Forward vii Preface ix Chapter Page I. The War Plans 1 The Study of War with Japan 1 Alternatives in a World War 4 Allied Operations in the Pacific 5 II. German Victories and American Plans: May 1940-January 1941 11 Planning for the Worst 12 The Planners Overruled 13 British Strategy and American Planning 21 III. British-American Plans: January-November 1941 32 The Terms of Reference 32 The Washington Coversations 34 RAINBOW 5 43 The First Difficulties over Troop Movements 48 Introduction to Grand Strategy 51 IV. The Showdown With Japan: August-December 1941 63 The Singapore Conversations 65 Reinforcement of the Philippines 67 Aid to China versus Reinforcement of the Philippines 73 Military Collaboration with the British in the Far East 75 Reaction to Pearl Harbor 78 Decision to Establish a Base in Australia 87 V. The First Full Dress Debate Over Strategic Deployment: December 1941-January 1942 97 Grand Strategy 99 The Northwest Africa Project 102 The Planners' Estimates of the Forces Required 105 The Report of the Shipping Experts 107 The Relief of British Troops in Iceland and Ireland 108 The Northwest Africa Project Considered as a Military Operation 111 Reinforcement of the Southwest Pacific 114 VI. Army Deployment and the War Against Japan: December 1941-March 1942 120 Allied Strategy Against Japan 120 The ABDA Command 123 Loss of Malaya, Fall of Singapore, and Ground Force Dispositions 126 The Decision to Send the 41st Division to Australia 128 The Isolation of Java and Air Force Dispositions 131 Air Commitments in Asia 138 The Siberia Project 142 VII. Army Deployment in the Pacific and Grand Strategy: January-March 1942 147 Army Deployment In The Atlantic: January-February 1942 147 Deployment Hawaii-Australia: January-March 1942 148 The Question of Additional Commitments 154 The Eisenhower Studies 156 Joint Study of Priorities for Deployment 159 JCS Decision on Deployment Policy 161 Strategic Deployment in the Pacific 162 Strategic Responsibility and Command in the Pacific 164 VIII. The Principle of Concentration in the British Isles 174 The Cancellation of Super-GYMNAST 175 The Washington Studies 177 The BOLERO Plan 190 IX. Prior Claims Versus BOLERO: April 1942 198 The Defense of the Middle East 198 Anglo-American Collaboration and the Support of China 202 The Soviet Lend-Lease Program 205 The Immediate Reinforcement of the Pacific 210 X. Decision in Favor of a "Second Front:" May 1942 217 The Pacific Theater versus BOLERO 217 The President's Review of Strategy 221 Deadline in the Pacific 222 The Role of the United States in the Middle East 226 The Question of Support for General Stilwell 227 The Second Soviet Protocol and the Second Front 229 XI. Future Plans and Current Operations: June 1942 233 The Revival of GYMNAST 234 American Commitments to the Middle East 244 Consequences of the Battle of Midway 256 XII. The Elimination of the Alternatives: July-August 1942 266 The Pacific Alternative 267 The Eastern Front and the Alternatives 273 The President on the Alternatives 273 ROUNDUP or TORCH: CCS 94 279 The Decision to Invade French North Africa 282 The Time and The Place 284 XIII. The Interpretation of CCS 94: August 1942 294 The "Final" Decision on TORCH 294 CCS 94 and the Arcadia Statement of Grand Strategy 295 The Middle East 297 The Pacific 298 XIV. Counting the Costs of TORCH: August-November 1942 307 The Order of Priorities for Shipping 308 Allotment and Preparation of Ground Troops 313 Provision of Air Units 318 Effects on Plans for a Cross-Channel Operation 322 XV. British and American Plans and Soviet Expectations 328 The Caucasus Project 329 The Persian Gulf Service Command 336 Air Collaboration in Alaska and Siberia 339 Soviet Plane Requirements 346 Conclusion 348 XVI. Strategic Inventory: December 1942 350 Growth of the U.S. Army 350 Expansion of the Army Overseas 353 Distribution of Aircraft and Shipping 360 XVII. After TORCH 363 The War Against Germany 363 The War Against Japan 367 British-American World Strategy for 1943 376 The Future of Planning 382
Appendix A. Outline Plan for the Invasion of Western Europe--Marshall Memorandum 383 B. War Department Draft of Instructions for London Conference 384 C. Timing of TORCH 386 D. Monthly Distribution of Total Army Strength in Continental United States and Overseas, From November 1941 Through December 1942 387 E. Geographic Distribution of Army Strength in Overseas Theaters--Early December 1942 389 F. Shipment of Divisions--1942 392 G. Dead-Weight Tonnage of Vessels under Army Control in Pacific and Atlantic Areas from November 1941 through December 1942 396 Bibliographical Note and Guide to Footnotes 397 Glossary of Abbreviations & Code Names Index 409
Aboard HMS Prince of Wales during the Atlantic Conference 54 Members of the War Department General Staff and the War Plans Division, November 1941 77 Draft Memorandum for the President 89 The Chief of Staff and the Secretary of War 110 Chief of the War Plans Division and His Deputies, January 1942 116 War Plans Division, March 1942 167 General Marshall and War Department Chiefs 184 Memorandum for the President, 6 May 1942 220 Churchill at Parachute Troop Demonstration, June 1942 241 Alternate Sets of Suggestions, in the President's Handwriting 274 The Combined and the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, October 1942 340 The Combined and the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, October 1942 340 Maj. Gen. T.T. Handy and Other Planners of the Operations Division 381
All pictures in this volume are from Department of Defense files.
No. Inside back cover 1. U.S. Army Overseas Deployment, 17 October 1941 2. Areas of Strategic Responsibility and U.S. Army Overseas Deployment, 2 April 1942 3. U.S. Army Overseas Deployment and Theater Boundaries, 31 December 1942