The manuscript of this volume was basically completed in 1954 and its content reflects sources available at that time. These sources fall in three categories: official records, collections of private papers, and published works.
Official records are the principal source of information for this volume.1
The major U.S. Army documentary sources used in the writing of this volume are to be found in two of The Adjutant General's records depositories--one in Alexandria, Virginia (the Special Records Branch), and the other in Kansas City, Missouri (the Kansas City Records Center). Between them these two depositories have those minutes, correspondence, and staff studies of the Combined and Joint Chiefs of Staff that are contained in the records of the War Department General Staff (mainly, the Office of the Chief of Staff and the War Plans Division/Operations Division); the war diaries of the Southeast Asia Command; and the records of the United States Forces in the China Theater (including the General Joseph Stilwell's Radio File, 1942-44) and the United States Forces in the India-Burma Theater and their subordinate commands. Of particular value were the Wedemeyer Files among the records of the United States Forces in the China Theater, including messages for the period 1944-45 and minutes of General Wedemeyer's conferences with the Generalissimo, a collection of Wedemeyer correspondence located with the records of the China Service Command, files of the Northern Combat Area Command containing documentation on the fighting in North Burma, and records of the Chinese Combat Command and Y-Force, subordinate commands of the United States Forces in the China Theater.
U.S. Army radiograms will be found either in the Staff Communications Office, Office of the Chief of Staff, Department of the Army, or in files of India-Burma and China Theaters and their subordinate commands. Location of the latter radios is shown in the footnotes. Messages sent and received through Staff Communications are identified according to their local reference numbers and date, or by the CM-IN and CM-OUT numbers. Messages sent and received through theater agencies are identified by the call
letters of their several headquarters, for example, CAK, CRA, CFB, and CHC.
A variety of miscellaneous records was collected by the Historical Sections of India-Burma and China Theaters. Among records is a collection of papers on the DIXIE Mission, the U.S. Observer Group in Yenan. These are cited as History of DIXIE Mission and are located in the Office of the Chief of Military History.
An account of Japanese operations and strategy, prepared by former Japanese officers, is found in the monographs cited as Japanese Studies in World War II. These monographs were prepared under the auspices of the G-2 Historical Section, U.S. Far Eastern Command, and translated by the Allied Translation and Interrogation Section (ATIS), Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Most of the directives and orders issued by Japanese Imperial General Headquarters are in volumes entitled Imperial General Headquarters Army Directives or Orders. They were compiled by the Military Historical Division, Military Intelligence Section, General Headquarters, Far East Command. Copies of the Japanese records are in the possession of OCMH.
The SEATIC Bulletins, prepared by the Southeast Asia Translation and Interrogation Center of SEAC, are based on interrogation of senior officers and staff members of Burma Area Army and its principal subordinate headquarters.
Thanks to Col. Preston J. C. Murphy, Chief, Military History Section, Special Staff, Far East Command, it was possible to obtain the comments of a number of former Japanese officers and their responses to inquiries framed by the authors. These recollections, which are on file in OCMH, offer interesting material on Sino-Japanese relations, 1944-45, and the war in China. Col. Susumu Nishiura, Chief Historian, Japanese Self-defense Forces, commented at length on the manuscript.
Manuscript histories, prepared during or after the war, were drawn on extensively in preparation of this volume, far more so than in the case of the two earlier volumes in the CBI subseries. By the summer of 1945, India-Burma Theater and China Theater headquarters had fully staffed Historical Sections, which attempted to write narrative histories according to professional standards of research and documentation. Col. Harry L. Mayfield, of the India-Burma Theater, was responsible for the successful completion of manuscript histories of the Services of Supply in India-Burma, 1944-45, of the India-Burma Theater 1944-45 (two volumes), of the India-Burma Theater 1945-46 (three volumes), of the History of Combat in India-Burma Theater, and of the Northern Combat Area Command (three volumes). The volumes are extensively documented and are a rich source of material on the India-Burma Theater in its last eighteen months. Those portions of the
present volume which cover the India-Burma Theater are in a sense the final product of Colonel Mayfield's section, of which Riley Sunderland was a member. Copies of these manuscripts are currently in the possession of OCMH. In China Theater, Capt. Fenton Keyes, Chief, Historical Section, aided by a small staff, wrote a manuscript history of the China Theater. Much of the portions of the present volume dealing with China Theater is based on this staff's work, supplemented by the Wedemeyer material which was not then available to it.
The History of Northern Area Combat Command was begun by Capt. Edward Fisher while he was an officer of the NCAC staff and was completed by him at theater headquarters in New Delhi. Like all the wartime manuscripts, it is a first draft but is of great importance as a source on the North Burma Campaign. It included a great number of appendixes, many with original material. The Operational Record of Eleventh Army Group and ALFSEA, November 1943-August 1945, distributed by the British War Office, is a terse but comprehensive account of the fighting in Burma.
Information on collateral activities can be found in the manuscript U.S. Army Medical Service in Combat in India and Burma, 1942-1945, by Dr. James H. Stone; History of the Ramgarh Training Center, 30 June 1942-15 May 1945; History of the First Provisional Tank Group; U.S. Army Transportation in China, Burma, India during World War II, by Joseph Bykofsky. These manuscripts are in the possession of OCMH. Background information on the state of the Chinese economy in 1944 can be found in Economic Conditions in Free China and Their Effect on Army Procurement, January 1945, which is Inclosure 4, Appendix E, to the manuscript, History of Advance Section No. 1 (SOS in China), History of the Services of Supply in China-Burma-India, 1942-1944, in OCMH.
Air Force operations are described in Despatch on Air Operations in Eastern Air Command (SEA) Covering the Period 15 December 1943 to 1 June 1945, a record prepared for Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer; Fourteenth Air Force Annual Summary, 1944; Growth, Development, and Operating Procedures of Air Supply and Evacuation System, NCAC Front, Burma Campaign, 1943-1945, prepared by the Military Observer Group, New Delhi, India. With the exception of the Fourteenth Air Force Annual Summary, 1944, which is now in the U.S. Air Force Historical Division, Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, the above manuscript histories are in the custody of OCMH.
Collections of Private Papers
To a lesser degree than in Volumes I and II of this subseries, this volume has drawn on private papers. These include: (1) collections of personal papers; (2) diaries; (3) letters and inclosures.
Personal Papers. Information on the CBI Theater before Wedemeyer and Sultan assumed command is to be found in the records of General Joseph W. Stilwell, in the Hoover Library, Palo Alto, California, described at length in the bibliographical notes to the earlier volumes of this subseries.
The personal papers of Maj. Gen. Patrick J. Hurley, U.S.A., Ret., are a rich source of information on the higher-level military and diplomatic aspects of China Theater from October 1944 to the spring of 1946. General Hurley was most systematic in preserving his papers, and the greater part of them is bound in folders (referred to as books in the footnotes), with individual items numbered within the folder. Currently the papers are in General Hurley's custody. Extensive notes on the Hurley papers, taken by Romanus and Sunderland, are in OCMH.
Diaries. The notebook kept by Brig. Gen. Earnest F. Easterbrook to record official matters that came to his attention as regimental commander is like a diary, though completely impersonal. General Easterbrook also permitted use of his situation maps.
Letters. The Office of the Chief of Military History has a number of letters from participants in events in India-Burma and China Theaters. They contain comment and criticism on draft manuscripts of the volumes in this subseries that are a valuable source of retrospective information. Of greatest interest is the file marked HIS 330.14, 1947-1957.
Leahy, William D. I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time. New York: Whittlesey House, 1950.
Sherwood, Robert E. Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy. On Active Service in Peace and War. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
United States Congress. Hearings of the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, on the Military Situation in the Far East. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951.
United States Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, Department of State Publication 6199, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta. 1945, Parts I and II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955.
--------. United States Relations with China: With Special Reference to the Period 1944-1949. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.
Background on the Chinese Army in Burma, Chinese political thinking, and philosophy may be found in:
Ho Yung-chi. The Big Circle. New York: The Exposition Press, 1948.
On more strictly military matters are:
Field, James A. Jr. The Japanese at Leyte Gulf, the SHÕ Operation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.
Military History Section, Special Staff, General Headquarters, Far East Command. The Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II, 1952.
Ramgarh: Now It Can Be Told. Ranchi, India, 1945.
Roberts, Brig. M. R., DSO. Golden Arrow (Aldershot, 1952).
Report and Supplement for Combined Chiefs of Staff by the Supreme Allied Commander, South-East Asia, 1943-1946, Vice-Admiral Viscount Mountbatten of Burma. New Delhi, India, July 30, 1947.
Romanus, Charles F., and Riley Sunderland. Stilwell's Mission to China and Stilwell's Command Problems. UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953 and 1956.
Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate, eds., The Army Air Forces in World War II: IV, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan, August 1942 to July 1944. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1950.
------. The Army Air Forces in World War II: V, The Pacific: MATTERHORN to Nagasaki, June 1944 to August 1945. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1953.
Treadwell, Mattie E. The Women's Army Corps. UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Air Operations in China, Burma, India. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.
Woodward, C. Vann. The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947.
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1. The date of each document is determined by the time zone at the point of origin; the exception is classified messages, which are dated upon receipt in Washington.