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DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060

U.S. Navy Marks
(and others)
on Marine Uniforms

© John A. Stacey, 2005

Published by the Author
2880 Smith Point Road
Nanjemoy, Maryland 20662

INTRODUCTION

Navy specialty marks and distinguishing marks produced in materials appropriate for Marine Corps uniforms have become a topic of growing interest and considerable speculation. Specialty marks are the central element of Navy petty officers' rating badges and indicate the wearer's job specialty or rating. When worn by a sailor below the rate (grade) of petty officer, 3rd class, these marks are referred to as striker's marks and indicate that the sailor has qualified in the rating and has been designated as "striking for" the rating, i.e. promotion to petty officer, 3rd class in that specialty. Distinguishing marks are worn, in addition to the rating badge for petty officers, to indicate "qualifications additional to those required for their rating, or who are members of a crew that has attained special merit in certain prescribed competitions."1

Navy marks are normally found in white on navy blue wool, blue on white cotton, khaki, slate gray or naval aviation green materials. Khaki, slate gray and aviation (forestry) green uniforms were worn by officers and chief petty officers. Marks in dark blue or black on aviation green, which are actually officers' and warrant officers' sleeve marks and/or distinguishing marks of chief petty officers, are sometimes included in collections though they are a completely different category of insignia. Striker's marks would not be worn on these uniforms, though chief petty officers would wear the distinguishing marks.

The marks on Marine Corps uniform materials, most of which appeared during World War II, are scarlet on forestry green wool, green on khaki cotton, and yellow (gold) on both scarlet and navy blue wool. The first two combinations cited are easy to explain. Scarlet on forestry green for the winter service uniform and green on khaki for the summer service uniform both fit with the color combinations used for chevrons on the corresponding Marine uniforms. The yellow marks on scarlet and navy blue backings were apparently both intended for the blue dress uniform and are not so easily explained.

It is out of character for the Marine Corps to be ambiguous about their insignia, or to allow multiple variations to be produced of their insignia. The existence of two different color combinations for the blue dress uniform may be explained by the inexperience of some manufacturers and the absence of documentation. The issue of experience influencing a color decision may have resulted from the entry of new manufacturers into the military insignia market to meet the demands of wartime production. Those with years of experience producing Marine Corps insignia would possibly have had knowledge of insignia authorized for Marines between 1908 and 1929. In the cases of those for the blue dress uniform either yellow or white on Navy blue wool had been specified (see Group I and Appendix). A new manufacturer, unfamiliar with these historic precedents, may well have looked at existing regulations and insignia for the blue dress uniform and concluded that the yellow on scarlet backing of the rank chevrons should appropriately be repeated in supplemental insignia.

Marks in the Marine colors described constitute a category of insignia for which little documentation has been found. Explanations for this group of insignia, with minimal documentation having been found to date, depend largely on anecdotal evidence, memory, reasoning, and conjecture.

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Two documents and the memories of one Marine veteran address the issue of authorization. A letter dated November 14, 1941 from Gemsco, Inc. to Marine Corps Headquarters cited requests received for four aviation marks and sought specifications if they had been approved (Exhibit A). The response stated simply, "Such insignia is not used in the Marine Corps." (Ex. B). The second document is from Leatherneck magazine, Pacific Edition, June 1944 (Ex. C). In the "Question Box" column, the writer asked, "Is there any authorization for wearing of Navy striker's badges [sic] by Marines...?" The response, "We are unable to find any authorization for this in Uniform Regulations."

Further evidence of questionable authorization for these marks worn by Marines comes from Marine veteran James Bernard through two separate incidents. While in transit from the Naval Electronics Center, Chicago to Camp Lejeune for Radar School, he visited a military supply store in Washington, D. C. because "I had seen a few patches on Marines [and] we wanted to know about this new uniform piece." At the shop "...there were many [Navy insignia] on display. One in Marine green and red for about any classification that possibly could apply to us Marines. The person we talked to was evasive but did finally say that they were not approved." Marine Bernard goes on to describe the second incident. "Shortly after our arrival at Camp Lejeune we...fell out for inspection. Actually the formation was held primarily so the C. O. could speak to us about this patch." The presence of a Marine in formation wearing a mark served as an example "...for him to accentuate that these insignia were not part of our uniform and would be dealt with severely."2 These events took place in May 1944 and, along with the pre-war Gemsco inquiry, reinforces the notion that many, if not all, of these insignia were truly unauthorized. We could question why manufacturers would produce insignia for which there was no authorization except that similar examples abound.

There are a large variety of marks that make up this category of insignia from World War II and others which are frequently included with this category by collectors but do not really belong. Some insignia often included appear in different color combinations than described above and actually were for Marine uniforms. There are others which do not appear to be of either Navy or Marine Corps origin. For whom and for what use these various insignia were produced, requires a much closer look.

Correspondence with several collectors has resulted in a list of the marks in Marine colors which exist in various collections. In compiling the list, an attempt has been made to divide the marks into type groups of similar origin, description or use to make discussion easier. The type groups are defined below. The results, listing the marks and insignia by title or description and color combinations known to exist, can be found in the Insignia Table at the end of this introduction.

I Navy marks authorized for use by Marines (Plate I),
II Marks for Hospital Apprentices and Seabees assigned to Marine units (Plate II),
III Naval aviation marks, including Naval Aviation Pilot (Plate III),
IV Marks with no clearly attributable use (Plate IV), and
V Marks unidentified as to source and use (Plate V).

The Appendix describes Marine Corps approved and designed insignia (Plate VI). For Groups I, II and Appendix, plus Naval Aviation Pilot, there are specific documents either authorizing the insignia or from which reasonable conclusions can be drawn. For those in Group III and a few of the others,

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there is some anecdotal evidence, but no documentation of which the author is aware. Each group will be examined in turn.

Plates which accompany each group present representative samples of each mark in the group, where available. Samples have been selected to show the various color combinations to aid in identification. Color combinations known to exist for a particular mark, either from descriptions in regulations or from identified or reported samples in collections, can be found in the Insignia Table.

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Insignia Table (Page 1 of 2)

Group I: Navy marks authorized for Marines
      Rifle Expert R/G     BR/K G/K? W/BL  
      Gun Captain R/G G/G+     G/K    
      Gun Pointer R/G     BR/K G/K W/BL  
      Gun Pointer, 1st cl. R/G     BR/K G/K W/BL  
      Signalman, 1st cl. R/G Y/BL+   BR/K G/K?  
      Sharpshooter R/G     BR/K G/K? W/BL  
      Insignia, Radio Oper. R/G T/BL Y/R G/K?    
      Navy E R/G Y/BL~   BR/K G/K W/BL  
      Gun Capt. (Navy) R/G Y/BL+     W/BL  
      Gun Point. (Navy) R/G       W/BL  
      Signalman (Navy) R/G Y/BL Y/R? G/K    
Group II: Hospital Apprentice and Seabees assigned to Marine Units
      Hospital Apprentice R/G     R/K    
      Boatswain's Mate R/G          
      Carpenter's Mate R/G          
      Electrician's Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Gunner's Mate R/G          
      Machinist's Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Metalsmith R/G Y/BL        
      Photographer's Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Quartermaster R/G Y/BL        
      Ship's Cook R/G   Y/R      
      Specialist M none known to exist
      Storekeeper R/G Y/BL        
      Yeoman R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      C B (in diamond) R/G          
Group III: Naval aviation marks including Naval Aviation Pilot
      Naval Aviation Pilot   Y/BL   Y/K   Y/W   
      Aerographer's Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Av. Carp. Mate R/G          
      Av. Elec. Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Av. Mach. Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Av. Metalsmith R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Av. Ordnanceman R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Av. Radioman R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Av. Radarman R/G   Y/R      
      Av. General Utility R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K    
      Air Gunner R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K?    
      Parachuteman R/G Y/BL Y/R G/K W/BL  
      Parachuteman-small R/G Y/BL        
      Parachute Rigger R/G Y/BL? Y/R? G/K    
                 
Legend: Color combinations are reported describing device and backing. Example: R/G describes red (or scarlet) on forestry green. Colors defined are: R - red or scarlet   G - forestry green   BL - navy blue   Y - yellow   K - khaki   W - White   BR - brown   DR - "drab"   GR - gray   BK - black   and SB - sky blue       (Note: USMC uniform regulations do not define "drab")

Other symbols in the table define conditions affecting the entry:
+ - reported in regulations, no sample available
? - reported as existing, unable to verify
' ~ - sample provided, use unlikely
(v) - distinctive variation identified, more than one noted by numeral, (2v)

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Insignia Table (Page 2 of 2)

Group IV: Marks with no clearly attributable use
      Bugler - Navy pattern R/G          
      Fire Controlman R/G          
      Hospitalman R/G          
      Motor Mach. Mate R/G          
      Musician R/G Y/BL   G/K? BR/K  
      Radarman R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Torpedoman's Mate R/G Y/BL Y/R      
      Turret Captain R/G?   Y/R?      
      Amphibious Insigne R/G   Y/R G/K    
      Seaman Gunner R/G (2v) Y/BL (2v) Y/R (v)      
      Submarine Insigne   Y/BL        
      Assault Boat Cox.   Y/BL        
      Ex-Apprentice R/G-square Y/BL       R/BL~ BK/R~
Group V: Marks unidentified as to source/use
      Transportation Corps R/G          
      Trans. Corps - winged R/G   Y/R G/K    
      Quartermaster Corps R/G          
      Quartermaster Corps - winged R/G   Y/R G/K?    
      Quartermaster Corps (Marine Sword) R/G   Y/R G/K?    
      Chemical Corps R/G   Y/R      
      Fire Fighter's Asst.     Y/R      
      Mach. Mate - circled   Y/BL        
      "A", "B", "C" R/G          
      Lion   Y/BL        
      Griffin R/G          
      Machine Gun R/G?          
      Mortar R/G?          
      Browning Auto. Rifle R/G?          
      USMC Photographer R/G          
      War Correspondent R/G          
Appendix: Marine Corps designed and approved insignia
      Trumpeter (1912 pat.) R/G G/G+ Y/BL   G/K BR/K+ GR/K+ GR/G+ Y/SB+
      Trumpeter (1908 pat.)   Y/BL   DR/K BR/K~ DR/W  
      Drummer R/G G/G+ Y/BL   BR/K GR/K+ GR/G+ DR/W Y/SB+
      Gun Pointer Insignia DR/G+ W/BL   DR/K BL/W  
      Gun Pointer, 1st cl. DR/G+ R/BL   DR/K R/W  
      Private, first class R/G Y/BL   BR/K+ G/K R/BL~
      Insignia, technical R/G Y/BL+   BR/K   R/BL~
                 
Legend: Color combinations are reported describing device and backing. Example: R/G describes red (or scarlet) on forestry green. Colors defined are: R - red or scarlet   G - forestry green   BL - navy blue   Y - yellow   K - khaki   W - White   BR - brown   DR - "drab"   GR - gray   BK - black   and SB - sky blue       (Note: USMC uniform regulations do not define "drab")

Other symbols in the table define conditions affecting the entry:
+ - reported in regulations, no sample available
? - reported as existing, unable to verify
~ - sample provided, use unlikely
(v) - distinctive variation identified, more than one noted by numeral, (2v)

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[B L A N K]

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PLATE I: Navy marks authorized for Marines

Plate I: Navy marks authorized for Marines

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Group I. Navy marks authorized for Marines:

Between 1915 and 1929, the Marine Corps authorized the wearing of eight Navy distinguishing marks or specialty marks by qualified Marines. In three cases noted below, the pattern prescribed varied from the standard Navy pattern, though the Navy patterns exist in Marine colors for all three. The Marine Corps patterns are shown adjacent to the Navy patterns in Plate I.

The first of these marks, that of Rifle Expert, was introduced in Change No. 2 to the 1912 uniform regulations, dated August 26, 1915, as Insignia, Target, for Navy course.3 The title was changed in 1918 to Expert Rifleman.4 Samples in the Marine Corps Museum files are white on navy blue, scarlet on forestry green, and brown on khaki cotton.

The mark for Gun Captain appeared in a change of uncertain date to the 1917 revision of the 1912 uniform regulations. Colors prescribed were white on blue backing and "...winter shade silk [forestry green] on backing to match the field coat and flannel shirt."5The mark is described with dimensions smaller than the Navy mark. The uniform regulations from 1922-47 show the mark with different design and dimensions than the Navy mark.

Contemporary photographs show Marines wearing the mark clearly in the Navy pattern (Ill. 1 & 2). Illustration 1 is prior to 1920 based on the absence of collar emblems, not authorized for enlisted Marines until 25 Feb. 1920.6Illustration 2 is between Feb. 1920 and 1922 when smaller chevrons were authorized for the dress uniform.7 Uniform samples exist with the Gun Captain's mark in both white (as authorized) and yellow on the blue uniform.

Ill. 1--Gun Captain, pre-1920
Ill. 1--Gun Captain, pre-1920
(Richard Tibbals Collection)
Ill. 2--Gun Captain, post-1920
Ill. 2--Gun Captain, post-1920
(U.S. Marine Corps)
Ill. 3--Gun Pointer, 1st class, 1926
Ill. 3--Gun Pointer, 1st class, 1926
(U.S. Marine Corps)

Two other Navy distinguishing marks authorized by the Marine Corps appear in Change No. 14 to the revision, dated 20 February 1918. These were Gun Pointer and Gun Pointer, first class. These replaced distinctive Gun Pointer marks of 1908 (see Appendix). The Marine Corps style marks were authorized to be one inch in the diameter of the sight ring compared to 1 ¾" as worn by Navy personnel.8

Illustration 3, dated 1926, shows a Marine private with the Gun Pointer, 1st class mark as well as a Navy E mark which first appears in Marine Corps uniform regulations in 1929. Official samples in the files of the Marine Corps Museum are white on blue, scarlet on forestry green and brown on khaki. Both the 1922 and 1929 regulations describe the Gun Pointers' marks as "Insignia, gun pointer, first class (Navy)" and "Insignia, gun pointer, second class (Navy)."9

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Finally, Change 14 included a mark for Signalman, first class similar to the mark for Navy Quartermasters qualified as signalmen but of a more detailed design and larger dimensions. Colors were specified as yellow on dark blue, scarlet on forestry green, and brown on khaki.10 Illustration 4 is a photograph of a Private, first class (crossed rifles insignia on upper arm, description in Appendix). Marine veteran Donald Lewis recalls being issued a scarlet on forestry green Signalman's mark (Navy pattern) at completion of communications schools in 1944 and wearing it on his winter service uniform. He does not recall seeing the mark for summer service or dress blues.11

Uniform regulations of 1922 added, in illustrations but not in text, the distinguishing mark for Sharpshooter (Navy course).12 Text describing this mark was included in the 1929 uniform regulations. The uniform regulations of 1929 also included two Navy style marks, Navy E and the Navy Radioman mark as "Insignia, Radio Operator."13 The Navy E mark is shown in Ill. 3, indicating that it had been authorized earlier. The Navy E was awarded to "...members of crews or ships making exceptionally high scores in special forms of gunnery exercises."14 This would include shipboard Marines assigned to gun crews. (Navy E marks in gold/yellow denoting 5th award, approved by the Navy in 1960,15 and red E for engineering were not authorized for Marines.) Neither the 1922 nor the 1929 uniform regulations specified colors for sleeve marks. However, a uniform group of a Private, first class dated to 1926 in one collection includes the khaki summer coat with an Expert Rifleman mark as well as P.F.C. rank insignia (see Appendix), in green on khaki (Ill. 7). This probably indicates that post W.W. I regulations were changed from the previous brown on khaki, making marks match the colors of rank chevrons.

Ill. 4--P.F.C., Signalman, first class, pre-1920
Ill. 4--P.F.C., Signalman,
first class, pre-1920
(Author's Collection)
Ill. 5--Radio Operation, 1926-33
Ill. 5--Radio Operation, 1926-33
(U.S. Marine Corps)
Ill. 6--Radio Operator, 1942
Ill. 6--Radio Operator, 1942
(Courtesy of John E. Brown)

In Illustration 5, the Radio Operator mark can just be made out below the Marine master technical sergeant's chevrons. The mark was not included in the 1937 uniform regulations.16 However, Maj. John E. Brown (USMC, ret.) reports attending Radio School at San Diego after boot camp in 1939 and then, being "...shipped to Quantico for a training course for Telephone Electricians." The photo in Illustration 6 shows then Corporal Brown with the mark just below his rank chevrons on the left sleeve just as worn by the MTSgt. in Illustration 5.17

There is a blue dress uniform from a Marine corporal, a Navaho code talker, in the National Cryptological Museum near Fort Meade, Maryland which has the radio mark on the cuff,18 and several Marine veterans have reported in correspondence seeing the Radioman mark being worn, or wearing it themselves, through World War II by Radio Operators and Radar Operators above the

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cuff of the left sleeve.19 Marine veteran Bruce Barton recalls a squad of Marines, recently graduated from Communications School in California, being transferred to Headquarters Co. of the 8th Marines at Camp Lejeune in 1946. All were wearing the Radioman's "sparks" on their sleeves. "We had never seen any types of insignia like this." All of them were field telephone wiremen.20

Of the eight insignia described in this group, only six are included in the 1937 uniform regulations: Gun Captain (Navy), Gun Pointer, first class (Navy), Gun Pointer, second class (Navy), and Navy "E" in text and plates plus Expert Rifle and Pistol Shot and Rifle Sharpshooter in the plates only. These are described for wear only on dress and winter service uniforms since, at that time, the summer service coat for enlisted men had been discontinued and only rank chevrons were worn on the summer khaki shirt.21

The post-war Marine Corps uniform regulations of 1949 no longer included the Navy marksmanship marks. The remaining four Navy marks cited above were still included. There was once again provision for khaki marks for the summer service jacket which had been approved for enlisted personnel.22 Changes during 1954-55 again eliminated khaki insignia when the summer service jacket was dropped. At the same time, titles were changed from Gun Captain insigne to Mount Captain (Navy), and for the Gun Pointer insigne to Gun Director, Pointer and Trainer and Gun Pointer and Trainer. The changes also eliminated the distinction of first and second class for Gun Pointers, etc., retaining only the insigne of sight ring without the star above.23

The last three of these Navy style marks adopted by the Marine Corps, Mount Captain, Gun Pointer and Navy E, remained in their uniform regulations until the regulations of 12 March 1976 replaced those of 1966 (with changes). Marine Corps supply inventory of 1976 included all three insignia in white on blue wool and scarlet on green wool (Ex. D).

Ill. 7--1926 uniform with both Navy and Marine style Gun Pointer's marks and a green on khaki Expert Rifleman's mark on the summer uniform coat.
Illustration 7--Uniform group dated to 1926 with both Navy and Marine style Gun Pointer's marks and a green on khaki Expert Rifleman's mark on the summer uniform coat.
Close-up of summer coat from the group showing both P.F.C. insigne and Expert Rifleman's mark in green on khaki
Close-up of summer coat from the group showing both P.F.C. insigne and Expert Rifleman's mark in green on khaki backing rather than the earlier brown on khaki. (Courtesy Del Kuzemchak)

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PLATE II. Marks for Hospital Apprentices and Seabees assigned to Marine units:

Plate II: Marks for Hospital Apprentices and Seabees assigned to Marine units

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Group II. Marks for Hospital Apprentices and Seabees assigned to Marine units:

Marine Corps uniform regulations of 1922 and 1929 included rating badges for Pharmacist's Mates and the red Geneva cross mark for Hospital Apprentices for both the summer and winter service Marine uniforms with which these Navy personnel were supplied.24 Though not included in the 1937 regulations, photographs, uniform and insignia specimens, and a January 1942 Depot of Supply requisition (Ex. E) make it clear that similar rating badges and marks were worn during World War II.

These marks seem to have been used again during the Korean War. Master Chief Hospital Corpsman Mark T. Hacala (FMF, USNR) recounts an interview with Master Chief Hospital Corpsman William R. Charette, Korean War Medal of Honor winner as a 1st class Hospital Corpsman. Master Chief Charette described completing Field Medical Service School in 1952 at which time graduates were issued World War II forestry green rating badges (and probably striker's marks for Hospitalmen and Hospital Apprentices) due to the extensive supply still on hand.25

Another situation of Navy personnel assigned to Marine units arose with the creation of Naval Construction Battalions at the beginning of World War II. A number of Construction Battalions were directly attached to the Marine divisions. For the most part, Seabees in those units were supplied with Marine service and field uniforms. A Marine Corps Quartermaster Department requisition dated Sept. 24, 1942 requested petty officer rating badges for several Construction Battalions (Ex. F). Additionally, a memorandum to the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Navy Department, dated November 26, 1943, provided an estimate of the number of rating badges and distinguishing marks required for personnel to be serving with the Marine Corps during 1944 (Ex. G). Although striker's marks for non-rated men were not included in either document, it seems reasonable to conclude that these marks, in the same ratings, would be needed for men who were not enlisted as petty officers. The Seabee ratings included in these documents are those included with this group in the Insignia Table.

Some points should be made regarding certain of these marks. Due to the nature of Specialist ratings, it is unlikely that non-rated men (those below petty officer grade) would have been strikers for Specialist M, Mail Clerk (or any other Specialist rating) as experienced personnel were generally enlisted into these ratings from civilian life.26 No marks have been identified for Specialist M in Marine colors to the best of the author's knowledge. (Specialist's marks do exist in Navy colors though the author has not found a reason for them.)

Regarding the "CB" distinguishing mark, those enclosed in a diamond were never authorized but are known to have been worn. The author is unaware of any plain block letter "CB" marks (as it was authorized)27 in Marine colors in any collection.

Ill. 8--Uniform of Photographer, 3rd Amphib. Corps, WWII
Ill. 8--Uniform of Photographer,
3rd Amphib. Corps, WW II
(Wagner Collection)

Finally, the rating of Photographer's Mate was included in aviation and other unit complements in addition to the Seabees. Marine uniforms with the shoulder patches of various Marine Air Wings exist with the Photographer's Mate mark above the cuff point, and the uniform collection of Phil Wagner includes one example of a Marine sergeant of the Third Marine Amphibious Corps with Photographer's Mate marks above both cuffs,

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opposed so that both have the camera pointing toward the wearer's front (Ill. 8).

An interesting point arises from a November 13, 1943 memorandum from the Chief of Naval Personnel to the Chief of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Ex. H). It states, "All enlisted ratings shall wear naval rating badges and distinguishing marks, with blue markings (except for the red cross for Hospital Corpsmen [sic] to be [sic] on a background to match in color the uniform on which worn." In spite of this instruction, other Navy correspondence clearly indicates that the subject color combinations continued in use.28

Thus, for the marks in Group II, there is direct or indirect documentary evidence from which to conclude that these were authorized insignia for wearing on Marine service uniforms, though not by Marines. This, of course, does not explain those few marks in the group which exist on navy blue or scarlet backings for the blue dress uniform which the Navy personnel were not issued. These marks must have been produced for Marines, possibly those with particular qualifications such as completion of a Navy or Marine Corps school or training for Marine Engineer Battalions, although without evidence of authorization.

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[B L A N K]

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PLATE III: Naval Aviation Marks

Plate III: Naval Aviation Marks

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Group III. Naval Aviation marks (including Naval Aviation Pilot):

With one notable exception, Naval Aviation specialty and distinguishing marks in Marine colors require a greater degree of speculation than the marks in Groups I and II. The single exception is the mark for Naval Aviation Pilot (pilot qualified petty officers) which is covered here first because it does not really belong with the other marks in this study.

The petty officer rating (job specialty) of Naval Aviation Pilot was established in 1924, and a mark representing the Naval Aviator Insignia (gold wings) was made the specialty mark centered in the rating badge.29 When the rating was disestablished in 1933, the qualified petty officers reverted to general service ratings for which they were qualified (e.g. Aviation Machinist's Mate). Between 1933 and 1935, those qualified enlisted pilots were authorized to wear their former specialty mark as a distinguishing mark (Plate III) midway between the shoulder and elbow of the opposite sleeve from their rating badge: yellow on navy blue, white and, for C.P.O.s, khaki uniforms.30 Use of this mark was discontinued in 1935.

These marks were neither intended nor authorized for wear by Marine enlisted pilots and are not known by the author to exist in the distinctive colors of scarlet on forestry green, green on khaki or yellow on scarlet. The rating of Naval Aviation Pilot was re-established in World War II, again using the yellow specialty mark.31 The mark was changed for petty officers' rating badges to white on blue and blue on white, khaki, gray, and aviation green in 1944.32 Naval Aviation Pilot marks in blue/white combinations are found but were never authorized as distinguishing marks for qualified enlisted pilots. From an interview with former Naval Aviation Pilot Jay D. Sneeringer, correspondent Johnnie T. Watson, former Aviation Ordnanceman, reported that, during Sneeringer's flight training in 1948, enlisted cadets in basic and advanced training wore "... the NAP striker's patch ..." on their left forearm and enlisted Marines "... wore [N]AP striker badges that matched the color of the uniform...." in the same place on their uniforms.33

There are twelve other known Navy aviation marks identified in Marine color combinations (see the Insignia Table and Plate III). The author has found no official documentation for these. In fact, as mentioned in the introductory paragraphs, the Marine Corps specifically denied any authorization for four such marks in 1941.

Ill. 9--WWII airman's uniform
Ill. 9--WWII airman's uniform
(Cochrane Collection)

It is interesting to note that there are more aviation marks in the yellow on scarlet or blue combinations than marks in any other group. Every mark identified exists in one or both of these combinations except Aviation Carpenter's Mate, a mark which the Navy had discontinued in 1940.34 There are also more aviation marks in green on khaki identified than those of the other type groups.

There have been numerous Marine uniforms found with aviation marks above the left cuff, both winter service and blue dress. Many have shoulder patches of the Marine Air Wings. This evidence must be treated with caution in as much as sound provenance and/or careful examination should ensure that such marks are original to the uniform and not added later to "enhance" the uniform. One such uniform in the collection of

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Gerald Cochrane bears both the specialty mark of Aviation Radioman above the left cuff and the distinguishing mark of an Air Gunner on the upper right arm (Ill. 9). Close examination tends to support the authenticity of the uniform. The corporal was most likely the radioman and/or rear gunner in a dive bomber or torpedo bomber. Interestingly, the rank chevrons are worn only on the left sleeve, a measure instituted during the war to ease supply deficiencies.

Veteran Marine aircraft engine mechanic George McCullough recalled wearing the Aviation Machinist's Mate mark on his uniform.35 He provided a photograph of his good friend Gene "Ace" Petrarca in his winter service uniform wearing the mark above his left cuff. He and Petrarca had gone through boot camp and Naval Technical Training School at Millington, Tennessee together and got their marks at graduation (Ill. 10). Ace was later assigned to the 3rd Marine Division and was killed in action on Saipan. Two other Marine veterans, in correspondence, specifically remembered wearing the Aviation General Utility distinguishing mark; one stating red on green for winter service and white on blue for the blue dress uniform.36

Ill. 10--Aircraft Engine Mechanic, WWII
Ill. 10--Aircraft Engine Mechanic, WWII
(Courtesy of George McCullough)

Navy veteran Johnnie T. Watson, recalled having Marines in class during Air Gunnery School at Purcell, Oklahoma and Aviation Ordnance School at NATTC (Naval Air Technical Training Center), Norman, Oklahoma. Upon graduation, the Marines received marks in red on forestry green when the Sailors received their striker's or distinguishing marks. Mr. Watson also recalled seeing Marines wearing marks for the then obsolete specialty of Aviation Carpenter's Mate and for Aviation Machinist's Mate, Aviation Metalsmith, Aerographer's Mate, and the Aviation General Utility distinguishing mark in addition to the two schools he cited.37

On the negative side, former Chief Aviation Machinist's Mate Francis Brandt, an instructor in his specialty at NATTC, stated that between 1942 and 1946, "I don't recall [anyone] wearing any type of uniform mark...and I had a total of 878 students...through my classes, including sailors, WAVES, Marine men and women."38

While the recollections and anecdotal evidence supports these aviation marks being worn by Marines, one other possibility exists for the use of these marks on Marine uniforms. Former Aviation Ordnanceman and Navy rating historian Lester Tucker (W-4, U.S.N., ret.) advises that there were specialized Navy aviation support units in service with Marine Air Wings, at least during the Guadalcanal campaign. These would be units with facilities and experience to perform functions for which Marines were either not trained or for which forward air facilities were not adequate.39 It is possible that such unit personnel may have been supplied with Marine uniforms and related insignia as were the Seabees and medical personnel. On this point, Cmdr. Larry Rosenthal (U.S.N.R., ret.), then a Marine combat wire communicator attached to a combined service aircraft control unit (ACORN) at Segi Point, New Georgia in the Solomons, states, "Each service wore their own uniforms. My only knowledge of uniform use by another service was with Navy Corpsmen on duty with Marines."40

On balance, anecdotal and specimen evidence regarding aviation specialty and distinguishing marks in Marine colors would suggest that they were worn by Marines and not by Sailors supplied with Marine uniforms. Adopting distinctive insignia by service personnel is not unique to this particular class of insignia. The aviation branch of the Marine Corps expanded greatly during World War II, with personnel qualifying in many related skills parallel to those in the Navy air service. It seems easy

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to accept that those engaged in the conduct of air warfare would seek means to outwardly identify with that role. The convenience of related Navy insignia would have provided a ready source for that identity.

Referring back to Exhibit A, the inquiry from Gemsco, Inc. regarding "...requests for insignia for wear on green blouses, Marine Corps uniforms." it is noted that the four specialty marks cited were all aviation marks. This may be a clue that the search for identity had begun early. In spite of the negative Marine Corps response to Gemsco in 1941, they and other manufacturers may have interpreted numerous inquiries as an indication of a ready market for these insignia. The proliferation of aviation marks on blue and/or scarlet backings for the blue dress uniform would support the idea that these marks were intended for Marines, even if unauthorized.

A couple of points should be made regarding two particular marks in this group: Parachuteman (parachute without wings) and Parachute Rigger (with wings). The mark for Parachuteman, qualified parachute riggers, was included in the Navy uniform regulations of 1941.41 To date, the author has found no source for the origin of this Navy mark. Anecdotal evidence of Marine veterans indicates that Marine parachute riggers wore the mark on their uniforms. In addition, the dress uniform of Sgt. Sherman B. Watson, a Marine paratrooper of the 3rd Bn., 1st Marine Parachute Regiment, in the collection of Emmett Fox bears the Parachuteman mark above the left cuff.42 Mr. Fox also described an interview with a member of Weapons Co., 1st Parachute Bn. who described members of the battalion wearing the mark as a shoulder patch until a patch was authorized.43

In Plate III, there are two sizes of Parachuteman marks; full size at 1½" and a smaller at one inch, ideally sized for wearing by Women Marines whose rank insignia were also smaller than men's chevrons. Women Marines were trained as parachute riggers.44 This may help validate the premise that many of the aviation marks in Marine colors were intended for Marines.

In 1942, the Navy approved the separate rating of Parachute Rigger.45 The action should have eliminated the Parachuteman distinguishing mark from use, though Navy correspondence in 1944 indicates that no such instructions had been issued.46

As with most military insignia, oddities do appear. In this case, samples of the Air Gunner distinguishing mark in one collection include one embroidered on brown wool and one painted on forestry green cloth. There has also been a blue dress uniform offered for sale in a popular auction which had a scarlet Air Gunner's mark (rather than yellow) above the left cuff. On examination of the image, the mark appeared to have been trimmed close to the embroidered design, possibly trimming away forestry green backing so that it could be sewn onto the blue dress coat.

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PLATE IV: Marks with no clearly attributable use

Plate IV: Marks with no clearly attributable use

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Group IV. Marks with no clearly attributable use:

Eight Navy specialty marks and five distinguishing marks do not fit clearly into any of the groups described above based on the information presently on hand. The specialty marks are Bugler, Fire Controlman, Hospitalman (caduceus), Motor Machinist's Mate, Musician, Radarman, Torpedoman's Mate, and Turret Captain. Of these, some reasonable conjecture can be made about six. Of the distinguishing marks: Amphibious Insigne (alligator), Seaman Gunner, Submarine Insigne, Assault Boat Coxswain, and Ex-Apprentice, anecdotal evidence and reasoning may provide explanations for only the first three.

Bugler (Navy pattern) -- although buglers are not listed with the Seabee ratings in Exhibits F and G, it is possible that there were buglers assigned to these units. The Marine Corps had eliminated the Trumpeter insignia (see Appendix) before World War II,47 but Marine buglers may have adopted the Navy style mark unofficially as appears to have happened with other such marks.

Fire Controlman--there were Navy Fire Control Parties attached to some Marine units48 which, if supplied in the same manner as Pharmacist's Mates and Seabees, may have been provided with Marine service uniforms and insignia produced for that use. It is also possible that Marines trained as fire control men, either for ground forces or aviation, may have worn this mark as an unauthorized insigne.

Hospitalman (caduceus)--in 1948, the Navy changed the Pharmacist's Mate rating with a red Geneva cross mark to Hospital Corpsman with a caduceus as the specialty mark. The colors were intended to be the same as other specialty marks, white on blue and blue on all other backings.49 The caduceus on Marine forestry green winter service uniforms would be dark blue. The mark does appear, however, in red on forestry green alone of the Marine color combinations addressed in this study.

As previously mentioned (Group II, Hospital Apprentices), evidence from the Korean War shows that Navy enlisted medical personnel in Marine uniforms wore both rating badges for petty officers and striker's marks for Hospitalmen (formerly Hospital Apprentices) with the red cross design as did their predecessors of World War II. This was a result of using the supplies of insignia that were available from that period. There is also evidence, entirely outside of regulations, that these historic precedents for the Corpsmen and for manufacturers led to the production of the caduceus mark in red on forestry green when the battle lines were drawn once again. Whether these were widely used is not clear.50

Motor Machinist's Mate--established as a separate rating from Machinist's Mate in 1942 at the rates of chief, 1st and 2nd class.51 The rate of 3rd class, and thus possibly strikers for the rating among non-rated men, was not authorized until 1944,52 later than the Seabee insignia requisition in Exhibit F. While the author has found no listings for Motor Machinist's Mates (CB) in Navy records, the comparable rating of Machinist's Mate E (Engineman) was included in Seabee complements in 1944,53 though that rating was abolished effective 16 May 1944 and incumbents transferred to other Machinist's Mate ratings.54

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Parts of the Motor Machinist's Mate rating, Gasoline Engine and Diesel Engine Mechanics, were converted to the post-war Seabee rating of Engineman in 1948.55 This may indicate that they were included, at some point, in Seabee complements, possibly staffed by former Machinist's Mates (E) converted to Motor Machinist's Mates, providing a rationale for the existence of the mark in Marine colors.

Musician--the author had not found an explanation for the Navy Musician's mark in Marine colors. New information, however, was uncovered by Lt. Col. Philip Wagner (U.S.M.C.R., ret.) while doing research at the offices of the Marine Band, Headquarters, Washington, D. C. The uniform in Ill. 11 is reported to have belonged to a member of the Marine Corps Women's Reserve Band formed by the Marine Corps during World War II.56 Above the left cuff, in the same location as most other marks on period uniforms, is a red on forestry green lyre. The mark appears slightly larger than the sample in Plate IV and somewhat different in pattern than the standard Navy pattern in the yellow on blue sample next to it in the same plate. Mrs. Charlotte Plummer Owen, Conductor of the MCWR Band, however, does not confirm the wearing of this mark. Mrs. Owen states, "We had no special insignia. We tried to get permission for a Music lyre for our uniforms, but this was never granted."57 This clear recollection leaves the explanation for the Musician's mark unresolved. As an aside, note that the Technical Sergeant's chevron on this uniform is the standard size for male Marines rather than the reduced size which was adopted for Women Marines in post-war years.

Ill. 11--WWII Women's Reserve Band uniform
Ill. 11--WW II Women's Reserve Band uniform
(Marine Band Collection)

Radarman and Torpedoman's Mate--both of these ratings had aviation qualifications58 but were not authorized winged specialty marks (though one does exist for "Aviation Radarman," see Plate III and Insignia Table). The assumptions regarding other aviation marks could certainly apply to these two marks.

Marine veteran James Bernard writes of his stop in a Washington, D. C. military supply store that "I bought what was said was a Radarman insignia...." before continuing on to Camp Lejeune and Cherry Point MCAS for squadron assignment.59

Another correspondent, Marine veteran Don Lewis, seeking information on these marks through a request in Leatherneck, states that several respondents "... were graduates of Radio Operators' and/or Radar Technicians' schools at Camp Lejeune. They were issued the diamond patches...." The radar types received "... three sparks crossed by an arrow."60

No similar recollections have been received regarding aviation torpedomen. However, there were Marine Torpedo Bomber Squadrons (VMTB) and qualified Marine torpedomen who may have worn these marks as unauthorized insignia like the winged aviation marks.

Turret Captain--the Navy rating of Turret Captain existed at the rates of chief and 1st class petty officer only.61 Promotions to this rating would be from men in the Gunner's Mate rating and related non-rated strikers would be from that rating. Correspondent Lester Tucker reports that there would be, however, Gunner's Mates qualified for promotion to chief or first class Turret Captain who would wear such a striker's mark on the left sleeve, opposite their rating badge. As for Marines

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qualifying as Turret Captains, no evidence has been found and would not be expected since Navy personnel with significant experience would supervise major guns.

With regard to the distinguishing marks in this group, the following comments and issues apply: Amphibious Insigne (Alligator)--this mark was never authorized by the Navy for any use, but Navy Department correspondence and known uniform samples verify that it was worn by both Sailors and Marines assigned to amphibious operations units.62 One sample of this mark appeared for sale at auction with a rectangular border, apparently stitched, surrounding the design.

Seaman Gunner (flaming bomb)--possible reasons for this mark include wearing by Sailors of various ratings qualified as Seaman Gunners who were assigned to units such as Seabees attached to Marines, and the possibility that Marines were permitted to qualify just as they could for Gun Pointer or Gun/Mount Captain. However, no documentation or other evidence has been found to support either possibility. Four different styles were identified of this mark, including an Army Ordnance pattern, but with no clear evidence of its purpose on Marine uniforms.

Marine veteran William Maxam provided a photograph of a Marine uniform with such a mark of the Army Ordnance pattern on the left forearm (Ill. 12). The owner was a friend of Maxam's who was in ordnance, 5th Service Bn., 5th Marine Division.63 Correspondent James Bernard has a similar mark which he believes had been worn by a Marine bomber crewman at one of his stations.64

Ill. 12--Ordnanceman, 5th Mar. Div.
Ill. 12--Ordnanceman, 5th Mar. Div.
(Maxam Collection)

Submarine Insigne--to date, found only in yellow on navy blue of the subject color combinations, with no explanation for its use. For Navy personnel, a gold insigne would be worn by officers and would be in bullion embroidery or a gold metal badge for service and dress uniforms.

Collector Sy Goodman advises that he has seen a photograph of submarine officers wearing what appeared to be a cloth embroidered insigne on working jackets such as windbreakers.65 This may explain a yellow on blue mark of this type.

Assault Boat Coxswain--this mark was authorized by the Navy in 195166 so it does not fit in the same time frame as most of the other marks discussed here. In addition to standard blue/white combinations, it is found in yellow on navy blue (also on white cotton) which may prompt its inclusion by some collectors. No explanation for these variations from standard Navy blue/white combinations has been found to date, but use by Marines is most unlikely.

Ex-Apprentice--one mark provided for this study is an open square (or granny) knot and not the Navy mark of an open figure eight knot worn by ex-apprentices. The former probably has a source and use unrelated to the Navy and Marine Corps. It is known, however, that a larger open square knot in yellow on navy blue was worn at Sampson Naval Training Station, usually below a block letter "S", by trainees assigned to Class A schools. The color variants identified of the figure eight knot are yellow on navy blue, scarlet on navy blue, and black on scarlet. No explanation has been found for these combinations. It is probable that these were produced for women's "middie blouses" and/or children's sailor suits, both popular during the two World War periods.

It should be noted that, even if a Marine had at one time been a Navy Apprentice and later joined the Marine Corps, there is no provision in regulations for wearing this mark on Marine uniforms.

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PLATE V. Marks unidentified as to source and use

Plate V. Marks unidentified as to source and use

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Group V. Marks unidentified as to source and use:

Eleven marks included in some collections do not appear to be either U. S. Navy or Marine Corps in origin. Four of these are clearly related to U. S. military services. Two are Army Transportation Corps devices (one winged and one without the wings attached). The third of these is a winged Quartermaster device with Army style sword but no eagle surmounted. The fourth is the device of the Army Chemical Corps. While no explanation has been found for these existing in color combinations for Marine uniforms, examples in two private collections include Marine uniforms each of which has one of these marks on the cuff. The first is a Woman Marine's winter service uniform with the non-winged Transportation Corps device on the left cuff (Ill. 13). Motor pool was one of the many assignments for Women Marines67 and they certainly may have visited the same off-post shops at which the men found similar insignia. The second uniform is a blue dress tunic of a sergeant from the 3rd Marine Air Wing with the winged Transportation Corps device (Ill. 14). Marine Transport Squadrons (VMR) and/or aviation unit motor pools may have adopted this device to distinguish their duty assignments. It is unclear whether or not this same rationale would explain the winged Quartermaster insigne.

Ill. 13--Transportation mark on Woman Marinešs coat
Ill. 13--Transportation mark on Woman Marine's coat
(Wagner Collection)

With regard to the Chemical Corps insigne, collector Pete Killie reports that his research disclosed two Chemical Companies in the Marine Corps prior to the formation of the divisions beginning in 1941. After these companies were disbanded, Marine officers and non-commissioned officers were still trained in chemical warfare at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal and in Marine courses. Graduates were assigned to combat units as chemical warfare personnel.68

The possibility exists that schools in motor transport, quartermaster/supply, and chemical warfare activities arranged for the production of insignia to identify graduates, adopting devices used by the Army. It is also possible that inquiries to vendors or manufacturers encouraged the production of these marks.

Ill. 14--Air wing uniform with Transportation mark
Ill. 14 ­ Air wing uniform with Transportation mark
(Ron Burkey, Jr. Collection)

The mark taken to be Fire Fighter's Assistant does not fit with the other marks included on two scores. The Navy distinguishing mark for this qualification was authorized in 1949,69 outside the World War II timeframe for most of the other marks covered, and the mark is distinctly different than that authorized by the Navy which has no center circle. It should be noted that the Maltese cross is a widespread insigne used by civilian fire fighters. There are many possible organizations for which this mark may have been produced.

Machinist's Mate (in circle) is a mark from one collection in yellow on blue. The ship's prop is of a different pattern than the standard Navy mark (see Plate II). There is no comparable device in enlisted Navy insignia which is encircled in this fashion.

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Three scarlet on forestry green marks in the collection of Doug Carroll are block letters A, B, and C. These have no presently identified relationship to Navy or Marine Corps insignia.

The final two insignia in this "unidentified" group are a lion and a griffin, the first having a distinctly British style, and the second reported but no sample known. The source of the lion insignia gave one collector and the author, on separate occasions, the explanation that they came with the winter service uniform of a Marine stationed at the U. S. Embassy in London during the war. Might the griffin have indicated assignment to a consulate in Wales? No verification has been found for this explanation.

There are three other marks which appear to belong in this study for which, regrettably, no samples or photographs have been found. Marine veterans William Maxam and Maj. Rick Spooner (U.S.M.C., ret.) both recall seeing a mark with a machine gun on a tripod, scarlet on forestry green, in a civilian shop while on liberty, Maxam at Oceanside, California and Spooner in San Diego, as well as being worn by some Marines. Marine Maxam states, "A lot of Marines in my M.G. section were having them sewed on the left sleeve."70 Major Spooner also recalls the marks being worn until company sergeants ordered them removed.71

The other two marks were remembered by Major Spooner and were seen at the same shop: a mortar and a BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle) on approximately two inch patches of forestry green wool.72 As with many of the other marks described herein, no evidence of official authorization for these three has been identified. The act of ordering the machine gun marks removed supports a lack of authorization.

After the exploration of these insignia, arranged into five type groups, there are three insignia which did not fit into any of the groups. The first is scarlet on forestry green wool with the legend "OFFICIAL U.S.M.C. PHOTOGRAPHER" (Ill. 15A) which was offered for auction.73 There were Marine photographers during World War II as well as civilians, but the author has no knowledge of approving documentation in either case, and has not seen an actual sample from which to make judgments about its manufacture. It is uncertain whether this insigne was intended for Marine or civilian combat photographers.

Ill. 15--Photographer, War Correspondent, and Shharpshooter insignia
Ill. 15--Items A and B may have been worn by civilian news personnel in the field.
Item C is not a Marine insigne. (A--Killie Collection; B--from eBay Auction offering;
C--from Civil War Collector's Encyclopedia Vol. I/II)

The second is also a scarlet on forestry green legend reading "WAR CORRESPONDENT" (Ill. 15B). The materials fit our category but war correspondents were civilians in uniform, not military personnel. There were Marine correspondents in the war zones but they were referred to as "combat correspondents" so it is unlikely that this insigne was intended for them. The author has not seen documents authorizing this insigne, though the Navy had cap and collar insignia as well as a shoulder patch authorized for their civilian correspondents.

The third of these "afternote" insignia was included in Volume I/II of Civil War Collector's Encyclopedia attributed as "Marine Corps

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Sharpshooter's Insignia (U.S.)." This is described as a "... gold musket on crimson background."74 (Ill. 15C). Both the author and Civil War Marine scholar David M. Sullivan are of the opinion that the insigne is not related to the Marine Corps.75 Author and collector Tom McDougall has identified this insignia from General Order 16 of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, September 18, 1897, as a "... sleeve device for Enlisted Sharpshooter or Distinguished Marksman."76

In this illustration, 15A is taken from a computer image of reduced size from the source noted, 15B is from an original sample, and 15C is of a copy from the publication cited.

* * * * *

Having explored a varied and complex category of insignia; examined a very limited amount of documentation, positive and negative; considered the recollections of Marine and Navy veterans, and the existence of insignia samples and uniforms bearing them, it may be helpful to review what has been accomplished:

To the extent that this study represents progress, it remains clear that the foregoing has been achieved largely through inference and conjecture. There is much still unknown. Hopefully, the presentation of this subject will serve to establish a framework within which continued study of this type of insignia can be pursued, and will stimulate interest and investigation into the entire category which may unearth new information and documentation. As with most categories of military insignia, there are unanswered questions and gaps in available information. On this particular subject, there are more questions than solid information. Any newly found documentation, anecdotal evidence, insights, or suggestions will be welcomed and shared with the small but growing group of interested collectors.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The input of numerous collectors to this effort is greatly appreciated. Dr. Tom Korn initiated the correspondence effort with Marine veterans which has contributed significantly to the project. His willingness to share his correspondence has provided much of the impetus for its completion. Many thanks, Tom!

The research efforts of Phil Wagner and his assistance in gathering images of many insignia not available in individual collections have been a tremendous plus. These contributions enhance the finished product significantly.

The assistance of Navy veterans Johnnie T. Watson with his extensive recollections, and Les Tucker for his research help and insights into joint Navy/Marine activities in World War II have been a great help. Editorial comments and recommendations from fellow insignia collector Sy Goodman have been most welcomed in developing the presentation.

Thanks also are due Charlie Bish, Doug Carroll, Gerry Day, Emmett Fox, Jay Graybeal, Mark Hacala, Bill Kempner, Jerry Keohane, Pete Killie, Del Kuzemchak, Chuck McKenzie, John Parillo, Buddy Patterson, Steve Rohde, Bill Schneider, Dick Thomas, Bill Wellman, and Howard Wulforst for information, images and/or lists provided.

Very special appreciation is due to those Marine veterans, named and unnamed, who kindly shared their memories and experiences with us. Semper Fidelis!

Last of all, I am extremely grateful to my daughter Karen and son-in-law Bob for helping this computer challenged writer negotiate that electronic never-never land!

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EXHIBIT A

Exhibit A

November 14, 1941

U.S. Marine Corps
Washington, D.C.

Gentlemen:

We have received requests for insignia for wear on the green blouses, Marine Corps uniforms.

We have gone through the regulations and do not find a record of these illustrated, or listed and will thank you to send us any specifications or pictures, if these have been adopted.

By so doing, you will greatly oblige.

GEMSCO
/signed/
Harry I. Elkies, Secy.

HIE:EG

Marine Aviation Ord. ins. for green blouse
" " Mach. " " " "
" " Metalsmith " " " "
" " Radio " " " "

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT B

Exhibit B 190-2
WES db

November 18, 1941.

Gentlemen:

In connection with your letter of November 14, 1941, you are advised that this office has no information concerning the insignia mentioned. Such insignia is not used in the Marine Corps.

By direction of the Quartermaster:

Very respectfully,

E. M. Spencer,
Lt. Col., USMC.

Gemsco,
      395 Fourth Avenue
            New York, N. Y.

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT C

Exhibit C
Question Box

Q. Is there any way that I can prove I crossed the equator on the VINCENNES in 1941? I lost my original certificate when the ship was sunk.

A. Only method is to get certification VINCENNES cross equator that year and proof you were a member of her complement from Navy Department and Marine Headquarters. The log will not show it.

Q. Do second a third paygrade Marines aboard ship rate CPO's mess and quarter privileges?

A. No regulations governing this. Apparently up to individual C.O.'s.

Q. Where can a Marine discharged six months ago get a discharge button?

A. If released since 9 September, 1939, from any Navy or Marine Corps post, hospital or recruiting station upon presenting discharge certificate.

Q. Are men who have had filariasis eligible for transfer back to SoPac?

A. Policy of Headquarters is not to transfer those men to tropical duty.

Q. May a Navy officer change his commission to the Marine Corps?

A. Law makes no provision for such change. Only way would be to resign Navy commission and make application for commission in Marine Corps.

Q. What are the requirements for the Marine Corps Reserve Service Medal?

A. To be eligible for Marine Corps Reserve Service Medal man must attend 14 days annual field training period for four consecutive years, must attend 38 drills yearly for four consecutive years, and have average marking of 4.5 or over upon discharge. Reserves who serve on active duty for four years are entitled to medal providing final average equals 4.5 or over.

Q. Are no companies now called "J" because at one time in the past a "J" company lost its colors under fire?

A. Headquarters has no record of this; believes the reason is that "i" and "j" frequently are confused with "l".

Q. What do stars on Marine shoulder patches represent?

A. The five stars on the First and Second Division and various other shoulder patches represent the Southern Cross, visible in Southwest Pacific.

Q. Is there any authorization for wearing of Navy striker's badge by Marines who have been graduated from Navy schools or for wearing other similar insignia?

A. We are unable to find any authorization for this in Uniform Regulations.

Q. May men who were in the Icelandic Expedition wear the Polar Bear Patch, given to them by the British, or the Marine Expeditionary Ribbon?

A. Only time the Expeditionary medal has been authorized for this war is Wake Island, December 8-22, 1941. The Polar Bear Patch never has been approved. Regulations provide that if the organization to which you belong has a shoulder patch, that one will be worn. Otherwise wear the patch of the last organization to which you belonged.

Q. What is dope on shipping over in the Reserves during this war?

A. A Reserve may ship over in the Regulars for a four-year cruise, in the Reserves for the duration plus or allow status to become frozen. No reenlistment allowance will be paid to members of the Reserve who ship over in either case and Reserve cannot extend enlistments.

Q. Does Service in the Civilian Conservation Corps count for longevity?

A. CCC service does not count toward longevity or hashmarks.

Q. Is there a warrant in the Marine Corps, the holder of which can be

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT D
U.S.M.C. 19 76 FSW CATALOG

Exhibit D

C8440/70-IL-MC

Active
Code
Index
Number
NSN Descriptive Data Illus-
tration
Page No.
    8455    
  247025 00-402-9724 DECORATION SET, SUPERIOR CIVILIAN SERVICE AWARD: regular size; w/case; designed for civil service personnel
    Components
        Decoration, Superior Civilian Award
        Lapel Button, Superior Civilian Service Award
 
  251720 00-273-1847 DISTINGUISHING MARK: scarlet rayon embroidery on green wool kersey: design of built-up gun barrel, w/axis horizontal and muzzle pointing to the front; MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
        Mount Captain
 
  251760 00-273-1849 DISTINGUISHING MARK; scarlet rayon embroidery on green wool kersey: design of cross wires of a gun sight: MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
    &bnbsp;   Gun Director Pointer and Trainer
 
  251800 00-273-1851 DISTINGUISHING MARK: scarlet rayon embroidery on green wool kersey; MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
        Navy "E"
 
  251900 00-273-1846 DISTINGUISHING MARK: white rayon embroidery on blue wool kersey: design of built-up gun barrel, w/axis horizontal and muzzle pointing to front: MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
        Mount Captain
 
  251940 00-273-1848 DISTINGUISHING MARK: white rayon embroidery on blue wool kersey; design of cross wires on a gun sight; MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
        Gun Director Pointer and Trainer
 
  251980 00-273-1850 DISTINGUISHING MARK: white rayon embroidery on blue wool kersey; MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type III, except material
    Title
        Navy "E"
 
C 254680 00-175-3031 GROUP-RATE MARK: designed for men; rayon embroidery on cotton twill: Navy blue stripes on khaki background; MIL-I-15864 (Navy), type V, combination E
Number of
Stripes
Grouping Specification
Class
2 Apprentice Hospital
Corpsman and Apprentice
Dental Technician
2
3 Hospital Corpsman and
Dental Technician
3
 
Number of
Stripes
Grouping  
2 Hospital Apprentice and
Dental Apprentice
 
3 Hospital and Dentalman,  
 
C 254700 00-175-3021  
C 255080 00-175-3030  
C 255100 00-175-3020  

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT E (PAGE 1 OF 2)

Exhibit E(1)
In Replying
Refer to No.

114-P

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT
DEPOT OF SUPPLIES
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
21 January, 1942
 
From: Depot Quartermaster.
To: The Quartermaster.
Subject: Purchase of Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, U.S. Navy.
Reference: (a) Letter from Thomas Textile Service Co., 1926-1932 Arch St., Phila., Pa., to DQP of 20 January, 1942; enclosed.
Enclosure: 1. (a)

1. In view of the urgency for Navy Hospital Corpsmen's Rating Badges, and there being no facilities at this depot for manufacturing these badges at this time, reference (a) is forwarded with the recommendation that the offer of Thomas Textile Service Company be accepted; as follows:

10,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Chief Pharmacist's Mate, Service Summer, $.48 pr.,
13,000 prs. Badges, Raging, Pharmacist's Mate, 1st class, Service Summer, $.41-3/4 pr.,
17,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class, Service Summer, $.40-3/4 pr.,
20,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 3rd class, Service Summer, $.38 pr.,
 
5,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Chief Pharmacist's Mate, Service Winter, $.50 pr.,
5,000 prs. Badges, Rating Pharmacist's Mate 1st class, Service Winter, $.40-1/4 pr.,
5,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class, Service Winter, $.39-1/4 pr.,
5,000 prs. Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 3rd class, Service Winter, $.361/2 pr.,

to be in accordance with standard samples on file at the Depot of Supplies, United States Marine Corps, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT E (PAGE 2 OF 2)

Exhibit E(2)
DQP letter 114-P to QM of 21 January 1942, Re Purchase of
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, U.S. Navy

2. The Marine Corps is to furnish the necessary Khaki Suiting, 16-ounce Green Kersey and Scarlet Cloth, also the red and green silk sewing thread and/or mercerized cotton thread for attaching the bars and arcs. The contractor is to furnish the necessary services involved in manufacturing the chevrons, such as; making the backs, cutting to size and shape the bars and arcs and attaching to the backs, and embroidering the eagles and red crosses with their own rayon embroidery thread. Workmanship to be first-class in every respect and equal to that of the standard samples on file at the Depot of Supplies, 1100 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

3. The contractor is to call for the materials at the Depot of Supplies, 100 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa., and return the completed chevrons to the Marine Corps Warehouse, 734 Schuylkill Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.

4. The prices quoted by the Thomas Textile Service Company are considered very reasonable, as the cost of labor only, (not including overhead) for manufacturing the last lot of Hospital Corpsmen's Rating Badges at this depot, was as follows:

Badges, Rating, Chief Pharmacist's Mate, Service Summer $.655 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 1st class, Service Summer $.56 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class, Service Summer $.576 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 3rd class, Service Summer $.487 pr.
 
Badges, Rating, Chief Pharmacist's Mate, Service Winter $.71 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 1st class, Service Winter $.66 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class, Service Winter $.566 pr.
Badges, Rating, Pharmacist's Mate, 3rd class, Service Winter $.527 pr.

M.C. Gregory

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EXHIBIT F (PAGE 1 OF 3)

Exhibit F(1)
N.M.C & QM REQUISITION
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT
 
  September 24, 1942
From Quartermaster, New River Training Center, FMF, MB, New River, N.C.
To The Quartermaster, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C.

There are required for the use of 19th Naval Construction Battalion now located at The Training Center, the following articles to be shipped to Post Property Officer, MB, New River, N.C. marked for QM., New River Training Center.

Strength of command: 550 Officers, 10,676 Enlisted men, 11,226 Total.

(Specific purpose for which articles are to be used, quantity in use and in store, serviceable, must be stated)
Item
No.
Quantity Required
(in Figures)
Article Total Serviceable
In use In
store
1. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Boatswain. 0 0
2. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Boatswain Second Class. 0 0
3. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Baker Second Class. 0 0
4. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Carpenter. 0 0
5. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Carpenter First Class. 0 0
6. 150 BADGES, rating, S.W., Carpenter Second Class. 0 0
7. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Carpenter Third Class. 0 0
8. 150 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Electrician. 0 0
9. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Electrician First Class. 0 0
10. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Electrician Second Class. 0 0
11. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Electrician Third Class. 0 0
12. 150 BADGES, rating, S.W., Fireman First Class. 0 0
13. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Gunner's Mate First Class. 0 0
14. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Gunner's Mate Second Class. 0 0
15. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Machinist. 0 0
16. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Machinist First Class. 0 0
17. 300 BADGES, rating, S.W., Machinist Second Class. 0 0
18. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Metalsmith First Class. 0 0
19. 150 BADGES, rating, S.W., Metalsmith Second Class. 0 0
20. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Officer's Steward Third Class. 0 0
21. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Painter Second Class. 0 0
22. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Painter Third Class. 0 0
23. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Pharmacist Second Class. 0 0
24. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Quartermaster Second Class. 0 0
25. 150 BADGES, rating, S.W., Ships Cook First Class. 0 0
26. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Ships Cook Second Class. 0 0
27. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Ships Cook Third Class. 0 0
28. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Shipfitter. 0 0
29. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Shipfitter First Class. 0 0
30. 200 BADGES, rating, S.W., Shipfitter Second Class. 0 0
31. 300 BADGES, rating, S.W., Shipfitter Third Class. 0 0
32. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Chief Storekeeper. 0 0
33. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Storekeeper Third Class. 0 0
34. 50 BADGES, rating, S.W., Specialist Third Class (Mail). 0 0
35. 100 BADGES, rating, S.W., Water Tender First Class. 0 0

Philip L. Thwing.

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EXHIBIT F (PAGE 2 OF 3)

Exhibit
N.M.C & QM REQUISITION
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT
 
  ____________________, 19____
From  
To  

There are required for the use of _____________________________________, the following articles to be shipped to ____________________________________

Strength of command: ______ Officers, ______ Enlisted men, ______ Total.

(Specific purpose for which articles are to be used, quantity in use and in store, serviceable, must be stated)
Item
No.
Quantity Required
(in Figures)
Article Total Serviceable
In use In
store
36. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Water Tender Second Class. 0 0
37. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Water Tender Third Class. 0 0
38. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Yeoman Second Class. 0 0
39. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Yeoman Third Class. 0 0
40. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Boatswain. 0 0
41. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Boatswain Second Class. 0 0
42. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Baker Second Class. 0 0
43. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Carpenter. 0 0
44. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Carpenter First Class. 0 0
45. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Carpenter Second Class. 0 0
46. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Carpenter Third Class. 0 0
47. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Electrician. 0 0
48. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Electrician First Class. 0 0
49. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Electrician Second Class. 0 0
50. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Electrician Third Class. 0 0
51. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Fireman First Class. 0 0
52. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Gunner's Mate First Class. 0 0
53. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Gunner's Mate Second Class. 0 0
54. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Machinist. 0 0
55. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Machinist First Class. 0 0
56. 300 BADGES, rating, S.S., Machinist Second Class. 0 0
57. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Metalsmith First Class. 0 0
58. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Metalsmith Second Class. 0 0
59. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Officer's Steward Third Class. 0 0
60. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Painter Second Class. 0 0
61. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Painter Third Class. 0 0
62. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Pharmacist Second Class. 0 0
63. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Quartermaster Second Class. 0 0
64. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Ships Cook First Class. 0 0
65. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Ships Cook Second Class. 0 0
66. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Ships Cook Second Class. 0 0
67. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Shipfitter. 0 0
68. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Shipfitter First Class. 0 0
69. 200 BADGES, rating, S.S., Shipfitter Second Class. 0 0

Philip L. Thwing.

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EXHIBIT F (PAGE 3 OF 3)

Exhibit
N.M.C & QM REQUISITION
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT
 
  ____________________, 19____
From  
To  

There are required for the use of _____________________________________, the following articles to be shipped to ____________________________________

Strength of command: ______ Officers, ______ Enlisted men, ______ Total.

(Specific purpose for which articles are to be used, quantity in use and in store, serviceable, must be stated)
Item
No.
Quantity Required
(in Figures)
Article Total Serviceable
In use In
store
70. 300 BADGES, rating, S.S., Shipfitter Third Class. 0 0
71. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Chief Storekeeper. 0 0
72. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Storekeeper Third Class. 0 0
73. 50 BADGES, rating, S.S., Specialist Third Class (Mail). 0 0
74. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Water Tender First Class. 0 0
75. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Water Tender Second Class. 0 0
76. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Water Tender Third Class. 0 0
77. 100 BADGES, rating, S.S., Yeoman Second Class. 0 0
78. 150 BADGES, rating, S.S., Yeoman Third Class. 0 0
     

NOTE: There are now in the Training Center, 270 Naval Construction personnel and more are expected. A decision is requested as to the furnishing of Marine Corps chevrons of corresponding rank to Naval Personnel.

 

  APPROVED:
A.H. TURNAGE, Brigadier General, U.S.M.C.,
Commanding.

 

 

 

 

   

Philip L. Thwing.

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EXHIBIT G (PAGE 1 OF 5)

Exhibit G(1) FM24/JJ55-3
A-10-1A/RW

To: Chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts.
Subj: Naval Personnel serving with the Marine Corps -- Rating badges and distinguishing marks, estimate of number required.
Ref: (a) BuPers ltr Pers-34-RT dated 13 Nov 43 to Budocks.

1. Pursuant to suggestion offered in reference (a), there is furnished herewith enclosure 1, an estimate of the quantities of subject insignia which will be required in calendar year, 1944.

2. Enclosure 1 lists all of the ratings comprising a marine-attached Construction Battalion, together with the number of ratings specified in the Table of Organization. The quantity of badges required for each rating is also shown, having been computed with an allowance of twenty (20) per cent over complement for each rating and providing two (2) rating badges with forestry green and seven (7) with marine khaki background for each rated man. Individual allowances of CB distinguishing marks are likewise shown for the normal complement of enlisted men together with Expert Riflemen distinguishing marks for ninety(90) per cent of such personnel. The total of the rating badges and distinguishing marks listed in enclosure 1 will hereinafter be referred to as one Battallion Allowance.

3. It is requested that a total of ten (10) battalion allowances be made available in calendar year, 1944, seven (7) of which are desired at the earliest possible date. Further, that as soon as available immediate shipment of one (1) battalion allowance be made to each of the following units or activities at the shipping addresses stated:

      Depot Quartermaster
      Base Depot
      Fleet Marine Force
      San Francisco, Calif.
      Mark "For U.S. Navy JERK-83-CB-18th Marines"

      Depot Quartermaster
      Base Depot
      Fleet Marine Force
      San Francisco, Calif.
      Mark "For U.S. Navy MAZE-83-CB-17th Marines"

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EXHIBIT G (PAGE 2 OF 5)

Exhibit G(2)
      Depot Quartermaster
      Base Depot
      Fleet Marine Force
      San Francisco, Calif.
      Mark "For U.S. Navy EPIC-83-3rd Battalion, 19th Marines"

      Depot Quartermaster
      Base Depot
      Fleet Marine Force
      San Francisco, Calif.
      Mark "For U.S. Navy EPIC-83-CE First MAC"

      Officer in Charge
      Naval Construction Battalion Training Center
      FMFTC Camp Pendleton
      Oceanside, California
      Mark "For Officer in Charge, 3rd Battalion, 20th Marines, 4th Div (121st CB)"

      Officer in Charge
      Naval Construction Battalion Training Center
      FMFTC Camp Pendleton
      Oceanside, California
      Mark "For Attention Supply Officer"

      Naval Construction Battalion Training Center
      FMFTC Camp Lejeune
      New River, North Carolina
      Mark "For Attention Supply Officer"

4. Shipment of one of the three (3) remaining Battalion Allowances is desired made at ninety (90) day intervals to:

      Officer in Charge
      Naval Construction Battalion Training Center
      FMFTC Camp Pendleton
      Oceanside, Calif.
      Mark "For Attention Supply Officer"

5. It is requested that the Bureau of Yards and Docks be informed of the motion taken on this request, in order that it may inform the activities under its jurisdiction as to when they may expect the materials.

J.A. McHenry
By direction of Chief of Bureau

Encl:
1. (HW) Rating Badge Tabulation

cc: BuPers   MarCorps   Quartermasters Dept. -- Supply Div.

    OinC 18th CB   OinC 25th CB
    OinC 19th CB   OinC 53rd CB
    OinC 121st CB
OinC NCBTC Camp Pendleton
OinC NCBTC Camp Lejeune

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EXHIBIT G (PAGE 3 OF 5)

Exhibit G(3)
Enclosure 1

Tabulation of Rating Badges and Distinguishing Marks required to Outfit One Marine-attached Construction Battalion.

Ref: (a) Marine Corps Table of Organization E-43 (approved 15 Apr 43).

Rating Badges

Rating Ratings per
Battalion
Badges Required
    Background
    Forestry
Green
Marine
Khaki
Chief Petty Officers      
      Chief Boatswain's Mate 5 12 42
          "    Carpenter's Mate 32 78 273
          "    Electrician's Mate 10 24 84
          "    Machinist's Mate 7 18 63
          "    Pharmacist's Mate 1 4 14
          "    Ship Fitter 10 24 84
          "    Commissary Steward 2 6 21
          "    Storekeeper 2 6 21
          "    Yeoman 1 4 14
Total C. P. O.'s 70 176 616
 
First Class Petty Officers      
      Baker, 1C 2 6 21
      Boatswain's Mate, 1C 5 12 42
      Carpenter's Mate, 1C 46 110 385
      Electrician's Mate, 1C 15 36 126
      Gunner's Mate, 1C 4 10 35
      Machinist's Mate, 1C 40 96 336
      Metalsmith, 1C 6 14 49
      Cook, 1st Class 1 4 14
      Steward, 1st Class 1 4 14
      Painter, 1st Class 3 8 28
      Pharmacist's Mate, 1st Class 1 4 14
      Photographer, 1st Class 1 4 14
      Quartermaster, 1st Class (Launchman) 3 8 28
      Shipfitter, 1st Class 21 50 175
      Ship's Cook, 1st Class 4 10 35
      Storekeeper, 1st Class 3 8 28
      Water Tender, 1st Class 3 8 28
      Yeoman, 1st Class     2     6     21
Total, 1st Class P.O.'s 162 398 1393

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EXHIBIT G (PAGE 4 OF 5)

Exhibit G(4)
Enclosure 1 cont.

Tabulation of Rating Badges and Distinguishing Marks required to Outfit One Marine-attached Construction Battalion.

Rating Ratings per
Battalion
Badges Required
    Background
    Forestry
Green
Marine
Khaki
Second Class Petty Officers      
      Baker, 2nd Class 2 6 21
      Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class 12 30 105
      Carpenter's Mate, 2nd Class 45 108 378
      Electrician's Mate, 2nd Class 16 38 133
      Gunner's Mate, 2nd Class 3 8 28
      Machinist's Mate, 2nd Class 15 36 126
      Metalsmith, 2nd Class 9 22 77
      Cook, 2nd Class 1 4 14
      Steward, 2nd Class 1 4 14
      Painter, 2nd Class 6 14 49
      Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd Class 1 4 14
      Photographer, 2nd Class 1 4 14
      Quartermaster, 2nd Class 3 8 28
      Signalman, 2nd Class 1 4 14
      Shipfitter, 2nd Class 28 68 238
      Ship's Cook, 2nd Class 5 12 42
      Storekeeper, 2nd Class 3 8 28
      Water Tender, 2nd Class 6 14 49
      Yeoman, 2nd Class     2     6     21
Total, Second Class P.O.'s 160 398 1393
 
Third Class Petty Officers      
      Bakers, 3rd Class 2 6 21
      Carpenter's Mate, 3rd Class 69 166 581
      Coxswain 4 10 35
      Electrician's Mate, 3rd Class 6 14 49
      Fireman, 1st Class 27 66 231
      Painter, 3rd Class 9 22 77
      Pharmacist's Mate, 3rd Class 1 4 14
      Shipfitter, 3rd Class 33 80 280
      Ship's Cook, 3rd Class 8 20 70
      Storekeeper, 3rd Class 3 8 28
      Yeoman, 3rd Class     3     8     28
Total P.O.'s 3rd Class 165 404 1414

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EXHIBIT G (5 PAGE OF 5)

Exhibit G(5)
Enclosure 1 cont.

Distinguishing Marks

1. CB Distinguishing Marks.  
 
Note: CB distinguishing marks are required for all enlisted personnel.
  CB distinguishing marks required, per Battalion -- Forestry green background 1624
  CB distinguishing marks required, per Battalion -- Marine Khaki background 5684
 
2. Expert Riflemen Distinguishing Marks.  
 
Note: It is estimated that expert riflemen distinguishing marks will be required for ninety per cent (90%) of all enlisted personnel.  
  Expert riflemen distinguishing marks required, per Battalion, Forestry green background 1462
  Expert riflemen distinguishing marks required, per Battalion, Marine Khaki background 5117

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[B L A N K]

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EXHIBIT H

Exhibit H Pers-34-RT

13 November 1943

From: The Chief of Naval Personnel.
To: The Chief of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts.
 
Subject: Naval Personnel serving with the Marine Corps -- Uniforms.

The following change in the U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, 1941, was approved by the Secretary of the Navy on 11 November 1943:

1-20 NAVAL PERSONNEL SERVING WITH MARINE FORCES.

Naval officers and enlisted men attached to Marine Corps Organizations shall wear when directed by the Commanding Officer, the field uniform prescribed, respectively, for officer and enlisted men of the Marine Corps, except as follows: Commissioned officers of the line (except chief warrant officers) shall wear the half size cap devices, bronzed, on the visor cap, their half size cap device, bronzed, on the left side, and rank pin on the right side of the garrison cap, Marine Corps rank pin (of equivalent rank) on the shoulders, and rank pins on each shirt collar tip. Commissioned officers of the staff shall wear the same insignia as officers of the line, except that the pin-on corps device shall replace the rank device on the left collar tip of the shirt. Chief warrant and warrant officers shall wear their half size cap device, bronzed, on the visor cap, and their corps device on each side of the garrison cap, on the shoulder, and on the shirt collar tips. Chief petty officers shall wear their cap devices, bronzed, on the visor cap, and on the left side of the garrison cap. All enlisted ratings shall wear naval rating badges and distinguishing marks, with blue markings (except for the red cross for Hospital Corpsmen) on a background to match in color the uniform on which worn.

By direction.

H. C. Shonerd
Captain, U.S.N. (ret.),
Uniform Section.

(A true copy transcribed from the original by the author to improve readability.)

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PLATE VI: Appendix
Marine Corps designed and approved insignia

Plate VI: Appendix Marine Corps designed and approved insignia

--57--

Appendix
Marine Corps Designed and Approved Insignia

As originally stated, the objective of this study is to explore the use of Navy style marks on Marine uniforms. As such, the insignia described in this appendix are an entirely different class of insignia than those already presented. These are addressed here because they are often included with the others in some collections, and for the sake of complete coverage and understanding in this frame of reference. It should be understood that use of devices to denote specialized functions or positions among enlisted Marines existed long before World War II.

With the appearance of sleeve chevrons as insignia of rank for Marine noncommissioned officers in 1859, the Marine Corps identified certain ranks by adding devices in the angle below the chevron points.77 This practice increased as the growth and needs of the Corps resulted in expanded demands for specialization. The increase accelerated in the 1920s and '30s.78 The resulting proliferation of specialized rank and grade insignia came to an end with publication of Marine Corps uniform regulations of 1937 which illustrated rank and grade chevrons completely devoid of specialty devices, except for members of the Marine Band.79 The use of devices as an element of rank and grade insignia is beyond the scope of this study.

There are five sleeve insignia unique to the Marine Corps which are frequently grouped with the Navy style marks covered in Groups I through V. The first of these Marine insignia, Drummer, Trumpeter, and the "Gun Pointer Insignia" were introduced in the Marine Corps uniform regulations of 1908.

Initially, Drummers and Trumpeters were to wear "... a design consisting of a trumpet...." Prescribed to be yellow on dark blue backing, drab linen thread on white linen for the summer undress coat (until dropped from use in 1912), and on khaki "suiting" for the summer field coat and flannel shirt80 (described in regulations as khaki but actually more of a mustard brown). A change dated January 28, 1909 added specific orientation for the trumpet insigne to be handle down and mouthpiece to the front.81

Change No. 3, dated August 19, 1909, provided for a separate insigne for Drummers, crossed drumsticks to be worn with the "buttons" down. Colors for both the Drummers' and Trumpeters' insignia were "For summer undress and the field coat ... and field shirt, they will be embroidered in linen thread on natural, or drab colored linen."82 No change was made to the blue insigne.

An undated change to the 1908 uniform regulations adds the two insignia for the overcoat "... embroidered in yellow silk on sky-blue kersey, and will be worn in the same position as prescribed for chevrons for noncommissioned officers." This placed them on the forearm of the overcoat above the cuff so that they would be visible when the cape was worn since it extended from the shoulder to the elbow.

--58--

Regulations of 1912 cite the insignia as "gray linen thread" for Drummers and Trumpeters on backings to match the field coats (then forestry green and khaki), overcoat (also then forestry green), and the flannel shirt.83 The 1917 revision of 1912 uniform regulations specified that the insignia for all uniforms except the blue be gray on backings to match the uniform. A 1918 change to the regulations altered the colors for these two insignia for service and/or field uniforms to scarlet on forestry green and brown on khaki cotton and flannel backings.85 In addition to the color changes described above, the design of the Trumpeter insigne in the 1912 regulation was different than the original design, having an inner "curl" to the loop of the bugle.86 Illustration 16 shows a Trumpeter in winter service uniform with the 1912 pattern insigne on his sleeve. Field hat letters are believed to denote "Field Music Detachment."

Ill. 16--Marine Trumpeter, 1912-1920
Ill. 16--Marine Trumpeter, 1912-1920
(Graney Collection)

The last uniform regulation to include insignia for Drummer and Trumpeter was that of 1929.87 Circular Letter No. 205, dated 19 February 1937, included the statement that recruiting should be discontinued when the supply of insignia was exhausted,88 an interesting method of inventory control.

The "Gun Pointer Insignia" design was a cage mount deck gun. It was worn on the right sleeve, midway between the elbow and the end of the sleeve. Illustration 17 is a group photo of Marines, identified as aboard the U.S.S. Tennessee in 1910, of which the second from the right is wearing the Gun Pointer Insignia on his right forearm.

Ill. 17--Ship's Detachment with Gun Pointer seconnd from right, 1910
Ill. 17--Ship's Detachment with Gun Pointer second from right, 1910
(Jason Jess Collection)

Colors for this insigne were scarlet on dark blue and on white for Gun Pointers, first class, white on dark blue and dark blue (samples are actually closer to royal blue) on white linen for second class, and drab linen thread on material matching the khaki shirt for both grades.89 Regulations of 1912 used the term "Gun Pointer's Badges" for this insigne and provided for it to be in drab thread on backing materials to match field coats (forestry green and khaki).90 The Gun Pointer's Badges were replaced in 1918 by the Navy style Gun Pointer marks described in Group I.91

--59--

The rank of Private, first class was authorized by the Marine Corps in 1917.92 An insigne identifying the rank was introduced in Change 14 to the uniform regulations dated 20 September 1918; crossed rifles, butts downward on the upper arm of both sleeves (Ill. 4), in yellow on navy blue, scarlet on forestry green and brown on khaki for the summer service coat, flannel and chambray shirt.93 As noted in the discussion of Group I marks, a khaki coat dated to 1926 in one collection had P.F.C. insignia as well as an Expert Rifleman's mark, all in green on khaki (Ill. 7). This leads to the conclusion that a change from brown on khaki was ordered following World War I, matching these insignia to summer service rank chevrons. This insigne was replaced in 1926 by a single chevron worn on both sleeves, first illustrated in the uniform regulations of 1929, a rank device used to this day.94

The last of these distinctive Marine Corps insignia, and the most short-lived, was also introduced in Change 14 as "Insignia, technical". This was a plain rectangular patch of cloth embroidered with the word TECHNICAL. Colors were the same as prescribed for the insigne for Private, first class.95 "Insignia, technical" was not included in the 1922 uniform regulations.

One collection includes both a PFC and a TECHNICAL insignia in scarlet (rather than yellow) on navy blue. The author has found no explanation for either of these variations.

© John A. Stacey, 2005

--60--

FOOTNOTES

Introduction:

1. U.S. Navy, Uniform Regulations, United States Navy, 1941, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1941), p. 28.

2. James C. Bernard, letter to Thomas Korn dated 8 Dec. 1998 and to author dated 13 July 2000.

Group I:

3. U.S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1912, Change No. 2 (Washington, August 26, 1915).

4. U.S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change No. 14, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 20 September 1918).

5. U.S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1912, Rev. 1917 (with changes), (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1918).

6. Col. John A. Driscoll, USMCR, The Eagle, Globe and Anchor: 1868-1968, (Washington, Marine Corps Historical Division, 1971), p. 40.

7. U.S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1922, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1922), plates 49 and 50.

8. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change No. 14.

9. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1922, p. 45.

10. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change No. 14.

11. Donald P. Lewis, letters to Thomas Korn, dated 15 Dec. 1993, and author, dated 22 Feb. 2002.

12. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1922, p. 52.

13. U. S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1929, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1929), p. 63.

14. Ibid., p. 64.

15. Secretary of the Navy approval of Uniform Board recommendation, dated 1 September 1960, (U.S. Navy, Permanent Uniform Board files).

16. U. S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1937, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1937), p. 34.

17. Maj. John E. Brown (U.S.M.C., ret.), letters to Thomas Korn, dated 28 Jan. 1999, and author, dated 23 Aug. 2001.

18. Dr. Seymour Goodman, interview by author, dated 2 Feb. 2003.

19. Veterans' letters to Thomas Korn, various writers and dates.

20. Bruce G. Barton, letters to Thomas Korn, dated 24 Feb. 1999, and author, dated July 12, 2001.

21. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1937, p. 34.

22. U. S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1949, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1949), p. 49-11 and plate 25.

23. Ibid., Changes of 1954-55, p. 49-46.

Group II:

24. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1922, p. 46, and Uniform Regulations, 1929, p. 64.

25. HMCM Mark T. Hacala, interview by author, dated 5 Nov. 2003.

26. Chief, Bureau of Navigation, letter to Secretary of the Navy, dated 21 November 1941, (U.S. Navy, Permanent Uniform Board files).

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27. Chief, Bureau of Navigation, letter to Chief, Bureau of Yards and Docks, dated 2 May 1942, (U.S. Navy, Permanent Uniform Board files).

28. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Personnel Circular Letter No. 97-44," dated 31 March 1944, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

Group III:

29. U.S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 18-24," dated 13 March 1924, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

30. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 10-33," dated 28 March 1933, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

31. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 43-42," dated 17 March 1942, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

32. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 199-44," dated 12 July 1944, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

33. Johnnie T. Watson, letters to author, various dates.

34. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 36-40," dated 21 May 1940, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

35. George E. McCullough, interview by author, dated 3 August 2003.

36. Op. cit., Veterans' letters.

37. Op. cit., Watson letters.

38. Francis Brandt, letter to Lester B. Tucker, dated 8 Dec. 1997.

39. Lester B. Tucker, letter to author, dated 30 Jan. 1998

40. Larry Rosenthal, letter to author, dated 1 March 2002.

41. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1941, plate 70.

42. W. Emmett Fox, III, "The Uniforms of Sherman B. Watson, U.S.M.C. Paratrooper," Footlocker: Quarterly Newsletter of the American Association of Military Uniform Collectors, Vol. XXVII, No. 2, 1 June 2003, pp. 6-7.

43. W. Emmett Fox, III, letter to author, dated 23 June 2003.

44. Col. Robert H. Rankin, U.S.M.C., Uniforms of Marines, (G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1970), p. 96.

45. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letter No. 33-42," dated 24 February 1942, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

46. Officer in Charge, Uniform Section, letter to Officer in Charge, Naval Training School, Naval Air Station, Lakehurst, New Jersey, dated 11 May 1944, and OIC Naval Training School, response to OIC Uniform Section, dated 17 May 1944.

Group IV:

47. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1937, p. 34.

48. Op. cit., Tucker letter.

49. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Personnel Circular Letter No. 40-47," dated 21 February 1947, Eff. 2 April 1948, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

50. Op. cit., Hacala interview.

51. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Navigation Circular Letters Nos. 1-42 and 5-42," dated 13 January 1942, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

52. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Personnel Circular Letter No. 12-44," dated 15 January 1944, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

53. Op. cit., Tucker letter.

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54. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Personnel Manual Circular Letter No. 33-44," dated 30 May 1944, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

55. Op. cit., BuPers Circular Letter No. 40-47.

56. Ellen Stone and Bonnie Smallwood Medin, Musical Women Marines: The Marine Corps Women's Reserve Band in World War Two, (1981), p. 3.

57. Charlotte Plummer Owen, letter to author, dated 22 Feb. 2002.

58. U. S. Navy, "Bureau of Personnel Manual Circular Letter No. 98-44," dated 31 March 1944, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

59. Op. cit., Bernard letters.

60. Op. cit., Lewis letters.

61. U. S. Navy, "General Order No. 137," dated 25 July 1903, (U.S. Navy Historical Library, Washington).

62. Chief of Naval Operations, letter to Landing Craft School, Amphibious Force Pacific Fleet, dated 24 April 1943, (U.S. Navy Permanent Uniform Board files).

63. William J. Maxam, letters to Thomas Korn, dated 1 Feb. 2000, and author, dated 12 July 2002.

64. Op. cit., Bernard letters.

65. Op. cit., Goodman interview.

66. Secretary of the Navy approval of Uniform Board recommendation, dated 20 March 1951, (U.S. Navy Permanent Uniform Board files).

Group V:

67. Op. cit., Musical Women Marines.

68. _________, "What About Chemical Warfare?" Headquarters Bulletin, No. 221, March 1944, pp. 18-21.

69. Secretary of the Navy approval of Uniform Board recommendation, dated 20 January 1949, (U.S. Navy Permanent Uniform Board files).

70. Op. cit., Maxam letters.

71. Maj. Richard T. Spooner (U.S.M.C., ret.), interviews by Philip Wagner, dated 25 March 2000, and author, dated 2 Feb. 2003.

72. Ibid.

73. eBay Auction Service, Item #352917915, dated 8 June 2000.

74. Francis A. Lord, Civil War Collector's Encyclopedia, Vol. I/II, (Lord Americana and Research, Inc., West Columbia, S.C., 1995), p. 112.

75. David M. Sullivan, letter to author, dated 13 Nov. 2002.

76. Thomas D. McDougall and Jeffery B. Floyd, Marksmanship Awards of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Part II, Figure 13.

Appendix:

77. _________, Uniform and Dress of the Marine Corps of the United States, (Charles Desilvers, Philadelphia, 1859), p. 4.

78. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1929, plates 49 and 50.

79. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1937, plates 42 and 43.

80. U. S. Marine Corps, Regulations Governing the Uniform and Equipments of Officers and Enlisted Men of the United States Marine Corps, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1908), p. 60.

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81. U. S. Marine Corps, "Change in Marine Corps Pamphlet No. 1," dated January 28, 1909, (Washington, U.S. Marine Corps, 1909)

82. U. S. Marine Corps, "Change in Marine Corps Pamphlet No. 3," dated August 19, 1909, (Washington, U.S. Marine Corps, 1909).

83. U. S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1912, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1912), p. 78.

84. U. S. Marine Corps, Uniform Regulations, United States Marine Corps, 1912, Rev. 1917, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1917), p. 81.

85. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change 14.

86. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, plate 55.

87. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1929, p. 63.

88. U. S. Marine Corps, "Circular Letter No. 205," dated 19 February 1937, (Washington, U.S. Marine Corps, 1937).

89. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1908, p. 61.

90. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, p. 78.

91. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev 1917, Change 14.

92. Bernard C. Nalty, Truman R. Strobridge, Edwin T. Turnbladh, and Roland P. Gill, United States Marine Corps Ranks and Grades, 1775-1969, (Washington, Historical Division, U. S. Marine Corps, 1970), p. 24.

93. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change 14.

94. U. S. Marine Corps, "Circular Letter No. 31," (Washington, U. S. Marine Corps, 26 August 1926).

95. Op. cit., Uniform Regulations, 1912, Rev. 1917, Change 14.

ADDENDA

NAVY MARKS ON MARINE UNIFORMS

Since the book has been in circulation, feedback has provided some new "finds" which you may want to add to your Insignia Table:

Group II--Photographer's Mate, add Y/BL.

Group III--Parachuteman, add W/BL (white on blue); verified from an identified 1st Parachute Battalion uniform.

Parachute Rigger mark in green on khaki has been confirmed, delete "?".

Add: Aerographer Y/BL, Aviation Machinist's Mate G/K and Aviation General Utility G/K.

Group IV--Add Musician BR/K, the pattern identified is that shown as yellow on blue, Plate IV.

Add Torpedoman's Mate, Y/BL.

Group V--Quartermaster Corps, add non-winged version R/G, new find has Marine style Mameluke sword rather the than Army style of the winged version.

Griffin, a red on green sample has been identified as the symbol for Wentworth Military Academy of Lexington, Missouri from a garrison cap obtained from a former cadet of the mid-1940's.

Group VI--Trumpeter (1912 pattern) and Drummer, add GR/G for both, identified from U.S.M.C. 1912 uniform regulations (author's omission)

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Acknowledgment: The Naval Historical Center gratefully acknowledges John A. Stacey for his support and encouragement in posting this online edition.


19 June 2008