Appendix B
The Quebec Memorandum

  1. General Eisenhower should be instructed to send two Staff Officers, one U.S. and one British, to Lisbon at once to meet General "C."

  2. The communication to General "C" should be on the following lines:

    1. The unconditional surrender of Italy is accepted on the terms stated in the document handed to him (Armistice Terms for Italy as already agreed. These do not include political, economic, or financial terms which will be communicated later).

    2. These terms did not visualize the active assistance of Italy in fighting the Germans. The extent to which the terms will be modified in favor of Italy will depend on how far the Italian Government and people do, in fact, aid the United Nations against Germany during the remainder of the war. The United Nations, however, state without reservation that wherever Italian forces or Italians fight Germans, or destroy German property, or hamper German movement, they will be given all possible support by the forces of the United Nations. Meanwhile bombing will be restricted to targets which immediately affect the movement and operations of German forces.

    3. The cessation of hostilities between the United Nations and Italy will take effect from a date and hour to be notified by General Eisenhower. (NOTE.--General Eisenhower should make this notification a few hours before Allied forces land in Italy in strength.)

    4. Italian Government must undertake to proclaim the Armistice immediately it is announced by General Eisenhower, and to order their forces and people from that hour to collaborate with the Allies and to resist the Germans. (NOTE.--As will be seen from 2c above, the Italian Government will be given a few hours' notice.)

    5. The Italian Government must, at the hour of the Armistice, order that all United Nations' prisoners in danger of capture by the Germans shall be immediately released.

    6. The Italian Government must, at the hour of the Armistice, order the Italian Fleet and as much of their merchant shipping as possible to put to sea for Allied ports. As many military aircraft as possible shall fly to Allied bases. Any ships or aircraft in danger of capture by the Germans must be destroyed.

  3. Meanwhile there is a good deal that Badoglio can do without the Germans becoming aware of what is afoot. The precise character and extent of his action must be left to his judgment; but the following are the general lines which should be suggested to him:

    1. General passive resistance throughout the country if this order can be conveyed to local authorities without the Germans knowing.

    2. Minor sabotage throughout the country, particularly of communications and airfields used by the Germans.

    3. Safeguard of Allied prisoners of war. If German pressure to hand them

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      over becomes too great, they should be released.

    1. No Italian warships to be allowed to fall into German hands. Arrangements to be made to insure that all these ships can sail to ports designated by General Eisenhower immediately he gives the order. Italian submarines should not be withdrawn from patrol as this would let the cat out of the bag.1

    2. No merchant shipping to be allowed to fall into German hands. Merchant shipping in Northern ports should, if possible, be sailed to ports south of the line Venice-Leghorn. In the last resort they should be scuttled. All ships must be ready to sail for ports designated by General Eisenhower.

    3. Germans must not be allowed to take over Italian coast defenses.

    4. Make arrangements to be put in force at the proper time for Italian formations in the Balkans to march to the coast, with a view to their being taken off to Italy by United Nations.

  1. General Eisenhower's representatives must arrange with General "C" a secure channel of communication between Italian headquarters and General Eisenhower.

    (NOTE.--In view of the urgency of the matter, a warning order should be sent to General Eisenhower that instructions as to how he is to deal with peace-feelers are being concerted between the President and the Prime Minister, and that in the meanwhile he should hold two Staff Officers in readiness to proceed to Lisbon immediately on receipt of these instructions to meet General "C," who must leave Lisbon on the night of the 20th at the very latest. He should also make the necessary transportation arrangements with London for entry into Portugal.)2

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Footnotes

1. Before the message was transmitted to General Eisenhower some purist deleted the italicized words and substituted the clause, "reveal our intentions to the enemy."

2. CCS 311, sub: Italian Peace Feelers, 17 Aug 43, QUADRANT Conf Book, pp. 14144. With the one change in phraseology which is noted, the memorandum was sent to Eisenhower as No. 50 (FAN 196), 18 August 1943, Capitulation of Italy, pages 9092. Churchill prints an incomplete text in Closing the Ring, pages 10506. Most of the memorandum is printed in translation by Castellano, Come firmai, pages 11012. The full title of the Quebec Memorandum is Aide-Mémoire To Accompany Conditions of Armistice, presented by General Eisenhower to the Italian Commander in Chief. See 10,000/136/584.



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