Paragraphs Section I. General 231-234 II. Embarkation 235-241 III. Transport loading 242-246 IV. System of supply 247-255 V. Military police 256-260 VI. Engineers 261-266 VII. Medical service 267-271
- Administrative Plans.--
- Administrative plans are prepared in detail prior to embarkation. Inadequate administrative measures and a consequent breakdown of the supply, evacuation, and replacement systems may result in failure of the operation regardless of initial tactical success.
- Administrative and tactical plans are interdependent and must be developed concurrently.
- Basic Decisions.--Basic administrative decisions are made as early as possible. All agencies require considerable time to prepare and execute plans for the procurement and assembly of ships, personnel, boats, supplies, and matériel. These decisions include--
- Strength and composition of service units in the landing force.
- Personnel replacements.
- Matériel of the landing force.
- Supplies to be taken in the initial movements.
- Level of supplies to be maintained.
- Naval personnel and supplies to be provided.
- The amount of supplies taken initially with the landing force depends upon--
- Mission, strength, and composition of the force.
- Supplies required en route and the amount of beach reserves and landing force reserves to be established and maintained.
- Available ocean transportation, the distance from source of supply, and the period of time that is to elapse before another convoy sails.
- Security of ocean transports from hostile submarine and air attack.
- Climate and season of the year.
- Desirability of limiting the size of the initial convoy.
- Supplies available for exploitation in the theater of operations.
- Expected resistance.
- The estimate of supply requirements is liberal, and must include an allowance for possible cargo losses en route.
- Movement to Port of Embarkation.--
- The concentration of the Army expeditionary force is arranged by the War department at a time which permits the necessary reorganization, reequipment, and training. The movement from the concentration center to the port of embarkation is in general the same as other troop movements.
- At each port of embarkation an embarkation center is established under control of the commander of the port of embarkation. Here troops are received, equipped, inspected, and cared for while awaiting embarkation.
- General.--Army embarkation plans include--
- Organization and equipment of Army forces.
- Date on which troops commence loading.
- Requisitioning of supplies for delivery at port as requested by the Navy.
- Subdivision of the Army force for assignment to transports in accordance with the tactical plan.
- Embarkation tables for troops and loading tables for cargo accompanying troops in accordance with the tactical plans, the Navy assignment of ships to meet Army grouping of troops, and unloading requirements
- Sequence.--Plans for embarkation are usually developed in this sequence:
- Determination of shipping requirements.
- Allotment of transports.
- Organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions.
- Assignment of troops and matériel to each transport.
- Shipping Requirements.--
- After the basic decisions have been made, a landing force personnel and tonnage table (see b below) is prepared and submitted to the appropriate naval commander. This table is the basis for the allotment of transports by the Navy and the preparation by the Army of embarkation plans and other tables. A model form for landing force personnel and tonnage table is shown on page 144.
- Similar data are prepared by the Navy showing the requirements for naval personnel and matériel specially provided for the operation, including subsistence for the landing force while aboard ship, and the types, dimensions, and weights of boats for the landing force.
- Allocation of Transports.--
- The commander of the Navy transport group furnishes to the commander of the Army landing force complete information concerning each transport allocated. This information includes the rated troop and cargo capacity; blueprints of the vessel, including each hold; plans for conversion, speed, draft, and capacity of booms, as well as other characteristics affecting embarkation.
- Special ships may be required for hospitalization, ammunition, and gasoline.
- Transport Group.--Transports or other noncombatant vessels provided by the Navy are organized into a transport group for the embarkation of troops and matériel of the landing force. A transport group is divided into transport division of two or more vessels each.
- Embarkation Groups and Transport Divisions.--
- The landing force is divided into embarkation groups consisting of troops and matériel embarked upon the vessels of a transport division.
- The organization of embarkation groups and of transport divisions is interdependent, and is governed primarily by the following considerations:
- The organization must provide for the accomplishment of the various tasks required under the preferred plan and alternate plans.
- The organization of each embarkation group should be such that the group will be capable of being detached on an independent mission involving combat on shore. Each group should carry an appropriate amount of supplies.
- Troops and matériel are distributed among the embarkation groups so that the detachment of any group does not deprive the remainder of the force of an unduly large percentage of any one arm, service, or type of matériel.
- Each embarkation group is preferably based upon combat teams. A part of the aircraft, tanks, and other landing force troops may also be included in each group.
- The normal chain of command is interrupted as little as possible.
- Artillery and other auxiliary troops which normally operate on shore under their own commanders are subdivided for embarkation and attached to combat teams or divisions.
- The facilities for loading and stowing heavy matériel may be a determining factor in the selection of vessels upon which certain units will be embarked.
- The organization of embarkation groups should permit economical loading. For example, aircraft may be distributed among a large number of vessels.
- The number of vessels in each transport division should permit effective control. Three to five ships in each division are preferred.
- It may be desirable to embark reserve units and reserve supplies upon separate ships in order that these ships may be kept out of the landing area until they are needed. Separate transport divisions may be organized for this purpose.
- Each embarkation group should use all the troop and cargo capacity of the transport division. It is usually possible to meet this requirement without sacrificing tactical considerations because there remains, after the preliminary assignment of combat teams to embarkation groups, a pool of unassigned troops and supplies. These troops and supplies can be assigned as necessary to utilize the space available to
|1st Bn Engrs|
|1st Med Bn|
|Landing force supplies:|
- It is assumed that prior to the preparation of this table the basic decision have been made, particularly the number of days of supplies and the number of units of fire to be carried in the initial movement, and the method of transporting airplanes. Based upon these decisions, tonnage tables are prepared from which are computed the cargo requirements for each organization.
- In the table, created airplanes are considered as general cargo (column 5); airplanes to be carried on deck as deck cargo (column 9); any large vehicles or other matériel (not inflammables) which must be stowed on deck are considered as deck cargo (column 9).
- Tonnage figures under total cargo, long tons (column 11) represent actual weight of mat&eacut;eriel, and do not include weight of personnel.
- Footnotes should contain information necessary to clarify or supplement the table such as list and description of airplanes and other matériel requiring special consideration, amount of gasoline included under inflammable (column 8), etc.
each group. A number of vessels have certain compartments which may be utilized for either troops or cargo; thus a degree of flexibility is afforded in working out the detailed assignments.
- A part of army or corps special troops may be organized into a separate embarkation group.
- The organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions is worked out jointly by representatives of the landing force commander and of the naval commander concerned. The factors governing embarkation are to some extent conflicting; compromises are usually necessary.
- Each transport division is assigned a number such as Transport Division No. 1.
- Embarkation groups are designated by a number followed by the name of the major troop organization such as Embarkation Group No. 1 (1st Infantry, reinforced). The appropriate Army commander in the group is responsible for seeing that troops and matériel are embarked in accordance with the approved plan. He embarks on the flagship of the transport division.
- A model form for showing the detailed organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions, together with the personnel and cargo requirements of each embarkation groups, is shown on page 148.
- Assignment to Transports.--Troops and matériel are assigned to individual ships in accordance with the following fundamentals:
- Embarkation must permit debarkation and operations on shore in accordance with the tactical plans.
- Integrity of tactical units, such as battalions of infantry and batteries of artillery, should be maintained.
- Each ship should carry a proportionate part of all arms and services and proper reserve supplies.
- Facilities of each ship for handling and stowing heavy matériel assigned must be adequate.
- Embarkation Table.--
- When troops and matériel have been assigned to each transport, this information is published in the form of an embarkation table as an annex to the embarkation orders of the landing force or lower units. A model embarkation table is shown on page 150.
- The same blank forms can be used in making out the landing force personnel and tonnage table, the organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions table, and the embarkation table.
- The Army is responsible for loading Army personnel, equipment, and supplies subject to Navy approval as to stability of vessels. This function is accomplished through the embarkation service.
- The maintenance of troops aboard transport is the responsibility of the Navy.
- The senior commander of the organizations embarked on each transport is the commanding officer of troops.
- Transport Quartermaster.--
- An Army officer is detailed as transport quartermaster for each vessel carrying organizations or matériel of the landing force. The transport quartermaster confers with the ship's officers, and familiarizes himself with the arrangement and facilities of the transport.
- The commanding officer of troops is the immediate superior of the transport quartermaster. The transport quartermaster may be assigned by the War Department, the commander of the port of embarkation, or by the landing force commander from one of the organizations to be embarked on the transport.
- Assistants to the transport quartermaster may include an assistant transport quartermaster, at least one noncommissioned officer for each hatch, and if available an additional noncommissioned officer for each hold.
- Commercial.--Commercial loading utilizes ship space to maximum efficiency. It is applicable in movements between established and well-secured ports. Troops loaded by this method are not available for combat until they have landed and the equipment and supplies have been issued.
- Unit loading gives primary consideration to the readiness of troops and matériel for combat immediately upon landing rather than to the most economical utilization
|Embarkation Group No. 1 (1st Inf, rein.), Col. D, 1st Inf|
|Transport Division No. 1, Capt. A, U.S.N.|
|Transports: S.S. President Smith, S.S. Lake James, S.S. Ruth Baker|
|3d Bn, 3d Inf|
|1st Bn, 1st FA|
|Co A, 1st Engr Bn|
|1st Bn, 1st Med Regt|
|1st Obsn Sq|
|Landing force supplies|
|Embarkation Group No. 2 (2d Inf., rein.) Col. E, 2d Inf|
|Transport Division No. 2, Capt. G, U.S.N.|
|Transports: S.S. __________, S.S. __________, S.S. __________|
NOTE.--The notes contained in landing force personnel and tonnage table (see par. 236b) are equally applicable to this table. Landing force supplies are allocated to embarkation groups in accordance with cargo capacity available.
|S.S. President Smith, Capt M, U.S.N., Lt Col R, 1st Inf, commander of troops|
|Hq and Hq Co, 1st Inf|
|1st Bn, 1st Inf|
|1st Bn, 1st FA (less Btrys B and C)|
|1st Plat, Co A, 1st Engr Bn|
|Det, 1st Med Bn|
|1st Obsn Sq|
|Supplies 1st Inf, rein|
|Total S.S. President Smith|
|S.S. Lake Clare, Capt U, U.S.N., Lt Col X, 1st FA, commander of troops|
- The notes to landing force personnel and tonnage table (see par. 236b) are applicable to this table. The following decisions are necessary: First, amount of supplies to be issued to organizations prior to embarkation; second, equipment and supplies to be carried, including initial and beach reserves.
- Landing force supplies to be carried by the embarkation group are assigned to ships in accordance with space available.
- Aggregates for the embarkation group should be the same as shown in paragraph 239f. In the table all classes of equipment and supplies for each organization are included in the cargo figures for the organization.
- Tonnage figures under total cargo, long tons (column 11) represent the actual weight of matériel only. The weight of an officer or man with his individual equipment is assumed to average 1/10 of a long ton. This weight should be added to the total cargo tonnage when it is desired to determine that the weight carrying capacity of a ship is not exceeded.
of ship space. The readiness of troops for combat depends upon the degree to which organizations are unit loaded. For types of unit loading (combat, organizational, and convoy units), see section I, chapter 1.
- Combat unit loading is essential to units which will probably be required for combat immediately upon landing. The minimum requirements for combat efficiency are as many combat teams loaded one or more per ship as there are beaches to be assaulted.
- To secure the best use of ship's space and at the same time provide the combat unit loading required, combinations of the different methods of loading may be made on the same transport. Thus the same transport may contain a combat team, combat team unit loaded; the infantry regimental headquarters; and possibly other elements, organizational unit loaded; and freight, equipment, and supplies, together with other units designated to debark later in the operation, convoy unit loaded.
- A consolidated tonnage table is prepared for each transport showing the organizations and matériel to be embarked on that transport. Based on these tables and data and drawings furnished by the transport commander a loading plan is prepared for each transport showing what matériel will be loaded in each hold, magazine, and other space on the transport available for cargo, including cargo to be carried as a deck load. Model forms for ship loading plan and consolidated tonnage table are shown on pages 154 and page 156.
- Loading plans must insure that troops, equipment, and supplies can be debarked in their proper sequence. Therefore, the preparation of these plans must be based on command decisions and directives prescribing the tactical and logistical plan of landing and operations ashore.
- Loading plans are prepared under the direction of the transport commander. The commanding officers of troops, the transport quartermaster, or other officers of the landing force may assist in the preparation of these plans.
- Plans.--After the loading plan for a transport has been completed, a stowage plan is prepared for each hold, magazine, and other compartments used for cargo. The data are taken from the consolidated tonnage tables supplemented by detailed information contained in the tonnage
tables for the organizations to be embarked. These plans indicate in detail how the items of cargo will be stowed in the space available. They should include--
- A drawing showing the hold and the arrangement of cargo in it.
- A table showing the items to be loaded and the organization to which they belong.
- Matériel should be stowed as follows:
- Highest priority under the hatches and in space immediately accessible to them, lower priority outward from them.
- By layers with first priority on top.
- In groups separated by vertical partitions radiating from the hatch.
- In one or more of these methods.
- Stowage should begin in the wings and be completed near the hatches, and the order of loading shown in the stowage table should so provide.
- In preparing a stowage plan for vehicles or aircraft, a diagram of the hold or deck may be drawn to scale showing hatch openings, stanchions, and obstructions. Vehicle patterns are prepared to this scale, and the patterns moved about on the diagram to secure the most economical stowage consistent with safety and other considerations.
- To prevent shifting at sea, vehicles are loaded with axles across ship, and are properly wheel-chocked or secured to stanchions or ringbolts.
- It is usually impracticable to stow vehicles over or under other matériel without additional construction. Where vehicles must be stowed in holds, much space will be lost unless new decks are constructed to permit stowage in several layers.
- General Considerations.--
- Equipment and supplies are stowed so as to permit debarkation in the order required by tactical plans.
- The matériel of each organization is kept together, if practicable, and loaded in a part of the ship convenient to that organization.
- Organization equipment should bear an identifying insignia indicating the company, battery, or squadron to which each article belongs. Each vehicle should be marked in chalk
|Data on cargo space||Data on matériel to be loaded|
|Hold; compartments; other locations||Capacity||Height clear of girder||Item No.||Organization||Type of matériel||Amount|
|Cubic feet||Square feet||Cubic feet||Square feet||Long tons|
|Magazine B-6||xx||xx||xx||5||Btry A, 1st FA||H.E. ammunition||xx||xx|
|Total magazine B-6||xx||xx|
|Compt No. 1, 3d deck||xx||xx||xx||3||1st Bn, 1st Inf||Orgn equipment and supplies||xx||xx||xx|
|1||Hq and Hq Co, 1st Inf||Vehicles||xx||xx||xx|
|Total Compt No. 1, 3d deck||xx||xx||xx|
|Hold No. 1||xx||xx||xx||11||1st Inf||Camp equipment||xx||xx|
|Total hold No. 1||xx||xx|
|Total hold cargo||xx||xx||xx|
|Main deck, aft||xx||10||1st Obsn Sq||Airplanes||xx||xx||xx|
|Total main deck, aft||xx||xx||xx|
|Total deck cargo||xx||xx||xx|
- This table is compiled data contained in the consolidated tonnage table, supplemented as necessary by tonnage tables for units to be embarked. Provision should be made for special naval supplies which are to be loaded.
- Item numbers refer to item numbers in the consolidated tonnage table.
- The number of square feet (columns 3 and 9) need be entered only for vehicles, uncrated airplanes, etc., which require a definite area of deck space.
- Total cubic feet and long tons for hold cargo and deck cargo should agree with aggregate for such cargo as shown by consolidated tonnage table.
|Item No.||Organization||Hold cargo||Troop space cargo (cubic feet)||Deck cargo||Total cargo|
|Vehicles||General cargo (cubic feet)||High explosives (cubic feet)||Total hold cargo (cubic feet)||Inflam-
mables (cubic feet)
|Uncrated airplanes, etc.|
|Square feet||Cubic feet||Square feet||Cubic feet||Cubic feet||Long tons|
|1||Hq and Hq Co 1st Inf|
|2||1st Bn 1st Inf|
|3||Hq & Hq Btry 1st FA|
|4||Btry A 1st FA|
|5||1st Plat, Co A 1st Engrs Bn|
|6||Det 1st Bn 1st Med Regt|
|10||Supply officer, 1st Inf|
|15||Gas and oil|
|20||Gas and oil|
- In the preparation of this table, it is assumed that organizations carry supplies for a limited period, and that regimental supply officer carries supplies for an additional period for all organizations embarked.
- This table is compiled from the data contained in organization tonnage table prepared for each unit embarked.
with the number of the space and with the hold number it is to occupy. Other matériel should be marked with its priority ]and hold number as indicated on the stowage plans.
- Dunnage is material used to prevent cargo from shifting and chafing and to fill in broken stowage. Lumber and cordwood are generally used. The percentage of dunnage to the total cargo varies, but 10 percent is a fair average.
- Loading and stowage plans are modified to show all changes made during the actual loading.
System of Supply
- General.--In a landing operation the system of supply given in FM 100-10 requires some modification until a beachhead is established. For example, motor transportation is very limited in the early phase of the operation; animal transportation, when used, cannot be landed until the beach is free from effective small-arms fire; supplies are delivered by boat and require rehandling at the beach often under difficult conditions; and carrying parties must be used to advance supplies inland until other means of transportation are available.
- Debarkation of Supplies.--
- The amount of supplies carried by the individual on landing is limited so that his mobility is not unduly impaired. When combat near the beach is anticipated, assault combat teams land with stripped packs, extra bandoleers of ammunition, one or more individual reserve ration, and water, depending on the water situation ashore. extra water is carried in each boat. boats of later waves of the assault combat teams carry additional ammunition, rations, and water.
- Succeeding combat teams land with full equipment, extra ammunition, and rations. These supplies are unloaded from the boats by the beach party and shore party personnel.
- The landing schedule and other orders show in general terms priorities of landing of troops and supplies. These instructions are amplified on each transport by arranging a priority table as shown in model form below. The table includes all supplies, equipment, and rear echelon personnel not landed in accordance with debarkation schedules.
Priority Table for Landing Supply and Equipment and Rear Echelon Personnel From S.S. "President Smith"
Organization Matériel Where
Remarks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
- Supplies carried ashore with troops are not included in this table. Personnel (column 5) from rear echelons of organizations are included in determining number of boat spaces required.
- Water, rations, and ammunition will be loaded in boats carrying vehicles so that available boat space is used to capacity. All boats will carry at least ____ gallons of water in containers which will be dumped at the beach.
- All vehicles will carry normal loads.
- Boats carrying only supplies are loaded to capacity. The transport quartermaster adjusts the priority table as necessary. For example, space available in boats carrying vehicles is used for rations, ammunition, or other general cargo having a later priority than the vehicles.
- Supply Points.--
- Dumps of various classes of supplies such as water, rations, ammunition, gasoline and oil, signal, medical, and engineer, are established near the beach. Supplies arriving by boat are moved directly to dumps. The locations are tentatively selected prior to the landing. Final determination is made after reconnaissance by advance supply personnel and approved by the shore party commander. The selection of dump sites is affected by convenience to boat landings, cover from enemy observation and fire, traffic routes inland, and facilities for handling supplies and trains. The locations selected should not be such as to create concentrated targets for air attacks or lead to congestion of traffic.
- As the advance progresses, selected dumps near the beach become division supply points, the supplies in others are exhausted, and the division establishes distributing points well forward from which units are served.
- Base depots are established as soon as the advance justifies and they take over supplies remaining at dumps near the beach. They function as Army depots until such time as advance depots are required. Reserves in base depots are maintained at a level prescribed in the administrative plan.
- When an established port is secured as a base, administration, supply, and evacuation present those problems common to any oversea theater of operations.
- Supply Echelons.--Supplies carried by the landing force consist of individual reserves, initial reserves, beach reserves, and landing force reserves.
- Individual reserves are rations and ammunition for 1 or 2 days issued to individuals before debarkation.
- Initial reserves are rations, ammunition, and other supplies required for 3 to 5 days for all troops of a battalion combat team. These supplies are segregated prior to loading and stowed so that they are immediately available to follow assault troops ashore.
- Beach reserves are supplies of all classes required to insure continuity of supply for a period of 5 to 25 days in the event of temporary interruptions by weather or hostile operation.
- Landing force reserves are those necessary for between 15 and 90 days of supply. They may be loaded at lower levels in the ships than other supplies and in the most economical manner. They are well distributed among the ships of the convoy.
- Initial Reserves.--
- It is highly important that initial reserves are landed as soon as possible after the first landing. These supplies are landed generally on the same beaches on which the troops are landed. The supply sections of companies and battalions land with the initial reserves.
- Initial reserves include the loads of unit trains and such engineer, signal, and medical supplies as are brought ashore with loads in the same boat. Unit trains should be debarked early, particularly where a deep advance is contemplated. When it is impracticable to debark unit trains in time to issue class I supplies to troops, attachments of regimental service personnel are landed. Carrying parties are organized to transport rations between the beach and the troops.
- Beach Reserves.--Beach reserves of all classes of supply for troops ashore are landed and placed in dumps on the beach in accordance with the priority schedule and the development of the situation. The bulk of these supplies, particularly rations, grain, gasoline and oil, water, and ammunition should be debarked within 48 hours after the first landing. Representatives of the various services in the division and service personnel land with or prior to these supplies. Supplies already on the beach in excess of those required by units are placed in these dumps. From the beach reserves daily requirements of troops ashore are filled. The beach reserves are maintained at a prescribed level from supplies on transports until more permanent installations are established.
- Landing Force Reserves.--When the depth of the advance permits, the landing force organizes the beach area into a temporary base and established the landing force reserves.
These reserves consist of all classes of supplies accompanying the expedition. The amount of supplies in lower echelons determines the time limit within which the supplies are landed and made available. Shipping considerations usually require early clearance of transports. Ships carrying the landing force reserves remain usually well out at sea during initial landing operations. Supplies are landed and stored in base depots. Depots should have ample facilities for landing, sorting, storing, and distributing supplies. Danger from air attack requires that supplies be dispersed.
- Water Supply.--
- The Navy is responsible for the procurement of water and its delivery at the beach until a supply from land sources is available. The landing force is responsible for the reception, storage, and distribution of this water ashore, and for the location and development of water from land sources as rapidly as possible.
- Knowledge of conditions with respect to water supply in localities where operations are contemplated is a basic item of military intelligence and is included in any study of the locality.
- All plans and estimates relative to water include an ample safety factor to provide against enemy interference, leakage, evaporation, loss due to imperfect water distribution, and other emergencies.
- The amount of water required varies materially with the climate and the training of troops. Men in good physical condition, accustomed by training to water abstinence and to regulations relative to the use and distribution of water, can do with a minimum of from 1 to 2 gallons daily. Animals require a minimum of 10 gallons per day. Over more extended periods the requirements are much larger.
- A considerable amount of water may be made available from the distilling system of transports and other ships of the convoy, and some additional water may be carried as cargo. If these sources are not sufficient, ships for distilling water or water tankers are required.
- Boats of the second and subsequent waves should carry a minimum of 2 gallons per man. Thereafter each boat should carry water in containers to build up a reserve of water ashore.
- As soon as the situation permits, water in bulk is transported
to the beach in suitable containers or water barges. Under favorable harbor conditions water may be pumped directly from water barges into tanks ashore. The forward compartment of motor launches can be rigged with a tarpaulin to provide a tank for transporting water in bulk.
- The most practicable tank is the standard canvas water storage basin as issued. A necessary part of the equipment of storage tanks is an ample supply of hose or pipes with pumps for the transfer of water to smaller containers.
- If water in sufficient quantity is not available ashore in surface streams, lakes, or wells, it may be necessary to sink wells. Preliminary intelligence studies should determine the best type.
- Portable distilling apparatus may be used, but the operation of distilling salt water requires the transportation of a large amount of fuel.
- Captured and Salvaged Supplies.--The importance of captured and salvaged supplies increases with the distance of the theater of operations from home bases. The collection, repair, and use of such supplies result in a saving of time and cargo space.
- General.--Detachments of military police form part of shore party complements. Conditions may require that military police be reinforced by troops from other units or other duties allocated to other troops.
- Prisoners of War.--
- The probable number of prisoners of war to be cared for is estimated and included in plans for the operation.
- Prisoners are evacuated from front lines under escort of walking wounded or other available personnel via headquarters of units to collecting points. They are retained at collecting points until evacuated to designated ships or prisoner of war enclosures.
- Collecting points for prisoners of war are located initially in the vicinity of the beach. Locations are tentatively selected prior to landing and finally determined after reconnaissance ashore. Those locations must not interfere with other activities
and must be approved by the shore party commander. New collecting points are established inland as required by the progress of the attack. Collecting point personnel will record and report pertinent data relative to all prisoners pass through collecting points. (See FM 30-15.)
- Prisoners of war are assigned to such work as they are capable of performing consistent with the rules of land warfare.
- Stragglers.--Collecting points are established initially in the vicinity of the beach. Stragglers are returned to their organizations as soon as practicable.
- Civilian Population.--It may be necessary as the operation progresses to arrange for the control or evacuation of civilians. Arrangements may have to be made for their shelter, rationing, and transportation. In the case of enemy nationals, close supervision of their activities is necessary.
- Precaution is necessary to avoid congestion and maintain an orderly flow of traffic on the beaches and inland. Stragglers, prisoners, and wounded should be kept clear of the beach.
- Units and administrative agencies should be equipped prior to landing with canvas signs bearing the name of the unit or agency and a direction arrow. These signs are set up at the beach and along the routes of advance inland. Military police erect signs not otherwise provided for.
- Prior to embarkation, the landing force engineer collects information relative to the area in which the landing operations will be conducted. This includes beaches, landing facilities, road nets, bridges, water supply, local facilities for procuring construction material, and possible landing fields. Based upon this information and administrative and tactical plans, missions are assigned the engineers and estimates drawn of the personnel and material required.
- Detailed plans for the various landings will indicate the need for engineers at many or all of the landing beaches, requiring the distribution of engineers and engineer material
among the ships of the convoy. Engineer units may be attached to subdivisions of the landing force, and a large part of the engineering work may be planned and executed under commanders of subordinate units.
- Units.--A detachment of engineers with appropriate material is usually included in each shore party and landed with the first boat groups. the size and composition of these detachments depend upon the work contemplated at the beach concerned. Upon landing an early reconnaissance and estimate of engineer work required are initiated. The time schedule of the landing of succeeding engineer elements is determined by the nature and importance of the tasks to be accomplished. Debarkation and priority schedules covering the landing of additional engineer personnel and material should have sufficient flexibility to permit modification as a result of the reconnaissance and developments ashore.
- The general administrative duties of engineers are stated in FM 100-10.
- Duties particularly applicable in a landing operation include--
- Assistance to beach party in removal of underwater obstructions at the beach, construction and maintenance of improvised landings and temporary wharves, and in the landing of heavy material.
- Repair, construction, and maintenance of traffic routes from the water's edge to combat units and, if necessary, assistance in the movement of heavy vehicles.
- Demolition of enemy obstacles on shore.
- Creation in front of the beachhead line of a barrier of demolitions, mine fields, and other obstructions to protect landing operations from mechanized raids.
- Construction, shelter, and camouflage of important rear area establishments.
- Construction and maintenance of facilities for the reception, storage, and purification of water, the development of water supply ashore, and the organization and maintenance of water distributing points.
- Construction of landing fields for aviation.
- Furnishing technical assistance, and provision and distribution of tools and material for the construction of defensive
positions, artillery positions, and command and observation posts.
- Construction of bomb shelters.
- Operation of existing railways and other public utilities.
- Development of additional landing facilities.
- Landing force engineer units are prepared in an emergency to be used as combat troops.
- Civilian laborers and prisoners of war, as available and required, are used on engineering projects.
- Topographic maps as accurate and complete as the existing data permit are made available prior to embarkation for all units engaged in the operation, including units of the naval attack force. It is usually necessary to compile new maps. Sources of information are hydrographic charts, sailing directions, existing maps, airplane photographs, sketches, and intelligence reports.
- Topographic maps should include sufficient sea area so that both the position of the firing ships and shore targets can be plotted thereon.
- They should, if practicable, conform to uniform standard scales prescribed for the Army.
- Hydrographic charts are seldom suitable for fire-control and operations maps because of the small scale and inadequate data relative to land areas. It is desirable to have new large scale hydrographic charts of the landing area published and issued to units concerned. Prior to publication topographic data should be added, particularly the location of important landmarks which could be used as aiming and orientation points. When such procedure is not practicable, existing hydrographic charts on each ship should be completed to show essential topographic features on the coast and in the interior.
- Joint plans should provide for obtaining additional information by air and surface reconnaissance.
- Panoramic sketches and photographs made by submarines and surface craft are valuable, and are reproduced and issued with land features identified.
- While the compilation, reproduction, and distribution of maps and overlays are functions of the Corps of Engineers, air photography and the preparation and reproduction of small quantities of prints are a function of the Air Corps. The
quantity of reproduction of air photographs is a function of the Corps of Engineers.
- Additional maps, overprints, and overlays are provided for use as annexes to plans and orders so that they may be prepared in a form which is concise and readily understood.
- Wharves and Landing Facilities.--
- The matériel of the landing force needed in the early phases of an operation can be landed on an open beach from special shallow draft lighters, and under favorable conditions from 50-foot motor launches equipped with boat rig A and ramp. Prompt measures should be taken however to provide wharves and landing facilities at selected beaches to facilitate the landing of all types of material, particularly very heavy articles, and to permit the use of boats and lighters not capable of landing on the beach.
- In the initial stage of a landing operation, the construction of wharves and other facilities for landing material is a responsibility of the naval civil engineer detail of the beach party. Engineer units of the landing force may be assigned as necessary to assist in these projects.
- Roads and Trails.--The movement of traffic through heavy sand on the beach, particularly heavy vehicles and supplies in large quantities, will usually require some type of road surfacing on the beach early in the operation. Material for this purpose such as planks or heavy wire netting may be landed, or material such as gravel or corduroy may be obtained on shore.
- Scope.--This section outlines briefly the responsibilities and duties of the Army and Navy during a landing operation. For additional discussion, see FM 8-25.
- The Army is responsible for the medical service of its own forces during embarkation, landward of the high watermark in the landing operation areas, and for debarkation and after debarkation at home ports.
- The Navy is responsible for the medical service of all Army personnel between ports of embarkation and high
watermark on oversea landing beaches, including evacuation and hospitalization afloat. This includes furnishing hospital ships, ambulance boats, and other equipment and necessary supplies.
- Army battle casualties are hospitalized and evacuated by the Navy until the establishment of Army hospitalization ashore.
- Planning.--Based on a joint medical estimate, a joint medical plan is prepared by the Army force and the Navy force commanders covering embarkation, movement overseas, and the landing phase. Similar plans are prepared by subordinate commanders.
- During the first phase of the landing, battalion and regimental medical detachments go ashore with their organizations and render on shore the type of service they are organized to furnish. they collect, treat, and sort at unit aid stations the casualties within the zone of their unit. The casualties of the leading combat team are treated and left near or on the beach for evacuation to ship. As the battalions advance inland, aid stations follow in support. Elements of collecting companies are landed early in order to permit aid stations to follow their battalions closely. These elements move forward to locate and collect casualties from advance and aid stations. The wounded are brought to the vicinity of the beach. Casualties ready for evacuation from the beach are assembled as designated by the shore party commander, with due regard to suitable boat landings, cover from enemy fire, location of the aid or collecting stations, and natural drift of the wounded. One or more such locations may be designated for each beach. The shore party commander and the beachmaster arrange for the movement of casualties to boats through their respective medical officers.
- by the end of the first phase, it is desirable that part of the medical battalion be ashore to operate collecting stations and provide ambulance service. During or following the second phase of the landing, units of the landing force medical service are landed and take over activities near the beach. this allows the division medical battalion to move forward in support of the action of the division. During the third phase, evacuation and surgical hospitals and other
medical units of low landing priority may be established in suitable locations to care for casualties on shore.
- The medical detail of the beach party is responsible for the loading of casualties into boats. The beachmaster directs the movement of boats carrying casualties in accordance with the medical plan.
- When specially designed ambulance boats or other boats converted for exclusive use as ambulance boats are provided, they should be identified in accordance with the Geneva Convention. The boats are not used for the transportation of combat personnel or matériel, but may transport medical personnel and supplies from ship to shore.
- Landing boats may be designated as ambulance boats after landing combat elements. They are provided with medical personnel and equipment from hospital ships or transports for the emergency treatment of casualties en route and should be such that litter cases can be transported on them. These boats will not fly the Red Cross flag.
- The medical plan designates the ships to which each class of casualty is to be evacuated. So fare as practicable, wounded are sorted and loaded into ambulance boats accordingly and the boats dispatched directly to the designated ships.
- If the number of boats available is so limited that support and reserve battalions have to land in the second or later trips, the use of landing boats solely for the evacuation of casualties may necessarily be delayed until after the landing of such battalions. In this event, it is advisable to provide for the evacuation of the slightly wounded to any transport by boats returning for another load; the secondary evacuation to the designated ships may be undertaken later. It is highly desirable to have ambulance boats provided for the evacuation of the seriously wounded direct to hospital ships. Provision should be made on each ship for hoisting wounded aboard at a location out of sight and not near gangways used by debarking troops.
- The senior Navy medical officer is kept informed of the number of casualties to be evacuated from each beach in order that he may make needed changes in previously prepared plans for evacuation as may be necessary.
- Hospitalization afloat must be adequate for all casualties
requiring hospital treatment until hospital are established ashore. hospital ships entitled to immunities provided by the Geneva Convention should be available for the seriously wounded, and as far as practicable for all other wounded requiring hospitalization. Certain transports should be equipped as auxiliary hospital ships and provided with medical personnel and medical facilities to supplement the hospital ships. Army medical personnel and equipment from units of low landing priority will usually be utilized initially on auxiliary hospital ships and on transports in caring for casualties.
- To avoid long trips in small boats, a relatively larger number of hospital ships and transports provided with hospital facilities will be needed if the landing beaches are widely separated. Each joint attack force conducting a detached or isolated landing should include the ships necessary for the hospitalization of all classes of casualties.
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