Blockade-Running Between Europe and the Far East by Submarines, 1942-44
1 December 1944
Blockade-Running Between Europe and the Far East by Submarines, 1942-44
1. Blockade-running by submarines
a. Blockade-running between German europe and the Far East, which began in 1941, at first was carried on exclusively by erchgat vessels operated by the Germans. The venture enjoyed considerable initial success, but in the 1942-43 season (September 1942-March 1943) the losses to the blockade-running fleet were so severe that by January of this year the Germans decided to discontinue the use of surface vessels. A summary of the record of the surface blockade-runners is annexed as TAB A.
b. So far as is known, the first submariune to run the blockade made the voyage in the middle of 1942. However, it was not until well into 1943 that the Axis attempted to use submarines regularly as blockade-running. In the spring of 1943 the German Navy converted seven large Italian submarines to cargo=carriers for the purpose of running the blockade. In addition to the converted Italian craft, at least three Japanese and a considerable number of German operational submarines have been used to carry cargo and passengers to and from the Far East.
c. It is believed that up to November of thia yearm 35 submarines departed from Europe for the Far
East (see TAB B). During the same period at least 11 submarines are believed to have left Far Eastern ports for Europe (see TAB C). A summary of the record of blockade-running by submarine in both directions is as follows:
Voyages Losses Successful En route
11 Nov 44
Far East to Europe 1 0 1 Europe to Far East 1 1 0 2 1 1 1943 Far East to Europe 5 1 4 Europe to Far East 16 * 3 13 21 4 17 1944
(To 11 Nov)
Far East to Europe 5 2 1 2 Europe to Far East 18 10 †7 1 23 12 8 3
d. To date, the submarines employed as bkockade-runners have ranged from German operational craft of 740 tons to cargo-carriers of approximately 2,200 tons. The cargoes have varied in size from approximately 80 tons to a maximum of about 300 tons. The total volume of goods carried in both directions in 26 successfrul voyages has been less than
*Includes the Italian Cagni which surrendered at Durban in September 1943.
†Includes the I-29, which arrived safely in July at Singapore, where her passengers disembarked, but was later sunk with the loss of her cargo while en route to Japan.
the cargo which could be carried on one of the surface blockade-runners formerly used.
e. Although the sailings of surface blockade-runners occurred principally in the autumn and winter months, so as to enable the vessels to negotiate the Bay of Biscay area when short days and weather conditions hamper observation, submarines are used at all seasons of the year. Surface blockade-runners used French ports exclusively; although most of the blockade-ruinning submarines have departred from, or arrived at, Biscay portrs, at least seen of them have used German and Norwegian ports.
f. Submarine voyages between Europe and the Far East require a minimum of from two to three months. Frequently, however, more time is consumed, since certain of the German submarines, carrying small cargoes, engaged in operations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans while en route.*
g. At least 10 German submariunes are believed to be east of Capetown (as of 11 Nov 44), either engaged in operations or making preprations for the return trip. A list of those German submarines follows:
*Some of the German submarines have also engaged in operations in the Far East between vouages.
2. Cargoes from Europe to the Far East:
a. After the Germans suspended blockade-running by surface vessels in January 1944, the Japanese decided to sell, lease or otherwise return to the Germans and Italians such items as rolling mill equipment, presses, machine tools, prototypes of large guns, samples of aircraft, etc., which they wanted but which could not be shipped by submarine. The principal goods retained for shipment for the Far East included the folling:
German radar units and other electronic equipment
Machine gun ammunition
Prototypes of communications equipment
High grade aluminum
Special alloy steel for aircraft motors
Chemicals and drugs
Plans and drawings for weapons, aircraft, etc.
b. TAB D lists the items known to have been shipped by submarine from Europe to the Far East in the period 1942-44. Other goods wanted by the Japanese, but known to have been destroyed at Lorient by the Germans last summer because of the speed of the Allied advance, are lsited in TAB E. TAB F contains a list of products not known to have been shipped, but believed to have been available somewhere in Europe for shipment to the Far East before the last known departure.
c. In addition to the cargoes carried to the Far East, a number of German and Japanese engineers, technical experts and diplomatic officials have traveled on blockade-running submarines as passengers. The names of such passengers are listed in TAB G.
3. Cargoes from the Far East to Europe:
a. As indicated above, so far as is known there have been but six successful voyages of blockade-running submarines from the Far East in the period from 1942 to November 1944. Little information is available concerning
the cargoes those vessels actually carried. However, it is known that from the inauguration of Axis blockade-running in 1941, the Germans have made great efforts to get such Far Eastern products as rubber, tungsten, tin, molybdenum, quinine and opium, and that the cargoes carried by submarines have actually included those items.During the past year the Germans have been particularly anxious to get tungsten, molybdenum and tin, and have used operational submarines returning to Europe to carry those commodities. Since the Germans need large quantities of the products they have tried to get from the Far East, the small amounts of such products that they could have received by submarines have probably been of little assistance to them. Further information about items transported from the Far East is to be found in TAB H.
b. The Japanese have taken advantage of submarine transportation to send personnel to Europe, principally (i) diplomatic offices and (ii) technicians to study the latest German developments in scientific fields. TAB I gives a list of persons known to have been carried as passengers on submarines from the Far East.
Blockade-running by merchant ships between German Europe and the Far East 1941-44
1941-42 Season (July 1941-Mar 1942) Direction
Successful Far East to Europe 14 2 12 Europe to Far East 5 0 5 19 2 17 1942-43 Season (Sept 1941-Mar 1943) Far East to Europe 11 7 0 4 Europe to Far East 17 4 3 10* 28 11 3 14 1943-44 Season (Sept or Oct 1943-Jan 1944) Far East to Europe 5 4 1† Europe to Far East 0 0 0 5 4 1
*One o the vessels which reached the Far East, a tanker, was destroyed by explosion after its arrival.
†This vessel was damaged by a mine near the Gironde estuary and part of its cargo was destroyed.
Departures of Submarines from European Ports for the Far East, 1942-44
Vessel Left Europe Remarks 1942 1. I-30 Aug/Sept, Bay of Biscay Sunk Singapore, mid-Oct. 1943 2. U-180 9 Feb, Kiel Rendezvoused with Japanese submarine in Indian Ocean in Apr. 3. U-178 28 Mar Arrived Sabang or Panang Aug. 4. U-511
Apr/May, Lorient Arrive Penang July/Aug. 5. Tazzoli May, Bordeaux Sunk in Bay of Biscay. 6. Guiliani
May, Bordeaux Arrived Sabang late July, Singapore, Aug. 7. Cappelini
May, Bordeaux Arrived Sabang 9 July, Singapore, Aug or Sept. 8. Torelli
June Arrived Sabang Aug, Singapore, late Aug. 9. Barbarigo 16 June Sunk en route 10. Cagni 30 June Surrendered, Durban 20 Sept. 11. U-188 June/July Arrived Penang late Oct. 12. U-532 June/July Arrived Penang late Oct.
Vessel Left Europe Remarks 13. U-183 June/July Arrived Penang late Oct. 14. U-168 June/July Arrived Penang 10 Nov, sunk in Java Sea, 6 Oct 44. 15. I-8 6 Oct Arrived Penang early Dec. 16. U-510 3 Nov, Lorient Arrived Penang 5 Apr after operations in Indian Ocean. 17. U-1052 Dec, Kiel Arrived Penang 18/19 Apr. 1944 18. Attilio Bagnolini
24 Jan Sunk 11 Mar. 19. U-843 Feb, from a French port Arrived Batavia before 13 June after operations in Indian Ocean. 20. U-537 Early Msr, from a French port Arrived Batavia 2 Aug after operations in Indian Ocean. 21. U-181 10-15 Mr, from a French port Arrived Penang 8 Aug after operations in Indian Ocean. 22. U-196 10-15 Mar, from a French port Arrived Penang 10 Aug after operations in Indian Ocean. 23. U-1224
30 Mar, Kiel Presumed sunk some time after 11 May.
Vessel Left Europe Remarks 24. U-859 7-10 Apr, from a Norwegian port Sunk 23 Sept off Penange before unloading her cargo, after operations in Indian Ocean. 25. U-860 About 15 Apr Sunk en route. 26. I-29 16 Apr, Lorient Arrived Singapore 14 July, sunk 26 July en route to Japan. 27. U-198 20 Apr, from a French port Believed sunk after operations in Indian Ocean. 28. U-861 23-26 Apr, from a Norwegian port Arrived Penange Sept after operations. 29. U-490 About 7 May Sunk en route. 30. U-862 1 June, from a Norwegian port Arrived Penange about 9 Sept. 31. U-863 Loaded Kiel July, left 1 Aug from Norway Sun en route. 32. U-180 22 Aug, Burdeaux Believed sunk en route. 33. U-195 22 Aug, Bordeaux En route. 34. U-219 24 Aug, Bordeaux Believed sunk en route. 35. U-871 Late Aug Possibly sunk.
Departures of Submarines from Far Eastern Ports for Europe, 1942-44
Vessel Left Far East Remarks 1942 1. I-30 May/June Arrived Europe Aug. 1943 2. U-180 Apr from Indian Ocean, after rendezvous with Japanese submarine Arrived Bordeaux July 1943. 3. I-8 27 June, Penang Arrived Brest late Aug or early Sept. 4. U-178 Nov/Dec, Penang Arrived Bordeaux 24-25 May 44. 5. "Momi"* Nov Sunk near Penang 13 Nov. 6. I-29 15 Dec, Penang Arrived Lorient 11 Mar 44. 1944 7. U-188 Jan, Penang Blown up at Bordeaux 28 Aug. 8. UIT-23
Feb, Penang Sunk 15 Feb near Penang. 9. I-52 Apr, Singapore Believed sunk in June, 800 m. W of Cape Verde.
*The was the first vessel referred to as the "Momi". After it was lost, the name "Momi" was assigned to the I-52.
Vessel Left Far East Remarks 10. U-1062 16 July, Penang Now en route or sunk. 11. U-181 Oct/Nov En route.
Products known to have been shipped on submarines from Europe to the Far East, 42-44
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk 1. Metals and minerals: Lead 325 tons* 129.96 tons Aluminum, high grade 26.5 tons plus 3,740 boxes Platinum 12,398.94 grams 12,396.94 grams Mercury 106.34 tons 95.34 tons Industrial diamonds 1,117.76 carats plus an unknown amount 1,117.76 carats 2. Steel products: Special alloy, steel for aircraft motors 471 boxes plus 121.8 tons 121.8 tons Steel balls About 3,700,000 About 3,700,000 Ball bearings 5 boxes plus 308 packages 308n packages 3. Glass: Optical glass 72 kgs. plus 4 tons plus an unknown amount 72 kgs. plus an unknown amount "Neophane glass," 50 and 75 per cent Unknown amount Unknown amount 4. Electronic equipment: Wuerzburg Fuse 62 [ground radar] 8 sets 4 sets AEG Company's welder 1 set 1 set Vacuum tubes Unknown amount 10 tubes Parts Unknown number Wuerzburg blueprints: type 1 4 rolls plus an unnown number of rolls 4 rolls
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk Hohentwiel Anlage [airborne anti-surface vessel radar, Fug 200] with converter and antenna 1 set 1 set FUMO-61 [submarine-borne radar] 1 set 1 set FUMG Seetakt [coastal radar] with converter and drawings 1 set 1 set Wanz Anlage [radar warning device] 3 sets 3 sets Naxos Borkum [German radar to detect Allied radar transmission] 2 sets 2 sets Night vision apparatus 5 sets 5 sets Abwurfsender FUG-302 [D/F buoy] 2 sets 2 sets "KDB apparatus" 1 set 1 set FuG 102 [obsolete electrical altimeter] 3 3 Fug 113 [possibly error for FuG 103, electrical altimeter now in use] 1 1 Oscillograph (Askania) 1 1 Captured "Rotterdam" apparatius [British "H2S" blind-bombing device] and explanatory documents 1 set 1 set Captured Rosendahl apparatus and explanatory documents [British rearward airborne radar] 1 set 1 set
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk "Bold" tubes 4 4 Vacuum tubes 9 cases 9 cases 5. Weapons and ammunition: 75 mm anti-tank gun, together with ammunition and drawings 1 13 mm machine gun mount 3 sets 3 sets Barrels and mountings for 20 mm machine gun 1 set each 1 set each 105 mm gun barrel 1 1 20 mm incendiary ammunition 20 cases 20 mm armor-piercing and armor-piercing tracer ammunition 130 cases 20 mm armor-piercing incendiary ammunition 20 cases 30 mm armor-piercing and armor-piercing tracer ammunition 10 cases 30 mm tracer ammunition 10 cases Unspecified ammunition 165 boxes Torpedoes 22 "Special equipment" [possiblyu 210 mm WG-21 rocket bombs together with firing tubes] 2 sets 2 sets "Special equipment" [possibly type BV-240 glider bomb together with plans and an "experimental report"] 1 set 1 set
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk "LMA-3" magnetic mines to be dropped by aircraft 5 cases "LMB-3" acoustic detonators to be dropped by aircraft 5 cases Accessories for above 10 mines 1 case Simple magnetic mine for submarines 1 set (of 2) 1 set (of 2) Magnetic detonator for electric acoustic torpedo 1 1 "Special equipment" [possibly magnetic detonators for acoustic torpedoes] 2 2 6. Precision optical goods: "Sight reflector" 1 1 Optical [circumferential graduator] 1 1 Bombsight parts [possibly for Lotfe 7D high altitude bombsight] 1 set 1 set Microscope 1 1 7. Precision instruments: Unspecified precision instruments 1 box Johnson gauges 5,214 5,214 "Bild Company transits" 3 sets 3 sets Screw pitch measjuring device 1 Ball bearing polishing machine 1
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk Drawings for ball bearing polishing machine 1 set 1 set Galvanometer 1 1 8. Communications equipment: Code machine and accessories 26 machines 20 machines Field transmitters 3 sets 3 sets "Main parts" of loud speaking telephone sets 2 sets 2 sets 9. Motor parts: Exhaust turbine supercharger 2 sets 2 sets "Special gas cut-offs" 2 sets 2 sets [Machine parts?] 66 kgs. 66 kgs. Fuel jet pumps 35 10. Chemicals and drugs: Eserine galicylate 200 grams 125 grams Emetine chelate Unknown amount Unknown amount Yellow fever virus Unknown amount Some lost Atabrine for injection 7,950 ampoules 7,950 ampoules Atabrine tablets 600,000 600,000 11. Miscellaneous: Respirators 103 kgs. 103 kgs. Pressure cabin parts and drawings [possibly for the German high altitude plan HS 30] 4 sets 1 set Propulsion equipment of rocket launching device 2 2 Most of the parts of a British Mosquito plane 15 pieces 15 pieces Condensers "About" 4,400 "About" 4,400
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk Electric thermometers 3 Carbon rods 30 30 Sample minesweeping cable, 40 meters 40 meters with "KKG" tubes 4 4 and sample fuses 1 set 1 set Acoustic minesweeping buoys 2 2 Aerial cameras with parts 2 2 Miscellaneous supplies for German submarine bases in the Far East Unknown amount Some Miscellaneous luggage and gtrunks 520 pieces 520 pieces 12. Drawings and plans: '40 type machine pistol and '08 type ammunition '43 type machine pistol and '43 type ammunition '42 type machine gun mount, accessories and ball ammunition '41 type heavy anti-tank rifle and armor-piercing and explosive ammunition '40 type 75 mm anti-tank gun, and '39 and '40 type armor-piercing ammunition '40 type 75 mm recoilless gun and '39 type hoillow-charge "B" armor-piercing ammunition '41 type 150 mm rocket gun and '41 type ammunition '40 type revolving telescopic sight, 4 points Drawings for Isetta Co., X-type engine [for high speed motor boats] All drawings Partial blueprints for Lorenz Co. and Telefunken Co. radio sets*
*Certain of the Telefiunken plans are believed to have reached Japan. The remaining Telefunken blueprints and the Lorenz Co. blueprints were ost on the I-29.
Commodity Amount Shipped Amount Known Sunk Drawings of crankshaft grinding jug All drawings Drawings of Rheinmetall 13 mm machine gun All drawings Report on demagnetizing technique used by the German Navy at Kiel Degaussing Department Plans and drawings of British and russian wooden aircraft Report on nature and use of Sinter iron [cryptographic materials] Report on performance of motors used by the GAF early in 1944 Plans and diagrams of latest type German Navy high speed underwater submarine Newsreels for Japanese Navy 2 sets 2 sets Drawings of "S equipment" [presumably for "S-Geraet" sound-ranging gear]* Drawings of Dete "107" [submarine borne radar]* Drawings of Gema vacuum tubes*
*Carried on the I-30 which was sunk, but with the salvage of part of the cargo.
Goods stored at Lorient awaiting Shipment to the Far East
which were destroyed by the Germans during Summer of 1944
Commodity Amount Destroyed 1. Metals and minerals: Aluminum 1,257 [cars?] Mercury 20 tons 2. Steel products: Steel balls 2 boxes Ball bearings 114 3. Glass: "Neophane glass" 17,000 pieces "Neophane glass 9s" 11,000 pieces Photographic lens 1 4. Electronic equipment: "KDB" fittings 3 sets "Ausfahr head for S set" [oscillator for S-Geraet, German sound-ranging gear] 1 Aircraft B/F receiver sets 18 5. Weapons and ammunition: 20 mm single mount machine gun and set of accessories 1 "H.A." [105 mm gun (less the garrel, which had been loaded on the I-29)] 1 Ammunition for 13 mm machine gun 5,000 rounds Ammunition for 20 mm machine gun 5,200 rounds Samples of various kinds of ammunition 680 samples
Commodity Amount Destroyed Set of parts for torpedo fire control gear and cork [word missing] drawings 1,000 kgs. Magnetic mine 1 Samples of fuses 60 6. Precision instruments: Gauges: Micrometers 917 Screw taps 6,249 Gauge-blocks 57 [word missing] engravers 100 Attachments 5 Frames 15 7. Communications equipment: Field teleprinters 6½ pairs Teleprinter and parts 1 Code machines 70 Parts of control telephone Ultra-short wave transmitter 1 8. Motor parts: Superchargers [possible for DB-627] 3 Sample parts of feed and condensate pumps 1 set 9. Miscellaneous: Rocket take[-off accelerators and accessories [possibly the type used by the JU-88] Parts for "G.H.G." sets 1 set Carbon rods 66
Commodity Amount Destroyed Minesweepointg [gear] not loaded on the I-29 Oerliken machine gun tools and accessories 90 sets Magazines [for machine guns?] 30 Non-ferrous metal searchlight gear 1 Aerial camers 3 Camshaft testing machine 1 "Kalte Haertor" [an adhesive used in the manufacture of aircraft] 1 ton "Kauritleim" [an adhesive used in the manufacture of aircraft] 1 ton
Products not known to have been shipped,
but believed to have been available somewhere in Europe
for shipment to the Far East
before the last known submarine departure*
1. Aluminum Unknown amount 2. Steel products: Special alloy steel for aircraft motors 500 tons plus an unknown amount Steel balls 470 kgs. 3. Glass: Optical glass 26 tons Lenses for Zeiss Contax cameras 250 4. Electronic equipment: FuG 25, IFF ("Identification Friend or Foe") equipment 5 sets FuG 101 [Airborne altimeter] 10 FuG 213, Lichtenstein anti-surface vessel equipment 2 sets Electric transformers for Wuerzburg units 10 sets "1651 A and 1651 M vacuum tubes" for French Indo-China 5 cases Vacuum tubes, unspecified 620 kgs. Dete "500" [submarine-borne radar and drawings]
*All known duplications have been eliminated from this TAB, but the possibility remains that certain of the items included were shipped to the Far East or were destroyed at Lorient.
5. Weapons and ammunition: 20 mm electric firing machine gun, model 151 30 mm machine guns, model 103 and plans 3 30 machine guns, model 108 and plans 3 "Panzerfaust" [anti-tank weapon] and blueprints 100 "Panzerschrecht" [anti-tank weapon] and blueprints 2 Flame throwers 2 20 mm ammunition for model 151 machine gun 3,000 rounds 20 mm high explosive shells for Mauser MG 151 700,000 rounds 30 mm ammunition for model 103 and 108 machine guns 61,500 rounds Boxes of ammunition Unknown amount Electric percussion caps 1,000 Parts for electric fuses for aircraft machine guns Unknown amount Mines for anti-tank use 15 6. Precision optical goods: Lotfe 7D bombsights 4 Spare gyros 3 Testing machines 3 Spare parts 5 Italian photometers 3 Precision measuring instruments Unknown amount 7. Communications equipment: Siemens Hellschreiber equipment 3 boxes All wave receivers 2 sets Wireless condensers 530 kgs. Wireless equipment--ground-air Unknown amount Multiple hydrophone installation, cable hook-up diagram "Sonore" underwater telephone installation
8. Motor parts: Extractor pumps for battleships Unknown amount Parts and plans for feed pumps for torpedo boats and cruisers Unknown amount Bosch jet nozzle and pipe for use in motors 3,400 kgs. Engine testing apparatus Unknown amount 9. Chemicals and drugs: Atabrine 1,000 kgs. Hemoglobin and coloring matter 60 kgs. Balsam 120 kgs. Trolitul Unknown amount Penicillin mold Unknown amount Lithium chloride 6 tons Benzyl cellulose 15 tons Sodium formate 570 tons Formic acid 51 tons Influenza virus Unknown amount Salicylate of eserine Unknown amount 200-unit bottles of insulin for French Indo-China [250?] Tubes containing twenty 0.5 gram tablets of "urotrophine" for French Indo-China 30,000 tubes Methylene blue for French Indo-China 20 kgs. One-kilogram bottles of chloroform for French Indo-China 500 bottles One-kilogram bottles of chloral for French Indo-China 20 bottles Emetine chloral hydrate for French Indo-China 50 grams One-gram tin cans of salicylate of bismuth for French Indo-China 100 cans 10. Miscellaneous: The "combustion chamber" and other parts of the propulsion equipent used by the German planes ME-163 and ME-202 Unknown amount Rocket take-off accelerators for JU-88 4 sets
10. Miscellaneous (cont'd): Aerial photographic cameras: 20 cm. 50 75 cm. 50 "HS-18" 180 Luminous paint 200 kgs. plus an
Luminous [paint for dials] and samples of finished panels Unknown amount Machines for making rifle ammunition 3 Machines for making steel cartridge cases Unknown amount Suface polishing lathe 1 Tools for use in making machine guns 20 kgs. Spring apparatus for "G7A," description, drawings, etc. Spring apparatus for "G7E Tat Roman 2" drawings 11. Documents and drawings: Drawings of "special 'D' tupe, main storage batteries and hydrogen absoprtion for [illegible] type" high submerged speed submarine Report on cylinder for Daimler motor torpedo boat engine and for manufacture of cylinder Drawings of turbines from [Deschain?] Co. and suction and condenser pumps from [Bruchann?] Co. Drawings for pistons for Daimler motor torpedo boat engine Diagrams and explanation of FW 190A military instruments and equipment Explanatory diagrams of electric firing pom-pom gun summaried list of German machinery produiction together with catalogue Catalogue of precision measuring instruments Production drawings for Rheinmetall electric percussion caps Drawing for drilling machines Drawings and plans for the manufacture of acoustic torpedos Miscellaneous documents 23 boxes Documents explaining use of "Bold"
Persons known to have been passengers on submarines going from Europe to the Far East, 1942-44
Left Europe Azumi Expert on purchases of medical supplies 16 Apr 44 Barth To be attached to the German Military Attaché's office in Japan 16 Apr 44 Berner To be attached to the German Military Attaché's office in Japan 16 pr 44 Bose, Subhas Chandra and his secretary President, Provisional Indian Government 9 Feb 43 Brinker Radar expert from Gema Company 10 May 43 Foders, Heinrich Engineer from the Telefunken Company June 43 Gondo* Japan's former Assistant Military Attaché in Italy 16 June 43 Hammitzch, Prof. To be attached to the German Military Attaché's officer in Japan 16 Apr 44 Hansoka, Lt. Col. Submarine fuel and percussion cap expert 16 Apr 44 Kihara, Col.* Japan's former Assistant Military Attaché in Germany 14 May 43 Matsui, Capt. Radar expert 16 Apr 44
*Lost en route.
Left Europe Maguchi Aircraft expert 16 Apr 44 Minami Anti-submarine ordnance expert 16 Apr 44 Miura* Army surgeon 16 June 43 Makatani Internal combustion engine expert 16 Apr 44 Nomura, Vice Adm. Former member of Japanese-German-Italian Joint Specialist Commission under the Tripartite Pact in Berlin 10 May 43 Onishi Anti-aircraft ordnance expert 16 Apr 44 Onoda 16 Apr 44 Rheinholdt, Lt. Comdr. To be adviser to the German Naval Attaché in Japan 6 Oct 43 Sakai Technician from Sumitomo Co. and expert on motor torpedo boat engines 16 Apr 44 Sakato Expert on medical supplies 16 Apr 44 Satake Radar expert June 43 Schuffner To be attached to the German Military Attaché's office in Japan 16 Apr 44 Shiba, Lt. Col. Anti-aircraft ordnance and precision optical goods expert 16 Apr 44 Spahn Head of Nazi Party in Japan 10 May 43
Left Europe Sugita, Med. Capt. 10 May 43 Tanno Aircraft expert 16 Apr 44 [Urio] Anti-aircraft ordnance expert 16 Apr 44 Yokoi, Rear Adm. Former Naval Attaché in Berlin 6 Oct 43 Yoshida, Lt. Col. Submarine fuel expert 16 Apr 44 Woermann, Ernst German Ambassador to Nanking 10 May 43 A German Diesel engine expert June 43 Ten other German technicians 10 May 43
Commodities believed to have shipped from the Far East to Europe by submarine 1942-44
[NOTE: The original page is faded and only partially legible. Shown below is my best guess at the text, and should not be relied on as entirely accurate. --HyperWar]
Commodity Quantity believed
to have been
available for shipment
Amount believedAmount known
to have been
1. Tungsten 250 tons 80 tons plus an unknown amount 50 tons 2. Molybdenum 40 tons Unknown amount See Tin 3. Tin Large quantities 178 tons (including some molybdenum) plus and unknown amount 178b tons (including some molybdenum) 4. Gold bullion 3 tons 3 tons 5. Rubber Large quantities [78?] tons plus an unknown amount 54 tons plus an unknown amount 6. Quinine 27 tons 3 tons 3 tons 7. Opium 17 tons [Illegible] tons [Illegible] tons 8. Japanese electronic equipment and drawings Unknown amount 9. Aerial torpedoes No. 2--[illigebile] 3 10. Miscellaneous documents, including weather maps of the Indian Ocean, code books, etc. [All the documents?]
Persons known to have been passengers on submarines going from the Far East to Europe 1942-44
Left Far East Emi, Tetzujiro, Comdr. To study German submarine construction Apr 43 Gamo* Ordnance engineer and expert of the Tokyo Mitsubishi Instrument Co. Apr 44 Hagino, Ichitaro* A director of the Tokyo Gauge Co. and a gyro expert Apr 44 Ikeda 15 Dec 43 [Imaoeto?] To study Italian submarine construction 15 Dec 43 Kawakita, Jiro To study German jet-propelled planes 15 Dec 43 Kiyota, 1st Class Petty Officer Apr 44 Kojima, Rear Adm. To be Japan's Naval Attaché in Germany and Vichy France 15 Dec 43 Kumanato, Hagatoeni, 1st Class Petty Officer Apr 44 Maeda, Toshi* Ordnance engineer to study German motor torpedo boat Apr 44 Minekawa 15 Dec 43 Mizuno, Ichiro* Engineer of the Japan Optical Works Apr 44
*Lost en route
Left Far East Moriwaki, Fujio* German language typist and translator Apr 44 Murakami 15 Dec 43 Nagamori 15 Dec 43 Nagao* Radar expert Apr 44 Nakayama 15 Dec 43 Okada, Hidetaka, 1st Class Petty Officer* Apr 44 Okada, Soiichi* Communications machine expert Apr 44 Okuyama, Ryoitsu, 1st Class Petty Officer* Apr 44 Samejima 15 Dec 43 Satori, Jihei 15 Dec 43 Sunagawa, Eamasa* Apr 44 Tamai Appointed Japan's Assistant Naal Attaché in Portugal, October 1944 15 Dec 43 Tamaru, Lt. Comdr. 15 Dec 43 Tomonaga, Hideo, Lt. Comdr. To study German submarine construction Apr 43 Ukai, Jasuji* Business machine expert of the Aichi Clock Co. Apr 44 Umezeki, Janae, Tech. Comdr. Apointed Japan's Assistant Naval Attaché in Spain, October 1944 15 Dec 4
*Lost en route
Left Far East Waraya, Takashi* Ordnance engineer and expert of the Tokyo Mitsubishi Instrument Co. Apr 44 50 crew members to man the U-1224 on voyage to the Far East 27 June 43
*Lost en route