Chapter IV
Japanese Air Service

Section I. GENERAL

GENERAL. Japan does not have an independent Air Service. The Japanese Army Air Service is an integral part of the Army, while the Japanese Naval Air Service is organized independently as an integral part of the Navy. The Emperor, through Imperial Headquarters, controls the Japanese Army Air Service. Such control involves three agencies: The Army General Staff, The War Ministry, and the Inspector General of Aviation. The Japanese Navy Air Service also is controlled by the Emperor through Imperial Headquarters and involves three agencies: The Navy General Staff, The Navy Ministry, and Naval Aviation Headquarters. This chapter will cover the Japanese Army Air Service organization only.


1. ORGANIZATION OF THE JAPANESE HIGH COMMAND. a. Inspector General of Aviation (Rikugun Koku Sokambu). The Inspector General of Aviation is directly responsible to the Emperor for matters pertaining to air training, while in other respects he is subordinate to the "Big Three" (Chief of General Staff, Minister of War, and Inspector General of Military Training). (See chart in fig. 65.) The War Minister holds the Inspector General of Aviation responsible in matters pertaining to personnel and military administration, and the Inspector General of Aviation is responsible for operations to the Chief of the General Staff.

b. Aviation headquarters (Koku Hombu). The office of Chief of Aviation Headquarters antedates the Inspector General of Aviation by 3 years. This post is a subordinate agency under the Minister of War. The principal functions of the Aviation Headquarters agency would appear to be largely procurement and supply.

2. LOWER ECHELON ORGANIZATION OF THE JAPANESE ARMY AIR SERVICE. Air Army (Kokugun.) The Japanese Army Air Service is organized into five known Air Armies, each having clearly defined areas, and functioning

Fig 65.
Figure 65. Inter-relation of Japan's Air and Ground Armies.


as an administrative headquarters for its tactical units. The tactical organization in an Air Army is explained in paragraph 3. Coordination between air and ground forces is obtained by placing the Air Army under the command of the theater commander. This enables him to control operationally both air and ground forces.

3. TACTICAL ORGANIZATION. a. Air division (Hikoshidan). The largest tactical organization in the chain of command in the Japanese Army Air Service is known as an air division. Such a division exercises both operational and administrative control over lower air units in its command.

b. Air brigade (Hikodan). Subordinate to the air division is a tactical force known as the air brigade. There are normally two or more air brigades under the command of an air division. The air brigade is a very mobile operational organization and is flexible in its composition. It has a small headquarters, the officers of which are concerned principally with tactical operations. The usual combat strength consists of 3 or 4 air regiments with each regiment almost invariably equipped with one type of aircraft, such as fighters, light bombers, or medium bombers.

c. Air regiments (Hikosentai). The next lower unit of an air brigade is called an air regiment, three or four of which compose the strength of a brigade. The air regiment is the basic operational unit in the organization of the Japanese Army Air Service. It is composed of three or more squadrons. A squadron is called a Chutai. The actual strength or striking force in an air regiment depends upon the type of aircraft in the unit.

d. Air company (Hiko Chutai). Operational combat units in an air regiment are called air companies. The normal strength of an air company is 9 aircraft, divided into 3 sections (Hentai) of 3 aircraft each.

e. Independent air units or air companies (Dokuritsu Hikotai or Hikochutai). There is some evidence to indicate that independent air units are attached either to air armies or to the headquarters of an air division. Although several of these units have been identified, their function is not clear. It is believed that they are detailed for non-operational duty and may prepare special studies on long distance reconnaissance, meteorological flights, army cooperation, and perhaps antisubmarine patrol. Although these units have been considered non-operational, recent information would tend to indicate that such units actually may be participating in or controlling operations and may possibly be equipped with aircraft. There is also a possibility that an independent air squadron may be attached to either an air division or to air brigade headquarters. To date the evidence fails to clarify the functions of these units, but it is assumed that they are engaged in tactical reconnaissance. There is some evidence, however, that such a unit may function as ground support in cooperation with the Army, indicating apossibility that in some cases it may be an Army cooperation unit. It is assumed that the normal strength of an independent air squadron is 9 aircraft, with the possibility that these may be fighter, light bomber, medium bomber, or reconnaissance types.

f. Direct-cooperation air units (Chokkyo Hikotai). Information so far obtained fails to disclose the function of a direct-cooperation air unit, but it is assumed that these units operate either in support of ground forces or as liaison. Some of these units have been named for the district army to which they are attached.

g. Air intelligence regiment or unit (Koku Joho Rentai or Tai). Intelligence organizations have been identified: namely, the air intelligence regiment, and air intelligence units, but little is known of their functions. It is assumed that the air intelligence regiment is attached to an air division, with detachments of air intelligence units in the forward areas, and that all these units are engaged in collecting, evaluating, and disseminating intelligence as well as reporting on weather.

Fig 66. Lower Echelon Organization
Figure 66. Lower Echelon Organization.

4. SERVICE UNITS IN JAPANESE ARMY AIR FORCES. a. Air sector headquarters (Koku Chiku Shireibu). Presumably this organization is the highest level in the command of the service units in the Japanese Army Air Forces. It is assumed that each air brigade has an air sector headquarters responsible for all administration, fuel supplies, ground stores, and aircraft maintenance. This organization is comparable with


the Air Service Command in the United States Army Air Forces.

b. Airfield battalion (Hikojo Daitai). This unit is a component and subsidiary unit of the air sector headquarters. Its function is to perform ground duties for an air regiment. The organization is three-fold; an aircraft maintenance unit, a guards section, and a supply section. The maintenance section's chief function is aircraft maintenance, while the supply section is responsible for maintaining supplies and transporting them from dumps to the airfields. The purpose of the guard section is to relieve the infantry troops from the duty of protecting airfields.

c. Airfield companies (Hikojo Chutai). These units are subordinate to the air sector headquarters and perform the same function as an airfield battalion, but on a smaller scale.

d. Field airfield construction units (Yasen Hikojo Setteitai). It is known that these units do exist, but little is known of their function or organization. It is assumed that as the name implies, their principal function would be airfield construction.

e. Field air repair depots (Yasen Koku Shurisho). It is assumed that these units are organized to do third or fourth echelon aircraft repair work. Information indicates that this organization has several units or branches which make minor aircraft repairs in the forward areas.

f. Air signal regiments or units (Koku Tsushin Rentai or Tai). Signal requirements of the operational units are handled presumably by air signal regiments, air signal units, or air signal companies. Although these units exist, little information relative to their organization is known.

g. Navigational aid regiments (Kosuku Rentai). These are believed to operate control beacons, direction-finding stations, etc., and are believed to be attached to the air sector headquarters.

h. Mobile air repair section (Ido Koku Shurihan). Some of these units are known to exist, and it is assumed that they are equipped with mobile machine shops to make repairs to damaged aircraft.

5. SUPPLY. Some separate units appear to be charged with the delivery of aircraft, bombs, ammunition, etc., in bulk to operational theaters and with the repair of damaged aircraft. Practically no organizational data concerning them have been found. They are listed below in the approximate order of their importance:

Air main depot (Koku Honsho).
Air branch depot (Koku Shisho).
Air sub-depot (Koku Bunsho).
Field air depot (Yasen Kokusho).
Field air supply depot (Yasen Koku Hokyusho).
Field air replacement unit (Yasen Hoju Hikotai).
Field airfield construction unit. (Yasen Hikojo Setteitai).
Mobile air repair section (Ido Koku Shurihan).
Shipping air depot (Sempaku Kokusho).


Romanized form Translation Abbreviation Closest United States equivalent (by function)
Hentai Air Section   Flight.
Hiko Chutai Air Company   Squadron.
Hiko Sentai Air Regiment FR Group.
Hikodan Air Brigade FB Wing or division.
Hiko Shidan Air Division FU Numbered air force.
Kokugun Air Army FA Theater or allied air force (strategic and tactical).


1. GENERAL. Strategic doctrines are based upon the national policy. The strategic function of all arms is to implement the national mission by maintenance of control of all territory within the Japanese sphere of conquest. The Japanese Air Forces have been assigned a role of greatest importance in attaining these objectives.

a. Naval Air Service. The Japanese Naval Air Service was organized originally as a highly effective striking weapon, with light maneuverable aircraft of high performance characteristics that were well adapted to support swift thrusts by amphibious forces. The function of the air force in these operations was to provide cover for the task forces involved, and, by swift surprise attacks, to destroy the opposing enemy air force on the ground or in the air, thereby clearing the way for landing operations. The Naval Air Service was equipped to operate either from carriers or from land bases and frequently has undertaken the permanent defense of land areas.

b. Army Air Force. The Army Air Force has been assigned the function of providing support for the ground troops and conducting counter-air-force operations.

c. Disposition. With the completion of Japan's planned conquests in mid-1942, the Army and Naval Air Services were disposed for the strategic defense of the vast areas under her control. As the threat of war with the Soviet Union diminished, strength was reduced in Manchuria and in Japan, and distributed along the perimeter of the newly acquired Empire, apparently in accord with relatively fixed predetermined commitments. These commitments were maintained fairly consistently until early 1944, when heavy Allied pressure, brought to bear simultaneously on several fronts, forced a realignment.

d. Mobility. The Japanese have achieved great mobility for their Air Forces by the construction of


many new airfields throughout their sphere of conquest. Strength can be shifted quickly from one area to another on interior lines and. because of the availability of facilities in depth, can readily be withdrawn from sustained combat as occasion demands.

e. Strategy. It may be assumed that the ultimate strategic objective of the Japanese Air Force will be to defend Japan itself and the inner zone. Meanwhile, until the vital parts of the Empire are threatened, both Army and Navy Air Services will give support to troops and naval forces only in defensive or offensive-defensive operations up to the point where their overall strength is not seriously impaired.

f. Abandonment of perimeter defense. Consistent with this doctrine of strategic defense, the Japanese Air Forces have curtailed or abandoned the air support of ground troops at outlying points along the perimeter whenever the cost of such support has become excessive.


1. BOMBING TACTICS. a. Formations. Japanese bombing tactics exemplify certain of their natural traits; courage, indifference to losses, and adherence to preconceived plans. Bombers usually have flown in multiples of 9 in a Vof V's, although occasionally attacks have been made in line abreast, with fighters weaving about in loose escort formations. The formations encountered until the close of 1943 were 6 separate flat V's, occasionally with one or two vacancies and often with 1 plane at the rear of the apex of the V; a Vof three 9-plane V's, with the leading V50 or 100 feet above the others, changing to a slightly staggered formation of 1 Vwhen 7 or 10 miles from the bomb release point; 3 flights of 9 bombers, successively stepped up 250 feet from port to starboard, and in line with fighters weaving about the formation; two 9-plane Vof V's, with the leading echelon highest and the left echelon next highest.

b. Characteristics. Attacks were characterized by a long approach in close formation, held persistently regardless of antiaircraft fire and/or fighter opposition. Bombs usually were dropped on a signal from the leader at altitudes ranging from 7,000 to 26,000 feet, depending upon the nature of the target and the opposition. Generally, the formation was well maintained until bombs were dropped, when it was loosened up somewhat. The flights then engaged in a series of surges up and down, losing and gaining about 500 feet in altitude.

c. Reconnaissance. The Japanese usually precede long-distance bombing missions by ample air reconnaissance. Scouting aircraft communicate with the home base by radio. Before the main bombing force leaves its base, alternative objectives are designated. Airfields are given high target priority.

d. Evasion. Evasive tactics against antiaircraftfire are taken by maintaining altitude above the effective range of such fire, by occasional changes in altitude, and by weaving in formation.

e. Escort. Fighter escort on bomber missions varies according to the opposition expected and the number of fighters available. The position and escort technique of fighters protecting bomber formations constantly change. Frequently bombers are escorted by fighters above and behind the bomber formation.

f. Follow-up. Bomber operations against important targets have been characterized by repeated attacks and "follow-up" missions. Many of these attacks appear to have been made along the same route and at the same time each day, although not necessarily by the same type of formation.

g. Tactical changes. By the close of 1943 the Japanese, finding themselves on the defensive in many theaters, were obliged to change their bombing tactics. This resulted in:

(1) Virtual abandonment of daylight horizontal bombing attacks on Allied land bases or convoy with air cover.

(2) Adoption of dawn and dusk bombing by fighters, and night bombing by medium, torpedo, and dive bombers.

(3) Improved efficiency and coordination in night torpedo and bombing attacks against Allied shipping en route and at anchor in advanced bases.

2. DIVE BOMBING. a. General. Japanese dive-bombing attacks, most frequent and effective in the early months of the war, are largely directed against shipping and equipment on beachheads. The accuracy of Japanese dive bombing is not outstanding and has been affected by Allied antiaircraft fire and fighter interception. Numerous reports make it clear that damaged planes, particularly dive bombers, attempt to crash on their targets as a last resort.

b. Formations. (1) The usual Japanese dive-bombing formations are in multiples of 3 as follows: 3-plane Vs in line astern; in 6- or 9-plane Vs; in Vs of Vs. The number of dive bombers employed varies with the nature of the target; for example, larger formations are employed against naval vessels than against merchant ships. Efforts are made to saturate enemy defenses by increasing the density of attacking planes. Of late, because of Allied fighter opposition, the approach to the target has been generally at altitudes of from 12,000 to 18,000 feet. Immediately before the initial dive, which is approximately one of from 35° to almost vertical (more often dives approximating 45°), the Japanese change their formations to one of loose echelon or string. Upon this change-over, the individual dives commence in rapid succession, usually from up-sun, from areas of restricted visibility, or from coordinates exposing them to minimum antiaircraft fire. The bomb release point varies from 500 feet to as high as 3,000 feet. This release point, it is believed, is governed by the pull-out point of the lead plane


or the intensity of antiaircraft fire. It also has been noted that the bomb-release point is generally higher during dives approaching the vertical where greater speeds have been attained.

(2) When larger formations have been employed, Japanese dive bombers frequently divide their strength into smaller forces and attack a given target simultaneously from different directions.

3. GLIDE BOMBING. a.While occasional reports of dive-bombing attacks at angles of 70 to 80° have been received, the majority of attacks have been made by a powered glide at an angle of 45 to 50°.

b.Bombers begin the dive at a height of 3,000 to 5,000 feet and follow each other down until near the target before releasing their bombs. Subsequently, the planes employ their machine guns against ground installations. Retirements are effected at high speed, with evasive action usually limited to short climbs and dips. Attacks are well coordinated and usually are made out of the sun.

4.TORPEDO BOMBING. a. Daylight. Daylight torpedo bombing approaches are usually made in close formation at medium altitude. Attacks may be made in a wedge or loose diamond formation, or in small groups which separate to attack individual objectives from different directions. Glides are made at an angle of 40 to 45°, and torpedoes are dropped from an altitude of 200 to 300 feet at a range from 500 to 1,200 yards from the target. Approaches are planned from the direction where the least concentration of antiaircraft fire may be expected. Full advantage is taken of the position of the sun and cloud formations.

b. Night. Night torpedo attacks (including dawn and dusk) were greatly developed by the Japanese in 1943 and followed a nearly uniform pattern. Reconnaissance planes drop variously colored flares to reveal the course of the convoy and to identify targets by types. Torpedo planes then attack singly, with the bulk of the force coming from one direction, while a few attempt to approach from another course. The attackers skim the surface of the water; drop their torpedoes at less than 1,000 yards; and perform S curves, dips, and rises for evasion on the way out.

5. FIGHTER TACTICS. a. General. Japanese fighter tactics against Allied fighters and bombers necessarily vary both with the number and type of aircraft encountered, the conditions under which attacks are executed, and the skill and ability of the Japanese pilots.

b. Formations. (1) The Japanese fighter tactical unit is normally a squadron of nine planes, subdivided into three flights in either Vor echelon formation. Formerly, a Vof three fighter aircraft was employed, flanked by echelons of two fighters. Fighter formations usually fly at altitudes of 15,000 to 20,000 feet, but are believed to operate effectively at altitudes of 27,000 feet or higher.

(2) The last months of 1943 showed a trend towards Japanese adoption of the standard United States Air Force basic fighter formations, consisting of two-plane sections and four-plane flights. Considerable coordination between planes and sections is evident, with sections fighting in pairs and alternating in attack.

c. Characteristics of fighter tactics. (1) The Japanese fighter pilots usually work with, and believe in, high cover. Their flights frequently take off about 1/2 hour apart, so that when one flight has exhausted its fuel a second flight can take over.

(2) Individual Japanese pilots seldom engage Allied formations or even single aircraft; usually they require numerical superiority before they will attack.

d. Deception. Deceptive tactics of various kinds have been extensively employed by Japanese fighters in efforts to lure Allied aircraft out of formations. Fake "dogfights have been staged, and decoy tactics have been employed with one plane at a low altitude protected by others flying as high cover.

e. Avoidance of head-on attacks. Head-on attacks against Allied fighters generally were avoided until after increased armor was installed in Japanese fighters. Frequently attacks against Allied fighters have been made from above and the side, and, if possible, out of the sun. Evasive tactics were characterized by abrupt and violent skids, turns, and rolls. Japanese fighter pilots attempted to draw their opponent up into a steep climb and into stalling position, after which they would do a quick wing-over or snap-loop back on their opponent's tail. By late 1943, the favorite evasive maneuver of Japanese fighters was a Split "S." This is a downward half snap-roll followed by a pull-out to normal flight, thus obtaining a 180° change in direction with loss of altitude.

f. Attack on bombers. According to reports Japanese fighter attacks against Allied heavy bombers come from all directions, with a decreasing trend in frontal attacks. They have attacked Allied bombers from 10 to 2 o'clock and at both 9 and 3 o'clock positions. Frequently these attacks have been coordinated by two fighters on each side; one comes in above the wing and one passes below, each peeling off to rake the fuselage of Allied aircraft.

g. Characteristics of attacks on bombers. (1) The degree of coordination achieved by Japanese fighters varies greatly. In many cases attacks are not coordinated, and at other times a high degree of coordination has been attained. Reports from the Southwest Pacific Area indicate a trend towards greater coordination in frontal and waist attacks.

(2)The Japanese rely to a great extent on the maneuverability of their planes, and while their tendency towards acrobatics has steadily diminished, the variety of the types of attacks employed has commensurately increased.

(3)Japanese fighters are particularly observant of any damage inflicted on Allied bombers and are quick to take all possible advantage of it. Stragglers


are a favorite target for concentrated attacks, and, when a tight formation is maintained by Allied bombers, attacks are usually concentrated on the leader. However, Japanese fighter pilots are not consistent in the degree to which their attacks are pressed home.

6. JAPANESE NIGHT FIGHTERS. a.During 1943 Allied heavy bombers, operating at night over enemy bases in New Britain and the Upper Solomons, encountered increased fighter opposition as the Japanese concentrated greater efforts on night interceptions in order to oppose these bombardment missions. Generally, Japanese night fighters have been sighted at 10,000 feet or above that level.

b.The trend of employment of Japanese night fighters suggests a continued interest in this phase of interception and may indicate an increasing development of technique.

7. AIR ATTACKS ON AIRFIELDS. a.Ananalysis of Japanese attacks on Allied airfields shows distinct changes in the methods employed. It is believed that these changes do not result from the development of improved tactics but were forced on the enemy by the increased strength of Allied air interception and ground defenses.

b.During the early period of Japanese occupation and expansion, full advantage was taken of the weakness of Allied air and ground defenses. Japanese carrier-borne aircraft operated in conjunction with land-based medium bombers. Dive bombers attacked antiaircraft positions and ground installations, with fighters strafing grounded aircraft from low level.

c.Later, as ground and fighter defenses became more formidable, the Japanese were forced to conduct their bombing operations from higher altitudes. By 1943, their characteristic attack was by night, with single aircraft or small to medium formations of medium bombers. There have been occasions when the Japanese have reverted to daylight attacks, as in their attacks on aircraft based on forward strips in support of Allied ground forces in New Guinea.

8. AIR TO-AIR BOMBING. a.The use ofsmall air-to-air bombs against Allied bomber planes was first reported in May 1942 in the Southwest Pacific Area. Since that time there have been an increasing number of reports of the use of air-to-air bombs against Allied heavy-bombing formations.

b.Air-to-air bombs dropped by the Japanese are reported to be accurately-timed high explosives combined with some incendiaries. They have been released both singly and in pattern arrangement. The majority of these bombs appear to weigh about 50 pounds each, and the explosion, based upon its blast effect on Allied planes, is estimated to be about the same as that of a heavy antiaircraft shell.

c.The presence of a Japanese "spotter" plane flying at the level of the formation to be attacked is a frequently observed characteristic of Japanese air-to-air bombing.


1. GENERAL. a. Aircraft. (1) Basic design principles.Japanese aircraft have been built largely for the purpose of attaining great maneuverability, thereby sacrificing protection, firepower, and sturdiness. However, armor-plate now is found on an increasing number of aircraft, as is also light leak-proofing for the fuel tanks. These belated attempts to provide more protection for their aircraft may mean that the Japanese are becoming aware of the importance of crew protection.

(2) New developments.A few recent improvements have been noted in Japanese aircraft, and further innovations may be expected. Greater attention to streamlining, and the use of larger, more powerful, and differently designed engines appear to be the two outstanding lines of development. The streamlining of the cockpit of type 99 Dive Bomber VAL Mk 2, and the use for the first time in a modern Japanese fighter of a liquid-cooled, inline engine in type 3 Fighter TONY are examples of these trends. The standard fighter armament is two 7.7-mm and two 20-mm guns; however, a 37-mm gun has been found on the twin-engine fighter NICK.

2. ARMAMENT. a. General. The Japanese show very little originality in their aircraft armament, except in modifying foreign designs, such as those of Great Britain, United States, Switzerland, and Germany. The only weapon that might be called truly Japanese is the Model 89, Nambu type, magazine-fed, aircraft machine gun which was converted from the Nambu ground machine gun. However, even this is a modified Hotchkiss design. It appears that a great variety of non-interchangeable types of ammunition exist for aircraft guns of the same caliber.

b. Guns. The Japanese employ aircraft guns with calibers ranging from 7.7-mm to 37-mm. Details of each type are shown in figure 67.

3. OTHER EQUIPMENT. a. Radio. See chapter 10.

b. Oxygen apparatus. (1) The designs of Japanese oxygen systems and their parts are good, although the basic principles used are not considered the best. The high pressure system has been generally disregarded in favor of a low pressure one, in view of the vulnerability of the former. The Japanese system usually consists of the following parts; high pressure oxygen bottle, pressure reducing regulator, pressure gauges, automatic regulator, and masks or tubes.

(2) There are two types of bottles. The first is a forged cylinder; the second a drawn and welded bottle. Neither of these containers has been found


Model Caliber (mm.) Weight, pounds Length, inches Type of operation Rate offire rounds/ minute Type of feed Ammunition Remarks
Quantity rounds Type
89 Mk. II 7.7 27 40. 75 Recoil 700-900 Belt   Ball, A.P., T., I., H.E. Vickers type--fixed. Muzzle Velocity (with British .303" MK VII ball) 2,450 ft/sec. Used on ZEKE.
89 Mk. II 7.7 20 39 Gas 750-850 Drum or clips 70
Ball. A.P., T., I. Flexible.
89 7.7   35.5 Gas 600 Drum 97 Ball, T., A.P., I. Lewis type, flexible, single or twin.
89 7.7 21.25 42 Gas   Magazine About 70.   Flexible. Used on SALLY.
Twin 89 (Spec.) 7.7 50 45 Gas   Magazine 90 each [1]    
92 7.7   39 Gas   Drum 47   Flexible, Lewis type. Used on JAKE.
96 7.7 [2] 24 40-42 Recoil [1]700-800 Magazine 73   Flexible, automatic only. Used on SALLY.
(Twin) I 7.7     Gas       A.P., T., H.E. Used on SALLY.
98 7.92 15.5 42.5 Recoil 1100 Saddle drum 75 A.P., I. Flexible. Copy of German MG 15. Used on LILY.
Twin 00 7.92 36 37.5 Gas [1]400-600 Saddle drum 100 A.P., I Range 820-1150 ft. Flexible. Used on LILY.
89 12.7 52 48 Recoil 983 Disintegrating link.   A.P., T., H.E., I. H.E. range good. M.V.--2515 ft/sec. Operations assisted by muzzle-recoil booster.
99 20 57.5 55 Recoil 450 Drum 60 Ball, I., A.P., H.E. Oerlikon type used on ZEKE.
High velocity 20     Gas   Saddle Drum 60 H.E., A.P. Aircraft version of Model 97 anti-tank gun used on HELEN.
98 (tank gun) 37               Used on NICK.
[1] Estimated.       [2] Approximately.

Figure 67. Japanese aircraft guns.

with protective measures, such as armor or wire wrappings, to prevent shattering.

(3) There is an automatic regulator of good design. The flow of oxygen is shut off until 10,000 feet is reached, at which altitude an aneroid lifts the metering needle allowing oxygen to pass through the outlet.

(4) On a few Japanese operational aircraft, an emergency chemical oxygen generator has been found.

c. Navigation equipment. (1) The Japanese seem to have good navigation equipment, for the few navigational instruments that have been captured in good condition have been of simple but effective design, indicating much copying from other countries. An octant taken from a Japanese reconnaissance airplane was found to be fairly accurate, easy to use, and painstakingly manufactured. A navigation calculator, consisting of a simple, but neatly made, celluloid disc is used.

(2) A Japanese drift sight operating on a bubble gimbal system was found easy to use, for it reduces the effect of roll and pitch. The optical system is arranged so that the apparent motion of the image of the bubble is in the same direction as the motion of the sight. The treatment of various parts of the sight to prevent corrosion is of good quality. The compasses that have been examined are of conventional design, and their workmanship is good as a general rule. An automatic pilot that was examined was found to be so similar to a type manufactured in the United States that parts in some instances were interchangeable. The case and some of the internal parts were heavier than that used by United States manufacturers, but the workmanship was good.

d. Instruments. Japanese instruments on the whole are more or less copies of instruments used in this country several years ago. Mass production methods were used on some of them, while on others, much hand finishing was in evidence. A more or less conventional design was followed in the case of engine instruments, about the only deviation being in the manifold pressure gauge which had new type of markings on its face. Boost pressure was shown in red on the right-hand side of the dial, and negative pressure in black on the left-hand side; zero mark, or atmospheric pressure, was the dividing line between the two colors.

e. Night-fighting equipment. Night-flying equipment on the aircraft examined to date shows very little improvement over that used in the United States Air Force several years ago. No individually lighted instruments, except the pilot's compass, have been found. Cockpits are lighted by small dashboard type lamps; some of the lamps are controlled by rheostats, while others have no control at all, but simply are turned on by a toggle type switch. Recent night fighter activities of the Japanese in the South Pacific area have shown an improvement in effectiveness which may indicate an advancement in technical aspects of their equipment as well as improved tactics.

f. Parachutes. (1) The Japanese use a quickly attachable seat type parachute for their bomber and transport crews. Another seat type parachute is used by pilots of fighters and other smaller aircraft. There have been reports that the Japanese use a chest type chute, but to date no information is available


in regard to the type of aircraft with which it is used. The construction is of circular type. Four red-colored lines, attached to four of the main risers extending inside the canopy to the apex (top vent), are used for "spilling" the chute.

(2) The material in the canopy and shrouds is a good quality silk, and harness and pack are made of an equally good quality cotton. Although the harness is finely woven, it is not as strong as those manufactured in the United States. n general, except for the advantageous four red shrouds mentioned above, this type parachute is inferior to those made in the United States. As for the chest type parachute, there is not an adequate amount of data available to date, except that the Japanese silk webbing of the harness is much less bulky than American cotton but not as strong.

g. Photographic equipment. To date very little is known about the advanced designs of Japanese photographic equipment. All of it in good enough condition to test has been copied from equipment manufactured in the United States several years ago. Only a few minor changes had been made, namely, the handle grip sight and in the film magazine. Workmanship on the camera was excellent and indicated adherence to conventional practice. On a later-model camera that was recovered, the cone and part of the body were made of heavy cardboard. This specimen may have been an experimental camera, for no other models have been found. The film used had a nitrate base, and the emulsion was a little slower than that used by United States forces.

h. Flotation gear. Flotation gear has been found in some of the Zekes and Hamps; in both types of planes it was placed in the rear of the fuselage. This equipment consists of a rubberized cloth bag which is held in place by 8 pieces of woven cotton reinforcing tape attached to each corner. The gear is inflated by a CO2 cylinder which is located behind the pilot's seat. Evidence of flotation gear in dive and torpedo bombers shows that it is installed in the top of the wings near the fuselage. This type air equipment is used mostly in training and on routine flights.

i. Fuel tank protection. There are three main types of Japanese fuel tank protection. The first, and least effective, is called "leak absorbing;" it consists of four layers of natural rubber joined together and totaling 3.1-mm (1/8 in.) in thickness. This is covered by a kapok matting which in turn is covered by a silvered fabric resembling balloon silk. The second type, termed "leak-proofing," is 12-mm (0.47 in.) thick. It is composed mostly of heavy crude rubber in 2 layers. The third type, referred to as "self-sealing," is 28.6-mm (11/8in.) thick; it is made up of 6 rubber layers reinforced by an inner silken mesh and an outer galvanized iron mesh. The self-sealing properties of this type appear to be good, at least on the outer surface. A jettisonable fuel tank made of wood has been examined, the length of which is 5 feet 2 inches, the diameter 151/4 inches,and the capacity approximately 35 United States gallons. The construction is of plywood panels 7/64 inch thick.

j. Fuels and lubricants. From the samples of fuels and lubricants that have been obtained, it has been found that the Japanese fuels are good, although some contain a rather high amount of aromatics. The lubricants tested, although similar to those used in the United States, do not have some of the cold properties of the latter. Samples of greases in wheels and propellers also were found to be similar to American products.

k. Bombsights. Examination of a damaged bombsight revealed that it operated on the same principle as the French bombsights manufactured at the beginning of the present war. Stabilization of this sight is obtained by means of a level bubble in the optical field which is maintained in a stabilized position by hand. This sight worked on a timing principle and did not have electric bomb release. Another bombsight used by the Japanese was essentially a 31/2-foot telescope with no stabilizing or levelling aids. The eyepiece had no adjustment, but the sight incorporated range rate correction, deflection rate correction, and focusing.

l. Bombs and. torpedoes. (1) Japanese bombs in general are made of steel and usually are not streamlined. Except for the armor-piercing and semi-armor-piercing bombs, they are of three-piece construction, consisting of nose, body, and tail. The nose and tail units are screwed in, welded, spot welded (the point of welding is the weakest part of the bomb), or riveted to the body of the bomb. The tail cones of some general-purpose bombs are filled with explosives; in these bombs, the body and tail units are filled in separate operations and subsequently attached. Either nose and/or tail fuses are used which are all mechanically operated. Long delay fuses, operated by a solvent dissolving a celluloid screw, also have been employed, while others are operated by a slight pyrotechnic delay.

(2) Some of the more common type bombs are the antipersonnel bombs ranging from 1 to 15 kilograms (2.2 to 33 pounds); incendiaries from 1 to 250 kilograms (2.2 to 550 pounds); and high explosives from 50 to 800 kilograms (110 to 1760 pounds). A gas bomb of 50 kilograms (110 pounds) also has been employed. For night tactics there is a 33 kilogram (72.6 pounds) illuminating flare.

(3) The Japanese make use of 5 types of torpedoes which differ in weight, length, diameter, speed, and explosive charge. Most standard models measure 17 feet long with a diameter of 17.7 inches. These torpedoes weigh 1,800 pounds and have an approximate speed of 42 knots. There exists one model which weighs 3,245 pounds, and is 22 feet long, with a diameter of 21 inches and a speed of 45 knots.

m. Sea rescue equipment. A limited amount of Japanese sea rescue equipment has been made


available for examination. A 5-man, pneumatic, rubber life raft, measuring 12 feet long by 3 feet 10 inches wide, was found to be below current standards. The principal fault was the fact that the floor consists of meshed tarred cord which does not protect the occupants from the effects of salt water. As to sea rescue equipment for one man, a kapok life belt was examined and found to be identical with the Navy kapok jacket. A horseshoe-shaped, pneumatically inflated life preserver also is known to be used by the Japanese. This preserver, of single-ply construction, is weaker, but considerably lighter, than any equivalent preserver made in the United States. It has a good rubber coating, but is not designed to fit the individual. The ropes attached to the side indicate that the user hangs on to the preserver instead of wearing it.

n. Clothing. (1) The Japanese Air Force receives a good grade of clothing. Their flying suits, made of good silk and cotton, are well tailored and are similar in design to flying suits used by the United States Army Air Forces. All items of flight clothing recovered were sewed by skilled operators on standard machines, and the materials had received water- and flame-proofing treatment.

(2) The Japanese also have an efficient, electrically heated flying suit, which, when worn as an outer garment, compares favorably with United States electric suits. This suit, when tested, showed no hot spot when worn as an outer suit, but it did heat up too much around the shoulders when worn under other clothes. It also had cold spots on the back of the legs and on the inside of the arms. The fabric used is chocolate colored, and is of good quality.

4. CHARACTERISTICS OF OPERATIONAL JAPANESE AIRCRAFT. a. Markings. Japanese aircraft markings usually consist of a large red disc on the top and bottom of the outer section of each wing and on each side of the fuselage. The side marking is omitted on Army aircraft, but is retained on Navy aircraft. Occasionally the red disc is surrounded by a narrow white line. On biplanes wing markings appear only on the top of the upper wing and the bottom of the lower wing.

b. Designation of types. Tables in this chapter present the main characteristics of operational Japanese aircraft. It will be noted that both a type number and an identification or code name are given for each airplane. Under the Japanese system of airplane designation, the type number indicates the year in which the aircraft was adopted. Type 97 corresponds to the Japanese year 2597 (our year 1937) and type 0 (Zero) to 2600 (our year 1940). For this reason, various categories of aircraft--fighters, bombers, reconnaissance, and others--all may be designated, for example, as Type 0.

c. Identification or code names. In order to eliminate the confusion regarding the designations of Japanese aircraft, a code name was assigned each airplane by the Allied Air Forces in the Southwest Pacific in September 1942. The fighters and floatplanes were given masculine names, such as Zeke and Pete, whereas the bombers, land-based reconnaissance, and flying boats were given feminine names, such as Betty, Dinah, and Emily. Transports were assigned names beginning with the letter "T." When the existence of a new type is confirmed, a new code name is assigned to the aircraft.

The standard system of nomenclature for types of Japanese aircraft was revised while this handbook was on the press, making it impossible to correct the old code names in the text. The new code names, given below, should be substituted for those found in tables, and under silhouettes and photographs, on the following pages.
Old code name New code name   Old code name New code name   Old code name New code name
Alf Alf   Jake Jake 11   Sally Mark 3 Sally 3
Babs Mark 3 Babs 11   Judy Judy 12   Slim Slim 11
Betty Betty 11   Kate Kate 12   Sonia Sonia 1
Cherry Cherry 11   Lily Mark 1 Lily 1   Tess Tess 11
Claude Claude 14   Mavis Mavis 22   Thelma Thelma 1
Dave Dave   Nate Nate 1   Tojo Tojo 2
Dinah Dinah 2   Nell Nell 23   Tony Tony 1
Emily Emily 22   Nick Nick 1   Topsy Topsy 1
Glen Glen 11   Oscar Mark 2 Oscar 2   Val Mark 2 Val 22
Helen Helen 2   Pete Pete 11   Zeke Zeke 11
Ida Ida 1   Rufe Rufe 11      


Fig 68. (Zeke, Hamp, Oscar, Tojo)
Figure 68 (Zeke, Hamp, Oscar, Tojo).


Fig. 68--Continued. (Tony, Nick, Rufe, Pete)
Figure 68--Continued. (Tony, Nick, Rufe, Pete)


Fig. 68--Continued. (Jake, Sonia, Judy, Dinah)
Figure 68--Continued. (Jake, Sonia, Judy, Dinah)


Fig. 68--Continued. (Val, Kate, Lily, Nell)
Figure 68--Continued. (Val, Kate, Lily, Nell)


Fig. 68--Continued. (Sally, Betty, Liz, Helen)
Figure 68--Continued. (Sally, Betty, Liz, Helen)


Fig. 68--Continued. (Mavis, Emily, Cherry)
Figure 68--Continued. (Mavis, Emily, Cherry)


Fig. 69. Model 99 (1939) 63 Kilogram General Purpose H.E. Bomb
Figure 69. Model 99 (1939) 63 Kilogram General Purpose H.E. Bomb.

Fig. 70-A. Type 0 Fighter 'Zeke' Mark 1
Figure 70-A. Type 0 Fighter "Zeke" Mark 1.


Fig. 70-B. Type 0 Fighter 'Hamp'
Figure 70-B. Type 0 Fighter "Hamp".

Fig. 71-A. Type 3 Fighter 'Tony'
Figure 71-A. Type 3 Fighter "Tony".


Fig. 71-B. Type 1 Fighter 'Oscar' Mark 1
Figure 71-B. Type 1 Fighter "Oscar" Mark 1.

Fig. 72-A. Type 2 Fighter 'Tojo'
Figure 72-A. Type 2 Fighter "Tojo".


Fig. 72-B. Type 2 Twine engine Two seat Fighter 'Nick'
Figure 72-B. Type 2 Twine engine Two seat Fighter "Nick".


Fig. 73-A. Type 1 Medium bomber 'Betty'
Figure 73-A. Type 1 Medium bomber "Betty".

Fig. 73-B. Type 100 Medium bomber 'Helen'
Figure 73-B. Type 100 Medium bomber "Helen".


Fig. 74-A. Type 97 Medium bomber 'Sally
Figure 74-A. Type 97 Medium bomber "Sally" Mark 3.

Fig. 74-B. Type 99 Dive bomber 'Val' Mark 2
Figure 74-B. Type 99 Dive bomber "Val" Mark 2.


Fig. 75-A. Type 100 Reconnaissance 'Dinah'
Figure 75-A. Type 100 Reconnaissance "Dinah".

Fig. 75-B. Type 0 Float plane 'Pete'
Figure 75-B. Type 0 Float plane "Pete".


Fig. 76-A. Type 97 Flying boat 'Mavis'
Figure 76-A. Type 97 Flying boat "Mavis".

Fig. 76-B. Type 2 Flying boat 'Emily'
Figure 76-B. Type 2 Flying boat "Emily".


Type Code name Description Specifications Armament Bomb load (lbs.) (normal) (maximum) Armor Power plant Performance Crew
Span Length Height Wing area (gross) Weight Fuel load Engine Horsepower Altitude Speeds (miles per hour) at altitude (feet) Ranges Climb to altitude (ft./min.) Service ceiling (normal load)
Landing Normal load Maximum load Normal Maximum Maximum Normal cruising Economical cruising Normal Maximum
      Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Sq. ft. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. U.S. gal. U.S. gal.           Ft.       Miles Miles   Ft.  
96 Claude Single-engine low-wing monoplane. Wings elliptical. Open cockpit. Fixed landing gear. 36 24 7 9 10 [1]180 3,700 4,400 4,700 96 135 2 x 7.7 mm [1]132 None (1) Nakajima "Kotobuki," 41 9-cyl., air-cooled radial. 645 S. L. 250 at 9,000. 205 at 13,000. 125 at 13,000. 650 980 15,000/6.25 33,000 1
97 Nate Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Tapered wings. Open or closed cockpit. Fixed landing gear. 35 10 24 4 8 0 200 3,854 4,643 5,200 96 156 2 x 7.7 mm   None. Wing root fuel tanks protected. (1) Nakajima "Hikari," 9-cyl., air-cooled radial. 915 12,000 284 at 13,500. 196 at 11,500. 143 at 11,500. 489 962 10,000/3.4 35,100 1
0 (Mk. 1) Zeke. Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Tapered wings, rounded tips. High-set cockpit enclosure. Retractable landing gear. 39 5 30 3 9 2 248 3,918 5,247 6,136 144 231 2 x 7.7 mm and 2 x 20 mm. 265 None (1) Nakajima "Sakae" 12, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. Mk. 2 has Sakae 21. 955 14,500 328 at 16,000. 240 at 14.500. 171 at 14,500. 806 1,590 20,000/7.9 38,600 1
0 (Mk. 2) Hamp Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Tapered wing, square tips. High-set cockpit enclosure. Retractable landing gear. 36 4 29 9 9 2 232.4 4,113 5,650 6,331 134 221 2 x 7.7mm + 2 x 20mm 265 None (1) Nakajima "Sakae" 21, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,020 6,400 328 at 16,600. 257 at 18,600. 189 at 18,600. 725 1,510 10,000/3.3 35,000 1
1 (Mk. 2) Oscar, Mk. 2 Single-engine, low-wing monoplane, Straight leading edges; tapered trailing edges. Full-length rudder. Retractable landing gear; fixed tail-wheel. 37 7 29 9. 0 240 4,370 5,500 6,096 149 257 2 x 12.7 mm   Pilot protected. Self-sealing fuel tanks. (1) Nakajima type 2, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial, similar to Sakae 12. 1,130 8,000 342 at 17,500. 252 at 15,600. 178 at 15,600. 792 1,710 20,000/6.5 38,400 1
2 (floatplane) Rufe Single-engine, single-float, low-wing monoplane. Similar to ZEKE, except for full-length rudder and floats. 39 5 29 5 14 248 4,345 5,920 6,436 141 227 2 x 7.7 mm + 2 x 20 mm May carry small bomb under each wing None (1) Nakajima "Sakae" 12, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 955 14,500 278 at 16,000. 204 at 14,000. 153 at 14,000. 640 1,280 10,000/4.6 35,400 1
2 Nick Twin-engine, low-wing, single-seat fighter. Wings, stabilizer, and elevators tapered. Pointed nose. Long, slender fuselage. Tall fin and rudder. 49 5 34 6               2 x 12.7mm + 1 x 37mm + 1 x 7.9mm. 1 bomb rack under each wing. Pilot protected, self-sealing fuel tank. (2) type 2, 14-cyl., twin-row air-cooled radial. 1,050 8,000 [1]350             2
2 Tojo Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Tapered leading, elliptical edges. Retractable landing gear. 31 27 3 9 6 161.4 1 5,000 6,095 6,611 128 197 2 x 12.7 mm + 2 x 7.7/ 12.7 mm.   Pilot protected, fuel tanks protected. Nakajima type 2, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,415 11,000 376 at 17,000. 313 at 17,000. 270 at 9,840 650 1,310 17,000/5.25 [1]35,000 1
3 Tony Single, inline engine, low-wing monoplane. Cockpit fairs into fuselage. Large air-scoop under fuselage. Resembles Hurricane. 39 6 29 6 9 210 5,200 6,700 7,400 199 299 2 x 12.7 mm + 2x 7.7/ 12.7 mm. 1,000 Pilot's seat protected from rear. Self-sealing fuel tanks. (1) Kawasaki type 2, 12-cyl., liquid-cooled, 60°, inverted "V." 1,100 13,000 363 at 17,000. 262 at 15,000. 191 at 15,000. 1,014 1,812 10,000/3.8 35,700 1
96 (Mk. 3) Nell Twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane. Sharply tapered wings, Junkers-type flaps and ailerons. Twin fins and rudders. 82 54 12 7 860 13,925 22,300 23,500 940 1,372 3 x 7.7mm 1 x 12.7/20mm 1,588 2,660 None (2) Mitsubishi "Kinsei," 52, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,175 3,500 1 240 at 7,700 180 at 6,500 140 at 6,500 1,760 3,130 10,000/8.3 24,000 4 to 7
97 (Mk. 3) Sally (Mk. 3) Twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane. Tapered wings. Front cockpit rear dorsal turret. Single fin and rudder. 72 52 12 675 14,225 21,500 22,000 684 953 4 x 7.7 mm + 1 x 12.7 mm 2,200 4,400 Pilot dorsal turret protected. Self sealing fuel tanks. (2) Mitsubishi Type 100, 14-cylinder, twin-row air-cooled radial. 1,480 7,200 285 at 15,000 210 at 7,200 148 at 7,200 1,120 1,960 10,000/5 29,800 7
100 Helen Twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane. Fowler-type flaps and frise ailerons fitted. Has rear tail turret. 66 7 53       [1]28,500   1,157   4 x 7mm + 1 x 79mm + 1 x 20mm. 2,300 Pilot, co-pilot, fuel tanks protected. (2) Nakaima Type 2, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,415 11,000 270 at 12,000 225 at 10,000 170 at 10,000 1,750 1,950   35,000 5 to 7
1 Betty Twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane. Cigar-shaped fuselage. Transparent nose and tail. 82 65 7 19 8 838 16,700 26,975 27,015 1,300 1,554 7.7 mm+1 x 20 mm 1,554 3,300 2 x 3/16 in. thick tail-plates. Self sealing fuel tanks. (1) Mitsubishi "Kinsei" 15, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,475 10,000 276 at 15,000 205 at 7,200 151 at 7,200 2,110 3,220 10,000/6.7 28,800 7 to 9
97 Kate (Torpedo Bomber). Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Long transparent cockpit enclosure. 52 34 3 10 73/4 415 6,039 8,379 8,940 290 331.5 3 x 7.7 mm 1,760 None (1) Nakajima "Sakae" 11, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 985 7,500 222 at 8,500 166 at 7,500 131 at 7,500 1,060 1,600 10,000/8.8 23,800 2 to 3
99 (Mk. 2) Val Mk. 2. (Dive Bomber). Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Elliptical wings. Dive-brakes. Long fin fairing on fuselage. Fixed landing gear. 47 3 35 5 13 370.5 5,800 8,379 9,000 286 373 3 x 7.7mm 814 2,200 None (1) Mitsubishi "Kinsei" 54, 14-cylinder, twin row, air-cooled radial. 1,175 3,500 254 at 13,000 190 at 12,000 145 at 12,000 J 1,050 2,000 10,000/5.6 29,800 2
99 (Mk. 1) Lily Mk. 1. (Light Bomber). Twin-engine, mid-wing monoplane. Resembles U.S. Martin "Baltimore" with abruptly-narrowing rear fuselage. 56 11 47 3 14 9 465 10,600 15,500   420 492 2 x 7.9mm + 2 x 7.9mm or 1 x 12.7mm. 1,650 4 of 6 fuel tanks protected. (2) Kawasaki Type 99, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 955 9,000 278 at 10,000 206 at 9,000 157 at 9,000 980 1,490 10,000/5.9 28,200 3 or 4
94 (Mk. 2) Alf (float-plane) Single engine, twin-float biplane. Equispan wings, slightly staggered. Single fin and rudder. 46 101/2 32 5 15 10 682 4,920 6,540   145 216 2 x 7.7 mm 500 None (1) Mitsubishi Zuisei 11, 14 cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 780 S. L. 147 at 7,000 125 at 7,000 96 at 7,000 390 420 7,000/7.5 22,000 3
95 Dave (float-plane) Single engine, single float biplane Top 35 8 Lower 34 6 28 4 13 2 302 4,280 5,800   145   2 x 7.7 mm 265 None (1) Nakajima Kotobiki 3, 9-cyl., air-cooled radial. 650 7,000 185 at 11,000 140 at 11,000 115 at 11,000 770 863 10,000/9.9 20,500 2
96 Slim (float-plane) Probably a very small single-engine, single-float biplane, designed to be carried by and launched from a submarine.         1 3,060         Probably 1 x 7.7mm   None (1) Assumed "Amakaze" 12, 9-cyl., air-cooled radial. [1]285 S. L. [1]70 at 11,000 [1]132 92 [1]500   [1]10,000/11 [1]16,000 2
0 Pete (float-plane) Single-engine, single-float biplane. Staggered wings are tapered with single inter-plane strut. Upper 36 1 Lower 35 10 32 4 15 365 4,890 5,623 6,471 169   3 x 7.7 mm 1 440 None (1) Mitsubishi "Zuisei" 13, 14-cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 940 13,100 238 at 14,000 171 at 13,100 130 at 13,100 627 832 10,000/4.5 33,100 2
0 Glen (float-plane) Probably a small, single engine, single-float biplane designed to be carried by and launched from a submarine.       3,320         Probably 1 x 7.7mm Probably (.../300) None (1) Assumed "Amakaze" 12, 9-cyl., air-cooled radial. [1]285 S. L. [1]220 140/160 [1]115 [1]500 [1]700     2
0 Jake (float-plane) Single-engine, low-wing, twin float monoplane. Elliptical wings. Long cockpit enclosure. 46 91/2 34 4 14 83/4 [1]385 6,468 9,223 9,603 368 368 1 x 7.7 mm 530 None (1) Kinsei 43, 14 cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,060 6,500 216 at 7,500 157 at 6,500 122 at 6,500 1,205 1,520 10,000/6.8 24,400 3
100 Dinah Twin-engine, low-wing monoplane. Sharply tapered wings. Fore and aft cockpits. Long chord fin and rudder. 481/4 38   375 9,165 11,925   400   1 x 7.7mm   Pilot protected (2) Mitsubishi Type 1, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,050 8,000 343 at 13,000 251 at 10,800 180 at 10,800 1,105 1,435 10,000/3.8 34,700 2
2 Judy Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Tapered wings pointed nose. Landing gear retracts. 47 9 33 6   254 5,818 8,055   275 448 3 x 7.7 mm Small bomb bay None Aichi 12 cylinder, liquid-cooled inverted "V". 1,270 16,250 [1]350 at 17,000           2
98 Babs Mk. 3 Single-engine, low wing monoplane. Tapered wings. Transparent cockpit enclosure merges into the fin enclosure. Fixed landing gear. [1]40 [1]28 [1]9 4 [1]220 4,350 5,750   120 217 3 x 7.7 mm 660 1,000 None (1) Mitsubishi "Kinsei" 44, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,050 6,600 [1]270 at 15,000 [1]235 at 15,000 [1]160 at 15,000 [1]450 [1]1,240   30,000 2
98 Ida Single-engine, low-wing monoplane. Long cockpit enclosure merges into fuselage. Fixed landing gear. 47 9 34 11 10 290 6,045 7,800 9,800 84 168 3 x 7.7mm 660 1,000 None (1) Mitsubishi 14 cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. [1]900 9,000 260 at 13,000 225 at 13,000 200 at 13,000 500 790 13,000/10.75 27,000 2 or 3
99 Sonia Single-engine, low-mid-wing monoplane. Tapered wings. Long transparent cock pit enclosure. 39 10 30 2 11 6 220 5,100 6,500   204   3 x 7.7 mm 550 1,000 Pilot protected, 4 of 7 fuel tanks protected. (1) Mitsubishi type 99, 14-cylinder, twin-row, air-cooled radial. 900 S. L. 270 at 8,000 220 at 10,000 130 at 10,000 420 600 10,000/5 16,000 2
97 Mavis Four-engine, parasol-wing monoplane. Single 2-step hull. Twin braced fins and rudders. l31 84 6 20 7 1,776 27,607 43,156 50,546 1690 3510 4 x 7.7mm + 1 x 20mm. 3,300 3,528 (4) Mitsubishi Kinsei 46, 14 cyl.; twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,060 13,800 237 at 15,000 176 at 13,800 127 at 13,800 1,650 4,400 10,000/8.6 27,700 8 to 10
99 Cherry Twin-engine, high-wing monoplane. Wing braced to hull. Twin fins and rudders. [1]108 [1]86 8 2 750 14,200 18,000   360 600 (Possibly) 2 x 7.7mm + 1 x 20mm. 1,600 None (2) Nakajima Shinten 21, 14 cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,010 S. L. 175 at 7,000 150 at 7,000 100 at 7,000 460 1,080 7,000/6 24,000 6
2 Emily Four-engine, high-wing monoplane. Single X fin and rudder. l24 95     38,347 54,022   5120   4 x 7.7mm + 3 x 20mm 1,584 3,440 Installed (4) Mitsubishi Kasei 22, 14 cyl., air-cooled radial. [1]1,440   [1]230 150   1,500       [1]8 to 10  
Me 20 Topsy Twin-engine, low-wing monoplane. Sharply X tapered wings. 74 52 8 16 755 12,705 18,300 19,750 45-3 68-1   2,360 (freight) (2) Mitsubishi Kinsei 43 two-row, air-cooled radial. 985 9,200 266 at 10,500 197 at 9,200 144 at 9,200 1,020 1,890 10,000/6. 6 23,000 4  
Lockheed Thelma Twin-engine, low-mid wing. Wings taper sharply. Twin fins and rudders. 65 6 49 10 11 10   11,000 15,500 17,500 644     4,400 10 Pass. (2) Air-cooled radials [1]900 S. L. 230 185 at 10,000 150 at 10,000 970   10,000/11. 5 25,000 [1]2 to 3  
DC-2 Tess Twin-engine, low-wing monoplane. Single fin and rudder. J 95 64 5 16 11   12,800 18,500 19,000 822     67000 (2) Mitsubishi Kinsei 43, 14 cyl., twin-row, air-cooled radial. 1,060 6,500 212 160   1,100     22,000 [1]2 to 3  

1. Estimated

Figure 77. Characteristics of Operational Japanese Aircraft.

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