The Drive to the Seine
1. 30th Div G-2 Notes for Unit Comdrs, 8 Aug.
2. 12th AGp Ltr of Instrs 2, 3 Aug.
3. TUSA Dir, 5 Aug (confirming fragmentary orders, 4 Aug).
4. 12th AGp Ltr of Instrs 3, 6 Aug; 21 AGp Operational Situation and Dir, M-517, 6 Aug.
5. General Irwin's Official Diary of the Div Comdr; XV Corps G-3 Memo, Conflict with XX Corps, 5 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File. The quotations in this section, unless otherwise noted, are from General Irwin's diary.
6. TUSA AAR, I, p. 22; 5th Div AAR, Aug.
7. MS # B-245 (Haeckel); MS # B-034 (Schramm).
8. See The Fifth Division in France (Metz, France: Imprimerie du Journal de Lorraine, 1944), pp. 913; The Fifth Infantry Division in the ETO (Atlanta, Georgia: Albert Love Enterprises, 1945), no pagination.
9. The XX Corps, Its History and Service in World War II (Osaka, Japan: The Mainichi Publishing Co., Ltd., 1951) (hereafter cited as XX Corps), pp. 74-77. On 8 August the Reconnaissance Troop supply section was transporting fuel and rations forward in convoy when the leading armored vehicle performing escort duty struck a mine and was destroyed. Hostile troops nearby opened fire. For braving the fire to rescue several wounded and unconscious soldiers who were lying in the road, S. Sgt. Wardie Barnett and T/5 Vincent Hughes were awarded the DSC.
10. Memo, Patton for Gaffey, 8 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File; see also TUSA AAR, I, 26, and Annex 2.
11. See above, Ch. XXVI.
12. Ltr, Patton to Walker, 11 Aug, and Msg, Patton to Walker, 12 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File; Memo, 15 Aug, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl and File.
13. PS SHAEF (44) 11 (Final), SHAEF Plng Staff, Post-NEPTUNE Courses of Action After Capture of the Lodgment Area, Sec. II: Method of Conducting the Campaign, 30 May, SGS SHAEF File 381, Post-OVERLORD Plng.
14. See TUSA Dir, 13 Aug.
15. TUSA AAR, Aug; Memo, Maddox for Evans, 13 Aug.
16. TUSA Dir, 15 Aug (confirming verbal orders, 14 Aug); 12th AGp Dir for Current Opns, 15 Aug; Telecon, Gay to Menoher, 1845, 15 Aug, XV Corps CofS Jnl and File; XV Corps AAR, Aug; Bradley, Soldier's Story, p. 379.
17. Telecons, Gen Gaffey and Maj Gen Gilbert R. Cook, 1740, 15 Aug, and Gaffey and Hagan, 1540, 16 Aug; Memos, Gaffey for Haislip and for Walker, 15 Aug. All in XV Corps CofS Jnl and File. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 484-88.
18. This account is from the XII Corps, 4th Armd Div, and 35th Div AAR's; Extracts from Cook's Diary and XII Corps Historical Officer's Notes, CI 354, GL-140; Maj Randolph Leigh's XII Corps, Hosp Intervs, IV, GL-93 (319); and Koyen, Fourth Armored Division, pp. 27ff.
19. Interv with 1st Lt Donald E Severance, Hosp Intervs, ML-2234; information made available to the author by Generals Cook and Baade.
20. First Army FO 2, 16 Aug, translated and reproduced in Annex 1 to TUSA G-2 Per Rpt 69, 19 Aug; principal German sources are MS # A-911 (Emmerich), MS # B-728 (Emmerich), and MS # B-034 (Schramm).
21. MS # B-245 (Haeckel).
22. XII Corps G-2 Per Rpts, 15-23 Aug, and AAR, Aug; Patton, War As I Knew It, p. 384; Memo, Patton for Gaffey, 8 Aug; [Taylor], Development of Night Air Operations, 1941-1952, p. 27.
23. XX Corps FO, 14 Aug.
24. This account is taken from the XX Corps, 7th Armd Div, and 5th Div AAR's, Aug; XX Corps, p. 79; CI 285; Irwin Diary; personal documents loaned to the author by General Silvester.
25. Telecon, Walker and Silvester, 2145, 14 Aug, 7th Armd Div G-3 Jnl.
26. 7th Armd Div G-3 Jnl, entry 2255, 14 Aug.
27. Hitler Order, WFST/Op.Nr. 772830/44 g.Kdos. Chefs, 11 Aug, quoted in Msg, AGp B to the armies, 0030, 12 Aug, AGp B Fuehrer Befehle; MS # B-732 (Hold), MS # B-003 (Hoehne), MS # B-728 (Emmerich), MS # P-166 (Casper); First Army FO 2, 16 Aug, translated and reproduced in Annex 1 to TUSA G-2 Per Rpt 69, 19 Aug.
28. Col. Welborn B. Griffith, Jr., the XX Corps G-3 who was killed at Chartres, and 1st Lt. Mario J. Fortuna of the 38th Armored Infantry Battalion, who led an assault party in the capture of a nearby village, were awarded the DSC.
29. S. Sgt. Clarence E. White of the nth Infantry was instrumental in the success, establishing and maintaining an exposed artillery observation post. Though wounded, White adjusted fire until he collapsed from loss of blood. He was awarded the DSC.
30. XV Corps, 79th Div, 5th Armd Div AAR's, Aug; Wyche Diary; Notes of Mtg, 2000, 16 Aug, XV Corps CofS Jnl and File.
31. Notes of Mtg, 2000, 16 Aug, XV Corps CofS Jnl and File.
32. For detailed discussion, see Ch. XXXI, below.
33. The Gen Bd, USFET, Rpt on Ammo Supply for FA, Study No. 58, File 471/1, p. 19.
34. Ltr, Eisenhower to Montgomery, 2 Aug, SGS SHAEF File 381, OVERLORD I (a); SHAEF Msg S-57489, 12 Aug, Msgs, EXFOR Main to SHAEF, MGA-2, 14 Aug, SHAEF to EXFOR Main, FWD-12901, 15 Aug, and 12th AGp to SHAEF, Q-2050, 11 Aug, SGS SHAEF File 373/2.
35. Bradley, Soldier's Story, p. 385; Bradley, Effect of Air Power, p. 71; Huston, Biography of A Battalion, pp. 370-72; TUSA AAR, Aug.
36. 12th AGp Ltr and Ltr of Instrs 5, 17 Aug; see also XV Corps G-2 Per Rpt 15, 0300, 18 Aug, and Sylvan Diary, 17 Aug.
37. TUSA Dirs, 17 and 18 Aug; Patton to Haislip, 17 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File.
38. 12th AGp Memo for Rcd, 19 Aug, ML-205. For a detailed discussion of this decision, see Ch. XXX, below.
39. Notes of Mtg, 2000, 19 Aug, XV Corps CofS Jnl and File.
40. Bradley, Soldier's Story, p. 381.
41. See Ltr, Bradley to Eisenhower, 10 Sep, Pogue Files. For an interesting speculation, see Wilmot, Struggle for Europe, pp. 427-28.
42. 21 AGp Gen Operational Situation and Dir, M-519, 20 Aug.
43. The following account is taken from the XV Corps and 79th Div AAR's, Aug; Wyche Diary; XV Corps FO 6, 2330, 19 Aug, and G-2 Per Rpt 17, 0300, 20 Aug; Telecons, Menoher and Wyche, 2135, 19 Aug, and Col Menoher and Col Kramer Thomas, 1000, 20 Aug; Haislip Memo, 2100, 19 Aug; Notes of Mtg, 2000, 19 Aug; 314th Infantry Regiment, Through Combat, pp 27—30; History of the 313th Infantry in World War II (Washington, 1947), pp. 95-99; Interv with Capt Ernest Rothemberg, Hosp Intervs, ML-2234.
44. ETHINT 18 (Schwerin); AGp B KTB, 19 Aug.
45. Hitler Order, 20 Aug, Msg, FHQu. 20 Aug, OKW/WFSt/Op. Nr. 772956/44, OKW/175.
46. OB WEST KTB, 8 Aug, Anlagen 1218 and 1220; Telecons, Tempelhoff and Metzke, 1150 and 1220, 8 Aug, AGp B KTB; MS # B-727 (Gersdorff); MS # B-807 (Kuntzen); Hitler Order, WFSt/Op. Nr. 772830/44 g.Kdos. Chefs, 11 Aug, quoted in Msg, AGp B to the armies, 0030, 12 Aug, AGp B Fuehrer Befehle; OB WEST, a Study in Command, p. 139.
47. Model Order to Dietrich (No. 6376/44), 21 Aug, Fifth Pz Army KTB, Anlage 57.
48. Model to Dietrich (No. 6353/44), 21 Aug, Fifth Pz Army KTB, Anlage 38. Whether this preceded or followed the order cited immediately above is not clear. Though the numbering of the Anlagen suggests that it follows, the numbers on the documents suggest otherwise.
49. Dietrich Order, 21 Aug, Fifth Pz Army KTB, Anlagen.
50. Telecon, Rotbers and Tempelhoff, 1545, 21 Aug, and Fifth Pz Army Rpt, 0650, 28 Aug, AGp B KTB.
51. 12th AGp Ltr of Instrs 5, 17 Aug, Addenda to Ltr of Instrs 5, 19 Aug, and Memos for Rcd, 18 and 19 Aug; Telecon, Patton to Haislip, 19 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File; Sylvan Diary, 19 Aug.
52. MS # B-741 (Ziegelman); MS # B-680 (Hoecker); MS # 8-727 (Gersdorff); 17th SS Engineer Battalion KTB; LXXXI Corps KTB (17 Aug), and Anlagen; Msg, 17th Luftwaffen Feld Div to LXXXI Corps, 2040, 19 Aug, LXXXI Corps Tagesmeldungen; Order of Battle Annex 2, 17 Luftwaffen Feld Div (Air Force Field Division), 18 Aug, attached to XV Corps G-2 Per Rpt 16, 0300, 19 Aug. Principal German sources for this section are MS # B-034 (Schramm), MS # B-807 (Kuntzen), MS # B-445 (Krueger); see also 5th Armd Div G-2 Per Rpts, 20-25 Aug.
53. Notes of Mtg, 0900, 20 Aug, XV Corps CofS Jnl and File.
54. SHAEF G-3 Div Note on Assault Across the River Seine, 3 Jul, 12th AGp Mil Objs, 11.
55. Patton to Haislip, 1830, 19 Aug, XV Corps G-3 Jnl and File; TUSA Dir, 20 Aug; XV Corps FO 6, 2230, 19 Aug; 5th Armd Div AAR, Aug; 21 AGp Dir, M-519, 20 Aug.
56. XV Corps and 5th Armd Div AAR's, Aug; XV Corps G-2 Per Rpt 20, 0200, 23 Aug; FUSA Ltr of Instr, 24 Aug.
57. FUSA Ltrs of Instrs, Hodges to Gerow, 17 Aug (confirming verbal orders, 16 Aug), and Hodges to Corlett, 18 Aug; XIX Corps FO 16, 2030, 19 Aug; [Ferriss], Notes.
58. Telecon, Gause and Schneider, 0430, 23 Aug, LXXXI Corps KTB. Pvt. Bennie F. Boatright of the Medical Detachment, 41st Armored Infantry, was killed as he courageously went to the aid of wounded soldiers. He was posthumously awarded the DSC.
59. See Fifth Pz Army KTB, 24 Aug.
60. ETHINT 18 (Schwerin); 2d Armd and 28th Div AAR's, Aug; see Charles Brisson, "La Liberation d'Elbeuf et la Bataille dans la Vallee de la Seine," and Andre Bourlet, "Combats a Elbeuf," in Herval, Bataille de Normandie, II, 167-83 and 184-88.
61. 30th Div AAR, Aug; [Ferriss], Notes; see J. L. Cailly, "Louviers Libere," in Herval, Bataille de Normandie, II, 160-61.
62. Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, pp. 173, 176-77; Second Br Army Opns, 21 Jul-9 Sep, BAOR, 2 Nov 45, and Info furnished by 21 AGp to Hist Sec USFET, 9 Aug 45, ML-2251; Intentions Second British Army and First Canadian Army, 19, 20, 21, and 23 Aug, 12th AGp File 371.3 Mil Ops, Vol. I.
63. FUSA Ltr of Instrs, Hodges to Haislip and Corlett, 24 Aug; XV Corps CofS Jnl and File, 2326 Aug; First U.S. Army Report of Operations, I, 20; [Ferriss], Notes. Events during the month had moved so fast that defining the changing army group boundaries had proved to be a virtually impossible task until 21 August. See 21 AGp to SHAEF, 21 Aug, SHAEF File GCT 384-1/Ops (A), Boundaries of Armies and AGps.
64] Fifth Pz Army KTB, 24 and 25 Aug; Second Br Army Intel Summary 81, 2400, 24 Aug; see also AGp B KTB, 21 and 25 Aug.
65. Model Order to Dietrich, 25 Aug, AGp B KTB, Anlage 46.
66. Fifth Pz Army KTB, Anlage 50.
67. LXXXI Corps KTB, Anlagen, Karen; Telecon, Blumentritt, Speidel, Jodl, 1045, 25 Aug, AGp B KTB; MS # B-758 (Kuntzen) and MS # B-807 (Kuntzen); Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, p. 176; Second Br Army Intel Summary 81, 2400, 24 Aug; AGp B KTB, 21 and 25 Aug.
68. OB WEST, a Study in Command, p. 162; see Leigh-Mallory, "Despatch," Fourth Supplement to the London Gazette of December 51, 1946, p. 67, for an opposite point of view.
69. 12 th AGp Memo for Rcd, 19 Aug, including additional notes of conf, Bradley and Patton, 1730, 19 Aug, ML-205; TUSA Dir, 20 Aug.
70. MS # B-003 (Hoehne); MS # B-728 (Emmerich); MS # B-732 (Hold); First Army FO 2, 16 Aug, translated and reproduced in Annex 1 to TUSA G-2 Per Rpt 69, 19 Aug. MS # P-166 (Casper) is the principal German source.
71. The following account is taken from the XII Corps, 4th Armd Div, and 35th Div AAR's, Aug; CI 354.
72. Col. Bruce C. Clarke, the CCA commander, and Maj. Arthur L. West, Jr., who led the armored attack, were awarded the DSC.
73. Msg, Middleton to Patton, 19 Aug, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl and File.
74. The following is taken from the 5th Div AAR, Aug; Irwin Diary; XX Corps, pp. 84-89; Fifth Infantry Division in the ETO.
75. All three received the DSC.
76. Pvt. Harold A. Garman of the 5th Medical Battalion was later awarded the Medal of Honor for having, under fire, rescued from drowning wounded men being evacuated across the river.
77. The following is taken from the XX Corps and 7th Armd Div AAR's, Aug; CI 285, GL-165; XX Corps, pp. 84-89; and personal papers of General Silvester.
78. General Walker received the DSC, as did his aide-de-camp, 1st Lt. David W. Allard, who swam across the Seine River under enemy fire to get information for the corps commander.