Foreword vii The Authors viii Preface ix Chapter Page I. The Framework of Hemisphere Defense 3 II. The Command of Continental Defense Forces 16 Peacetime and Planned Wartime Organization 17 Reorganization, July 1940-December 1941 22 The Wartime Organization 33 III. Preparations for Continental Defense 45 Harbor Defenses 45 Air Defense Preparations 54 The Army and Civilian Defense 64 Guarding Nonmilitary Installations 73 IV. The Continental Defense Commands After Pearl Harbor 80 Defense Measures on the West Coast, 1941-42 82 Defense Measures on the East and Gulf Coasts, 1941-42 94 Guarding the Sault Ste. Marie Canal 102 The Period of Reduction, 1942-45 105 V. Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast 115 The Background of Evacuation Planning 116 The Decision for Mass Evacuation 127 The Evacuation of the Japanese 137 VI. The Reinforcement of Oahu 150 The Hawaiian Department Before 1941 150 Defense Preparations During 1941 161 VII. The Pearl Harbor Attack 174 The Approach to War 175 The Plan and Launching of the Attack 184 The Attack and the Response 187 Investigation and Judgment 194 VIII. The Hawaiian Defenses After Pearl Harbor 197 The Impact of War 199 The Question of Japanese Evacuation 206 Reinforcement 214 Midway 219 IX. The Garrisoning of Alaska, 1939-41 223 Initial Army Plans and Preparations 224 The Alaska Defense Command 230 Making Ready To Defend the Navy's Bases 232 The Air Defense Problems 239 Airfields, Radar, and the Construction Program 244 Reinforcing the Air Defenses 247 On the Alert 250 X. Alaska in the War, 1942 253 Reinforcement 255 The Attack on the Aleutians 257 The Army's Reaction 263 Command Problems 266 Aid to the Soviet Union 268 The Advance Westward 270 XI. Clearing the Aleutians 277 Attu Retaken 279 Kiska--Grand Anticlimax 295 XII. Forging the Defenses of the Canal 301 The Prewar Defenses 301 Emergency measures, August 1939-January 1940 310 Reorganization and Expansion 314 The Puerto Rican Outpost, 1939-40 322 The Alert of June 1940 327 XIII. Out From the Canal Zone 328 Organizing the Caribbean Theater 329 The Alert of July 1941 335 The Outposts in the Dutch West Indies 337 Securing the Pacific Approaches 339 Expansion in the Republic of Panama 344 Strength and Readiness of the Defenses, 1941 348 Naval Factors in Area defense 351 XIV. The New Bases Acquired for Old Destroyers 354 The Local Setting 355 Planning the Garrisons 358 Negotiating the Base Agreement 366 Launching the Construction Program 375 XV. Manning and Organizing the New Atlantic Bases 384 The Garrisons and Their Mission 384 Problems of Organization and Command 392 Early Administrative Problems 397 XVI. The Caribbean in Wartime 409 The First Effects of War 409 Shaping the Local Commands 416 The First Blow 423 The Watch on the Canal 424 The War Against the U-Boat 429 Passing the Peak 436 XVII. Greenland: Arctic Outpost 442 Growth of American Interest in Greenland 443 Greenland's Strategic Importance Reappraised 447 Establishing the BLUIE Bases 451 The Defense of Greenland 455 XVIII. Planning the Iceland Operation 459 The Shifting Focus of American Interest 461 The President's Decision and the War Department's Response 466 Problems, Remote and Immediate 468 INDIGO Planning, First Phase 472 A New Decision: Reinforcement, Not Relief 479 The First American forces Land in Iceland 481 INDIGO Planning, Second Phase 484 A Backward Glance at the INDIGO Planning 491 XIX. Establishing the Iceland Base Command 494 The Movement of the Second Echelon, Task Force 4 495 Problems of Defense; Ground and Air 498 Problems of Administration and Human Relations 507 The Question of Reinforcements and Relief 520 A New Role 527 Basic Considerations for Determining the Post-Pearl Harbor Course of Action 530 XX. The North Atlantic Bases in Wartime 532 The Build-up 533 The Command Problem 539 Operations Against the Enemy 548 Bibliographical Note 555 Glossary Index 569 Tables 1. Recommended and Approved Strengths for Atlantic Bases, 1940-41 360 2. Estimated Cost of Army and Air Bases, 1940 376 3. Estimated Cost of Army and Air Bases, 1941 377 4. Actual Cost of Army and Air Bases 378 5. Shipping Losses in the Caribbean Area, January 1942-July 1944 431 Chart 1. Organization Approved 3 May 1941 332 Maps I. Continental Defense Organization, 20 May 1942 39 II. Oahu Island 151 III. The Capture of Attu, 7th Infantry Division, 11-30 May 1943 281 IV. Iceland 499 Illustrations Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum 19 Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt 21 Six-Inch Gun Emplacement on Jasper Parapet 53 Mayor La Guardia in Action During Practice Alert 69 Camouflaged Airplane Factory 90 Camouflaged Airplane Factory 90 Infantrymen on Beach Patrol 100 Japanese Free Balloon 112 Japanese Evacuees Arrive at the Colorado River Relocation Center 142 Troop Maneuvers in Hawaii 162 Troop Maneuvers in Hawaii 162 Wheeler Field After the Bombing 190 Japanese Children Drilling 213 View of Dutch Harbor 233 Naval Base at Kodiak 251 Construction on Adak 271 Construction on Adak 271 Attu Landings 286 Attu Landings 286 Enemy Radar Installation 313 Panama Airfields 318 Panama Airfields 318 Antiaircraft Defenses of the Panama Canal 347 Antiaircraft Defenses of the Panama Canal 347 U.S. Army Installations in the Bermuda Islands 380 U.S. Army Installations in the Bermuda Islands 380 The Edmund B. Alexander 386 First Troops in Trinidad 398 First Troops in Trinidad 398 Installations in Newfoundland 399 Installations in Newfoundland 399 Optical Height Finder Mounted on Old El Morro Fortress 425 Torpedoed Vessel Being Towed Into San Juan Harbor 432 Coast Guard Tug Aiding Freighter Off Greenland 446 Abandoned German Equipment in Greenland 450 Temporary Supply Dump in Reykjavik 482 Maj. Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel 491 Gale in Iceland 497 Army Posts in Iceland 518 Army Posts in Iceland 518 U.S. Army Troops Arriving in Reykjavik, January 1942 525 Section of a Greenland Airfield, 1943 540 American Fighter Planes Over Camp Artun, Iceland 550 German Prisoners Under Guard in Greenland 551
All but three of the illustrations are from Department of Defense files. The photographs on page 69 is used by courtesy of the New York Daily News. The two photographs on page 90 were furnished by The Boeing Company.