This volume is based upon three general types of sources of information: official records, chiefly of the U.S. Army; manuscript histories or first narratives prepared during the war by Army historians in the field and now in the custody of the Office of the Chief of Military History (OCMH); and published works, especially the air and naval histories cited so frequently.
Papers of the Combined and Joint Chiefs of Staff
These papers, which are basic to an understanding of strategy, were, when consulted, under the control of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 Operations, General Staff, U.S. Army. Principal files consulted were: Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS), Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), and Joint Staff Planners (JPS) minutes of meetings, including the bound volumes containing the minutes and papers of the various international conferences, from mid-1942 through March 1944; all CCS, JCS, and JPS papers dealing with Pacific strategy and command for the same period; and the Notes on Pacific Conference Held in March 1943.
The bulk of the research for this volume was performed in Army records. They are voluminous in quantity, inconsistent in quality. Unless otherwise indicated, when consulted they were in the custody of the Army Records Section, Departmental Records Branch, Office of The Adjutant General (DRB AGO), now designated as the Military Records Branch, Federal Records Center, Region 3.
General George C. Marshall's Log for the period covered contains radiograms exchanged by Marshall and the theater and subordinate Army commanders in Marshall's capacities as Chief of Staff and as an Executive Officer for the JCS. It is filed in the Staff Communications Office, Secretary of the General Staff, U.S. Army.
The most useful body of records from General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area (GHQ SWPA), and successor commands, is the G-3 Journal and Journal File. It is an absolutely essential source for the period and region covered by this volume. It contains all the important planning papers, memoranda, letters, radiograms, orders, estimates, periodic operations and intelligence reports from immediately subordinate headquarters, and many action reports. Other useful papers from GHQ are: The ELKTON Plans of 12 February 1943 and 26 April, photostats of which are in OCMH files; Military Intelligence Section, General Headquarters, Far East Command, The Intelligence Series, Vol. III, Operations
of the Military Intelligence Section, GHQ SWPA/FEC/SCAP (in six parts), Tokyo, 1950, and Vol. IV, Operations of the Allied Intelligence Bureau, GHQ SWPA, Tokyo, 1948 (both edited by Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, copies of OCMH files). Copies of the three volumes of the history prepared for General Douglas MacArthur by his historical section in Tokyo were received by the OCMH shortly before completion of the research and writing of this book. These volumes are works of some merit, but the first two, which deal with the war, do not add to the information that was already available in other sources. Volume I, tentatively entitled Allied Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area, contains little on Allied plans and operations that is not already available in published works; Volume II, tentatively entitled Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area, is largely based on the Japanese monographs discussed below but is not as detailed.
Since Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces in the South Pacific Area (USAFISPA), was not a tactical headquarters, its most valuable records are those dealing with planning. USAFISPA File No. 381, Preliminary Planning COMSOPAC and COMGENSOPAC (in the Kansas City Records Center, Office of the Adjutant General, Kansas City, Missouri), is a good source as are three files from the Historical Section, G-2, South Pacific Base Command (which succeeded USAFISPA): SOPAC Notes, a documented narrative on the preliminaries to Munda; Planning for New Georgia Operation, which contains 105 pages of copies of radios, letters, memoranda, and plans; and Supplementary New Georgia Material. The last three are in the custody of the OCMH.
Records of the various tactical headquarters which conducted the invasions or battles described in this volume are, on the average, good.
For Woodlark and Kiriwina, the Sixth Army [ALAMO Force] prepared an excellent report. The operations reports and journals of the 112th Cavalry and the 8th Infantry are good.
Documents on New Georgia are uneven. The report of the New Georgia Occupation Force provides only a sketchy outline, but the G-2 and G-3 Journals and Files of the XIV Corps are satisfyingly complete. The XIV Corps and its principal subordinate headquarters also prepared the Informal Report on Combat Operations in the New Georgia Campaign. A report on lessons learned rather than an operations narrative, it is very valuable. The 43d Division's report is about the same as the Occupation Force report, and its journals and files are not always complete. Those of its regiments vary. The 37th Division, whose journals and files are complete, prepared a fine, crisp, day-by-day action report. The report of the 25th Division, which includes regimental and battalion reports, is a model of brevity, honesty, and clarity.
Pending publication of the Australian Army's official histories, Australian records must be studied for the complete story of the Nassau Bay-Lae-Salamaua-Nadzab-Finschhafen-Markham Valley-Ramu Valley operations. The following American records relate to U.S. Army participation: 41st Division Artillery, History of the Salamaua Campaign, 23 April-4 October 1943; 2d Engineer Special
Brigade, Report of Combat Operations, 30 June 1943-30 June 1944; the 162d Infantry reports and journals, which are very full; the 503d Parachute Infantry Report of Operations, Markham Valley, 5-19 September 1943; and several of the published works listed below.
U.S. Army operations on Bougainville are excellently covered by the reports, journals, and files of the XIV Corps, 37th Division, Americal Division, and component units, all of which are good and complete. In addition Maj. Gen. Oscar W. Griswold's typewritten Bougainville: An Experience in Jungle Warfare, and the History of the "TA" Operation by the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, XIV Corps, are useful.
The Army side of the Arawe-Cape Gloucester-Saidor invasions is well covered by: the ALAMO Force reports, journals, and files which, like all papers from Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger's headquarters, are first-rate; the DIRECTOR Task Force and 112th Cavalry reports and journals; and the MICHAELMAS Task Force's reports and war diary. In addition a number of reports from observers at Arawe are in the GHQ SWPA and ALAMO Force G-3 Journals.
Similarly, the ALAMO Force records for the Admiralties are excellent, as are those of the 1st Cavalry Division which include reports and journals of the division, the two brigades, and all principal subordinate units.
The publication of Samuel Eliot Morison's excellent Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier in 1950 made extensive research in Navy records quite unnecessary. However the following, all filed in the Classified Operations Records Branch, Division of Naval History, Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Administration (formerly the Office of Naval Records and Library), were consulted: Commander, South Pacific Area and South Pacific Force, War Diary: 1 January 1943-30 June 1944; Commander, Amphibious Force, South Pacific Force (Task Force 31), War Diary: July 1943; Commander, Aircraft, South Pacific Force (Task Force 33), War Diary: 1 April 1943-31 March 1944. In addition several orders and reports from the Seventh Fleet and the VII Amphibious Force are also to be found in the Operations Reports Collection (GHQ, SWPA) of The Adjutant General's Office, Department of the Army. At the time of this writing, this collection was in the custody of the Military Records Branch, Region 3, GSA.
Marine Corps Records
The existence of very good published works obviated the necessity for extensive research. Marine Corps documents, filed in the Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, that were consulted include: I Marine Amphibious Corps, Bougainville Beachhead; Headquarters, New Georgia Air Force [Forward Echelon, 2d Marine Air Wing], Special Action Reports, 1st Phase, New Georgia, 29 June-13 August 1943, and 2d Phase, New Georgia, 14 August-20 October 1943, with annexes; and 1st Marine Raider Regiment, Special Action Report, New Georgia, and its War Diary, 15 March-30 September 1943.
The best sources of enemy information, besides the innumerable documents captured in the field during World War II and employed extensively in the preparation of the first narratives, are contained in the series of monographs entitled Japanese Studies in World War II. These were prepared in Tokyo, after the conclusion of hostilities, by former Japanese Army and Navy officers and under the supervision of the Historical Section, G-2, GHQ Far East Command, and translated by the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. Copies of the original Japanese and the translated versions are filed in OCMH, where dubious passages in the English versions were retranslated by Messers. Stanley L. Falk, Brewster Hurwitz, Burke C. Peterson, Thomas G. Wilds, and Robert J. C. Butow.
Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.'s brief but explicit report, Narrative Account of the South Pacific Campaign, 29 April 1942-15 June 1944, is useful, as is Lt. Gen. Millard F. Harmon's similar The Army in the South Pacific. Australian activities are covered by Allied Land Forces' Report on New Guinea Operations, 23 September 1942-22 January 1944, a copy of which the Australian Army generously furnished to the OCMH. For geography and terrain the War Department's secret Survey of the Solomon Islands, and the Terrain Studies and Terrain Handbooks prepared by the Allied Geographical Section, GHQ SWPA, are best.
Prior to publication of this volume draft copies of the manuscript were sent to over fifty surviving senior commanders and staff officers in an effort to elicit helpful criticisms, corrections, suggestions, and, particularly, additional information. The following officers responded most generously with letters, notes, and marked manuscript pages, which are filed in the OCMH: Vice Adm. Daniel E. Barbey (Ret.); Maj. Gen. Allison J. Barnett (Ret.); Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler (Ret.); Brig. Gen. William J. Bradley (Ret.); Rear Adm. Miles R. Browning (Ret.); Admiral Arthur S. Carpender (Ret.); Maj. Gen. William C. Chase (Ret.); Lt. Col. Julio Chiaramonte; Maj. Gen. Kenneth Cooper; Brig. Gen. Charles F. Craig (Ret.); Admiral D. B. Duncan (Ret.) (who answered for Admiral Robert B. Carney (Ret.), Vice Adm. Harry R. Thurber (Ret.), and Vice Adm. Ralph E. Wilson [Ret.]); Lt. Gen. Clyde D. Eddleman; Col. Glenn S. Finlay (Ret.); Maj. Gen. William H. Gill (Ret.); Lt. Gen. Oscar W. Griswold (Ret.); Col. J. Prugh Herndon (Ret.); Maj. Gen. John H. Hester (Ret.); General John R. Hodge (Ret.); Col. Temple G. Holland (Ret.); the late Lt. Col. Frank O. Hough; Col. Daniel H. Hundley (Ret.); General George C. Kenney (Ret.); the late Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King; General Walter Krueger (Ret.); Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy; Col. William D. Long (Ret.); Col. Archibald R. MacKechnie (Ret.); Maj. Gen. Robert B. McClure (Ret.); Brig. Gen. William A. McCulloch (Ret.); Maj. Gen. Clarence A. Martin (Ret.); Col. Alexander M. Miller, III (Ret.); Hon. Hugh M. Milton, II; the late Maj. Gen. Verne D. Mudge; Maj. Gen. Dewitt Peck, USMC
(Ret.); Lt. Col. David M. N. Ross (Ret.); Col. Douglas Sugg (Ret.); General Gerald C. Thomas (Ret.); General Allen H. Turnage, USMC (Ret.); General Nathan F. Twining.
For all operations in the South Pacific Area, The History of the United States Army Forces in the South Pacific Area During World War II, 30 March 1942-1 August 1944, contains essential background information. It was prepared by, and under the supervision of, Maj. Frederick P. Todd, USAFISPA Historical Section, and Capt. Louis Morton, G-2 Historical Section, South Pacific Base Command.
The G-2 Historical Section of the South Pacific Base Command also prepared the History of the New Georgia Campaign and The Bougainville Campaign. The first consists of text, colored maps showing movements and dispositions, and photographs. Of nine chapters of text, which cover the New Georgia operation in great detail, the first was written by Todd, the other eight by WOJG Joseph J. Rubin. The Bougainville Campaign, which was written by Lt. Col. Edwin Cates, Cpl. Stanley L. Jones, and T/4 Francis A. Saunders, Jr., is a methodical, detailed discussion of the operation. It contains no maps except a dimly photostated version of a Marine Corps Hasty Terrain Map. No positions or movements are shown.
General MacArthur's headquarters wrote no similar campaign histories, but the Historical Section, G-3, GHQ SWPA, prepared a series called Studies in the History of the Southwest Pacific Area, of which Volume II, New Guinea and Bismarcks Campaign, 22 January 1943-20 October 1944, summarizes the planning and operations described in this volume. It was used extensively in preparing Allied Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area.
The number of books relating to the subject matter of this volume grows with the years. Some of the volumes listed below bear directly on the CARTWHEEL operations. Others, not necessarily cited in this book, provide essential background information.
[Frierson, Maj. William C.] The Admiralties: Operations of the 1st Cavalry Division (29 February-18 May 1944), AMERICAN FORCES IN ACTION. This pamphlet is the definitive account.
Arnold, Henry H. Global Mission. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949.
DeChant, John A. Devilbirds: The Story of United States Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1947.
Cline, Ray S. Washington Command Post: The Operations Division, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951.
Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (eds.). The Army Air Forces in World War II, Vol. IV, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan--August 1942 to July 1944. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1950. This fine book obviated the need for research in Army Air Forces records.
Feldt, Comdr. Eric A., RAN. The Coastwatchers. Melbourne, Australia, and New York: Oxford University Press,
1946. The American edition is shorter than the Australian.
Frankel, Stanley A. The 37th Infantry Division in World War II. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948.
Gillespie, Oliver A. The Pacific. "The Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War, 1939-1945." War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs. Wellington, New Zealand, 1952.
Halsey, Fleet Admiral William F., and Lt. Comdr. J. Bryan, III. Admiral Halsey's Story. New York: Whittlesey House, 1947.
Heavey, Brig. Gen. William F. Down Ramp! The Story of the Army Amphibian Engineers. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1947.
Hough, Lt. Col. Frank O., USMCR, and Maj. John A. Crown, USMCR. The Campaign on New Britain. Historical Branch, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952.
Karolevitz, Capt. Robert F. (ed.). The 25th Division and World War II. Baton Rouge, La.: Army and Navy Publishing Company, 1946.
Kenney, George C. General Kenney Reparts: A Personal History of the Pacific War. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1949.
King, Admiral Ernest J. Our Navy at War: A Report to the Secretary of the Navy Covering Our Peacetime Navy and Our Wartime Navy and Including Combat Operations up to March 1, 1944. Washington: U.S. News, 1944.
King, Ernest J., and Walter Muir Whitehill. Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1952.
Krueger, General Walter. From Down Under to Nippon: The Story of the Sixth Army in World War II. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1953.
Leahy, Fleet Admiral William D. I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time. New York: Whittlesey House, 1950.
McCartney, William F. The Jungleers: A History of the 41st Infantry Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948.
Marshall, General of the Army George C. Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1945, to the Secretary of War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945.
Matloff, Maurice, and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare: 1941-1942, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. VI, Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier: 22 July 1942-1 May 1944. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950.
Office of the Chief Engineer, General Headquarters, Army Forces Pacific. Engineers of the Southwest Pacific: 1941-1945. Vol. I, Engineers in Theater Operations. Vol. VI, Airfield and Base Development. Vol. VIII, Critique. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office 1947, 1951, 1951.
Rentz, Maj. John N., USMCR. Bougainville and the Northern Solomons.
Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948.
------. Marines in the Central Solomons. Historical Branch, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952.
Robson, R. W. (ed.). The Pacific Islands Handbook, 1944 (North American ed.). New York: The MacMillan Company, 1946.
Sherrod, Robert. History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1952.
Sherwood, Robert E. Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Thirteenth Air Force in the War Against Japan. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
------. The Employment of Forces Under the Southwest Pacific Command. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947. This is a slightly rearranged version of the Studies in the History of the Southwest Pacific Area.
------. Interrogations of Japanese Officials. 2 Vols. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
------. The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
Wright, Maj. B. C. The 1st Cavalry Division in World War II. Tokyo, Japan: Toppan Printing Company, 1947.
Zimmer, Col. Joseph E. The History of the 43d Infantry Division, 1941-1945. Baton Rouge, La.: Army and Navy Publishing Company, n.d.
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