational Phase.

War Crimes committed against BRITISH and US troops or civilians arc the subject of final investigation by the G-1 Supreme Headquarters Court of Inquiry, on information forwarded by Army Croups or other agencies.

Particulars of war crimes committed against other allied civilians or members of the resistance movements which come to the notice of Commanders will be forwarded to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force for transmission to the Allied Authorities concerned who will carry out the final investigation.

Particulars in connection with war crimes committed against other Allied military personnel serving with BRITISH or US Forces will be forwarded to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, who will decide whether the case shall be turned over to the national authority concerned for final investigation, or handled by the G-1 Court of Inquiry.

11. During the Static Period.

Army Group/National Zone Commanders will be responsible for both the preliminary and final investigation of crimes alleged to have been committed against their nationals either in the course of operations, or in Prisoner of War or Internment Camps, which come to light after the cessation of hostilities.

It is desirable that such investigations shall be carried out under the direction of legal advisors. In order that the case may be presented to the appropriate National Authority in as complete a form as possible, thus obviating the possibility of a request for further evidence, which would involve considerable delay. Completed cases will be forwarded to the War Department or War Office, as applicable.

Such arrangements as may be required to facilitate investigations in each other's zones will be mutually agreed between National Zone Commanders,

12. Investigation of those crimes which have been committed against BRITISH and US personnel in liberated countries and which have been or will be, the subject of enquiry by G-1 Supreme Headquarters Court of Inquiry, will be completed by them, as also will any cases which occurred in GERMANY during the operational phase and which have already been referred to them.

13. Responsibility for the final investigation of War Crimes against other Allied nationals, both military and civilian, will rest with the national authorities concerned. For this purpose, representatives of Allied countries will be attached to National Zone HQ, and will be given every possible assistance in their investigations. Completed cases will be forwarded by the Investigating Agency to the National Government concerned.

14. Any information bearing upon war crimes which may come to light from CI interrogation, FSP and public Safety activities or from any other source will be passed through normal channels to National Zone HQ for information of investigating Teams, with a copy to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, for incorporation in the Central Records.

15. It is anticipated that many investigations will take place at or near the scene of the alleged crime and that applications will be received from time to time for the temporary release under escort of the accused and/or witnesses concerned. Such applications may be authorised by National Zone Commanders for movement within their Zones. Similar authority may be delegated to Military District Commanders within their respective areas. All applications involving inter-Zone movement or movement into liberated territory will be referred to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, who will issue the necessary orders.

Applications will also be received from National Authorities for

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the handing over of detainees for trial. All such applications will be referred to G-1 Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force.

TRIALS.

16. Pending further instructions, only those war criminals will be tried who are accused of such violations of the laws and customs of war as threatened the security, or impaired the efficiency of the forces under the command of Army Group/National Zone Commanders.

17. Trial of the persons permitted to be tried in accordance with para l6 above, will be as follows:--

  1. In Liberated Countries

    1. Civilians, unless Supreme Headquarters orders otherwise, will be handed over for trial to the national authorities of the country, on whose soil the crime was committed, in accordance with the agreements made with such countries and existing SHAEF directives.

    2. The trial of military personnel will be by US Military Commission, to which the provisions of ETOUSA letter, AG 334 Op GA dated 19 Nov 44, as amended, apply, by BRITISH Military Tribunal or by the appropriate FRENCH Court, as applicable.

  2. In GERMANY

    Both civilians and military personnel may be tried by Military Commissions/Tribunals or Military Government Courts, provided that when the crime is committed in territory in which Military Government has, at the time, been established, trial will normally be by Military Government Court.

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DETENTION REPORT

Detention Report Form

 

Detention Report Form--continued

 

APPENDIX 'B'

___________________________________________________________________________ at present detained at

______________________________________________________________________________. Camp has been evacuated to

_____________________________________________________________________(country) with effect from

__________________________________________________ (date).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPENDIX 'C'

____________________________________________________________ at present detained at

________________________________________________________ Camp, has been transferred

to_________________________________________________________________________________Camp

with effect from________________________ (date).

 

Map MA to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7
Map MA to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7

 

Map MA to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7
Map MA to ECLIPSE Memorandum No. 7
Civil Censorship Districts



Transcribed and formatted by Szymon Dabrowski for the HyperWar Foundation