The sources for this volume are in four main categories:
Official records (contemporary)
Manuscript histories, many of which were compiled in the Asiatic theaters by U.S. Army historians
Published works, including books and official dispatches and reports
The major source of information for this volume is official records.1 These include: (1) Papers and minutes of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Chiefs of Staff and their planners; (2) Records of the Operations and Plans Division, War Department General Staff; (3) Records in the custody of Departmental Records Branch, Office of The Adjutant General; (4) Radiograms in the Staff Communications Office, Office of the Chief of Staff, Department of the Army; (5) Records located in the files of the Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, at the time they were consulted, but which eventually will be retired to the Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office; (6) Enemy Records. Other depositories of official information consulted in connection with this volume were the Military Intelligence Division Library, the Office of Naval Intelligence, the State Department radio files, and the National Archives.
The papers and minutes of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) can be located by the numbers on the papers that were assigned by the JCS and the CCS Secretariats. The papers are cited in footnotes by number, date, and title; for example, JCS 582, 9 Nov 43, Future Operations in the Southeast Asia Command. These papers are in the custody of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Army's set of JCS and CCS papers were kept by the Strategy and Policy Group, Operations Division, under the heading of ABC files. The ABC files are organized by subject and date of the first paper in the file; for example, ABC 381 Burma (3-10-42). They have now been retired to the Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office. The Army's set of Joint Board
Papers, which may be identified by their Joint Board subject number and serial, are in the custody of G-3 Registered Documents Section.
The records of the Operations Division and of its predecessor, War Plans Division, are in the Historical Records Section, Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office. The War Plans Division file is identified in footnotes by the symbol WPD followed by the numerical designation of the subject file in which a particular paper appears and--if there is one--by a case number indicating the position of that paper within the file; for example, WPD 4389-20. The Operations Division central file is identified by the symbol OPD, preceeded by the case number within that file and followed first by a decimal number referring to the specific subject file, and second by the theater area; for example, Case 82, OPD 381 CTO (China Theater of Operations).
The Executive Group file of the Operations Division is an informal collection of papers compiled in the Executive Office of the Operations Division, primarily for the use of the Assistant Chiefs of Staff. These papers have been divided into ten major categories and an arbitrary serial number assigned to each item (book, folder, envelope) in each category. Papers in this file are identified in footnotes by the abbreviation Exec, which appears in each citation of item number and category number, as Item 4, Exec 1; Bk 2, Exec 8.
In the field of strategy and policy the Operations Division's files are the most important single collection of World War II documents in the custody of the U.S. Army.
The custodian of all Army records is the Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's office, with depositories in Washington, D. C., St. Louis, and Kansas City, Missouri. With the exception of the Adjutant General's files (AG files), numbered according to the War Department decimal file system, all records of other offices or headquarters are maintained intact according to their original file systems, and each major block of records has been given accession numbers by which they may be located. The accession numbers listed below appear in this volume and represent the major blocks of accession relating to CBI documents. The A stands for accession; the first number stands for the year of accession and the last number designates the numerical order of accession within that year.
Agencies that deposited files A43-3 G-4, War Department General Staff A45-466 War Department, Chief of Staff, Army A46-215 Office, Secretary of War A46-217 War Department Special Staff (SEAC War Diary) A46-257 Army Service Forces (Somervell File on CBI) A46-299 International Division, Army Service Forces (Lend-Lease to China) A46-523 War Department, Chief of Staff, Army A47-30 War Plans Division and Operations Division A47-68 War Department, Chief of Staff, Army
A47-136 War Department General Staff (Plans and Operations Cables) A48-102 Stilwell Personal Radio Files A48-139 War Department, Chief of Staff, Army A48-179 General Staff, United States Army (OPD) A48-224 American-British Conversations--Papers from Plans and Operations Job-11 U.S. Missions (AMMISCA Files) in Army Service Forces (Defense Aid Division), International Division
Of particular interest to students of the CBI Theater are General Stilwell's personal message books (A48-102, Record Group 800), which have been cited arbitrarily in footnotes as JWS Personal File. There are nine of these books, including the OKLAHOMA File, which relates to General Stilwell's recall, and a book of messages sent and received by General Stilwell at Forward Echelon, Northern Combat Area Command. The last book is cited in the footnotes as 6A and at present is located separately at the Records Center in Kansas City, Mo.
Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces, CBI Theater, records and those of all subordinate commands are now filed in the Kansas City Records Center, a depository of the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. Theater records are filed in cabinets by drawer numbers. Thus, the Bissell Correspondence Folder in China Theater (CT) Cabinet 23, Drawer 2, KCRC, will assist the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, to locate this folder in years to come if the KCRC has ceased to be a depository.
On the Southeast Asia Command there is a chronological compilation of pertinent documents in the SEAC War Diary (A46-217).
Radiograms are a rich source of important information for historians. Radios are found not only in subject files with related documents of other types but also in series files. Comprehensive series files containing more than three million messages dated after March 1942 are on microfilm in the Staff Communications Office, Office of the Chief of Staff, Department of the Army. In the Staffcom (Staff Communications) records, messages are filed chronologically so they may be located quickly according to the date and either the originator's message reference number, transmitted as part of the message, or the local reference number assigned by Staffcom to facilitate control. For example: Number 534 in the AMMISCA file of messages received in 1942 from General Stilwell in Chungking appears as CM-IN 4660 in the April 1942 file of incoming messages. Messages sent and received through Staffcom are identified in this volume according to their local reference numbers, the CM-IN or CM-OUT numbers assigned by Staffcom.
The records in the possession of the General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History, are the manuscript histories, plus a variety of miscellaneous records collected overseas by CBI historians or obtained by correspondence
with participants in an event. Among the miscellaneous records are the Magruder Mission papers, cited arbitrarily in footnotes as AMMISCA Folder--, interrogations of Japanese officers, notes from diaries, and documents on the First Burma Campaign, the Tulsa incident, and Ramgarh Training Center. These records will eventually be retired to The Adjutant General's Office. The files of the Assistant Secretary of War are in the custody of the Administrative Assistant of the Secretary of the Army.
An extensive account of the Japanese side is found in Japanese Studies in World War II, a series prepared by former Japanese officers in Tokyo under the auspices of the G-2 Historical Section, U.S. Far East Command, and translated by Allied Translation and Interrogation Section, Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. These Japanese Studies are located in the General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History, but they will eventually be retired to DRB, AGO. Those relating to Southeast Asia and China are fragments of orders, plans, and diaries, held together by a thread of personal recollections of the author and a few of his former associates. The tone is generally objective. However, an account that will do justice to the Japanese side is still to be written.
Immediately after the war's end, Southeast Asia Command interrogated a number of senior Japanese officers who had served in Burma. The results were published in a number of mimeographed bulletins, under the imprimatur of Southeast Asia Translation and Interrogation Center (SEATIC). They are in the Military Intelligence Division Library. The Japanese spoke freely and showed no particular disposition to flatter the victors. Unfortunately, the interrogators directed questioning to the period 1943-45, and showed little interest in the First Burma Campaign of 1941-42.
An interrogation directing more attention to the First Burma Campaign, the North Burma Campaign, and Japanese planning was prepared by Mr. Sunderland and sent to the occupation authorities in Japan. Thanks to Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, very useful information was obtained from: Lt. Gen. Kitsuju Ayabe, Assistant Chief of Staff, Southern Army; Lt. Gen. Tadashi Hanaya, Commanding General 55th Division, later 18th Area Army; Col. Takushiro Hattori, Operations Section, Imperial General Staff; Lt. Col. Taro Hayashi, staff officer, 56th Division; Lt. Gen. Masaki Honda, Commanding General, 33d Army; Maj. Gen. Tadashi Katakura, Chief of Operations, Burma Area Army; Lt. Col. Minoru Kouchi, staff officer, Burma Area Army; Lt. Gen. Momoyo Kunomura, Commanding, Guard Division; Col. Husayasu Maruyama, Commanding Officer, 114th Infantry Regiment, 18th Division; Maj. Gen. Yasuyuki Miyoshi, Chief of Staff, 5th Air Division; Lt. Gen. Eitaro Naka, Chief of Staff, Burma Area Army; Lt. Col. Masaji Ozeki, staff officer, General Headquarters (Tokyo), Lt. Gen. Shoichi Sato, Chief of Staff, 5th Air Division; Maj. Iwao Takahasi, staff officer, 15th Army; Lt. Col. Masahiko Takeshita, staff officer, 15th Army; Lt. Gen. Yutaka Takeuchi, Commanding General, 55th
Division; Lt. Gen. Shinichi Tanaka, Commanding General, 18th Division; Lt. Col. Taro Watanabe, Operations Section, Headquarters, Southern Army, Col. Motohisa Yoshida, staff officer, 15th Army.
Colonel Kouchi offered the use of a manuscript history of the 55th Division in the First Burma Campaign, The Vestiges of War. The information in General Tanaka's replies to the questionnaire was unusually detailed. The interrogations and 55th Division history are in the temporary custody of the General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History.
The manuscript cited as Japanese Comments was prepared by the Japanese Research Division, Military History Section, Special Staff, of the Far East Command, General Headquarters, in reply to a request from the OCMH for comment by General Tanaka on a draft narrative of the North Burma Campaign of 1943-1944. Included in it are comments by General Tanaka, Cols. Takushiro Hattori and Ichiji Sugita, and Lt. Cols. Shiro Hara and Iwaichi Fujiwara of the 15th Army staff.
Another source of valuable information is the private papers of participants in the China, Burma and India Theater. These include: (1) Personal Papers; (2) Diaries; (3) Letters.
Personal Papers: Of primary importance are the records of the late Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell, which consist of: his personal journal (which is cited as the Stilwell Diary); essays and analyses kept in two copybooks (which are cited either as Stilwell Black and White [B&W] Book or Stilwell Black Book); a file of undated papers (which are cited as Stilwell Undated Papers); and his collection of theater records and official personal papers (which are cited as Stilwell Documents, Stilwell Numbered Files [SNF] or Stilwell Miscellaneous Papers). These last are official papers and are in the Hoover Library, Palo Alto, Calif.
Since the days of his boyhood, General Stilwell had kept a diary. As the man grew in maturity and responsibility, his diary kept pace with him. By January 1942 his diary was a tool of command. It acted as a little personal file to which he could turn to refresh his memory. In the diary he summarized important radios, telephone calls, conferences, after action reports, and other papers important to a commander in the field or in the headquarters. In physical form, the wartime diaries are small ring-bound notebooks that the general could slip into his pocket. His family knew he kept a diary, but knew nothing of its contents until after his death, when the little notebooks were found among his personal effects. They were not intended for publication.
In addition to the diaries, General Stilwell kept two copybooks, one with a black cover about eight by ten inches in size, and one black and white, such as school children use. In them he wrote his reflections on the day's events,
dating almost every one. However, because Stilwell was prone to worry over his problems, the entries tend to blur the clear, terse statements in the diaries. Because the copybook entries are more literary in style than the diaries, Theodore H. White relied heavily on them in editing The Stilwell Papers. Of similar nature is the collection of sketches and essays on pieces of copy paper which have been called the undated papers, following Mr. White's usage.
The Stilwell Numbered Files and their contents fall in an entirely different category, and are best described as Stilwell's personal command file. They are official documents, very similar to the Hopkins and Pawley collections discussed below. Some of the papers in the Stilwell command files are official Chinese documents, some are British, most originated in Stilwell's several headquarters and crossed his desk. On General Stilwell's departure from Headquarters, Army Ground Forces, Washington, D. C, in spring 1945 to assume command on Okinawa, the then Chief of Staff, Army Ground Forces, Maj. Gen. James G. Christiansen, directed that these files be assembled and sealed for storage. They were placed in the custody of The Adjutant General, labeled as General Stilwell's personal effects. On his death in 1946 they were shipped to Mrs. Stilwell, who stored them in a warehouse in Monterey, Calif., along with some family possessions. They remained there, unopened and unread, until Mrs. Stilwell in May 1950 permitted the two boxes to be opened and their contents studied by Riley Sunderland. These five linear feet of documents are now in the Hoover Library. For an understanding of events in China in the years 1942-1944 their importance can hardly be overestimated.
Also of great importance are the private papers of the late Harry L. Hopkins, which were temporarily in the custody of Robert E. Sherwood. The Hopkins papers have now been retired to the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N. Y. As a personal friend of Dr. T. V. Soong, the Chinese Foreign Minister, and, in effect, the lend-lease administrator, Mr. Hopkins was actively concerned with Chinese affairs in 1941-1943. There are three major classes of papers regarding CBI in Book VII of the Hopkins Papers: letters from Soong to Hopkins, official correspondence on lend-lease and Sino-American relations, and letters from Joseph W. Alsop and Maj. Gen. Claire L. Chennault. A complete catalogue of all Hopkins' papers was generously given to the Office of the Chief of Military History by Mr. Sherwood. The authors also used Mr. Sherwood's manuscript of Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History, as well as letters from Mr. Sherwood's personal files.
Material on the background of Stilwell's mission and the candidacy of Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum for the China post is in General Drum's personal papers. Here, also, is the diary of Col. Charles E. Rayens, a member of Drum's party. Of great assistance on the origins of Far Eastern strategy were notes and letters from the Stimson papers in the custody of the Office of the Secretary of Defense.
William D. Pawley, Vice President of Curtiss-Wright Corporation and
owner of the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company before World War II, permitted access to his papers on the formation of the American Volunteer Group and the origins of several projects to place U.S. air power in Asia.
Diaries: Maj. Gen. Edward E. MacMorland (then Col.), General John Magruder's chief of staff, kept a diary which is the best single account of the AMMISCA and early Stilwell periods. Col. Harry S. Aldrich's diary is a good source on AMMISCA's operations in Burma and the early days of American activities at Kunming. Extensive notes from the MacMorland and Aldrich diaries are in the custody of the General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History.
Letters: On file with the Administrative Office, Office of the Chief of Military History, are a number of letters containing specific information on CBI history, as well as a file of comments and criticisms on the draft manuscripts of the authors which were submitted to informed persons. Of particular value is the file marked HIS 330.14 CBI 1947, 1948, 1949, and 1950, which will eventually be filed at the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
The first attempt to prepare a CBI Theater history was initiated by General Stilwell, then theater commander, when in the summer of 1944 he created a Historical Section, Theater Headquarters, under Col. Mason Wright. The section's mission was to prepare a comprehensive history of the theater for General Stilwell. After General Stilwell's recall, the manuscript prepared under Colonel Weight's supervision was reworked and edited by General Stilwell at his home in Carmel, Calif. Much of the political comment in the manuscript is a close paraphrase of the reports of John P. Davies, Jr., Stilwell's political adviser. The manuscript was then submitted to the War Department as General Stilwell's report. The original copy is in the custody of the Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office. A duplicate carbon copy is in the Hoover Library.
While the Historical Section, CBI Theater headquarters, was preparing a history of the theater, the Historical Section of Headquarters, Services of Supply, China, Burma and India, under Lt. Col. Harry L. Mayfield, was preparing a history of that organization. The manuscripts prepared by the SOS and Theater Historical Sections have certain physical similarities. Both have a basic narrative, surveying the years 1942-1944, with a host of appendixes, many of them reports by subordinate units. The two manuscripts are a rich source of material, and the footnotes in this volume reveal how deeply the authors are indebted to Colonel Wright, to his successor, Lt. Col. John Mott, and to Colonel Mayfield. These manuscript histories are in the custody of the General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History.
The fighting in Burma from the American point of view is covered by The
First Campaign in Burma, and from the British side by Col. E. V. C. Foucar's manuscript, Narrative of the First Burma Campaign.
Miscellaneous histories are: 1st Lt. James H. Stone's U.S. Army Medical Service in Combat in India and Burma, 1942-1945; Ramgarh Training Center, 31 June 1942-15 May 1944; and India at War, 1939-1943, compiled by the Historical Section of General Headquarters (India). These manuscript histories are in the custody of General Reference Branch, Office of the Chief of Military History.
Giving the Air Force side of the story are: Army Air Forces in the War Against Japan, 1941-42, History of the CATF (1942-43), History of the India-China Ferry under the Tenth Air Force, History of the Tenth Air Force Headquarters for the Calendar Year, 1942, History of the Fourteenth Air Force, and the Royal Air Force narrative, The Campaigns in the Far East. These manuscripts, written as collaborative works, are now in the U.S. Air Force Historical Division, Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.
U.S. strategy is described in Capt. Tracy B. Kittredge's draft manuscript prepared for the Joint Chiefs of Staff Historical Section and his narrative, U.S.-British Naval Cooperation, 1940-1945. There is also the unpublished manuscript of Dr. Rudolph Winnaker, Office of the Secretary of Defense, entitled Office of the Secretary of War under Henry L. Stimson.
The following works cover the political aspects of the Far Eastern war:
Churchill, Winston S. Their Finest Hour. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949.
------. The Hinge of Fate. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950.
------. Secret Session Speeches. Compiled, and with introductory notes, by Charles Bade. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1946.
Hull, Cordell. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948.
Leahy, William D. I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time. New York: Whittlesey House, 1950.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Rising Sun in the Pacific: 1931-April 1942. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1948.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. F.D.R.: His Personal Letters. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, Inc., 1948.
Sherwood, Robert E. Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy. On Active Service in Peace and War. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
United States Congress. Hearings of the Congressional Joint Committee Investigating the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
------. Report of the Congressional Joint Committee on the Pearl Harbor Attack. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
United States Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan: 1931-1941. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.
United States Department of State. Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931-1941. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942.
------. United States Relations With China: With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.
Background on the Chinese Army, political thinking, and philosophy may be obtained from:
Carlson, Evans F. The Chinese Army: Its Organizations and Military Efficiency. New York: International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1940.
Chiang Kai-shek. China's Destiny and Chinese Economic Theory. New York: Roy Publishers, 1947.
Ho Yung-chi, The Big Circle. New York: The Exposition Press, 1948.
Morris, David. China Changed My Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949.
Peck, Graham. Two Kinds of Time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950.
Winfield, Gerald F. China: The Land and the People. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948.
On more strictly military matters are:
Arnold, Henry H. Global Mission. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949.
Belden, Jack. Retreat with Stilwell. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1943.
Brereton, Lewis H. The Brereton Diaries. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1946.
Chennault, Claire L. Way of a Fighter. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1949.
Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate, eds. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. I, Plans and Early Operations. Vol. II, Europe: TORCH to POINTBLANK. Vol. IV, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1948, 1949, 1950.
Eldridge, Fred. Wrath In Burma. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1946.
Greenlaw, Olga S. The Lady and the Tigers. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1946.
Hotz, Robert B. With General Chennault. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1943.
Hughes, T. L. The Burma Campaign. Lahore, India: Northern India Printing and Publishing Company, no date.
LaFarge, Oliver. The Eagle in the Egg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949.
Owen, Frank. The Campaign in Burma. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1946.
Seagrave, Gordon S. Burma Surgeon. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1943.
------. Burma Surgeon Returns. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1946.
Stilwell, Joseph W. The Stilwell Papers. Arranged and edited by Theodore H. White. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948.
Tyson, Geoffrey William. India Arms for Victory. Allahabad, India: Kitabistan, 1943.
Watson, Mark S. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. War Department. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.
Showing the economic effects of the war on Japan are:
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Effects of Strategic Bombing on Japan's War Economy. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
------. The Effect of Air Action on Japanese Ground Army Logistics. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
------. The Campaigns of the Pacific War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
------. The War Against Japanese Transportation, 1941-1945. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Air Operations in China-Burma-India, World War II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Official despatches and reports by British officers have been published in Supplements to The London Gazette or by His Majesty's Stationery Office:
Despatch to the British Chiefs of Staff by Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, 28 May 1942, on Operations in the Far East, from 17 October 1940 to 27 December 1941. Supplement to The London Gazette, January 22, 1948.
Despatch by the Supreme Commander of the ABDA Area to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Operations in the South-West Pacific: 15 January 1942 to 25 February 1942. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948.
Despatch for Secretary of State for War by General Sir Archibald P. Wavell, July 14, 1942, on Operations in Burma from December 15, 1941 to May 20, 1942 covering reports by Lt. Gen. T. J. Hutton on Operations in Burma from December 27, 1941, to March 5, 1942, and by General the Honorable Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander on Operations in Burma from March 5, 1942, to May 20, 1942. Supplement to The London Gazette, March 11, 1948.
Despatch for Secretary of State for War by General Sir Archibald P. Wavell, September 27, 1942, on Operations in Eastern Theatre, Based on India, from March 1942 to December 21, 1942. Supplement to The London Gazette, September 19, 1946.
Despatch for Secretary of State for War by Field Marshal Sir Claude J. E. Auchinleck, March, 1948, on Operations in the Indo-Burma Theatre Based on India from June 21, 1942, to November 15, 1943. Second Supplement to The London Gazette, April 29, 1948.
Report and Supplement for Combined Chiefs of Staff by the Supreme Allied Commander, South-East Asia, 1943-1946, Vice-Admiral Viscount Mountbatten of Burma. New Delhi, India, July 30, 1947.
Table of Contents ** Previous Chapter (10) * Glossary
1. The date on all documents is determined by the time zone at the point of origin; the exception is classified messages, which are dated upon their receipt in Washington.