The Supreme Command is based in large part on Allied and German documents in the possession of the Department of the Army, on Allied documents made available by French and British sources, and on private papers of General Eisenhower and key members of his staff. These sources have been supplemented by numerous interviews with various Allied leaders, by published memoirs and histories, and by detailed comments on the manuscript by persons mentioned in the volume.
The most important single collection of documents used in this volume is that of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force. In addition to letters, cables, memorandums, reports, records of conferences, plans, drafts of plans and messages, interoffice communications, and other papers normally kept in the files of any military headquarters, the SHAEF collection includes the records of its predecessors--Combined Commanders and COSSAC. The SHAEF file also contains a number of memorandums by the British Chiefs of Staff as well as extracts from the minutes of their meetings in which the campaigns in northwest Europe were discussed.
The SHAEF records have been supplemented by minutes of the meetings of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, including minutes of the great conferences attended by Mr. Churchill and President Roosevelt and their advisers. War Department records contain message files of cables and letters between the President and the Prime Minister (these include information copies, paraphrases which were sent by the War Department to General Eisenhower, and drafts of cables prepared by the War Department for the President's signature). They contain similar records of communications between the Combined and Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Supreme Commander, paraphrases of messages sent by the British Chiefs of Staff to the Joint Staff Mission for delivery to the U.S. Chiefs of Staff, and the correspondence between Allied commanders and Allied planners. Supplementing these are private letter files of the Supreme Commander and private papers furnished the author by Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Air Chief Marshal Sir James M. Robb, Brig. Gen. Robert A. McClure, Maj. Gen. Ray W. Barker, Marshal of the Royal Air Force Lord Tedder, Lt. Gen. Walter B. Smith, and Gen. Sir Andrew Thorne.
Details of the operations have come mainly from such secondary sources as after action reports, dispatches, and semiofficial army group and army histories. A number of these accounts have been checked against primary sources found in the army group and army files. The book has also drawn on combat interviews conducted during the war by War Department historians.
In some cases photostatic or typewritten copies of British and Canadian documents have been furnished the author by the Historical Section, Cabinet Office, and by the Canadian Historical Section.
The sources have been supplemented by interviews conducted by the author with nearly 100 British, French, and U.S. officers and civilians in the period 1946-51 (see list at end of bibliographical note).
The collections of German primary sources vary greatly in completeness. For periods of disaster, such as the envelopments in the Falaise Gap and in the Ruhr Pocket, many papers of the field headquarters were destroyed. Many records were also destroyed at OKW. For high-level material, the author has drawn on OKW/WFSt KTB Ausarbeitung, "Der Westen" 1.IV.-16.XII.44. This draft War Diary (KTB) is based on the detailed daily working notes of Major Percy Schramm in his capacity as historian at the headquarters of OKW. Until the end of 1943 the diary consisted of a chronological listing of events supplemented by information from participants in operations. After 1943 the diary was arranged according to subject matter and fronts and was supplemented by a Merkbuch kept by Schramm, with notes of discussions at the situation meetings he attended and notes obtained from special interviews with the deputy chief of WFSt, General Warlimont. From 1 January 1945 the chronological order was reintroduced. In view of the subsequent destruction of OKW records, the copies of the Ausarbeitungen for 1944 and the personal notes of Schramm present a unique and valuable source. The original diary, as well as a copy designated as MS #B-034 (Schramm), is in OCMH files.
For information on battles, I have also relied on manuscript histories prepared after the war by more than two hundred German generals working under the direction of Col. Harold A. Potter and later under Col. Wilbur S. Nye. I was aided in assessing the general value of this material by Capt. Frank C. Mahin, Jr., and Capt. James F. Scoggin, who worked with the German generals for more than two years (1946-48). While the German accounts are weakened at times by a subjective approach and by lack of source material, they are of value in filling in the broad outlines of the German story of the war. An important source for the last chapters of the book is the file OKW Politische Angelegenheiten, which contains a draft for a German White Book. Intended as a defense of Admiral Doenitz' interim government in May 1945 the unsigned paper is accompanied by numerous documents which are of great value. The collection of German documents available to the Office of the Chief of Military History also contains a large file of OKW papers received or sent out by Field Marshal Keitel and General Jodl.
The following notes are intended as a convenient guide to the primary sources used in this volume.
AAF files. Army Air Force files containing records of Eighth and Ninth Air Forces, which were formerly in the Pentagon, are now located at the Air University, Maxwell Field, Montgomery, Ala.
ABC files. A collection kept by the Strategy and Policy Group of OPD (q.v.).
Barker files. Personal papers of Maj. Gen
Ray W. Barker (ret.), deputy chief of COSSAC and G-1 of SHAEF. Located in OCMH files.
CAD. Civil affairs papers collected by the Civil Affairs Division of the War Department. They include papers of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee. Now in Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
COS. British Chiefs of Staff papers and minutes of conferences. Extracts pertinent to SHAEF operations were forwarded to the Supreme Commander for information. These are filed with the SHAEF SGS papers, and bound separately by year under the titles "Papers" and "Minutes."
CCS. Combined Chiefs of Staff papers and minutes of meetings. All of these may be found in the OPD collection (q.v.). The papers include reports, reprints of cables and letters, and memorandums prepared by the British or U.S. Chiefs of Staff or their planners. No stenographic notes of the meetings were kept, but British and U.S. secretaries kept a general statement of the main points advanced and the conclusions reached. These records in final form were specifically and individually approved by each of the Combined Chiefs. Note. The reader is reminded that quotations from CCS minutes are taken from the printed summaries and are not necessarily the exact words of the conferees. It should also be noted that, because no exact copy of a highly classified cable can be made because of security regulations, the language in War Department cables concerning classified matters may differ slightly from the minutes and from the cable which is on file in the SHAEF cable log. The paraphrases reflect the exact intent of the author, but vary in paragraph arrangement and wording. This reminder applies to every quotation from a highly classified cable used in this volume.
C/S file. Contains documents from wartime files of the Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department. Now a separate collection in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO. On these records see bibliographical note in Mark S. Watson, Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations (Washington, 1951), UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II, pp. 520-23.
COSSAC. Papers of the COSSAC (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander) headquarters and minutes of COSSAC staff meetings. These are separately bound and contained in the SHAEF SGS files.
Diary Office CinC. Diary kept in General Eisenhower's office for him by his naval aide, Capt. Harry C. Butcher. It was started in July 1942 and continued until the end of the war. It is less complete on General Eisenhower's activities after August 1944 when Butcher took up a job in the Public Relations Division of SHAEF. He was still a frequent visitor to General Eisenhower's office, but did not continue to have daily contact with the Supreme Commander. The collection includes daily entries dictated by Captain Butcher, summaries of conversations, reactions by the Supreme Commander or Butcher to events of the day, and items of human interest concerning the Supreme-Commander and many of his staff. The diary was kept as a journal and not as a historical narrative and therefore tends to set down uncritically snatches of conversation as the narrator heard them. On the documentary side, Captain Butcher attempted to keep copies of all the high-level cables and letters sent or received by the Supreme Commander. Other important papers, such as intelligence estimates, situation summaries, and special reports, were also included. Of great value are the
memorandums which Captain Butcher at irregular intervals persuaded General Eisenhower to write concerning major decisions and problems. Captain Butcher in My Three Years With Eisenhower (New York, 1946) printed edited excerpts from the diary. Many are printed as originally written, while others are edited slightly. These changes were usually made to eliminate information later found to be incorrect. It should be noted that Captain Butcher was careful to repeat his guesses that had been proved incorrect by later events. Several of the entries were edited for security reasons, and others in order to remove comments by Captain Butcher which might be deemed offensive by living persons. In quite a few cases the original entry has been summarized.
The diary varies in value to the historian because Captain Butcher, often unable to dictate his entries daily, would sometimes write an entry covering several days at one sitting. In such an entry the dates of events are occasionally confused. Unfortunately, no daily list of appointments was included. Captain Butcher, in his book, has failed in some cases to differentiate sufficiently between items based on conversations with General Eisenhower and those which are merely summaries of official documents. For example, an entry, "Ike says," published under 10 August, may have come from a table conversation that day or it may have been a summary of a paper signed by General Eisenhower several days earlier which happened to be included in the loose-leaf notebook along with the 10 August entry. These differences are apparent in the original. On a few occasions when the typist misdated a letter (an error perhaps corrected later in the SGS file copy, but not in the one preserved in the diary), the letter has appeared under the incorrect date in Captain Butcher's published book. At least one notable mix-up occurred as a result. A letter of 14 September, incorrectly dated 14 August, appears under the August date in the diary. Captain Butcher in writing of the letter, which actually refers to the Arnhem operation, assumed that it meant the landing in southern France and so interpreted it. As a result the book represents General Eisenhower as having discussed General Montgomery's plan for crossing the Rhine before the plan was actually presented to the Supreme Commander. For the most part, the diary--especially in the manuscript state--is extremely valuable for a study of the Supreme Commander and his headquarters.
At the time the author used this diary (1946), it was in the personal possession of General Eisenhower and kept in his office at the Pentagon.
Eisenhower personal file. For purposes of convenience and security several collections of letters and cables were kept in General Eisenhower's personal file. These included the following: personal letters between General Eisenhower and General Marshall (a collection of considerable value since the Supreme Commander was in the habit of outlining his future plans in these informal messages); a special file of letters between Generals Eisenhower and Montgomery; a file of cables and letters between the Supreme Commander and important political and military figures such as the Prime Minister, General de Gaulle, General Juin, Air Marshal Tedder, and General Bradley; and a file of "Eyes Only" cables which were delivered only to the Supreme Commander and his chief of staff. The Diary, Office Commander in Chief, described above, was also in this collection. The SHAEF
Cable Log (q.v.), which was physically kept in the Secretary of the General Staff files, might well be included with this collection. With the exception of the Cable Log, these papers at the time they were consulted by the author (1946-47) were in the personal possession of General Eisenhower.
Inasmuch as the file may well be consolidated when finally indexed, the author has referred to the entire collection under the general title of Eisenhower personal file. It is the richest single file for the purposes of this volume. Because the papers were selected for their importance and because each item was seen personally by the Supreme Commander, the file simplified the author's task of searching through the voluminous SHAEF records for the most important pieces of correspondence.
ETO file. Files of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army (ETOUSA). Now held by Organizational Records Branch, Records Administration Center, AGO.
Fifteenth Army file. Official journals and papers of the Fifteenth Army. This file also contained some of the 12th Army Group papers at the time the author used it. In Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
FUSA file. Official journals and papers of the First U.S. Army. In Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
JCS. U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff papers and minutes of their conferences. Located in G-3 Records, Department of the Army.
NUSA file. Official journals and papers of the Ninth U.S. Army. In Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
OCMH files. Documents containing material prepared by or collected by the author or members of the Office of the Chief of Military History staff. Much of the material so cited in this volume consists of answers by former members of the SHAEF staff to the author's questionnaires, British and French documents, and special studies collected by the author.
OPD files. Collection of cables and papers of the Operations Division, War Department. The division was known at various times in the period 194 1-5 1 as the War Plans Division, Operations Division, and Plans and Operations Division. It is at present a part of the G-3 Division. A detailed bibliographical note on these papers may be found in Ray S. Cline, Washington Command Post: The Operations Division, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1951), pp. 382-85.
SHAEF files. Records of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force. These are, naturally, the basic source for this volume. It consists of separate files for each of the general and special staff divisions, the SHAEF missions, and the Secretary of the General Staff (SGS), SHAEF. They will be designated in footnotes as SHAEF G-1, SHAEF PWD, SHAEMF Mission (France), SHAEF SGS, and so on. The originals of these SHAEF papers are in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO, and microfilmed copies may be found in the British Historical Records.
The richest file of the SHAEF collection, apart from the Eisenhower personal file described elsewhere, is that of the SHAEF secretary of the general staff, which was kept for the personal use of the Supreme Commander and the Chief of Staff, SHAEF. It contains nearly all papers brought to the immediate attention of General Smith and/or General Eisenhower and all those which it was thought that they might wish to consult. The result has been a process of selection which puts before the historian the most important papers of the entire SHAEF collection. To
copies of plans and final letters are usually attached the penciled notes and early drafts together with the final approval or disapproval of the Supreme Commander and the chief of staff. It is often possible to follow a paper from the stage of its first draft to a copy of the message which was dispatched. These copies are usually those containing changes made by Generals Eisenhower and Smith. Often,i n order to make all pertinent papers available for examination, the secretary of the general staff had extracts or copies made from papers in other files. This not only provides a useful check on the completeness of other files but also makes it possible for the historian to see what information was laid before the Supreme Commander when he made his decision. A careful cross-reference system indicates the location of pertinent papers.
This collection formerly included the SHAEF Cable Log, which was brought up to date daily by the secretary of the general staff. It contained typewritten paraphrases of all cables (except those marked Eyes Only) addressed to the Supreme Commander or sent in his name which his subordinates felt that he should see. Copies of Eyes Only cables were sometimes included in this collection but were usually kept in a special Eyes Only file. The messages in the Cable Log were usually examined daily and initialed by the Supreme Commander. Occasionally one finds his notes asking for comments or suggesting possible answers. The Cable Log when used by the author (1 945 and 1946) was in a group of files belonging to General Smith. This file was initially in the CALA collection at Headquarters, USFET, Frankfurt, Germany, and later in the Department of the Army Library at the Pentagon.
Smith papers. Collection of documents and books belonging to Lt. Gen. Walter B. Smith. These were deposited in the War Department library in 1946 and were consulted by special permission of General Smith. With these papers were the SHAEF Cable Log and some Eyes Only files which could not be as readily found in the SHAEF collection.
SUSA file. Contains journals and papers of the Seventh Army. In the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
TUSA file. Official journals and papers of the Third U.S. Army. Held by Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
22th A Gp file. Operational files of the 12th Army Group. Now in the Departmental Records Branch, AGO.
Many unpublished preliminary historical studies by Army, Navy, and Air Force historians are available to the official historian. Studies used to a considerable degree by the author include some of the eleven volumes of a series called the Administrative and Logistical History of the European Theater of Operations prepared in 1945-46 under the direction of Maj. Roland G. Ruppenthal, Assistant Theater Historian, USFET. The 1,500-page history of the French Forces of the Interior, prepared by Capt. Lucien Galimand, Capt. Marcel Vigneras, and Maj. R. A. Bourne-Patterson is based on basic documents of the French Resistance and the Allied agencies dealing with these forces.
The author's attention was directed to some of the sources for this volume by a 104-page typewritten History of SHAEF written by Maj. Duncan Emrich and Maj. F. D. Price, the SHAEF historians in 1944-45. Since they were mainly occupied
until the end of the war with the preparation of a History of COSSAC (unpublished) and the Supreme Commander's report to the Combined Chiefs of Staff, they had not carried their story beyond the D-Day period at the time they left Supreme Headquarters. Many of the important papers of the Supreme Commander were not available to them at the time the manuscript was prepared. In 1945 the author of the present volume was employed to rewrite and complete this earlier study. This assignment was finished in 1946 before the present volume was begun. Virtually nothing of the original draft has been used in these pages except several useful charts. The short (forty-three-page) History of COSSAC mentioned above was valuable for its story of the administrative organization of SHAEF's predecessor.
Among the published sources, the author has made considerable use of official dispatches and reports, official histories, and memoirs. Three particularly important official reports are: Report by the Supreme Commander to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Operations in Europe of the Allied Expeditionary Force, 6 June 1944 to 8 May 1945 (Washington, 1945); Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Despatch to the Supreme Commander, AEF, November 1944, Supplement to The London Gazette, December 31, 1946; and Report by Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief Expeditionary Force on Operation NEPTUNE (London, 1944), 3 vols.
The author has profited greatly from the use of the volumes written by his colleagues in the European Section of the Office of the Chief of Military History. Two of the published volumes--Hugh M. Cole, The Lorraine Campaign (Washington, 1950) and Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack (Washington, 1951)--were especially helpful on German forces and tactical details concerning the U.S. forces. Other manuscripts now in preparation were made available. Volumes II and III of Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, eds., The Army Air Forces in World War II (Chicago, 1949 and 1951), were used for details relating to air operations in Europe in 1942-45. For Canadian Army activities in Europe, the author depended on Col. C. P. Stacey, The Canadian Army, 1939-1945: An Official Historical Summary (Ottawa, 1948), which is a preliminary study of Canadian operations.
Because of the impossibility of checking unit journals for all of the operational details needed for this volume, it has been necessary to rely on the semiofficial histories of the army groups and armies. While subject to error in details, the volumes are of considerable value for giving the broad outlines of campaigns. All of them have drawn heavily on the daily operational reports and intelligence summaries of their headquarters. Even where incorrect they are valuable for giving the operational picture as it was seen at the time by the field commanders and the Supreme Commander. These volumes include: 12th Army Group, Report of Operations. (Final After Action Report) (printed in Europe, 1945), 14 vols.; 6th Army Group Operations Report (mimeographed report, by months); First U.S. Army, Report of Operations (printed in Europe, 1946), consisting of seven volumes on the period 20 October 1943-1 August 1944, four volumes on the period 1 August 1944-22 February 1945, and three volumes on the period 22 February 1945-8 May 1945; After Action Report, Third U.S. Army, I August 1944-9 May 1945 (printed in Europe, 1945), 2 vols.; The Seventh United
States Army in France and Germany 1944-1945: Report of Operations (Heidelberg, 1946), 3 vols.; Conquer: The Story of Ninth Army, 1944-45 (Washington, 1947); History of the Fifteenth United States Army, 21 August 1944 to 11 July 1945 (apparently printed in Germany, 1946). Most of these volumes have only a limited distribution, but are available in the OCMH or the Department of the Army Library.
Field Marshal Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic (New York, 1948) has been consulted. This volume, which was prepared in part by members of the 21 Army Group staff from official files and personal papers of Field Marshal Montgomery, was circulated in printed form to U.S. and British military headquarters shortly after the war, before its public appearance in Great Britain in 1947 and in the United States in 1948. In form it is an official dispatch rather than personal memoirs, in many cases being little more than a paraphrase of letters of instruction and situation reports. It is nonetheless a valuable summary of British operations. The author made use of the volume for an outline of Montgomery's operations and then submitted his narrative for the correction of operational details to the British Historical Section, Cabinet Office, and the Canadian Historical Section. In addition to checking the accuracy of the account, these sections have also made available documents, charts, casualty data, and other information from their files.
Special mention must be made of the memoirs of key figures in the SHAEF story. In addition to the Montgomery volume, which can be included in this category only with qualification, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (New York, 1948), and Gen. Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (New York, 1951), have been used. General Eisenhower's volume was dictated by him over a period of months and then checked against his personal papers and official documents. Since all documents and papers cited in his volume were made available to the author of The Supreme Command, the general's book has been used mostly for judgments of men and events which are not available in his papers. General Bradley's volume was based on dictated material and on recordings of discussions of various phases of the book between himself and his aide. The statements were checked against private papers, official documents, and the memories of many participants. Some of the papers were not available to the author of The Supreme Command. Most valuable have been some of the frank appraisals of Allied commanders contained in General Bradley's book. The author was allowed to see both of these volumes in manuscript form.
An important volume for the study of the Supreme Commander and SHAEF is Capt. Harry C. Butcher, My Three Years With Eisenhower (New York, 1946). As noted earlier, I was given free access to the Diary, Office of the Commander in Chief, which is the basis for Captain Butcher's book.
Lt. Gen.. Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Overture to OVERLORD (New York, 1950), which the author was allowed to see in manuscript, is valuable for showing the problems of the planner of OVERLORD and for his personal recollections. The COSSAC documents and many of General Morgan's private papers were made available to the author.
Other memoirs which were used include: Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., War as I Knew It (Boston, 1947); Maj. Gen. Sir Francis de Guingand, Operation Victory
Arnold, Global Mission (New York, 1949). Lt. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton's The Brereton Diaries (New York, 1946) supplied some details on airborne command and operations. Lt. Gen. Walter Bedell Smith's articles on "Eisenhower's Six Great Decisions," The Saturday Evening Post, Vols. 218-19, issues for June 8, 15, 22, 29, and July 6 and 13, 1946, were of value.
On high-level policy relating to operations in Europe, books of great value to the author were: Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York, 1948); Henry L. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York, 1948); Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (New York, 1948), 2 vols.; Winston S. Churchill, The Hinge of Fate (Boston, 1950); Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Roosevelt and the Russians: The Yalta Conference (Garden City, N. y., 1949); and Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There (New York, 1950). The author was permitted to examine the Leahy volume in manuscript form.
Two secondary sources on enemy actions and command organization should be noted. These are The War in the West, prepared by Dr. Wilhelm Scheidt, principal assistant to Generalmajor Walther Scherff, chief of the military history section of OKW. Dr. Scheidt indicates that a great part of his study was based on his own notes, but a comparison with the KTB Ausarbeitung, "Der Westen," (see above) shows that he has relied heavily on Schramm's work. Another work is Geschichte des Oberbefehlshaber West, edited by Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, formerly Ia (G-3) of OB WEST. The manuscript was prepared under the auspices of the Historical Division of the Department of the Army between 1946 and 1948 and includes contributions by a number of general and general staff officers of the Wehrmacht. All information of this nature must be used with the caution that the authors had to rely in many cases entirely on their memories. Many of them have a tendency to overemphasize the superiority of Allied manpower and equipment and their own disadvantages. Most of them also develop the thesis that all would have gone well had the views of the General Staff, rather than those of Hitler, prevailed.
For the last days of the Reich, two books are of considerable importance:. Count Folke Bernadotte's The Curtain Falls: Last Days of the Reich (New York, 1945), which tells of Bernadotte's role in the surrender negotiations, and H. R. Trevor-Roper, The Last Days of Hitler (New York, 1947), which is an account by a British intelligence officer of his investigations into the details of the Führer's final hours.
The author is greatly indebted to nearly a hundred Allied military and political leaders for interviews granted to him in the period 1945-51. The number of interviews with the individuals named varies from one to ten. Nearly all of them spoke freely, although a few asked that they not be quoted. Several of them read to the author from private diaries or papers, but were unwilling to have the material cited. For that reason some controversial matters have been left without footnotes or with only a general reference to information supplied by Allied leaders. In the case of some thirty or forty persons named, the original interview material was supplemented by later detailed comments on the author's manuscript.
References in the list are to positions held by individuals in the 1943-45 period. Their titles and ranks are those they had when interviewed.
Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Viscount, Chief of the Imperial General Staff
Allen, Brig. Gen. Frank A., Chief of Public Relations Division, SHAEF
Barker, Maj. Gen. Ray W., Deputy Chief of COSSAC and G-1, SHAEF (Bechtolsheim. See Mauchenheim.)
Belchem, Brigadier R. F. K., Chief of Operations, 21 Army Group
Betts, Brig. Gen. Thomas J., Deputy G-2 of SHAEF
Biddle, Col. Anthony J. D., Deputy Head of EACS
Bingham, Barry, Public Information Officer
Bonesteel, Col. Charles H., III, Member of G-3 Division, 12th Army Group
Bradley, Gen. Omar N., Commander of FUSA and later of 12th Army Group
Briggs, Maj. Ruth, Secretary to Gen. W. B. Smith
Broad, Wing Commander H. P., Member of Planning Staff of SHAEF (Brooke, Field Marshal Sir Alan. See above, Alanbrooke.)
Brown, Brig. Gen. Robert Q., Headquarters Commandant, SHAEF
Brownjohn, Maj. Gen. N. C. D., G-4 of COSSAC and Assistant G-4 of SHAEF
Bull, Lt. Gen. Harold R., G-3 SHAEF
Butler, Maj. Gordon, Member of SHAEF SGS Staff
Caffery, Ambassador Jefferson, Ambassador to France
Cameron, Maj. Gen. A. M., Chief of the Air Defense Division of SHAEF
Carter, Col. Henry, Chief of Planning
Coordination Section, Office of the Political Officer, SHAEF
Coningham, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur, Commander of Second Tactical Air Force
Crawford, Maj. Gen. Robert W., G-4 of SHAEF
Creasy, Rear Adm. George E., Chief of Staff of the Allied Naval Expeditionary Force
Cunningham of Hyndhope, Admiral of the Fleet Viscount, First Sea Lord
Curtis, Col. J. O., Member of SHAEF G-2 Division
Davis, Brig. Gen. Thomas J., Adjutant General and Public Relations Chief at SHAEF
Dempsey, Gen. Sir Miles C.; Commander of Second British Army
Dickson, Col. B. A., G-2 of First Army
Eisenhower, Gen Dwight D., Supreme Allied Commander
Gale, Lt. Gen. Sir Humfrey M., Deputy Chief of Staff, SHAEF, Chief Administrative Officer
Gaulle, Gen. Charles de, Head of the French Committee of National Liberation and later of the French Provisional Government
Gault, Col. James, Personal Assistant to General Eisenhower
Gleave, Group Captain T. P., Air Member of SHAEF Planning Staff
Grasett, Lt. Gen. Sir A. E., G-5 of SHAEF
Helfers, Lt. Col. M. C., Special Intelligence Officer, Third Army
Hesketh, Lt. Col. R. F., Member of SHAEF G-3 Staff
Hickman, Maj. R. E., Member of SHAEF AG Staff and Officer in Charge of CALA Records
Hodges, Gen. Courtney H., Commander of First U.S. Army
Holmes, Brig. Gen. Julius C., Deputy G-5 of SHAEF
Huebner, Lt. Gen. Clarence R., Commander of 1st Division and V Corps
Hughes, Maj. Gen. H. B. W., Chief of Engineers of SHAEF
Hughes-Hallett, Capt. John, Naval Chief of Staff, COSSAC
Ismay, Gen. Sir Hastings L., Chief of Staff, Ministry of Defence
Jackson, W. D., Member of 12th Army Group Intelligence Staff
Johnson, Alan Campbell, Personal Assistant to Lord Mountbatten
Juin, Gen. Alphonse-Pierre, Chief of the French Bureau of National Defense
Keating, Maj. Gen. F. A., Commander of 102d Division
Kenner, Maj. Gen. Albert W., Chief Medical Officer, SHAEF
King, Fleet Admiral Ernest J., Chief of Operations, U.S. Navy
Kirk, Admiral Alan G., Commander of U.S. Naval Forces in the Invasion of Northwest Europe, Later Head of U.S. Naval Mission, SHAEF
Lambe, Rear Adm. C. E., Naval Member of Joint Planning Staff (British)
Laux, Lt. Col. Ray J., Executive Officer of War Department Civil Affairs Division
Leahy, Fleet Admiral William D., Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief Lear, Lt. Gen. Ben, Deputy Theater Commander, ETOUSA
Lee, Lt. Gen. John C. H., Commander of Headquarters, Communications Zone
Lewis, Maj. Gen. John T., Head of SHAEF Mission (France)
Lockhart, Sir Robert Bruce, Head of the British Political Committee
Lodge, Senator Henry Cabot, Chief of the Liaison Section of 6th Army Group
McClure, Brig. Gen. Robert A., Chief of Psychological Warfare Division, SHAEF
McLean, Maj. Gen. Kenneth G., Head of SHAEF Planning Staff
McSherry, Brig. Gen. Frank J., Deputy Chief of G-5, SHAEF
Mauchenheim genannt Bechtolsheim, General der Artillerie Anton Freiherr von, Representative of General Boehme in surrender in Norway
Moorehead, Alan, Newspaper Correspondent; Author of Montgomery, a Biography (London, 1946)
Morgan, Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick E., Head of COSSAC and Deputy Chief of Staff, SHAEF
Morgan, Gen. Sir W. D., Chief of Staff of 2 1 Army Group under General Paget
Mountbatten of Burma, Rear Adm. Viscount, Chief of Combined 0perations Headquarters
Nevins, Brig. Gen. Arthur S., Head of Operations Section, G-3 Division, SHAEF
Nugent, Maj. Gen. R. E., Deputy Chief of Operations, Ninth Air Force, and Commanding General, XXIX Tactical Air Corps
Paget, Gen. Sir Bernard, Commander of 2 1 Army Group before Montgomery
Peterson, Col. L. O., Member of AEAF Staff
Pinette, Miss Mattie, Member of General Eisenhower's Personal Staff
Portal of Hungerford, Marshal of the Royal Air Force Viscount, Chief of the Air Staff, RAF
Reinhardt, Fred, Member of Staff of Political Officer, SHAEF
Robb, Air Chief Marshal Sir James M., Chief of the Air Staff, SHAEF
Rosengarten, Adolph G., Jr., Formerly a Member of G-2 Section, First U.S. Army
Rothwell, Lt. Col. H. J., Deputy Headquarters Commandant, SHAEF
Scarman, Wing Commander Leslie, Personal Assistant to Lord Tedder
Schlatter, Maj. Gen. David, Deputy Senior Air Staff Officer and Chief of Operations Headquarters, U.S. Component,
AEAF, and, later, Deputy Chief of Air Staff, SHAEF
Schultes, Col. Ernst, Chief of Staff of 15th SS Mountain Corps
Sibert, Brig. Gen. E. L., G-2 of 12th Army Group
Simonds, Lt. Gen. G. G., Commander of 2d Canadian Corps
Simpson, Lt. Gen. William H., Commander of Ninth U.S. Army
Sinclair, Maj. Gen. J. A., One of the Combined Commanders' Planners
Smith, Maj. Gen. Frederic H., Jr., Deputy Chief of Operations, AEAF
Smith, Lt. Gen. Walter B., Chief of Staff of SHAEF
Strong, Maj. Gen. Kenneth W. D., G-2 of SHAEF
Tedder, Marshal of the Royal Air Force Lord, Deputy Supreme Commander
Thorne, Gen. Sir Andrew M., Chief of SHAEF Mission (Norway)
Trimble, Col. Ford, Onetime Secretary of the General Staff, SHAEF, and Deputy Chief of SHAEF Mission (Denmark)
Vulliamy, Maj. Gen. C. H. H., Chief of Signal Division, SHAEF
West, Maj. Gen. Charles A., G-3 of COSSAC
Whiteley, Maj. Gen. J. F. M., Deputy Chief of Staff, SHAEF
Wigglesworth, Air Marshal Sir Philip, Senior Air Staff Officer, AEAF
Williams, Brig. E. .T., Chief of Intelligence, 21 Army Group
In addition to the interviews obtained by the author in person, information was obtained by him--in telephone conversations with former Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Lt. Col. R. H. Merrick, Censorship Section, SHAEF Public Relations Division. Other information was obtained from answers to questions submitted by the author through other individuals who conducted interviews with Maj. Gen. Sir Francis de Guingand, Chief of Staff, 21 Army Group (Dr. Gordon A. Harrison), and with Brig. Gen. Cornelius W. Wickersham (Mr. Richard Welling).
Specific questionnaires of the author were answered by the following:
Bare, Maj. George S., Member of Headquarters Commandant Staff, SHAEF
Burrough, Admiral Harold M., Commander in Chief, Allied Naval Expeditionary Force
Erskine, Maj. Gen. G. W. E. J., Chief of SHAEF Mission (Belgium)
Lincoln, Col. George A., Member of OPD Staff
Murphy, Ambassador Robert D., Political Officer of SHAEF
Phillips, Ambassador William, Political Officer of SHAEF Reber, Mr. Samuel, Political Officer of SHAEF
The following individuals, in addition to a number already listed in the interview group, submitted comments or new material after reading the manuscript of this volume: Maj. Gen. A. Franklin Kibler, G-3 of 12th Army Group; Capt. Tracy B. Kittredge, USNR, aide of Admiral Stark who was present at many of the important meetings between U.S. representatives and important French leaders.
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