United States Army in World War II
The Western Hemisphere

Guarding the United States and Its Outposts

Stetson Conn, Rose C. Engelman, and Byron Fairchild

. . . to Those Who Served


Foreword vii
The Authors viii
Preface ix
Chapter Page
I. The Framework of Hemisphere Defense 3
II. The Command of Continental Defense Forces 16
    Peacetime and Planned Wartime Organization 17
    Reorganization, July 1940-December 1941 22
    The Wartime Organization 33
III. Preparations for Continental Defense 45
    Harbor Defenses 45
    Air Defense Preparations 54
    The Army and Civilian Defense 64
    Guarding Nonmilitary Installations 73
IV. The Continental Defense Commands After Pearl Harbor 80
    Defense Measures on the West Coast, 1941-42 82
    Defense Measures on the East and Gulf Coasts, 1941-42 94
    Guarding the Sault Ste. Marie Canal 102
    The Period of Reduction, 1942-45 105
V. Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast 115
    The Background of Evacuation Planning 116
    The Decision for Mass Evacuation 127
    The Evacuation of the Japanese 137
VI. The Reinforcement of Oahu 150
    The Hawaiian Department Before 1941 150
    Defense Preparations During 1941 161
VII. The Pearl Harbor Attack 174
    The Approach to War 175
    The Plan and Launching of the Attack 184
    The Attack and the Response 187
    Investigation and Judgment 194
VIII. The Hawaiian Defenses After Pearl Harbor 197
    The Impact of War 199
    The Question of Japanese Evacuation 206
    Reinforcement 214
    Midway 219
IX. The Garrisoning of Alaska, 1939-41 223
    Initial Army Plans and Preparations 224
    The Alaska Defense Command 230
    Making Ready To Defend the Navy's Bases 232
    The Air Defense Problems 239
    Airfields, Radar, and the Construction Program 244
    Reinforcing the Air Defenses 247
    On the Alert 250
X. Alaska in the War, 1942 253
    Reinforcement 255
    The Attack on the Aleutians 257
    The Army's Reaction 263
    Command Problems 266
    Aid to the Soviet Union 268
    The Advance Westward 270
XI. Clearing the Aleutians 277
    Attu Retaken 279
    Kiska--Grand Anticlimax 295
XII. Forging the Defenses of the Canal 301
    The Prewar Defenses 301
    Emergency measures, August 1939-January 1940 310
    Reorganization and Expansion 314
    The Puerto Rican Outpost, 1939-40 322
    The Alert of June 1940 327
XIII. Out From the Canal Zone 328
    Organizing the Caribbean Theater 329
    The Alert of July 1941 335
    The Outposts in the Dutch West Indies 337
    Securing the Pacific Approaches 339
    Expansion in the Republic of Panama 344
    Strength and Readiness of the Defenses, 1941 348
    Naval Factors in Area defense 351
XIV. The New Bases Acquired for Old Destroyers 354
    The Local Setting 355
    Planning the Garrisons 358
    Negotiating the Base Agreement 366
    Launching the Construction Program 375
XV. Manning and Organizing the New Atlantic Bases 384
    The Garrisons and Their Mission 384
    Problems of Organization and Command 392
    Early Administrative Problems 397
XVI. The Caribbean in Wartime 409
    The First Effects of War 409
    Shaping the Local Commands 416
    The First Blow 423
    The Watch on the Canal 424
    The War Against the U-Boat 429
    Passing the Peak 436
XVII. Greenland: Arctic Outpost 442
    Growth of American Interest in Greenland 443
    Greenland's Strategic Importance Reappraised 447
    Establishing the BLUIE Bases 451
    The Defense of Greenland 455
XVIII. Planning the Iceland Operation 459
    The Shifting Focus of American Interest 461
    The President's Decision and the War Department's Response 466
    Problems, Remote and Immediate 468
    INDIGO Planning, First Phase 472
    A New Decision: Reinforcement, Not Relief 479
    The First American forces Land in Iceland 481
    INDIGO Planning, Second Phase 484
    A Backward Glance at the INDIGO Planning 491
XIX. Establishing the Iceland Base Command 494
    The Movement of the Second Echelon, Task Force 4 495
    Problems of Defense; Ground and Air 498
    Problems of Administration and Human Relations 507
    The Question of Reinforcements and Relief 520
    A New Role 527
    Basic Considerations for Determining the Post-Pearl Harbor Course of Action 530
XX. The North Atlantic Bases in Wartime 532
    The Build-up 533
    The Command Problem 539
    Operations Against the Enemy 548
Bibliographical Note 555
Index 569
1. Recommended and Approved Strengths for Atlantic Bases, 1940-41 360
2. Estimated Cost of Army and Air Bases, 1940 376
3. Estimated Cost of Army and Air Bases, 1941 377
4. Actual Cost of Army and Air Bases 378
5. Shipping Losses in the Caribbean Area, January 1942-July 1944 431
1. Organization Approved 3 May 1941 332
I. Continental Defense Organization, 20 May 1942 39
II. Oahu Island 151
III. The Capture of Attu, 7th Infantry Division, 11-30 May 1943 281
IV. Iceland 499
Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum 19
Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt 21
Six-Inch Gun Emplacement on Jasper Parapet 53
Mayor La Guardia in Action During Practice Alert 69
Camouflaged Airplane Factory 90
Camouflaged Airplane Factory 90
Infantrymen on Beach Patrol 100
Japanese Free Balloon 112
Japanese Evacuees Arrive at the Colorado River Relocation Center 142
Troop Maneuvers in Hawaii 162
Troop Maneuvers in Hawaii 162
Wheeler Field After the Bombing 190
Japanese Children Drilling 213
View of Dutch Harbor 233
Naval Base at Kodiak 251
Construction on Adak 271
Construction on Adak 271
Attu Landings 286
Attu Landings 286
Enemy Radar Installation 313
Panama Airfields 318
Panama Airfields 318
Antiaircraft Defenses of the Panama Canal 347
Antiaircraft Defenses of the Panama Canal 347
U.S. Army Installations in the Bermuda Islands 380
U.S. Army Installations in the Bermuda Islands 380
The Edmund B. Alexander 386
First Troops in Trinidad 398
First Troops in Trinidad 398
Installations in Newfoundland 399
Installations in Newfoundland 399
Optical Height Finder Mounted on Old El Morro Fortress 425
Torpedoed Vessel Being Towed Into San Juan Harbor 432
Coast Guard Tug Aiding Freighter Off Greenland 446
Abandoned German Equipment in Greenland 450
Temporary Supply Dump in Reykjavik 482
Maj. Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel 491
Gale in Iceland 497
Army Posts in Iceland 518
Army Posts in Iceland 518
U.S. Army Troops Arriving in Reykjavik, January 1942 525
Section of a Greenland Airfield, 1943 540
American Fighter Planes Over Camp Artun, Iceland 550
German Prisoners Under Guard in Greenland 551

All but three of the illustrations are from Department of Defense files. The photographs on page 69 is used by courtesy of the New York Daily News. The two photographs on page 90 were furnished by The Boeing Company.

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation