Maps drawn by
Captain C.C.J. Bond
Published by Authority of the Minister of National Defense
In the writing of this volume the author has been given full access to relevant official documents in possession of the Department of National Defence; but the inferences drawn and the opinions expressed are those of the author himself, and the Department is in no way responsible for his reading or presentation of the facts as stated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Organization, Training and Home Defence in Canada
Chapter Page I. The Canadian Militia On the Eve of War The Canadian Tradition 3 The Approach of the Crisis 5 The New Defence Programme and its Problems 7 The New Programme Develops, 1937-1939 15 Theh Reorganization of the Militia 18 The Problem of Supply 20 The Coast Defence Programme 26 Defence Schemes and Mobilization Planning 29 The Last Days of Peace 33 The General State of Preparation, 1939 35 II. The Outbreak of War and the Mobilization of the Active Service Force, 1939 The Approach of War 38 "Adopt Precautionary Stage Against Germany" 40 War in Europe: The Mobile Force is Mobilized 42 Canada Goes to War 46 Mobilizing the Units of the Active Service Force 49 The Response of the Country 53 The Decision to Send Troops Overseas 58 The Technical Troops for Britain 64 Paying for the Military Effort, 1939 68 III. The Expansion of the Army, 1939-1943 The Completion of the 2nd Division 72 The Summer Crisis of 1940: Formation of the 3rd and 4th Divisions 76 Canadian Troops for Iceland 83 The Formation of the Canadian Corps 86 The Army Programme for 1941 87 The Modification and Approval of the 1941 Programme 90 The Development of the Army Programme for 1942 93 First Canadian Army Comes into Existence 98 The Final Composition of the Field Force 100 The First Special Service Force 104 Organization of the Canadian Army Overseas at its Peak 108 IV. Recruiting and Training in Canada Making an Army in an Unmilitary Society 110 Reiance Upon Voluntary Service 110 Recruiting in the Early Days, 1939-1941 112 The Beginnings of Manpower Scarcity, 1941-1942 115 The National Resources Mobilization Act: Compulsory Service for Home Defence 118 The Extension of Compulsory Sevice 120 Changes in the M.R.M.A. and its Administration, 1942-1943 122 The Canadian Women's Army Corps 124 The Selection of Officers for the Army 127 The Training Process in Canada 132 The Training of Mobilized Units 132 The Organization of Training Centres 133 Training Developments in 1942-1944 134 Special Training Establishments and Trades Training 136 Training the C.W.A.C. 137 The Training of Officers 138 The Royal Canadian Army Cadets 141 The History of Private Jones 141 V. Defending the Soil of Canada, 1939-1945 The Nature of the Problem 145 Early Measures for the Defence of Canada 146 The Guarding of "Vulnerable Points" 149 The Development of Fixed Defences, 1939-1944 151 Theh Development of Anti-Aircraft Defences 157 The Secuity of the Atlantic Coast After Dunkirk 160 The Security of the Pacific Coast After Pearl Harbor 165 Home Defence at its Peak 174 Security Measures Against the Submarine Menace in the Lower St. Lawrence 176 The Japanese Balloon Enterprise 177 The Canadian Army in Newfoundland 178 Canadian Troops in the West Indies and the Caribbean 181 The Role of the Reserve Army 183 Disbandment of the Home Defence Divisions, 1943-1944 183 PART TWO
The Army in Britain, 1939-1945
VI. The Growth of the Army Overseas and Organization in Britain Moving the Troops to Britain 189 Canadian Military Headquarters 194 Organization of C.M.H.Q., 1945 198 Canadian Reinforcement Units and other Units under C.M.H.Q. Command 203 The Canadian Forestry Corps 207 The Canadian Women's Army Corpos Overseas 210 VII. Command and Control of Canadian Forces in the United Kingdom Problems of Control 212 Relationship Between C.M.H.Q. and Field Headquarters 212 Relationship Between N.D.H.Q. and the Army Overseas 215 Changes and Reorganization, 1943-1944 221 VIII. Training the Army Overseas The Beginning of Overseas Training 230 Training to Defeat Invasion, 1940-1941 234 Manoeuvers on the Grand Scale, 1941 238 Improvements in Organization and Methods 240 Offensive Training, 1942-1943 243 Battle Experience in North Africa 248 Exercise SPARTAN, March 1943 249 The Final Stages, 1943-1944 251 IX. Alarums and Excursions, 1940 The Role andn Problems of the Canadian Army Overseas 254 Authority to Commit Canadian Forces to Operations 254 The Proposal to Send Canadian Troops to Norway 257 ANGEL MOVE: The 1st Division and the Crisis in the Low Countries, May 1940 263 The Dunkirk Evacuation 269 First Measures Against the Invasion Menace 273 Forlorn Hope: The Second B.E.F., June 1940 274 The Role of the Second B.E.F. 276 The 1st Brigade in France 279 A Reckoning of Didsappointment 284 The Invasion Summer 285 The Storm that Did Not Burst 290 The Canadian Corps 294 X. Tasks and Operations, 1941-1942 The Situation at the Beginning of 1941 296 The Corps Moves Into Sussex 297 Sappers at Gibraltar 299 The Expedition to Spitsbergen 301 General McNaughton's Authority is Widened 307 Raiding Projects and the Raid on Hardelot 308 Allied Grand Strategy in 1942 310 Decision in July 317 Major Raiding Projects, 1942 323 The Origins of the Raid on Dieppe 325 Planning and Training for the Raid 330 Changes in the Plan 336 The Cancellation of Operation RUTTER 338 The Revival of the Operation 340 The Plan of Operation JUBILEE 346 XI. The Raid on Dieppe, 19 August 1942 German Defences in the West in 1942 349 The Enemy in the Dieppe Area 352 Our Information About the Enemy 357 The Collision with the German Convoys 358 The Attack on the Berneval Battery 360 The Attack on the Varengeville Battery 362 Disaster at Puys 363 The Fighting in the Pourville Area 369 The Frontal Attack on Dieppe 374 The Fortunes of the Tanks 378 The Landing of the Reserves 381 Withdrawal from the Main Beaches 384 XII. Dieppe: Losses, Comments and Aftermath Allied Losses at Dieppe 387 Gerrman Losses and German Critiques 388 How the Public was Told 393 The Shackling of Prisoners 396 Some Comments on the Operation 397 The Influence of Dieppe on German Thinking 404 Problems of Strategic Employment, 1942-1943 408 XIII. Some Special Problems of the Canadian Army Overseas A Unique Experience 413 The Problem of Finding Commanders and Staff Officers 413 The Problem of Morale 419 Discipline and Deportment 425 Leave to Canada 427 Repatriating the Overseas Army 431 PART THREE
The War Against Japan, 1941-1945
XIV. The Defence of Hong Kong, December 1941 The Army in the Pacific War, 1941-1945 437 The Situation in the Far East, 1939-1941 437 The Request for Canadian Help at Hong Kong 439 The Training and Equipment of the Expeditionary Force 446 The Development of the Japanese War Plans 450 The Defences of Hong Kong 455 The Hong Kong Defence Plan 458 The Japanese Attack Begins 461 The Loss of the Gin Drinkers Line and the Withdrawal to the Island 465 The Attack on Hong Kong Island 471 Operations in the Eastern Sector 474 The End on Stanley Peninsula 478 The Fight for the Western Sector 480 The Fall of Hong Kong 485 The Cost of the Defence 488 Some Comments on the Hong Kong Campaign 489 XV. The Campaign in the Aleutians The War in the Pacific, January-June 1942 492 The Japanese Invade the Aleutians 493 The Counter-Offensive Against the Islands 495 Fiasco at Kiska 500 XVI. Pacific Plans and Enterprises, 1943-1945 Eyes on the Kuriles 506 Observers in the Pacific 507 Canadians in Australia 510 Policy on Participation in the Pacific 510 The Canadian Army Pacific Force 512 Recruiting and Training the C.A.P.F. 516 The End in the Pacific 517 APPENDICES "A" Strength and Casualties, Canadian Army 522 "B" General Service Enlistments, 1 September 1939-31 August 1945 526 "C" Canadian Army Appropriations and Expenditures, 1939-1946 527 "D" Canadian Army (Active) Training Centers and Schools in Canada, 1 July 1943 528 "E" Operational Units of the Active Army in the North American Zone, 24 April 1943 536 "F" Persons Holding Principal Appointments, Canadian Army, 1939-1945 540 "G" Note on the Equipment of the Canadian Army Overseas, 1939-1945 544 "H" The Number of Men Evacuated from the Dieppe Beaches 547 "I" Newfoundland Army Units Overseas 548 "J" Organization Chart, National Defence Headquarters (Army), April 1945 550 CHARTS AND TABLES IN TEXT Pre-War Appropriations for the Department of National Defence 13 Peace Establishment, Canadian Active Militia, by Arm of Service, 1938 19 Strength of the Canadian Active Service Force, 30 September 1939 55 Growth of the Canadian Army Overseas, 1939-1945: Arrivals in the United Kingdom from Canada and Strength in European Zone 191 Canadian Military Headquarters, London, February 1945: Organization Chart 199 Channels of Communication, Canadian Army Overseas, 1942 220 Dieppe Raid: Embarkation Strength, Casualties and Disembarkation Strength, Canadian Units 389 Abbreviations References
(footnotes are included with each chapter)
555 Index (Part I: General) 599 Index (Part II: Formations, Units and Corps) 621 A. Canadian Forces B. British and Allied Forces C. Enemy Forces MAPS
1. Atlantic Coast Defences 152 2. Pacific Coast Defences 158 3. Canada, Showing Commands, Military Districts, etc. 178 4. France and Southern England, 14 June 1940 284 5. The Dieppe Operation, 19 August 1942 386 6. Mainland Positions, Hong Kong 462 7. Hong Kong, 18-25 December 1941 490 SKETCHES
(In Black and White)
1. The British Isles 205 2. Spitsbergen, 1941 303 3. German Dispositions, North Central France, at time of Dieppe Raid 353 4. Hong Kong and New Territories 466 5. Hong Kong Island: Garrison's Dispositions 472 6. North Pacific Ocean 494 7. Pacific Ocean, 1941-1945 508 ILLUSTRATIONS Canadian Tanks in Sussex, by Major W.A. Ogilvie (in colour) Frontspiece Coast Defence in Canada--British Columbia 50 Vimy Barracks, Barriefield, Ontario 50 The 1st Division Goes Overseas 51 The Minister of National Defense in London, April 1940 51 Canadians at the Palace 82 Basic Training in Canada 82 Renault Tanks Arriving from the United States, October 1940 82 Combined Operations Training in Canada 114 Flame-Throwing Demonstration, Valcartier 114 Coast Defence in Canada--Nova Scotia 114 A Gun Operations Room, Saint John Defences, New Brunswick 114 The Canadian Forestry Corps in Britain 210 The Canadian Women's Army Corps Overseas 210 Training for the Dieppe Raid 242 Training in Assault Landings 242 Battle School in England 242 Training before D Day 242 The King with Canadian Troops, July 1941 306 Canadians Preparing to Leave for Norway, April 1940 306 Canadian Engineers at Gibraltar 306 Engineers at Spitsbergen 306 The Queen Inspects a Guard of Honour 338 A Very Near Miss at C.M.H.Q., London 338 Cabinet Ministers at Army Headquarters 338 Homeward Bound After Six Years 338 The Sea-Wall at Puys 370 Pourville from the East 370 The Main Beaches at Dieppe 370 Dieppe from the Western Headland 370 Part of the Floating Reserve at Dieppe 402 Evidence of the Fierceness of German Fire at Dieppe 402 A Disabled Tank on the Dieppe Promenade 402 Canadian Troops Arriving at Hong Kong 482 A Former Japanese Commander Surveys the Hong Kong Battlefield 482 Wong Nei Chong Gap, Hong Kong Island 482 Landing at Kiska, August 1943 482 The End of the War 482 The "Maple Leaf" Reports the End 482
THIS is the first volume of the Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. The second, dealing with the campaign in Italy, will appear very shortly. The third, dealing with the campaign in NorthWest Europe, is in preparation. A subsequent volume will deal with Canadian military policy in the broad sense. This history is more detailed, and based on more thorough research, than was possible in the case of the single-volume Official Historical Summary, The Canadian Army 1939-1945, which was published in 1948.
The present volume is concerned with a variety of subjects. It deals in outline with military events in Canada throughout the war; in somewhat greater detail with the history of the Army in the United Kingdom, including the raiding operations based on that country; and with the Army's part in the war against Japan. An attempt has been made to apportion the space allotted to the various topics in accordance with their interest and significance. The active operations-notably those at Dieppe and Hong Kong, both of which were important and controversial-have been given more attention than any other matters. Questions of organization and administration at home and abroad, which are certainly important and could well form the matter of several volumes, have been more briefly dealt with; the author has aimed at summarizing the essentials while omitting the detail. Throughout, he has tried to write mainly for the general reader rather than for the soldier and the military student. He hopes that these experts will find the book useful; but information on the more specialized subjects, including the detail of the activities of the technical arms and the services, must be sought in technical monographs. As was stated in the preliminary Official Historical Summary, the main object of the present history is "to tell the Canadian citizen what his army accomplished in the last war, and to provide him, perhaps, with the means of forming an intelligent judgement on military issues that may confront him in the future".
It has been considered essential to document the book in detail, but since many readers will seldom need to consult the references these have been collected at the back and printed in small type to save space. It may be noted that many of the documents referred to are still "classified", and the fact that they are cited does not necessarily imply that they are available for public examination. In spite of this it has been thought best to give the references, since a documented narrative carries more weight than an undocumented one even when all the sources cannot be produced; and many of the classified documents cited will presumably become available to students in due course.
In the interest of security, certain cipher telegrams have been paraphrased without altering the sense. It is not the practice of the United Kingdom to cite unpublished papers in official histories. Such British documents are accordingly referred to in this study merely by the phrase "United Kingdom records". This method is used at the request of the United Kingdom authorities.
Officers and men are invariably designated in the text by the ranks they held at the time of the events described. It has not been considered necessary to append decorations to personal names in the text. In the Index all individuals are referred to by their "final" ranks and decorations, i.e. those as of the date of compilation.
The author wishes to acknowledge the liberality with which he has been treated in the matter of access to records. He has had unrestricted access to documents in the hands of the Government of Canada. In this respect, he acknowledges special debts to the Privy Council Office and the Department of External Affairs. In addition, many individuals have generously opened private records to him. The kindness of Mrs. Mackenzie has enabled him to make use of the papers of the late Senator Ian Mackenzie, Minister of National Defence 1935-39. General A. G. L. McNaughton has deposited his voluminous papers with the Historical Section for free use in connection . with this history; and General H. D. G. Crerar has permitted the Section the fullest access to his private files. Mr. C. G. Power has kindly lent documents from among his own papers. The literary executors of the late Mr. W. L. Mackenzie King have been very cooperative.
It is out of the question to make full acknowledgement here to the many organizations and individuals who have given generous assistance. In London the Historical Branch of the Cabinet Office has accorded us constant and indispensable aid, and we have had much help also from the Air Historical Branch of the Air Ministry and the Historical Section of the Admiralty. We have had helpful exchanges with official historians in New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and India and Pakistan. We owe a great debt to the Office of the Chief of Military History and to the Captured Records Section in the United States Department of the Army. In Canada there is a special obligation to the Director of War Service Records, Department of Veterans Affairs, whose office provided many of the Canadian Army statistics included in this volume. Finally, the author is most grateful to the innumerable participants in the events described who have read the volume in draft, in whole or in part, and have given him the benefit of their comments.
It is quite impossible to thank all the personnel, past and present, of the Canadian Army's Historical Section who have contributed directly or indirectly to the production of this book. Lt.-Col. G. W. L. Nicholson, Deputy Director, and Lt.-Col. C. J. Lynn-Grant, Executive Officer, have helped at
every point. Chapters VI, VII, VIII, XIII, XV and XVI were originally drafted by other members of the Section and subsequently revised by the writer; in this respect he is obliged to Captain J. B. Conacher, Major J. C. Newlands and Mr. J. M. Hitsman. All other chapters he drafted himself; and he takes full responsibility for the entire volume as now presented. Captain Bond's maps speak for themselves. Captain L. R. Cameron has acted as research assistant to the author and has made an invaluable contribution. Mr. A.
G. Steiger has given equally important help in connection with German documents. Lastly, Q.M.S. (W.O.2) M. R. Lemay, a friend and colleague in the wartime Historical Section overseas which laid the foundations for this work, has typed the numerous successive drafts with great efficiency and cheerfulness. Readers who discover errors or important omissions in this volume are asked to communicate with the author.
Historical Section (G.S.),
Transcribed and formatted by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation