Chapter III
The Situation


1. Ltr, Gen Eisenhower to General George C. Marshall, 24 Aug 43, as quoted in parchmented MS by Forrest C. Pogue, The Supreme Command, Ch. I, p. 73, OCMH Files.

2. 12th AGp AAR, I, 5.

3. The First Army staff assisting General Bradley on the Continent was formed about a nucleus of veterans. One tenth of the headquarters officers, over 30 individuals, had had combat experience in the Mediterranean. Maj. Gen. William B. Kean, the chief of staff, Col. Joseph J. O'Hare, the G-1, Col. Benjamin A. Dickson, the G-2, Col. Truman C. Thorson, the G-3, and Col. Robert W. Wilson, the G-4, belonged in this category. First U.S. Army, Report of Operations, I 14-15.

4. Bradley, A Soldier's Story, pp. 209-10, 350.

5. 21 AGp Dir, M-504, 19 Jun, Pogue Files; Ltr, Eisenhower to Bradley, 25 Jun, FUSA G-3 Jnl File.

6. First U.S. Army, Report of Operations, I, 82; VIII Corps AAR, Jul; Montgomery to Eisenhower, M-30, 25 Jun, SGS SHAEF File 381, Opn OVERLORD, I (a); Bradley, A Soldier's Story, pp. 303-04.

7. FUSA FO 1, 26 Jun; First U.S. Army, Report of Operations I, 82.

8. 21 AGp Dir, M-505, 30 Jun, Pogue Files.

9. FUSA FO 1 (rev), 1 Jul.

10. See Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, pp. 374, 376-77; First U.S. Army Report of Operations, I, 72-73.

11. See Jacques Mordal, "La Defense de Cherbourg," La Revue Maritime, New Series No. 76 (August, 1952), 963-80.

12. VIII Corps AAR, Jul; (British) Inter-Service Information Series (I.S.I.S.), Report on France, Vol. II, Normandy, West of the Seine, Pt. III (C), "Waterways" (Inter-Serv Topographical Dept Jan, 43); Abbe Paul Levert, "Le Front Allemand est Brise," in Rene Herval, ed., Bataille de Normandie, 2 vols. (Paris: Editions de "Notre Temps, " 1947), Vol. I, p. 159n; Le Capitaine de Vaisseau Delpeuch, Le Mur de l'Atlantique, 10 vols., Vol. III La Côte de la Manche, de la Seine au Mont St. Michel (Bordeaux, 1952) (MS in possession of the Hist Sec, Ministry of the Navy, Republic of France), p. 95; Robert Bethegnies, Le Sacrifice de Dunkerque (1940) (Lille, 1947), pp. 225-26. I am indebted to Médecin en Chef Hervé Cras of the Historical Section, Ministry of the Navy, Republic of France, for the two latter references.

13. 1st AGp Observers Gp Ltr, 1 Jul, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl File.

14. 82d Abn Div G-3 Jnl, 0130, 2 Jul.

15. See VIII Corps AAR, Jul.

16. Answers by Gens Smith and Bull, 14-15 Sep 45.

17. XIX Corps, The Tk-Inf Team, 24 Jun, VIII Corps G-3 Jnl File, Jul; 507th Parachute Inf AAR, Jun and Jul.

18. FUSA Armd Sec Memo 1, Lessons from Combat in Normandy, 19 Jun, 30th Div G-3 Jnl File.

19. There was feeling in some quarters that the lack of emphasis on hedgerow operations during the preinvasion period had prevented the development of an infantry support tank heavily armed in front and in the bowels. Interv, Col C. H. Bonesteel, III (formerly in the 12th AGp G-3 Plans Sec), 18 Jun 47, Washington, Pogue Files.

20. 314th Infantry Regiment, Through Combat (Germany, n.d.), an unofficial history, p. 18.

21. First U.S. Army, Report of Operations, I, 80; FUSA (Ord) Ltr, Supply of WP for 105-mm. and 155-mm. howitzers, 1 Jul, FUSA G-3 Jnl File.

22. Maj Gen Leonard T. Gerow to Gen Bradley, 0905, 27 Jun, and 90th Div Operational Memo 8, 2 Jul, FUSA G-3 Jnl File.

23. First U.S. Army, Report of Operations, I, 121-22.

24. See, for example, John Miller, jr., CARTWHEEL: The Reduction of Rabaul, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1959).

25. See CI 47 (8th Div).

26. First U.S. Army, Report of Operations, I, 121-22; see Robert L. Hewitt, Work Horse of the Western Front, the Story of the 30th Infantry Division (Washington: Infantry Journal, Inc., 1946) (hereafter cited as Hewitt, Story of 30th Division), pp. 21-22.

27. The following is based on Colonel C. P. Stacey, The Canadian Army, 1930-1945 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1948), p. 183n.; G. M. Barnes, Major General, United States Army (Ret.), Weapons of World War II (New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1947), passim; Constance McLaughlin Green, Harry C. Thomson, and Peter C. Roots, The Ordnance Department: Planning Munitions for War, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1955), Chs. X-XIII; Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe, pp. 294, 309; Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, p. 443; WD TM-E 30451, Handbook of German Military Forces (Washington, 15 March 1945); OKH Generalinspekteur der Panzertruppen Fuehrervortragsnotzigen, Band II, VI.-IX.44.

28. See XIX Corps AAR, Jul, for a descriptive sheet on enemy armor circulated to the troops. This sheet lists the dimensions of the enemy tanks and has photographs of the Mark IV and V. Opposite the Mark VI listing there is a large question mark and the inscription: "None met yet--will YOU get the first?"

29. Ltr, Eisenhower to Marshall, 5 Jul, Pogue Files.

30. Ltr, Gen Bradley to Maj Gen J. Lawton Collins, 6 Jul, FUSA G-3 Jnl File.

31. FUSA G-2 Per Rpt, 28 Jun.

32. 21 AGp Div, M-505, 30 Jun; FUSA G-2 Est 7, 29 Jun.

33. FUSA G-2 Spec Est 4, 29 Jun.

34. The major source for this section is James B. Hodgson, Battle of the Hedgerows, R-54.

35. Rommel Memo, 3 Jul, AGp B Operationsbefehle 19.VI-31, VIII.44.

36. OB WEST KTB, 3 Jul; Memo for Record, 2 Jul, Pz Gp W KTB, Anlage 35; Min of Hitler Confs, Fragment 46, p. 3, published in Felix Gilbert, Hitler Directs His War (New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1950), pp. 102-04.

37. Telecons, 1 Jul, AGp B KTB; Memo for Record, Rommel and Geyr, 2 Jul, Pz Gp W KTB, Anlage 55; Hitler Ltr of Instr, 8 Jul, quoted in full in Kluge Ltr of Instr, 8 Jul, AGp B Fuehrerbefehle; Pz Gp W SOP's, 6 Jul, Pz Gp W KTB Anlagen 71 and 72; MS # B-840 (Eberbach).

38. Report of combat experience, "Erfahrung der Panzer-Bekaempfung an der Invasionsfront Normandie," Sonderstab Oehmichen, z. Zt. Oberbefehlshaber West Ic/Pz. Offz., 25 Jun, AGp B KTB Anlage, 29 Jun; MS # B-731 (Fahrmbacher).

39. MS # B-418 (Choltitz); Dietrich von Choltitz, Soldat unter Soldaten (Konstanz-Zurich-Wien: Europa Verlag, 1951).

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