1. See Vol. I, Chapter VI. 2. These were called 'Maunsell Forts' after their designer, Mr. Guy Maunsell. Their armaments consisted of two to four heavy and many light anti-aircraft guns, searchlights and radar. The four manned by the Navy were: 'Tongue Sand Tower' and 'Knock John Tower' in the Thames approaches, 'Roughs Fort' and 'Sunk Head Fort' off Harwich. The Army's three forts were: 'Great Nore Tower', 'Red Sand Tower' and 'Shivering Sand Tower', in the Thames approaches. The first-named replaced the Nore Light Vessel, which had been withdrawn after the enemy had made many air attacks on such defenceless targets. (See Vol. 1, p. 138) 3. See Vol. I, pp. 463 and 507-508. 4. See Vol. I, pp. 138-139 and 322-333. 5. See Vol. I, p. 514, and this volume pp. 100-101. 6. See Map 15. 7. See Map 15. 8. See Vol. I, pp. 38, 145 and 338. 9. See Vol. I, p. 509 10. See Map 15. 11. See Map 15. 12. An interesting account, from the German point of view, of the fighter protection afforded to the Brest squadron is to be found in The First and the Last by Adolf Galland (Methuen, 1955), pp. 140-167. 13. See Vol. I, p. 408. 14. Leading article of 14th February 1942. 15. See Vol. I, p. 9. 16. 'Report of the Board of Enquiry appointed to enquire into the circumstances in which the German Battle Cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and Cruiser Prinz Eugen proceeded from Brest to Germany on February 12th 1942, and on the operations undertaken to prevent this movement'. Cmd. 6775. (H.M.S.O., 1946.) 17. An interesting account of the planning of this operation and of its execution by the Germans is to be found in the United States Naval Institute Proceedings for June 1955. It was written by Captain H. J. Reinicke, formerly of the German Navy, who was Staff Officer to Admiral Ciliax at the time. 18. Full particulars of our shipping losses from all causes are given in Appendix O. 19. See pp. 100 and 269-271. 20. See Vol. I, p. 278 (note) regarding nomenclature of raiders. 21. See Vol. I, Maps 24 and 27. 22. See Vol. I, p. 503. 23. See Vol. I, p. 509. 24. See pp. 44, 46 and 48. 25. These converted Beaufighters were called 'Torbeaus'. 26. See Vol. I, pp. 509-510. 27. See Vol. I, pp. 511-512. 28. See Vol. I, Chapter XIX. 29. See Map 17. 30. See Map 17. 31. The delay setting was actually 2-1/2 hours, but the fuzes used were of improvised design, and produced much longer delays than had been intended. 32. The Victoria Cross was awarded to Commander R. E. D. Ryder, Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. Newman, Lieutenant-Commander S. H. Beattie (also in recognition 'of the unnamed officers and men of a very gallant ship's company' of the Campbeltown), Able Seaman W. A. Savage of M.G.B. 314 (posthumously, and also 'in recognition . . . of the valour shown by many others, unnamed, in motor launches, motor gunboats and motor torpedo-boats)' and, also posthumously, to Sergeant J. F. Durrant, Royal Engineers (attached Commandos).
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