1. See Chapter V. 2. See Appendix J for the cause of these loses. 3. See Vol. I, p. 478. 4. See p. 317. 5. The M.A.C. ships, which had flight decks 400-460 feet long, must not be confused with the C.A.M. ships (Catapult Aircraft Merchantment, see Vol. I, p. 477) which were fitted with a catapult and carried only one single-seater fighter. Both classes sailed under the Red Ensign, and were stop-gaps introduced because of the urgent need to mitigate our lack of escort aircraft carriers. 6. See Appendix K regarding the growth of German U-boat strength. 7. See Map 11 (opp. p. 105). 8. See Map 11. 9. See p. 97. 10. See Vol. I, pp. 116-118. 11. See Map 18 (opp. p. 177). 12. See Vol. I, Maps 11, 20, 24, 25, 27, 29 and 42. 13. Morison, Vol. I, pp. 260-265. 14. See Map 11 (opp. p. 105). 15. The first convoys to sail under the revised arrangements were as follows:
- When the trans-Atlantic termini were shifted from Halifax and Sydney to New York
HX 208 sailed from New York for Britain 17th Sept. 1942
SC 102 sailed from New York for Britain 19th Sept. I942
ON 125 sailed from Britain for New York 28th August 1942
ONS 126 sailed from Britain for New York 29th August I942
- When the terminus for the slow convoys was shifted from New York to Halifax
SC 125 sailed from Halifax for Britain 31st March 1943
ONS 1 (New Series) sailed from Britain for Halifax 15th March 1943
Boston to Halifax convoys (BX-XB) were restarted concurrently, with BX 38 which sailed from Boston on 23rd March 1943.
16. Morison, Vol. I, p. 264. 17. Morison, Vol. I, p. 265. 18. The fitting of metric radar sets in the Navy's larger ships for gunnery purposes and in its smaller ships for tactical and search purposes had started in 1940. Reconnaissance aircraft had also been supplied with sets of this type. Certain technical developments made in 1941 enabled a centimetric set to be designed. This needed a smaller and lighter aerial than any earlier set, and was able to pick up much smaller objects, and to show them on a new type of screen. It was eminently suitable for aircraft and coastal force vessels, and had many other uses as well. 19. See Map 37 (opp. p. 363). 20. See Map 20 (opp. P. 205). 21. See Map 20 (opp. p. 205). 22. See Vol I, page 267. 23. A member of the Anti-Submarine Warfare Division of the Naval Staff produced the following doggerel at this time:
'Gaily the backroom boys,
Peddling their gruesome toys,
Come in and make a noise,
Oozing with science!
Humbly their aid we've sought;
Without them we're as nought,
For modern wars are fought
By such alliance'.
24. See Map 21. 25. See Map 21. 26. See pp. 280-287. 27. See Vol. I, p. 52. 28. Cmd. 694. Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals-Nuremberg, p. 109. 29. See Merchant Shipping and the Demands of War (H.M.S.O. & Longmans, 1955) by C. B. A. Behrens, Chapter XI, for a full account of the voyages of monster liners in 1942. Appendix E to this volume gives the totals of fighting men carried across the Atlantic by them in 1942-43. 30. The Queen Mary by Leonora Speyer. These lines were given to the author of this history by the American poetess shortly before he left New York for the Clyde in the Queen Mary in January 1944, to return to Britain with the ship's company of a damaged cruiser, and about 15,000 American troops. They were printed later in the New York Times. 31. See p. 320 and Map 32 (opp. p. 317). 32. See pp. 333-334. 33. See pp. 315-320. 34. The stopping of convoys before operation TORCH and their subsequent restarting (sometimes under different titles) took place as follows:
(a) OG 89 which sailed from Britain on 31st August 1942, was the last of the series before TORCH. OG 90, which sailed on 19th May 1943 was also called KX 10. The KX/XK series of 'special slow' convoys between Gibraltar and the United Kingdom had started on 2nd October 1942.
(b) HG 89 left Gibraltar on 17th September 1942, and was the last of its series. Homeward-bound ships from Gibraltar were thereafter included in the MKS (North Africa-United Kingdom) convoys.
(c) OS 42, which sailed from Britain on 29th September 1942 was the last before TORCH. OS-43 sailed on 14th February 1943.
(d) SL 125 which, as told above lost thirteen ships, sailed from Freetown on 16th October 1942 was the last before TORCH. SL 126 sailed on 12th March 1943. See also Tables 24 and 25 (pp. 316-317 and 319).
35. The average monthly number of merchant ships sailed on the South Atlantic routes at this time was as follows:
Freetown to Cape of Good Hope 77 Cape of Good Hope to Freetown 30 Freetown to South America 27 South America to Freetown 40 U.S.A. to Cape of Good Hope 27 Cape of Good Hope to U.S.A. 57 U.S.A. to South America 36 South America to U.S.A. 17 Cape of Good Hope to South America 25 South America to Cape of Good Hope 16 TOTAL 352 ships 36. See p. 213. 37. This was the ex-French ship Le Rhin which, under Lieutenant de Vaisseau C. A. M. Peri, escaped from Marseilles at the time of the fall of France. She was later commissioned, still under her Free French commander, in the Western Approaches command, and performed many varied services in home waters and the Mediterranean before she was sunk. 38. See Vol. I, p. 360. 39. See Vol. I, pp. 33-34, and 45-46. 40. See Appendix 0 for the division of these losses according to cause and to theatres of war. 41. See Appendix K. 42. See Appendix J for the causes of these losses.
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