NOTE. In some cases in this chapter, sufficiently definite and comprehensive information has not been available to enable representatives of the participating headquarters to reach fully agreed figures. Therefore, although the main structure of the Japanese organization is considered to be well established, some of the details are likely to need amendment in the light of future experience.
Section I. Major Organizations
1. FIELD COMMAND. The Japanese Army in the field is organized into groups of armies, area armies, armies, and forces with special missions which initially do not come under command of any army. The Chief of Staff of the Japanese Army is responsible for the general direction of the army forces in the field.
2. GROUPS OF ARMIES. A group of armies such as the Kwantung Army, might be considered the equivalent of the command of a theater of operations.
3. AREA ARMIES. An area army, such as the 8th Area Army, may be considered the equivalent of an American or British Army.
4. ARMIES. A Japanese Army should be considered the equivalent of an American or British Corps. It is composed of a headquarters, a variable number of infantry divisions, and army troops. Such a force normally comprises from 50,000 to 150,000 officers and enlisted men. The 18th Army in the
Figure 8. Field command.
Figure 9. Staff administration.
Southwest Pacific area during April 1943 had a nominal strength of about 130,000, but its actual strength was always greatly below this figure because of attrition en route, casualties, and detachments. it included the following units:
3 Divisions--plus small elements of a fourth.
1 Independent mixed brigade.
2 Infantry mortar battalions.
4 Independent field antiaircraft artillery companies.
6 Independent field searchlight companies.
6 Field antiaircraft artillery battalions.
2 Field machine cannon companies.
1 Independent antitank gun battalion.
1 Engineer group.
7 Independent engineer regiments.
1 Independent engineer company.
2 Field road construction units.
1 Field airfield construction unit.
3 Field duty units.
3 Shipping engineer regiments.
1 Field motor transport depot.
2 FIeld transport commands.
1 Independent transport regiment.
3 Independent motor transport battalions.
6 Independent motor transport companies.
1 Signal unit.
2 Fixed radio units.
5 Line of communication hospitals.
1 Water purifying unit.
2 Debarkation units.
2 Construction duty companies.
3 Land duty companies.
5 Sea duty companies.
1 Water transport unit.
5 Airfield battalions.
3 Airfield companies.
2 Base forces (Naval troops).
1 Field freight depot.
1 Field ordnance depot.
4 Line-of-communication garrison (sector) units.
5. ARMY CORPS. Japanese military terminology does not include the term army corps (see par. 4).
6. INFANTRY DIVISION. a. General In its basic form the Japanese infantry division is composed as follows:
Division signal unit
Infantry group headquarters and 3 infantry regiments
Cavalry regiment or reconnaissance regiment
b. Classification and strength. Organic units of the Japanese division exhibit various differences in organization and strength, because they are organized for different roles and varying types of terrain. The Japanese themselves classify these organic units into three general categories: A, or the strongest; B, representing the standard; and C, the special. Consequently,the strength and classification of their divisions are largely dependent upon organization of their organic units. However, this does not constitute a hard-and-fast rule whereby all Japanese divisions are composed exclusively of any one type of units. For example, a basically standard, or "B" type, division often may have "A" type artillery. In addition, there are also strength differences within the division units themselves. In an "A" type infantry regiment, the regimental infantry gun unit could be either one company of four guns or two companies of four guns under a small battalion headquarters. In general, however, all Japanese divisions come within the following classifications:
(1) The standard division. This type of division has been encountered most frequently in present operational areas. It is composed or organic elements listed in paragraph a above.
(2) The strengthened division. This division is composed of "A" type units (augmented personnel and firepower) and may include an artillery group, consisting of a group headquarters, a field or mountain artillery regiment, and other artillery units; an organic tank unit; and a chemical or decontamination unit for gas control. This type of division so far has not been encountered in its entirety in the field.
(3) The strengthened division (modified). Elements of this type of division were known to exist during the early stages of the war, and the division may have been a fore-runner of the strengthened type described above. It includes an artillery group, but has no organic tank element or gas decontamination unit. The infantry rifle companies are found without the heavy weapons platoons of the strengthened type division, decreasing the rifle company strength from 262 to 205. In such case the heavy machine guns and antitank rifles are found in the machine gun and antitank companies.
(4)> The special division. This is a lighter type of division composed of two brigades, each of four independent infantry battalions supported by small units of auxiliary troops (mainly "C" type units). The future operational role of this type of division is difficult to forecast, but to date it has been found employed in garrison and antiguerilla activities in China.
c. Charts and tables. The following charts and tables depict the organization of the four types of infantry divisions listed above. However, in view of the many possible combinations of types of units within a division, these charts and tables cannot be taken as exact models for all divisions. Following the charts and tables are presented detailed analyses of organization and strength. Where known, variants are included. Emphasis has been placed, however, upon the standard division.
Figure 10: Japanese "Standard" Triangular Infantry Division
Figure 11: Japanese "Strengthened" Triangular Infantry Division
Figure 12: Japanese "Strengthened" (Modified) Triangular Division
Figure 13. Japanese "Special" Division.
This type of division has been identified in China engaged in garrison and anti-guerilla activities.
Figure 14. Strength and weapons of special division (all figures are estimates.)
Figure 15. Strength and weapons of standard division.
Figure 16. Strength and weapons of "strengthened" division.
Figure 17. Strength and weapons of "strengthened" (modified) division.
d. Identified Japanese divisions and their principal components. (1) The following chart shows the identified divisions of the Japanese Army, their component units, the districts from which they are conscripted, and the location of the depots from which they are supplied. Division signal and medical units, although included in the divisions, are not shown on the chart.
(2) The area from which an identified regiment is conscripted is the regimental conscription district. When the location of its depot differs from the headquarters of the conscription district, the depot location is shown in parentheses. The supporting units are conscripted from the whole divisional district. When the location of the depot differs from the headquarters of the divisional district, the depot location is also shown in parentheses.
[As of May 1944]
7. DIVISION HEADQUARTERS. a. General. A division is commanded by a lieutenant general, with a colonel of the General Staff as Chief of Staff. The staff is in two sections--the General Staff section and the administrative section. To the staff are attached five departmental sections (see d below) and an ordnance, a signal, and a veterinary detachment. In all, there are about 300 officers and enlisted men.
b. General Staff section. (1) The General Staff section is composed of about 75 officers and enlisted men. The Chief of Staff supervises and coordinates the work of the General and Administrative Staffs. He acts as the link between the division commander and the unit commanders, heads of departments, and the civil authorities. All questions are referred to the Chief of Staff before submission to the division commander either by heads of departments or by the group or regimental commanders.
(2) G-1 is a lieutenant colonel who deals with operations, communications, and training. He has a signal officer, a code officer, a gas officer, and an ordnance officer as assistants.
(3) G-2 is a major who deals primarily with intelligence, maps, censorship, and mobilization.
(4) G--3 is a captain who deals with rear services, supplies, and line-of-communications matters.
(5) The adjutant is a lieutenant colonel who is assisted by a captain and a lieutenant.
c. Administrative staff section. This section, together with the departmental sections, is composed of about 175 officers and enlisted men. The head of the section is a lieutenant colonel who deals with all reports, except those relating to operations, and exercises general supervision of administrative work. The section includes a captain or lieutenant in charge of promotions, appointments, personal records of officers and noncommissioned officers, personnel, and administrative details of mobilization; a captain or lieutenant in charge of all affairs connected with the departmental services, and who is responsible for administrative orders; and a captain or lieutenant in charge of documents and the secretarial work of the division.
d. Departmental sections. The number of officers employed in each special staff section varies with divisions. The services represented are as follows:
(1) Intendance. A colonel, three field officers, and seven or more captains or lieutenants.
(2) Medical. A colonel and two or three other medical officers.
(3) Veterinary. A lieutenant colonel and one or two other veterinary officers.
(4) Ordnance. One field officer and two or more captains or lieutenants from the technical service.
(5) Judicial (legal). Several officers.
e. Detachments. The ordnance, signal, veterinary, and guard detachments, together with the drivers of vehicles used to transport the division staff and part of its equipment, make up the rest of the headquarters.
8. DIVISION SIGNAL UNIT. a. General. The division signal unit, commanded by a captain, is composed of a headquarters, two wire (line or L/T) platoons, one radio (wireless or W/T) platoon, and a material (equipment) platoon. Its strength is about 250 officers and enlisted men.
(1) Variations in the strengths of this unit as shown in the different divisions may be explained by the varying number of radio sections. In all signal units it is common practice to add or decrease the number of radios as required.
(2) The company headquarters consists of a command section composed of the captain in command and about 20 noncommissioned officers and enlisted men. A runner or liaison section may be included.
(3) Each wire (line or L/T) platoon is divided into four sections. Total strength of the platoon is about 50 officers and enlisted men. A first or second lieutenant is in command. The radio (wireless or W/T) platoon is divided into sections each with one set. The number of sections varies from about 8 to 12. Total strength is about 100 to 125 men. A first or second lieutenant is in command.
The material (equipment) platoon is divided into two equipment sections. Total strength is about 35.
c. Equipment. The approximate total of signal equipment in the unit is 32 telephones. 30 miles of insulated wire. 2 radio sets (ground to air) , and 8 to 10 other radios. The unit also utilizes pigeons, dogs, helio lamps, semaphores, and ground panels, as well as plane pickups. Some personnel are armed with rifles.
9. THE INFANTRY GROUP. a. General. The infantry group is commanded by a major general and consists of a headquarters, an infantry group signal unit (only in the strengthened division) , and three infantry regiments. In some instances, tankette companies, of 80 to 120 men with 10 to 17 tankettes, have been assigned to the infantry group.
b. Infantry group headquarters. The headquarters, composed of 70 to 100 officers and men, is divided into an administrative staff, a headquarters guard (equipped with automatic weapons) , and a small field (baggage) section. In the standard division a small signal unit may be furnished from the division signal unit.
c. Infantry group signal unit. Found only in the strengthened divisions, this unit usually is commanded by a captain and is divided into a company headquarters, a wire (line or L/T) platoon, and a radio (wireless or W/T) platoon. The strength is about 115 officers and enlisted men.
Strength analysis. Unit Commander--Captain 1 Unit Headquarters 17 Line (L/T) Platoon 57 Radio (or W/T) Platoon 40 Infantry group signal unit--Total 115 Equipment includes an estimated 12 telephones, 5 light radio sets, 2 switchboards, 11 miles of insulated wire and 24 horses.
d. Infantry group tankette company. These units have been identified in a few divisions. They are believed to be organized into three or four platoons and a company train, with a total of from 80 to 120 personnel. They are believed to have 10 to 17 tankettes and trailers. They probably are used for reconnaissance purposes, since divisions in which they are found normally do not have cavalry or reconnaissance regiments. They also may be used for front-line transport.
10. THE INFANTRY REGIMENT. a. General. The regiment is commanded by a colonel and its components are, in general:
Regimental headquarters (including regimental train).
Regimental signal company.
Regimental infantry gun unit.
Regimental antitank gun company.
3 infantry battalions.
A pioneer or labor unit may be added.
b. Tabular strength and equipment tables.
Usually regiments operate in the field with only 24 heavy machine guns.
Horses Rifles Light
Regimental headquarters (with train) 176 107 (30) 1 Regimental Signal Co 132 23 (30) Regimental Infantry Gun Co 122 37 (20) 4 Regimental Antitank Co 116 23 (20) 6 3 Infantry Battalions 3,297 483 (2,031) 111 108 36 6 Each 1,099 161 (677) 37 36 12 2 Battalion Headquarters and train 147 96 (50) 1 4 rifle Cos (each) 181 139 9 9 1 machine gun Co 174 45 (50) 12 1 Battalion gun platoon 55 20 (20) 2 Total. Regimental 3,843 (710) (2,130) 112 108 36 6 6 4
Figures in parentheses are estimates.
Figure 20. Standard regiment.
The following tables illustrate the two types of the strengthened regiment, as described by the Japanese. The first table illustrates a substantially stronger infantry regiment in which a heavy weapons platoon has been added to the rifle companies and more infantry guns have been added to the regiment.
Figure 21. Strengthened regiment.
Units Personnel Horses Rifles Light machine gun Grenade discharger Heavy machine gun 20-mm anti-tank rifle 37-or 47-mm anti-tank gun 70-mm battalion gun 75-mm infantry gun Regt Hq (with train) (195) (140) (50) 4 ( ) Regt Sig Co (150) (25) (35) ( ) ( ) Regt Inf Gun Bn (364) (55) (45) ( ) ( ) 8 Regt Pioneer Unit (100) (15) (50) ( ) ( ) 3 Inf Bns 4,878 (846) 2,190 111 147 36 24 12 12 Each 1,626 (282) 730 37 49 12 8 4 4 Bn Hq and Train (282) (159) 50 1 1 4 Rifle Cos (each) 262 (17) 150 9 12 2 2 1 MG Co (4 guns) (73) (12) ( ) 4 1 AT Co (100) (18) ( ) 4 1 Bn Gun Co (122) (24) ( ) 4 Total, Regimental 5,687 1,083 (2,370) (115) (147) 36 24 12 12 8
Figures in parentheses are interpolations.
Units Personnel Horses Rifles Light machine gun Grenade discharger Heavy machine gun 20-mm anti-tank rifle 37- or 47-mm anti-tank gun 70-mm battalion gun 75-mm infantry gun Regt Hq (with train) (198) (125) (50) (4) ( ) Regt Sig co (130) (23) (30) ( ) ( ) Regt Inf Gun co (170) (42) (20) ( ) ( ) 4 Regt AT co (130) (23) (20) ( ) ( ) 6 3 Inf Bns and Train 4,203 543 (2,250) 111 147 36 24 12 Each 1,401 181 (750) 37 49 12 8 4 Bn Hq and Train (177) 96 (50) (1) (1) 4 Rifle cos (each) 205 150 9 12 1 MG co (12 guns) (174) (45) ( ) 12 1 Bn Gun co (230) (40) ( ) 8 4 Total, Regimental 4,831 756 2,370 (115) (147) 36 24 6 12 4
( ) Indicates presence believed.
Figure 22. Strengthened--modified- regiment.
c. Infantry regimental headquarters. (1) General. The infantry regimental headquarters normally is composed of about 55 officers and enlisted men. It consists of a staff, made up of administration, code and intelligence,ordnance, and intendance sections. In addition there is an antiaircraft section, or headquarters guard, and a color guard. Total strength of headquarters with train is about 176 officers and enlisted men.
(2) Strength analysis. (a) Officer personnel.
Regimental commander--colonel 1 Operations and training officer--major 1 Adjutant--major or captain 1 Color bearer--lieutenant 1 Code and intelligence officer 1 Gas (or smoke) officer 1 Ordnance officer 1 Intendance officer 1 Medical officers 2 Veterinary officer 1 Total 11 (Additional officers may be attached.)
(b) Administration section.
Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Sergeant major in charge of supply 1 Sergeant major in charge of arms and equipment 1 Sergeant major in charge of orders (liaison) 1 Runners and orderlies 6 Medical orderlies 2 Veterinary orderlies 2 Total 14
(c) Code and Intelligence section. Two noncommissioned officers and eight men.
(d) Ordnance section. One ordnance noncommissioned officer and six technical noncommissioned officers.
(e) Intendance section. Three men. including pay noncommissioned officer.
(f) Antiaircraft section or headquarters guard (1 light machine gun). One noncommissioned officer and four men.
Figure 23. Japanese Standard Infantry Regiment.
(g) Color guard. Five men.
(3) Regimental train. (a) General. The regimental train is divided into a field (baggage) section and an ammunition section. The baggage section usually includes about 30 one-horse, two-wheeled transportation carts, or about 40 pack horses. It carries the regimental baggage as well as one day's rations for regimental units not included in battalions. Kitchen equipment normally is carried in the division train, but it may be attached to regiments. Frequently all trains of all regimental units are grouped in one body. The ammunition train, equipped with horses and two-wheeled transport carts, carries a day's unit of fire for the regiment.
(b) Strength analysis.
- Field (baggage) section. One noncommissioned officer and 39 men.
- Ammunition section. One noncommissioned officer and 80 men.
- Regimental train. 121 men.
(c) Size of the regimental train will vary. If motorized, the train will be reduced in most cases.
d. Regimental pioneer (labor) unit. The type "A" organization definitely includes in its establishment a regimental pioneer unit of set composition. This consists of a commander, 6 sections, and a material section. It numbers from 100 to 200 men, and its duties consist of general construction work. When "B" class divisions are moved into areas where personnel are required for demolition work, road construction, etc. , a labor unit, consisting of four or five sections, can be drawn from the infantry companies and augmented by a few engineers. While a regimental labor company, with a strength as high as 250, may be found in any division, this does not necessarily involve any increase in the strength of the regiments.
e. Regimental signal company. (1) General. The signal company consists of a headquarters,one wire (line or L/T) platoon, and one radio (wireless or W/T) platoon, with a total of about 132 officers and men.
The number of radio sets used in comparison with the number L/T sets will depend on the type of operations involved.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander--captain or first lieutenant.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). Twenty-nine men.
1. Administration section.
Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1 Orderlies 5 Medical orderlies 2
2. Runner (liaison) section. Warrant officer in charge and 18 men.
(c) No. 1 Platoon (Wire or L/T). Twenty-nine men.
4 wire sections (noncommissioned officer and 6 men per section).
(d) No. 2 Platoon (radio or W/T). Seventy-three officers and men.
8 Radio sections (noncommissioned officer and 8 men per section).
(4) Equipment. The approximate signal equipment in the company is 12 to 20 telephone sets, 11 to 30 miles of insulated wire, 3 to 5 light radio sets, 2 to 3 ground to air sets, ground to air panels, dog sections, pigeons sections, heliograph, and other usual signal equipment.
f. Regimental infantry gun company. (1) General. The company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 2 platoons (total of 4 guns) , and an ammunition platoon. The total strength is 122 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. Captain.
(b) Ordnance officer. Captain.
(c) Company headquarters (command section). Twenty-three men.
1. Administration section.
Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of weapons and equipment 1 Runners and orderlies 6 Medical orderlies 2
2. Signal section. Noncommissioned officer and six men.
3. Observation section. Noncommissioned officer and four men.
(d) Firing unit (two gun platoons, each thirty-three). Nos. 1 and 2 gun platoons.
2 gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 15 men per section).
(e) Ammunition platoon, 31 men.
(f) Regimental infantry gun company. Total-- 122 men.
(5) The armament of the regimental gun company often has been found to consist of two regimental guns and two antitank guns, instead of the standard four 75-mm regimental infantry guns. At times mortars (probably the short barreled 81-mm) may be substituted or included.
g. Regimental infantry gun battalion. (1) General. The battalion consists of a small headquarters group of 24 officers and enlisted men and 2 "A" type gun companies. The company comprises a firing unit of 2 platoons (total of four guns) and an ammunition platoon. The strength of the company is 170, and the total strength of the battalion is 364 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Strength analysis of "A" type gun company. (a) Company commander. Major or captain.
(b) Ordnance officer. Captain.
(c) Company Headquarters (command section). Twenty-seven men.
1. Administration section.
Warrant officer in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of weapons and equipment 1 Runners and orderlies (1 Mounted) 3 Medical orderlies 2
2. Signal section. Noncommissioned officer and six men.
3. Observation section. Noncommissioned officer and 10 men.
(d) Firing unit (two gun platoons, each fifty-five). Nos. 1 and 2 gun platoons.
Platoon commander--lieutenant 1 2 gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 26 men) 54
(e) Ammunition platoon. 31 men.
(4) Equipment. Four 75-mm regimental infantry guns.
h. Regimental antitank company. (1) General. The regimental antitank company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of three platoons, and an ammunition platoon. The total strength is about 115 officers and enlisted men equipped with six antitank guns.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander--Captain.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). Nineteen men.
1. Administration section.
Sergeant major in charge of personnel 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment. 1 Runners and orderlies 7 Medical orderlies 2
2. Observation section. Noncommissioned officer and six men.
(c) Firing unit (three gun platoons, each 25). No. 1 gun platoon (Nos. 2 and 3 platoons the same).
Platoon commander--lieutenant 1 2 gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 11 men) 24
(d) Ammunition platoon. 21 men.
(4) Equipment. Six 37-mm antitank guns.
(5) A common variant is for this unit to be merged with the regimental infantry gun unit, the armament of which then consists of 2 regimental guns and 2 antitank guns.
(6) The "A" type antitank gun company has increased strength of about 130 officers and enlisted men and is equipped with six 37-mm antitank guns. In the strengthened type division the antitank company is not a regimental unit, but there are 3 antitank companies, one in each infantry battalion, and each company usually is equipped with 4 antitank guns. The strength of this 4-gun company is approximately 100 officers and enlisted men.
i. Infantry battalion (standard). (1) General. The infantry battalion normally is commanded by a major and consists of a headquarters and train, 4 rifle companies, and machine gun company, and
a battalion gun platoon. Its total strength is 1,100 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Equipment. There are approximately 677 rifles, 36 grenade dischargers, 37 light machine guns, 12 (8) heavy machine guns (7.7-mm), 2 battalion 70-mm guns.
j. Infantry battalion (strengthened). (1) General. This infantry battalion normally is commanded by a major and consists of a headquarters and train, 4 rifle companies, a machine gun company, a battalion gun company, and a battalion anti-tank company. Its total strength is 1,626 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Equipment. There are approximately 730 rifles, 37 light machine guns, 49 grenade dischargers, 4 heavy machine guns (7.7-mm), eight 20-mm antitank rifles, four 37-mm antitank guns, 4 battalion 70-mm guns.
k. Infantry battalion (strengthened, modified). (1) General. This infantry battalion normally is commanded by a major and consists of a headquarters and train, 4 rifle companies, a machine-gun company, and a battalion-gun company. Its total strength is 1,401 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Equipment. There are approximately 750 rifles, 37 light machine guns, 49 grenade dischargers, 12 heavy machine guns (7.7-mm), eight 20-mm anti-tank rifles, and four 70-mm battalion guns.
l. Battalion headquarters. (1) General. The battalion headquarters normally consists of about 37 officers and enlisted men, divided into administration, ordnance and intendance, liaison, code and intelligence, and an antiaircraft, or headquarters guard, sections. In addition there is a battalion train. Total strength of battalion headquarters and train is 147 officers and enlisted men.
(2) Strength analysis.
(a) Officer personnel. 8 men. Battalion commander--major 1 Adjutant--captain or lieutenant 1 Ordnance officer 1 Intendance officer 1 Medical officers 3 Veterinary officer 1 (Additional officers may be attached. ) (b) Administration section. 14 men. Sergeant major in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of supplies 1 Sergeant major in charge of arms and equipment 1 Sergeant major in charge of orders (liaison) 1 Runners and orderlies 5 Medical orderlies 4 Veterinary orderly 1
(c) Ordnance and intendance section. Two noncommissioned officers and one technician.
(d) Liaison section. 4 men.
(e) Code and intelligence section. One noncommissioned officer and two men.
(f) AA section or headquarters guard (1 LMG). 5 men.
(3) Battalion train. The battalion train is generally similar in equipment and function to the regimental train.
(a) Field (baggage) section. Noncommissioned officer and 49 men.
(b) Ammunition section. Noncommissioned officer and 59 men.
(c) Battalion train. 110 men.
Note. Strength of the battalion train may vary. If motor transport is used it will normally be reduced.
m. Infantry rifle company ("B") type. (1) General. The company consists of a company commander, usually a captain, a company headquarters, and three rifle platoons. Total strength is 181 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. Captain.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). Warrant officer in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of personnel 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1 Runners and orderlies (including buglers) 10 Medical orderlies 4 Total 18
(c) 3 Rifle platoons (each 54). 162 officers and men.
1. No. 1 platoon. Platoon commander--lieutenant 1 Liaison noncommissioned officer 1 3 rifle-Light machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 39 1 grenade discharger section 13 2. No. 2 and No. 3 platoons. Same as No. 1.
(4) Equipment. There are in the company 139 rifles, nine light machine guns, and nine grenade dischargers.
n. Infantry rifle company ("A" type without heavy weapons platoon). (1) General. The company consists of a company commander, usually a captain, a company headquarters, and 3 rifle platoons. Total strength is 205 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. Captain or First Lieutenant.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). 18 men.
Warrant officer in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1 Runners and orderlies (including buglers) 10 Medical orderlies 4
(c) 3 Rifle platoons (each 62). 186 officers and men.
1. No. 1 Rifle platoon. Platoon commander 1 Liaison noncommissioned officer 1 3 rifle-light machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 14 men) 45 1 grenade discharge section (noncommissioned officer and 14 men) 15 2. No. 2 and No. 3 rifle platoons. Same as No. 1.
(4) Equipment. There are in the company 150 rifles, 9 light machine guns, and 12 grenade dischargers.
o. Infantry rifle company ("A" type with heavy weapons platoon). (1) General. The company consists of a company commander, usually a captain, a company headquarters, 3 rifle platoons, a heavy weapons platoon, and an ammunition platoon. Total strength is 262.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company headquarters and 3 rifle platoons. 205 officers and men.
(b) Heavy weapons platoon. 46 officers and men.
Platoon commander 1 Liaison noncommissioned officer 1 2 heavy machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men) (2 7.7-mm heavy machine guns) 22 2 antitank rifle sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men) (2 20-mm antitank rifles) 22
(c) Ammunition platoon. Eleven men.
(4) Equipment. There are in the company 150 rifles, 9 light machine guns, 12 grenade dischargers, 2 heavy machine guns, two 20-mm antitank rifles.
p. Battalion machine-gun company (12-gun company). (1) General. This machine-gun
company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 3 platoons (each having 4 heavy machine guns), and an ammunition platoon. The total strength is 174 officers and enlisted men. (2) Organization.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. Captain or First Lieutenant.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). 13 men. Warrant officer in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1 Runners and orderlies (including buglers) 6 Medical orderlies 3 (c) Firing unit (3 platoons, each 46). 1. No. 1 machine gun platoon. Platoon commander, first or second lieutenant 1 Liaison noncommissioned officer 1 4 gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men) 14 2. No. 2 and No. 3 machine gun platoons. Same as No. 1. (d) Ammunition platoon. 22 men.
Noncommissioned officer in charge.
3 sections of 7.
(4) Equipment. The company has twelve 7. 7 heavy machine guns.
q. Battalion machine-gun company (8-gun company). (1) General. The eight machine-gun company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 4 platoons (each having 2 heavy machine guns), and an ammunition platoon. The total strength is 144. It is this company which has been met most commonly in recent operations.
r. Battalion machine-gun company (4-gun company). (1) General. This company has only 4 machine guns; the other 8 of the normal battalion complement of 12 guns usually have been allocated to the rifle companies and are shown in the rifle companies' strengths. The company consists of a headquarters, 2 gun platoons, and a small ammunition platoon. The total strength is 73.
s. Battalion gun platoon. (1) General. The battalion gun platoon consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 2 gun sections, and an ammunition section. Its total strength is 55 officers and enlisted men. It is equipped with two 70-mm battalion guns.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Platoon commander. First or Second Lieutenant.
(b) Platoon headquarters (command section). Nine men. Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1
Noncommissioned officer in charge of the observers 1 Runners and orderlies 5 Medical orderly 1
(c) Firing unit. 30 men.
1. No. 1 gun section. Noncommissioned officer, two observers, 12 gunners.
2. No. 2 gun section. Same as No. 1.
(d) Ammunition section. 15 men.
(4) Equipment. The platoon has two 70-mm battalion guns.
t. Battalion gun company (without anti-tank rifles). (1) General. The battalion gun company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 2 gun platoons, and an ammunition platoon. Its total strength is 122.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. First Lieutenant.
(b) Company headquarters (command section). Thirty-two men. Warrant officer in charge of personnel 1 Sergeant major in charge of personnel records 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of supply 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of arms and equipment 1 Noncommissioned officer in charge of liaison 1 Signal section (noncommissioned officer and 8 men) 9 Runners and orderlies 5 Medical orderlies 2 Observation section (noncommissioned officer and 10 men) 11 (c) Firing unit (two gun platoons, each 31) 62 Platoon commander--First or Second Lieutenant 1 2 gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 14 men) 30
(4) Equipment. The company has four 70-mm battalion guns.
u. Battalion gun company (with antitank rifle). (1) General. The battalion gun company consists of a headquarters, a firing unit of 2 gun platoons armed with 70-mm battalion howitzers, 4 platoons of 20-mm antitank rifles, and an ammunition platoon. Its total strength is about 230.
(3) Strength analysis. (a) Company commander. Captain or First Lieutenant.
(b) Company headquarters. 32 men.
(c) Firing unit. 158 men.
2 70-mm gun platoons (each 31) 624 20-mm rifle platoons (each 24) 96
(d) Ammunition platoon. 39 men.
(4) Equipment. The company has four 70-mm battalion guns and eight 20-mm antitank rifles.
11. DIVISION ARTILLERY. a. General. The normal artillery component of a standard division is a 36-gun regiment of 75-mm field or mountain artillery which may be motorized, horse-drawn, or pack.
b. Field artillery regiment (horse-drawn). (1) General. The regular field artillery regiment consists of a regimental headquarters, three battalions of 75-mm guns (each battalion having a battalion headquarters, three gun companies, and a train), and a regimental train. Total strength is about 2,300 officers and enlisted men. Normal armament is thirty-six 75-mm guns.
(3) The regimental headquarters. The regimental headquarters consists of a colonel or lieutenant colonel in command, an adjutant, and a staff of about 14 noncommissioned officers and enlisted men. There is a headquarters operational group composed of an observation platoon, and a signal platoon consisting of one wire (line or L/T) section and one radio section. The total strength of the headquarters, including the headquarters operational group, is about 120 officers and enlisted men.
(4) The regimental train is commanded by a captain or a lieutenant and is divided into the 3 ammunition platoons and a field (baggage) platoon. The total strength is about 140 officers and enlisted men.
(5) A battalion consists of a headquarters, 3 companies, and a train. The strength is about 680 to 700 officers and enlisted men.
(6) Battalion headquarters, commanded by a major, is composed of a battalion staff and a headquarters operational group. The latter is divided into an observation platoon and a signal platoon. A machine-gun section for defense also is reported. The total strength of the headquarters, including the headquarters operational group, is about 80 officers and enlisted men.
(7) The battalion train is commanded by a captain or lieutenant and consists of 3 ammunition sections and a field (or baggage) section. The total strength is about 60 officers and enlisted men.
(8) Companies,commanded by captains, are composed of a company staff, a headquarters operational group, 2 gun platoons (each of 2 sections of about 20 men each). and a company train. The total strength is about 180 officers and enlisted men, with four 75-mm field guns.
(9) Regimental equipment. There is a total of thirty-six 75-mm field guns. It is estimated that there are 450 rifles (138 per battalion and 34 per company) and approximately 2,000 horses to the regiment.
(10) Should the artillery regiment be fully motorized the following estimates are likely:
Regimental headquarters 124 personnel Regimental train 107 personnel Three battalions (each 563) 1689 personnel Total regimental strength 1920 personnel
c. Mountain artillery (pack). (1) General. Mountain artillery regiments are similar to field artillery regiments, except that all equipment is carried on pack animals, and the companies are armed with 75-mm mountain guns instead of 75-mm field pieces. Strengths are increased so that the regimental totals are about 3000 to 3400 officers and men with thirty-six 75-mm mountain guns. Some mountain artillery regiments may include a battalion of 105-mm pack (mountain) howitzers. Existence of such a weapon has been reported but not confirmed.
(3) Strength analysis (estimate only).
(a) Regimental Headquarters. 150 men. 1. Administrative Section. 15 men. 2. Headquarters operational group. 135 men. Observation platoon 60 Wire (L/T) section 50 Radio (W/T) section 25 (b) Regimental train. 310 men. (c) Three battalions (each 980). 2,940 men. 1. Battalion headquarters. 100 men. 1. Administrative section 10 2. Headquarters operational group 90 2. Battalion train. 234 men. 3. Three gun companies (each 218). Company headquarters 60 Company train 42 2 gun platoons (each 55) 110
(4) Regimental equipment. There is a total of thirty-six 75-mm mountain guns.
d. Mixed field artillery regiment. (1) General. The field artillery regiment normally consists of a headquarters and train and 3 battalions of 75-mm field guns or 105-mm howitzers. When horse-drawn, the regiment numbers approximately 2,380 officers and enlisted men. This figure will decrease with the degree of motorization.
(3) Equipment. There is a total of twelve 75-mm field guns and twenty-four 105-mm howitzers.
e. The medium artillery battalion. This battalion consists of a headquarters (divided into an administrative staff and a headquarters operational group) and 3 companies of four 150-mm howitzers. Its total personnel strength is about 950, and there are 769 horses.
f. Artillery in the strengthened divisions. (1) The artillery element in strengthened divisions consists of an artillery group, composed of the artillery group headquarters, a regiment of field artillery containing 75-mm and 105-mm weapons, and a medium artillery battalion of 150-mm howitzers. Other independent artillery and antiaircraft units may be assigned or attached. The artillery group is under command of either a major general or a colonel.
(2) Artillery group headquarters. An artillery group headquarters consists of approximately 160 officers and enlisted men. It includes a staff, a small guard, and a train, and an observation-balloon platoon also may be included. The functions of the group headquarters are to command the organic artillery of the division and unify control of attached artillery.
12. DIVISION CAVALRY. a. General. Each infantry division normally contains either one cavalry or one reconnaissance regiment or unit. Within both the standard and the strengthened divisions, the regimental cavalry is organized basically along the same lines. However, within the modified strengthened division there is a marked difference of organization; accordingly, a separate detailed organization has been shown for the modified cavalry regiment. Also within this division, unlike the other two, there does not appear to be a reconnaissance regiment as an alternative for the cavalry regiment.
b. The cavalry regiment. (1) General. The division cavalry regiment consists of a headquarters and train, 3 rifle and saber companies, and a machine gun company. The total strength is 950 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Equipment (estimate only).
Regimental Headquarters Rifle and Saber Company Machine Gun Company Regimental totals Rifles or carbines 200 100 500 LMGs 1 9 28 GDs 6 18 HMGs (7.7-mm) 2 4 10 20-mm AT Rifle 4 4 37-mm AT Gun 2 2 Horses 380 180 180 1,100
(4) Strength analysis. (a) Regimental headquarters. Eighty-two men. Command section 20 Signal section (mainly radio) 50 Equipment section 12 (b) Regimental train. Two hundred men. (c) Three rifle and saber companies (each 170). Total 510. Company commander 1 Company headquarters 16 (d) Three rifle and saber platoons (each 43). Total 129. Platoon commander. Liaison noncommissioned officer. 3 light machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men). 1 grenade discharger section (noncommissioned officer and 7 men). 2 grenade dischargers. (e) One machine gun platoon. Twenty-four men. Platoon commander. Liaison noncommissioned officer. Two machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men). (f) Machine gun company. One hundred fifty-eight men. Company commander 1 Company headquarters 13 1. Two machine gun platoons (each 46). Platoon commander. Liaison noncommissioned officer. 2 machine gun sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men). Two 20-mm antitank rifle sections (noncommissioned officer and 10 men). 2. One antitank gun platoon (37-mm). Twenty-seven men. Platoon commander. Observer section. Two gun sections (noncommissioned officers and 10 men).
3. Ammunition platoon. Twenty-five men. Platoon commander. 3 sections of 8 men.
c. Cavalry regiment (modified organization). (1) General. The cavalry regiment consists of a headquarters, 2 rifle and saber companies, and a machine-gun company. Total strength is about 785 officers and men.
(3) Equipment (estimates only).
Regimental Headquarters Rifle and Saber Company Machine Gun Company Regimental totals Rifles and carbines 100 100 300 LMGs 1 12 25 GDs 6 12 HMGs (7.7-mm) 6 6 20-mm AT Rifles 6 6 Horses 349 191 200 831
d. Reconnaissance regiment. (1) General. Reconnaissance units are divisional cavalry troops and may be used as an alternative to a cavalry regiment. The reconnaissance regiment consists of a headquarters, 1 cavalry company, 2 motorborne companies, 1 armored car (or tankette) company, and 1 motor-truck company. The total strength is about 730 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Equipment (estimates only). Totals Rifles or carbines 260 Light machine guns 28 Heavy machine guns 4 37-mm or 47-mm antitank guns 4 Grenade dischargers 16 Light armored cars or tankettes 7 Other vehicles 61 Horses 188
13. DIVISION TANK UNIT. a. General. Only the strengthened divisions contain an organic tank unit equipped with light and medium tanks. The majority of Japanese divisions, however, will be found to have tankettes, either in the infantry group tankette company or in the reconnaissance regiment. Division tank units are believed to have about 20 light tanks and 48 medium tanks, with some of these held in reserve within the combat train. The unit consists of a headquarters, one light-tank company, two medium-tank companies, and a combat train. There are about 80 trucks included in the train.
c. Strength analysis. Totals Headquarters 100 Light tank company 86 2 medium tank companies (each 141) 282 Combat train 250 Tank unit--total 718 d. Equipment. Light tanks 20 Medium tanks 48 Trucks 80
14. ENGINEERS. a. The three-company regiment. (1) General. The engineer regiment of a division is normally composed of a headquarters, three companies, and a regimental material platoon. The total strength is 900 to 1. 000 men. Division engineers include among their personnel men trained in tank trap construction, demolition work, and small river crossing operations. The 3 companies of the regiment do not specialize in one particular aspect of engineering, but are designed for sub-allotment, one to each infantry regiment, to fulfill their ordinary engineer requirement. If extensive engineer tasks, such as large scale bridging operations, have to be carried out. specialized engineer units are attached for the purpose. (2) Organization.
(3) Regimental headquarters consists of a colonel or lieutenant colonel in command and 4 to 6 other officers; it has a total of approximately 100 officers and enlisted men. It is divided into various sections charged with signal, medical, intendance, ordnance, and supply duties. The men are armed with rifles, and it is estimated that the armament of the regiment includes 6 each of light machine guns, grenade dischargers, mortars, and flame throwers.
(4) Companies are commanded by captains or first lieutenants and are composed of company headquarters, 4 platoons, and a material section. The headquarters is believed to total about 25 men. Platoons usually are commanded by second lieutenants and are divided into 4 sections each. A platoon consists of about 50 men. The material section carries tools and other equipment, with pack and draft sections; its strength is about 25 men. The total company strength is about 250 men.
(5) The regimental material platoon comprises a headquarters and 2 sections, with a total of 50 to 100 men. Equipment may include 15 motor trucks and various construction implements.
b. Two-company regiments. Some divisions may have two-company engineer regiments. The company consists of a headquarters, 4 platoons, and a material section; its total strength is about 240 men with 20 horses. Included as well, is a regimental headquarters and a material platoon, bringing the strength of the regiment to about 600 men.
c. Engineer units. These are few in number; they sometimes appear as components of the small-sized, special type divisions. The commanding officer is a captain. Little information has been received to indicate the numerical strength and composition of such units, but it has been reported to consist of a headquarters and 3 platoons of 4 sections each.
15. MEDICAL. a. General. The Japanese division medical service is an extensive one and includes a medical unit, 3 to 5 field hospitals, and a water purification unit. In addition, other components of the division include a number of medically trained personnel. A reason for this extensive organization is probably the Japanese principle of keeping their casualties as far forward as possible in -order to facilitate their quick return to fighting units. Another factor which the Japanese may consider a compensation for the size of their medical organization is that a large proportion of the personnel in medical units are reported to be armed, and instances of their employment as fighting troops are known.
c. Medical unit. The medical unit consists of a headquarters and train and 3 collecting companies of 3 stretcher platoons and 1 ambulance platoon each. The medical unit, with a personnel strength of 700 to 1,000, is equipped with about 180 litters and 45 ambulances. The collecting companies each have about 20 litters and 15 ambulances. Headquarters train has additional carts for loading medical supplies and patients' clothing, as well as for chemical warfare decontamination material.
d. Field hospitals. (1) General. Each field hospital, with its required train,has a personnel of about 250 and is organized to accommodate 500 patients. It may be motorized, pack, or draft. The medical personnel of the field hospitals is under direction of the chief medical officer of the division. Although divisions are known to have 4, and sometimes 5, field hospitals in their organization, only 3 are usually identified as active in combat zones. The fourth, sometimes called the field reserve hospital, has been identified functioning as a convalescent and evacuation station on the line of communications.
e. Water purification unit. These units normally have a personnel strength of 50 to 150. They are equipped with material for supply and purification of water for the division, and are charged with prevention of infectious diseases.
f. Medical personnel in division units. Medical officers are attached to units of all arms on the approximate scale of three per battalion or equivalent unit. In addition, the battalion medical officer usually is assisted by two medical service noncommissioned officers, while medical service orderlies are attached to sub-units on an average of one to a platoon.
16. TRANSPORT. a. General. The transport regiment has two battalions which may be draft, pack, or motorized. Regimental strength varies between 1,800 and 2,800. About one-third of the personnel may be equipped with rifles.
b. Organization. (1) A standard division transport regiment is believed to be composed of a headquarters, one motor battalion, and one draft battalion. The draft battalion will be made up of three or four companies, with each company divided into three transport platoons, each of which in turn is divided into three sections. The motor battalion is believed to be made up of a headquarters and two or three truck companies, each of three platoons, with each platoon divided into three sections.
(2) Each truck company is estimated at 150 men. Some motor battalions may include a road maintenance company of 125, and an armored car transport company of 50 men. These units are in addition to the truck companies. The truck company has about 50 vehicles. Truck capacity is about 1 1/2 tons. The draft company has 250 single-horse, 2-wheeled, transportation carts, each with a capacity of 400 to 500 pounds.
(3) Evidence is available that a division transport regiment also could be composed of a headquarters, 8 draft companies, and a veterinary detachment. Each of the draft companies approximates 350 officers and enlisted men and is divided into 3 transport platoons and a combat platoon. Two pack-horse companies may be substituted for one draft company. A pack horse company, consisting of approximately 450 officers and men, is similar in organization to the draft company. It has about 300 pack-horses, each with an average loading capacity of 200 pounds.
(4) In an eight-company draft regiment, typical supply columns are loaded as follows:
I Small arms ammunition 1 company and 1 platoon II Artillery ammunition 2 companies and 1 platoon III Chemical warfare 1 platoon IV Rations and forage 4 companies
17. VETERINARY UNIT. Each division has as part of its organization a veterinary unit of from 50 to 100 officers and enlisted men. It probably
consists of a veterinary hospital staff with individual sections assigned during combat to the various divisional units.
18. ORDNANCE UNIT. Divisions also have ordnance personnel assigned from the technical service. The unit consists of 50 to 200 officers and enlisted men depending on the size of the division.
19. CHEMICAL WARFARE UNIT. a. Available evidence indicates that only the strongest divisions have an organic decontamination unit. Such a unit is divided into three platoons, each of three sections, and a unit train. The first two platoons, which are apparently similar in organization, have a number of armored transport vehicles and trailers for decontaminated roads and other areas. The third platoon has decontamination cars for handling contaminated clothing and equipment, while the three-section wagon train carries the necessary equipment and reserve clothing.
b. The decontamination unit may be either motorized or pack; basic organizations of each type are similar. If motorized, the unit's total strength approximates 150; a pack unit will have a personnel of about 250.
c. No gas or decontamination units are known to exist in other type divisions. However, picked personnel in all units have been designated as "gas personnel" and are responsible for decontamination in addition to their regular duties. This personnel also can be formed into special "smoke" companies for the laying of smoke screens, and it is probable that in some cases they are capable of handling chemical warfare agents as well.
20. TANK GROUPS (ARMORED DIVISIONS). a. General. A number of reports have been received of the existence of tank groups (Senshadan). These are believed to consist of 3 or 4 tank regiments plus a signal and engineer unit. (For the organization of a tank regiment, see sec. II, par. 3a (1). ) Other evidence indicates that the Japanese may have formed armored divisions, of which the tank groups may be the nucleus.
b. Organization. Organization of such an armored division has been described as follows:
Strengths Personnel Vehicles Headquarters 200 30 Infantry unit, motorized 3,800 475 3 tank regiments (about 250 tanks) 2,550 640 Artillery unit 650 100 Eight 105-mm guns. Four 155-mm howitzers. Antitank unit (eighteen 47-mm A/T) 500 70 Antiaircraft unit (four 75-mm) 175 25 A/A Machine-gun unit (sixteen 20-mm) 300 50 Engineer unit 500 60 Transport unit 1,500 350 Medical unit 285 50 Total 10,500 1,850
21. GROUPS, BRIGADES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. a. General. The Japanese have several varieties of organizations, all of which have been designed to fit particular operational conditions and requirements.
b. Cavalry groups and cavalry brigades. (1) General. Japanese cavalry groups consist of two cavalry brigades, signal units, and trains.
(2) Organization of cavalry brigade.
(3) Antiaircraft and antitank units have also been reported as forming part of these brigades. The total strength of the cavalry brigade has been reported to be about 5,000 to 6,000.
c. Independent infantry groups. The normal infantry group is sometimes found to be independent--that is, it has three infantry regiments without supporting arms and services.
d. Independent infantry brigades. In addition to the infantry brigades assigned to the "special" division (see fig. 14) the Japanese have a number of independent infantry brigades. These brigades consist of four independent infantry battalions and a signal unit. Their estimated strength is 4,900.
e. Independent mixed brigades. (1) General. The Japanese independent mixed brigades, as they were formed in China in 1937-38 for garrison and anti-guerrilla duties, are believed to be organized as follows:
The battalions consist of 3 or 4 companies, and their strength has been reported to be about 700 to 900 men. Other units are thought to be comparatively small. The total strength of these brigades has been variously reported at between 6,000 to 10,000 men. Several of these independent mixed brigades recently have been converted into infantry divisions, and it is believed that this process of conversion still may be in operation.
(2) Independent mixed brigades (motorized). At about the time of the outbreak of the present war the Japanese began to form independent mixed
brigades for a different purpose from those which existed in China. These brigades were shock troops and included tanks, antiaircraft guns, and medium artillery. The infantry element was an infantry regiment of three battalions each of four companies. At least one of these brigades is known to have been motorized. Its organization follows:
f. Amphibious brigades. (1) General. A new type of unit has recently made its appearance. It is composed of a headquarters and 3 battalions and its strength is about 3,200. A battalion described by the Japanese follows:
The rifle companies were composed of three rifle platoons, of five sections each, a trench mortar platoon, and a heavy weapons platoon. The trench mortar company consisted of three platoons of four sections each, while the gun company had three mountain and two antitank guns. The 1st Amphibious Brigade had supporting artillery tank, engineer, machine cannon, and signal units directly under brigade headquarters, bringing total personnel strength to about 4,000. The brigade was commanded by a major general.
22. BORDER AND INDEPENDENT GARRISON UNITS. a. Border garrisons. Border garrisons are commanded either by major generals or colonels and vary in size. No. 1 Border Garrison, for example, is divided into four sectors, each under the command of a colonel. Each sector contains an infantry unit, an artillery unit, and an engineer unit. Most of the other border garrisons are not subdivided into sectors and contain only the three units, the infantry and artillery units being commanded by lieutenant colonels, and the engineer units by captains. It may be assumed that these infantry units are roughly equivalent to battalions. At present all the border garrisons are located in Manchuria.
b. Independent garrisons. Independent garrison units usually are commanded by major generals, although one or two are commanded by colonels. They contain three or four infantry battalions, but apparently no supporting arms or services. They are employed in rear areas.
23. FORTRESSES. a. General. The coastal defense fortresses in the Japanese Empire are to be found in Japan Proper, Korea, Formosa, the Bonin Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, the Pescadores, and Manchuria. These fortresses are commanded by officers ranging from lieutenant general to colonel, according to importance of the fortress. The fortress commander is responsible either to the commander of the army district or to the army commander in the area concerned. Fortification construction comes under the Fortifications Directorate which is responsible to the Chief of Staff.
b. Organization. The normal organization of fortresses is believed to be--
One heavy artillery regiment or battalion.
One or more infantry battalions.
Construction and port engineers.
Armament includes coastal guns ranging from 4. 7-inch to 12-inch caliber. It is probable that there are also 14- and 16-inch guns in some units
c. The following are Japanese fortified zones:
Name of fortress Area Rank of commanding officer Division or army command Amami Oshima Ryukyus Colonel Western Dist. Army. Chichijima Bonins Major general Eastern Dist. Army. Chinkai Bay Korea Major general Korean Army. Eiko Bay Korea Colonel Western Dist. Army. Funauke Ryukyus Colonel Western Dist. Army. Hoyo Japan Western Dist. Army. Iki Japan Major general Western Dist. Army. Keelung Formosa Major general Formosan Army. Maizuru Japan Colonel Central Dist. Army. Nagasaki Japan Major general Western Dist. Army. Nakagusuku Bay Ryukyus Colonel Western Dist. Army. North Kuriles Japan Colonel Northern Area Army. Pescadores Off Formosa Major general Port Arthur Manchuria Lt. General Kwangtung Army.
Name of fortress Area Rank of commanding officer Division or army command Rashin Korea Major general Korean Army. Reisui Korea Colonel Korean Army. Shimonoseki Japan Lt. general Western Dist. Army. Sova Hokkaido Lt. colonel Northern Area Army. Takao Formosa Formosan Army. Tokyo Bay Japan Lt. general Eastern Dist. Army. Tsugaru-Hakodate Japan Major general Northern Area Army. Tsushima Japan Western Dist. Army. Yura Japan Colonel Central Dist. Army.
Section II. Arms (Nondivisional)
a. Independent infantry regiments and battalions. (1) General. The independent infantry regiment or battalion basically will be the same unit as that shown under divisional infantry, modified to perform such special duties as may be required.
(2) Independent mixed regiments. A few units known as independent mixed regiments exist. It is believed that they are independent infantry regiments into which small elements of artillery, engineers, etc., have been incorporated.
b. Independent infantry mortar units. (1) General. There are two types of mortar units, the infantry mortar units (Hakugeki tai), and the artillery mortar unit (Kyuho tai). The former, commanded by infantry officers, are mobile units; the latter, commanded by artillery officers, are probably siege, or heavy, semifixed, defense units. It is possible that the independent infantry mortar regiment is largely an administrative or training unit, for only independent battalions so far have been encountered in the field.
(2) Organization. The independent infantry mortar battalion is organized as follows:
The total strength of the battalion is approximately 900 men, and its armament 36 mortars.
a. The cavalry regiment. The nondivisional cavalry regiment is believed to consist of a headquarters with a signal section, ammunition train and transport, four rifle and saber companies, and a machine-gun company. The organization of rifle and saber companies is identical with that of the division cavalry regiment. The machine-gun company has four platoons, of two machine guns each, and a fifth platoon with eight antitank guns. This type of regiment is found in the independent cavalry brigades.
a. Tank regiment. These units have been reported to have a headquarters, 3 or 4 companies, a regimental ammunition train, and a total strength of 800 to 850 men equipped with 85 to 95 light and medium tanks.
(2) Variant. There are indications that a different organization for the regiment exists, consisting of a headquarters, 1 light-tank company (10 light tanks), 2 medium-tank companies (each with 10 medium tanks and 2 light tanks), and a regimental train. The total strength is estimated at 700 officers and enlisted men with approximately 60 tanks.
b. Cavalry-brigade tank unit. Cavalry-brigade tank units are reported to consist of a headquarters, 2 companies of light tanks, and a unit train. The companies are of 3 platoon each and include 10 light tanks and a company ammunition train. The unit ammunition train carries chemical warfare material and has 6 reserve light tanks. The total personnel strength of the unit is about 350 officers and enlisted men equipped with 30 tanks. There are about 80 trucks included in the trains.
c. Independent mixed-brigade tank unit. The organization of this type unit is believed to include a headquarters, 3 light-tank companies, 1 medium-tank company, 1 light-armored-car company, and a combat train. It is reported to have a total of about 20 medium and 65 light tanks, 25 armored cars, and a personnel strength of about 970 men.
d. Independent tank companies. Reports have been received of independent tank companies. These may be tank companies, either light or medium, detached from a tank regiment for temporarily independent operations.
e. Independent light-armored-car (tankette) companies. These independent companies are divided into two categories by the Japanese, one type being listed as Sokosha (armored vehicle) companies and the second as Keisokosha (light armored vehicle) companies. it is possible that both types are equipped with armored cars, but it is believed that tankettes have been substituted for those vehicles. In either case the company is believed to number approximately 130 officers and enlisted men, divided into a headquarters, four platoons, and a company train, with 17 tankettes or armored cars.
a. Field artillery. A few independent field artillery regiments and battalions have been identified. Their organization is believed to be similar to that of the field artillery regiment or battalion in the standard divisions, except that the regiment may have only two battalions.
b. Mountain artillery. These units are organized into independent regiments and battalions.
(1) The regiment. The regiment is commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel. It consists of a headquarters, a regimental train, 2 battalions (each with three companies), and a battalion train. The regimental strength is approximately 2,500 officers and enlisted men. A regiment seen in action operated approximately 1,500 strong, although it had left most of its horses and large parts of its train in rear areas. Units were as follows:
(a) Regimental headquarters and field train originally consisted of about 750 officers and enlisted men; battalion headquarters of approximately 230 officers and enlisted men.
(b) Each company had approximately 185 officers and enlisted men, divided into 2 gun platoons and an ammunition platoon. The first gun platoon had 2 guns while the second had only 1 gun and a pioneer squad. (Normal armament is believed to be four guns to a company.)
(c) The battalion field train had about 140 officers and enlisted men. (Overstrength in headquarters was presumably attributable to he necessity of manhandling the equipment.)
(2) The battalion. The independent mountain artillery battalion is believed to be identical with the battalion of the independent regiment. It has a total strength of some 925 officers and enlisted men. In operations the strength has fallen as low as 500.
c. Medium artillery. (1) The regiment. There are several types of medium artillery regiments in the Japanese Army. One type of unit encountered was organized into a regimental headquarters; a regimental train; and 2 battalions, each of 3 firing companies and a train. The regiment was equipped with 24 tractor-drawn Type "96" 150-mm. howitzers and number approximately 1,500 officers and enlisted men.
(3) Variants. It is likely that other regiments are equipped throughout with 105-mm. guns, or are mixed and have one battalion of guns and one of howitzers. The 105-mm. gun battalion has been reported to have only two companies of four guns each.
(4) Figures of strength for medium artillery regiments equipped with the older horse-drawn 150-mm. howitzer would necessarily be higher than those quoted above and might be expected to approximate 2,300 officers and enlisted men.
(5) The battalion. Medium artillery also is organized into independent battalions. The organization and armament of such units probably approximates that of the battalion of the regiment.
d. Heavy artillery. (1) General. Japanese heavy artillery units fall into two categories, mobile and fixed. Some fixed heavy artillery units were designed originally to fulfill a coast defense role for the Japanese Empire. Some, however, also are located to protect strategic centers farther afield.
(2) Organization. The following four types of heavy artillery regiment organization have been reported, but the details are not confirmed.
- Headquarters and train.
2 companies, four 240-mm. howitzers.
Total regiment 1,533 men, sixteen 240-mm. howitzers, 95 motor vehicles.
2 companies, four 240-mm. howitzers, tractor-drawn.
Regimental ammunition train.
Total regiment 789 men, eight 240-mm. howitzers, tractor-drawn, 167 motor vehicles (includes 52 tractors).
2 companies, two 300-mm. mortars.
Total regiment 623 men, four 300-mm. mortars, 40 vehicles.
2 companies, four 150-mm. guns.
Total regiment, 637 men, eight 150-mm. guns, tractor-drawn, 115 vehicles.
e. Antiaircraft artillery. (1) General. Japanese antiaircraft artillery is organized into brigades, regiments, battalions, and companies. In addition there are searchlight and other miscellaneous units.
(2) The brigade. These are apparently assigned one to each district army. They are commanded by general officers and composed of two or more antiaircraft regiments.
(3) The regiment. The regiment is believed to consist of two battalions, a company of light antiaircraft and a searchlight battalion.
(4) The battalion. The antiaircraft battalion has alternative organizations; one giving it a main armament of eighteen 75-mm. guns, and the other twelve 75-mm. guns. (It is believed that some units may be equipped with larger caliber antiaircraft guns.)
- The 18-gun battalion.
- This battalion consists of a headquarters, 3 firing companies and a battalion train. Tabular strength of the unit is approximately 575 officers and enlisted men, with eighteen 75-mm. antiaircraft guns and 6 to 9 machine guns.
- The battalion is commanded by a lieutenant colonel; headquarters and train number some 155 officers and enlisted men. It had been found, however, that these units may enter operations overstrength, the reason for this addition being apparently the inclusion of an extra number of antiaircraft machine guns. Thus one battalion headquarters and train operated with 210 officers and enlisted men equipped with 16 machine guns.
- Strength for the company is approximately 140 with an armament of six 75-mm. antiaircraft guns and 2 machine guns. These units also have been seen in operations well overstrength and with additional machine guns.
- The 12-gun battalion. The organization of this unit is similar to that outlined above, except that each platoon has only two 75-m. guns, thereby reducing the battalion armament to 12 guns. Its total strength is estimated at 400 officers and men.
(5) The independent (heavy) antiaircraft company. These companies are similar in organization to those of the battalions. They may have either four or six 75-mm. guns and include a train.
(6) The machine cannon company.
- General. The machine cannon company normally consists of a headquarters, 3 platoons, and a train. Its strength, when motorized, is 160 men, and it has six 20-mm. machine cannon and six 13-mm machine guns. The units also may be horse-drawn or pack, in which cases the strength would be appropriately increased.
Variants. There are variants of the above organization. The company may consist of 4 platoons with 2 machine cannons in each of the first 3 platoons, and 6 machine guns in the fourth platoon. Alternatively, the armament of the unit may be increased from 12 to 16 weapons and the strength to 200.
(7) Field searchlight battalion. The battalion is composed of a headquarters and 2 searchlight companies each of which is divided into a company headquarters and 2 platoons. The platoons are divided into 3 sections each equipped with a searchlight and a sound locator. All equipment is carried on trucks. The total strength is about 450 men, 12 searchlights, 12 sound locators, 50 motor vehicles.
(8) Independent searchlight companies. These units are organized similarly to the company of the battalion.
(9) Other antiaircraft units. Antiaircraft observation units and barrage balloon units are known to exist, but details of their organization are not available. Certain units are listed as field air defense units. They appear to be in the nature of group or higher organization headquarters, controlling all antiaircraft defense in a selected area, and have under their command antiaircraft battalions or companies, machine cannon units, searchlight units, and possibly barrage balloon or antiaircraft observation units. Their size will depend entirely upon the situation and the guns and equipment available. The larger units are commanded by major generals or colonels.
(10) Independent mortar regiments and battalions (artillery). In addition to the independent "infantry" mortar regiments and battalions described in paragraph 1 b, there are other independent mortar regiments and battalions which are commanded by artillerymen and probably are artillery units. The regiments may be composed of a headquarters and 2 or more battalions. The battalions are commanded by majors or captains and probably are divided into 3 companies.
(11) Shipping artillery. Japanese shipping artillery regiments are designed to afford transports and other shipping protection from attack by aircraft or submarines. The regiment normally is composed of a headquarters and 12 companies, but the 2 regiments encountered have included 6 or more additional companies. Tabular organization calls for about 2,300 men to the regiment and about 190 men per company; operating strengths have been about 150 men per company. Companies include antiaircraft gun companies (six 75-mm. AA guns each), 75-mm. field artillery companies (four 75-mm. field guns each), and machine cannon companies (six 20-mm. machine cannons). They are organized into headquarters, including observation and signal squads, gun platoons, and gun squads. Units usually are broken up to operate in small detachment. Two field artillery gun sections and two machine cannon sections frequently are assigned as the complement of small army transports.
(12) Artillery intelligence units (sound and flash).
- General. The regiment is commanded by a lieutenant colonel and is divided into a headquarters group, a survey unit, a plotting unit, and a sound detector unit. When horse-drawn, it is believed to number approximately 675 officers and men.
Observation balloon regiments and companies. The Japanese are known to have balloon regiments and companies, and such units were employed to give artillery observation during the final assault on Singapore. A motorized balloon company is reported to have a strength of approximately 145 personnel, 23 motor vehicles, and 1 observation balloon.
a. General. Apart from the antitank units included in infantry organizations, there are a number of independent antitank gun battalions and companies as well as cavalry brigade antitank units. Antiaircraft units, especially machine cannon companies, are designed to fulfill a dual-purpose role.
b. Independent antitank battalion. (1) General. The battalion is an 18-gun unit, with a
strength of about 500 officers and men. It has been seen to operate with as few as 350. It may be motorized, horse-drawn, or pack.
(2) Organization (motorized).
Commanding officer Headquarters 55 officers -- 45 men. Headquarters section 4 officers -- 21 men. Transport section 24 men. 3 Independent antitank companies 5 officers -- 121 men, six 37- or 47-mm. AT guns, 15 vehicles. Headquarters section 1 officer -- 20 men. 3 gun platoons 1 officer -- 24 men, two 37- o 47-mm. AT guns. 2 gun squads 11 men, one 37- or 47-mm. AT gun. 1 ammunition platoon 10 officers -- 29 men. 1 Battalion ammunition train 1 officer -- 61 men.
(3) Its total strength is 490 men and it has eighteen 37- or 47-mm. AT guns, and 67 motor vehicles. The above personnel figure should be increased for horse-drawn or pack units.
c. Independent antitank company. The independent company is 6- or 8-gun unit, and, as in the case of the battalion, it may be motorized, horse-drawn, or pack. the organization of the 8-gun unit is shown below.
(1) As a pack unit, the company has 250 men, eight 37-mm. guns, 2 light machine guns, 5 riding horses and 76 pack horses. As a horse-drawn unit, the armament would be similar, but the exact strength figure is unknown.
(2) As a motorized unit, the company might number 180 to 200 and be armed with eight 37-mm. or 47-mm guns.
(3) Six-gun units are generally similar, with strength decreased proportionately.
d. Cavalry brigade antitank unit. The antitank unit of the cavalry brigade consists of three firing platoons, each of two 37-mm. or 47-mm. guns, and an ammunition platoon. The total strength is about 140 officers and men with six 37-mm. or 47-mm. guns.
a. Engineer groups. These are administrative units commanded by a general officer. They supervise engineer activity and control independent engineer units in a theater of operations.
b. Independent engineer regiments. These units are often attached to divisions in the field. They are divided into the following six different types according to the principal function they fulfill:
They are similar in general organization, consisting of a regimental headquarters, 3 companies, and a materiel platoon. The tabular strength of each is approximately 1,000 men. The commanding officer is a colonel or lieutenant colonel. Companies are composed of 4 platoons of 4 or more squads each and average 250 to 300 men. The number of motor trucks varies. Personnel carry rifles and probably some light machine guns. it has been noted that regiments are prepared to undertake special duties other than those for which they are designated.
Type Function 'A' KO Open warfare. 'B' OTSU Position warfare. 'C' HEI Heavy bridge building. 'D' BO Shipping-landing operations. 'E' TEI River crossing. 'F' KI Attacking pillboxes and special firing positions
c. Independent engineer battalions. These are known to exist. They are commanded by lieutenant colonels or majors.
d. Independent engineer companies. These units consist of a headquarters and 2 platoons of 3 or 4 sections each. One unit had an operational strength of approximately 165 officers and men.
e. Field road construction units. These are engineer troops organized into a unit of a headquarters and 2 or 3 companies. Duties are general construction, particularly of roads and airfields. Units are commanded by lieutenant colonels and majors; companies are estimated to have about 125 officers and enlisted men.
f. Bridge-building and river-crossing material companies. These units consist of personnel and equipment for bridge building and river crossings. Strengths vary from 250 to 600, depending upon whether they are draft or motorized.
g. Construction-duty companies. (See shipping units, anchorages, sec. III, par 2 c., p. 50.)
CHEMICAL WARFARE. a. The Japanese are known to have a chemical warfare service and
organized chemical warfare units. The division units previously have been discussed (see p. 1/m). Besides these, gas battalions and independent gas companies are known to exist. The Japanese have used sternutatory or suffocating gas in China. They have established factories for poison gas manufacture, developed antigas measures, and issued an efficient gas mask to their services. They, therefore, should be considered capable of gas warfare.
b. Picked personnel from all Japanese units are trained in decontamination and antigas work. Although normally acting as regular troops, such personnel are specially equipped to carry out chemical warfare duties; upon occasion they may be formed into temporary smoke (gas) units for the conduct of offensive chemical warfare. it is estimated that there are about 250 such men in an infantry regiment or its equivalent.
a. General. The Japanese Army raid-training department has experimented with airborne units, and it is probable that in addition to known parachute units some airborne troops are available for service. The Japanese have referred to an airborne force composed of a glider force and parachute force but give no details.
b. Parachute force. The parachute force has been described as composed of a headquarters, two parachute battalions, and an artillery unit. Total strength is estimated to be about 1,750.
c. Parachute battalion. The battalion is composed of a headquarters an 3 companies with a small nonflying supply section. Companies are of 3 platoons, each of 2 rifle sections and 1 heavy-weapons section. A rifle section has 6 riflemen and an antitank group. The heavy-weapons section has a heavy machine gun section of 9 men, and a cannon section of 6 men. The total strength is estimated to be about 600 to 700.
Figure 64. Organization.
Section III. Services (Nondivisional)
GENERAL. The services of the Japanese Army are:
Technical, including ordnance.
All services listed above are under control of the Ministry of War with lieutenant generals in command. Although the Japanese consider transport and signal communications as line branches, they are grouped here with the services for convenience of discussion.
TRANSPORT. Transport is divided into road (animal and mountain), railway, and water units.
Road transport units.
General. Transport regiments of depot divisions form the source of personnel for division and independent transport regiments as well as for other units requiring transport personnel.
Field transport commands. (Yasen Yusobu). These are usually commanded by major generals. They are administrative organizations probably controlling all independent transport units under an army command.
Field Motor transport depots (Yasen Jidoshasho). These are usually under command of a colonel or lieutenant colon el, except in the larger theaters of operations (Asiatic Mainland) where a major general commands. They are believed to be administrative units responsible for storage, maintenance, and control of motor transport in a given operational area.
Independent transport regiments (Horse). These are estimated to number about 3,000 officers and men. Commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel, they are composed of a headquarters and from 4 to 8 draft or pack transport companies.
Motor transport regiments. These consist of about 1,500 officers and men with 300 vehicles. They are commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel.
Independent transport battalions (horse). These are estimatated at about 1,700 officers and enlisted men and usually are commanded by majors. They are composed of a headquarters and 3 to 4 draft or pack transport companies.
Independent motor transport battalions. These are estimated at about 800 officers and enlisted men divided into a headquarters and three companies. Usually commanded by majors, they are believed to be equipped with about 150 one and one-half ton trucks.
Independent transport companies (horse). These are estimated at about 350 officers and enlisted men, and commanded by captain or first lieutenants.
They usually are equipped with about 200 to 250 single-horse, 2-wheel, transportation carts (1/4-ton).
Independent motor transport companies. Estimated at about 174 officers and men and about 50 trucks, these units are commanded by a captain or first lieutenant. They are divided into 3 platoons and a maintenance section, with the platoons consisting of 4 or 5 sections each.
Provisional transport units. Such units, formed by assigning combat or service elements other than transport to provisionally formed transport units, will be found operating behind the lines. Their size, organization, and equipment will vary depending upon their mission; after its completion they return to normal duties.
Line of communication transport supervision detachments. These consist of military and civilian personnel, whose duties are to supervise and control locally commandeered transport.
Railway commands (Tetsudo Bu), field railways (Yasen Tetsudo), special railways (Tokusetsu Tetsudo), and railway transport (Tetsudo Yuso). These units are believed to maintain, control, and coordinate rail traffic in the larger theaters. They are composed of a headquarters, one or more railway regiments, supply depots, and construction and operation units. They are commanded by general officers.
Railway regiments. The railway regiment consists of a headquarters, 4 battalions (2 companies of 4 platoons), and a supply depot. Strength is approximately 2,500 officers and enlisted men, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel. Such regiments are designed to operate and guard railways.
Armored train units. These are reported to consist of about 500 officers and enlisted men (infantry, artillery, and engineers) and to operate armored trains.
Water (shipping) Units. (Water (shipping) units are headed by a sea transport headquarters in Japan.
Branch offices, termed shipping groups, are situated at the principal base ports in theaters of operations. They control a variable number of shipping engineer regiments and debarkation units.
Shipping engineer regiments. These units are the barge operators in the Japanese Army. They are equipped with the necessary landing craft and equipment for amphibious operations and movement of supplies and men. Organizational strength approximates 1,200 officers and enlisted men, divided into a headquarters and 3 companies of several sections each. A lieutenant colonel normally commands. The regiment is equipped with 150 to 200 landing craft of all types.
Debarkation units. These include necessary personnel and equipment for the loading and unloading of transports at the more forward bases or during landing operations. Strength is estimated at 1,000 officers and enlisted men.
Shipping transport commands (headquarters). These, like shipping groups, are situated at the principal base ports, where they are responsible for the shipping installations at these bases. They also fuel vessels, store cargoes and, in conjunction with the Navy, plan and route sea transport in a given area. Size of the unit depends on the volume of shipping in the theater.
Shipping transport area units. These are variable sized units responsible for the armament and defense of vessels operating in a particular area. They control shipping ordnance, shipping antiaircraft artillery, and shipping signal units, detachments of which are assigned for the defense of intercommunication between vessels and convoys.
Anchorage units. These are believed composed of a headquarters and variable number of land duty, water duty, and construction duty companies. Respectively, these companies are probably a stevedore company of approximately 350 officers and enlisted men, a barge and lighter operations company of the same strength, and a general construction engineer company probably also of the same strength.
Shipping transport battalions. The existence of these units is known, but details of their organization are lacking. They are believed to operate small sailing and motor craft.
General. Intendance service is responsible for clothing, rations, forage, contracts, pay, and the upkeep of army buildings. It is a separate organization combining functions of the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps and Finance Department. It is under the control of the Intendance Bureau of the War Ministry. Intendance personnel are assigned to armies, divisions, and lower units, they also are found at various depots, factories, and other places requiring accounting and quartermaster services.
Field freight depots. They are to be found functioning as units or split into branches along the lines of communication of armies. Each depot is responsible for the supply of several divisions. They store and supply rations, clothing, and other supplies.
ORDNANCE (TECHNICAL SERVICE).
General. Prior to organization of the technical service (Gijutsu Bu) in 10941, ordnance duties in the Japanese Army were performed by personnel detailed from various branches, usually artillery and engineers, who functioned under general supervision of the ordnance bureau of the War Ministry. At present, however, ordnance personnel belong to the technical service. As the name implies, this service includes the various types of technicians in the army, such as gunsmiths, mechanics,, electricians, saddlers, etc., all of whom may be attached or assigned to units as required.
Functions. Ordnance personnel are responsible for providing arms, ammunition, engineer stores, and supplies not furnished by the intendance service.
Ordnance functions are discharge in the field by field ordnance depots, stationed at principal rear basses. Size of these depots will vary according to the theater of operations, and branches will be found along the lines of communications.
General. The medical service is a separate service functioning under the medical bureau of the War Ministry. In addition to divisional medical service, the following units are known to exist:
Casualty clearing stations. These are unassigned medical units with a strength of approximately 100 officers and enlisted men. They evacuate casualties from the division field hospitals to line of communication hospitals.
Line of communication hospitals. These, with a strength of about 250 officers and enlisted men, can accommodate 500 to 1,000 patients. They consist of 2 sections are usually found at rear bases or along the lines of communication.
Army hospitals. These are larger hospitals of varying size generally situated well behind forward base areas.
- Base hospitals. In each home divisional district, there are hospitals to meet the requirements of the various units in peacetime. These, as well as private and other Government hospitals, are utilized as base hospitals during wartime.
VETERINARY. This is a separate service which functions under the horse administration section, military administration bureau, of the War Ministry. A veterinary department or section is attached ot the staff of armies, area armies, divisions, and other oversea commands, while detachments operate with all units containing animals. Veterinary hospitals, with a staff of about 150 capable of handling 700 sick horses, and veterinary quarantine hospitals are found along the lines of communication or at bases.
General. Before the war the functions of the signal corps were performed by communication units of the corps of engineers. In 1941, however, an Inspectorate of Communications was set up directly subordinate to the War Department General Staff. This was tantamount to the establishment of a separate signal corps. Troops are classified as signal communication men.
The signal regiment (army signal unit).
The regiment is composed of a headquarters, several wire companies (motor, draft, or pack), several radio platoons (motor, draft, or pack), a fixed radio unit, a radio intercept unit, and a field pigeon unit.
The headquarters consists of about 120 officers and enlisted men, and includes a transport section, a repair section, and an air-ground radio section.
The wire companies' approximate strengths are 260 men draft, 320 pack, and 300 motor. They are believed to be equipped with 36 telephones and 8 telegraph instruments. The draft and pack companies carry about 35 miles of wire, while the motor companies carry 70 miles. Companies include a signal platoon, 3 maintenance platoons, and a transport platoon.
Radio platoons operate 1 radio station. They include draft, pack, or motor transportation, and are of 35 to 45 men in strength.
The fixed radio unit has a strength of about 25 officers and enlisted men and operates a long distance radio station.
The radio intercept unit is divided into a headquarters with train, an intercept unit equipped with 6 receivers, and a direction-finder unit equipped with 4 direction finders. Its strength is approximately 290 officers and enlisted men.
The pigeon unit has a headquarters of some 20 officers and men, including a train, as well as several pigeon platoons. A platoon has about 50 men and is divided into 3 sections, each equipped with 40 carrier pigeons.
Although complete signal regiments as outlined above are likely to be found operating with the larger headquarters, it will be more usual to find their individual components operating as independent units on the line of communication or with smaller organizations in the field to supplement their signal networks.
Shipping signal units are composed of a headquarters and 2 companies. Personnel is assigned to maintain radio liaison between transports and shipping establishments. Companies have a strength if about 300, while the regiment totals 635 officers and men.
The air signal unit is a company of about 320 officers and enlisted men. It is divided into 3 platoons and is employed chiefly in maintaining communications within an air brigade. The unit probably also operates direction-finder apparatus.
ARMY POSTAL SERVICE.The Japanese Army's postal system operates through networks of central, field, and branch post offices set up in forward and rear areas. APO numbers evidently are assigned to localities, rather than to units, and remain fixed. In certain instances field post offices may act as paying agencies for the army, in addition to accepting and delivering military mail and handling postal money orders and military postal savings. A free air-mail service for amy personnel is reported in operation.
JUDICIAL. The judicial (legal) service of the Japanese Army formerly was entirely in the hands of civilians attached to various units. In 1941 these civilians were commissioned in the Army, where they continue to perform their usual legal duties.
MILITARY BAND. This service furnishes the personnel for the Japanese army bands. These band do not appear to have any secondary duties.
Section IV. Military Intelligence
GENERAL. Military intelligence is a function of the 2nd Bureau, Army General Staff, headed by a major general. Intelligence of a more general nature flows to the High Command through a complex organization, at the top of which is the Intelligence Department of the Imperial General Headquarters. In a subordinate position, there is also the Central Commission for Intelligence, a coordinating body which maintains contact with all government departments and disseminates information. Intelligence received from armed forces in the field is routed through the usual military channels to the 2nd bureau of the General Staff. This purely military function resembles the system employed by other armies.
COMBAT INTELLIGENCE.Intelligence officers are assigned to army, division, and regimental staffs. While they appear to have no permanently organized units for collecting combat intelligence, geographic areas are assigned to various regular units which are made responsible for the usual items of information sought in combat intelligence. It is noteworthy that the Japanese recently have been stressing the amount of military information that can be gathered from prisoners of war and from captured documents.
THE TOKUMU KIKAN (SPECIAL SERVICE AGENCY). This agency is believed to be directly under orders of the Imperial General Headquarters and organized into units which are assigned only to armies or geographic areas. Espionage, counterespionage, propaganda, and fifth column activities, together with a measure of undercover supervision over occupied territories, appear to be principal duties of personnel of this agency. A major general was declared to be in command of the Tokumu Kikan organization at Canton in 1942. Close cooperation between the Tokumu Kikan and military police apparently can be effected when required, inasmuch as counterespionage is included among the duties of the latter. (For details of the Japanese military police service, see chapter 6.)
GENERAL.--Many indications show that the Japanese Army is in the process of reorganizing and modernizing various units. Some of this modernization program has been accomplished and it must be expected that there will be continued progress. On the other hand there are definite limitations to the speed with which equipment can be obtained and distributed, and personnel indoctrinated and trained. It is believed, therefore, that while there will be a gradual increase in the number of the stronger and more modern units, the bulk of the army will continue to be composed, as it as at present, largely of average organizations such as have been described.
Section V. REORGANIZATION
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