Chapter IV
Allied and Enemy War Plans and Dispositions


1. In this book the tonnage of merchant ships is always referred to in terms of Gross Register Tons. This tonnage is calculated by measuring all the enclosed spaces of the ship and allowing 1 ton for every 100 cubic feet. Gross tonnage must be distinguished from net tonnage (the gross tonnage after deduction of all spaces devoted to the running of the ship and therefore without revenue-earning capacity) and deadweight tonnage--roughly the amount the ship can carry, including bunkers, when down to her marks. Throughout the war many of the official shipping statistics were compiled in terms of deadweight tons. Over an average block of cargo tonnage the ratio allowed was 5 gross tons to 8 deadweight. This ratio is inapplicable in the case of passenger or passenger-cargo liners.

2. See Map 2.

3. See Maps 26 and 34 (facing pp. 293 and 426).

4. See Map 10 (facing p. 97).

5. See Map 1 ( facing p. 37).

6. See Map 4 (facing p. 65).

7. Also commonly spelt Berehaven. See Map 8 (facing p. 91).

8. See pp. 21-22.

9. Particulars of British warships mentioned in these paragraphs are given in Appendix D.

10. See Map 1 (facing p. 37).

11. See Map 2 (facing p. 43)

12. See Maps 26 and 34 (facing pp. 293 and 426).

13. Appendix E gives the distribution of the British Empire's naval strength in September 1939.

14. Particulars of the First War Emergency Building Programme are given in Appendix F.

15. Cmd. 4953. Treaty Series No. 22 (H.M.S.O., 1935). State Papers, Vol. XXIV.

16. Oppenheim. International Law, 7th ed., ed. H. Lauterpacht, Vol. II (1952) p. 491.

17. The German Navy always referred to the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau as battleships. As, however, they resembled our own and the French battle cruisers in speed, were much faster than our battleships and were regarded as battle cruisers by the Admiralty that classification has been retained throughout these volumes.

18. See Map 10 (facing p. 97).

19. Particulars of all major German warships are given in Appendix G.

20. As some confusion exists over the methods of computing the displacement of warships, it should be mentioned that displacements agreed in the Washington and other treaties were interpreted as standard displacements, which are the deep load displacements less the weight of fuel and reserve feed-water. The actual displacement of a ship of normal endurance on putting to sea is, therefore, some 20 to 30 per cent greater than the standard displacement. In these volumes all displacements given are standard unless specifically stated to the contrary.

21. This ship must not be confused with the pocket-battleship Lützow which was the renamed Deutschland (see this page, above). The cruiser Lützow was, as agreed in the Moscow Pact discussions of August 1939, transferred to Russia and actually sailed from Bremen on 15th April 1940. The sale to Russia of the cruisers Seydlitz and Prinz Eugen and of the turrets of two battleships of the Z Plan was also discussed but finally refused by Hitler at his conference on 8th December 1939.

22. See pp. 37-38.

23. See p. 32.

24. For full details of the Italian Navy see Appendix H.

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by William Straka and Patrick Clancey, for the HyperWar Foundation