Special Training for Landing Operations
Paragraphs Section I. General 272-276 II. Training prior to embarkation 277-283 III. Joint signal communication training 284-287
- This chapter outlines the special training required to prepare a landing force for operations on a hostile shore. It is assumed that the landing force is trained for ordinary land operations. For planning and execution of landing operations, see section VI and VII, chapter 4.
- Training programs and schedules are omitted as they are prepared for a specific landing operation, and are based on actual conditions such as mission, transport and boat facilities, characteristics of the landing area and of the beachhead terrain.
- The discussion of training contained in this chapter is applicable in the formulation of plans for peacetime joint exercises.
- Joint Training.--
- Joint training of the landing force and the naval attack force is necessary to develop proficiency and teamwork and to establish mutual confidence.
- The landing force should be concentrated for specialized training at or near a suitable landing beach, and should be furnished all necessary Navy equipment and assistance for the training. During this period embarkation procedure and especially all landing operations projected should be rehearsed in as realistic a manner as facilities permit. Operating joint staffs for the exercise should work together during this period.
- Joint training should be held in an area where the water conditions and beach terrain are similar to those of the proposed landing area.
- Basic Training Units.--The landing group and the corresponding boat group may be considered as the basic joint training units. The landing group, composed of the battalion combat team, naval artillery liaison party, and the beach and shore parties, should be thoroughly trained with its boat group by means of repeated practice landings.
- General Training Objectives.--The general training objectives are the development of--
- Initiative on the part of individuals and leaders of small groups.
- Teamwork within squads, platoons, companies, battalion combat teams, and landing groups.
- Cooperation between Army and Navy components. This includes coordinating the activities of landing groups and boat groups, naval gunfire, field artillery and air support, naval gunfire and the advance of assault units, activities of Army and navy air components, protective fires of Army and Navy antiaircraft, and Army and Navy signal communication facilities and procedure.
- Speed in execution.
- Training During Movements Overseas.--During the movement overseas it may be practicable to continue some of the training outlined in section II, for example, physical drill, machine-gun drill, forming by boat loads and moving by prescribed routes to gangways with and without blackout conditions on the transport, and schools of instruction for personnel.
Training Prior to Embarkation
- As much as possible of the special training of the landing force should be completed prior to the assembly of the joint force. The joint training period following the separate training of Army and Navy components of the joint attack force should be utilized to the maximum for activities requiring the presence of Navy personnel, airplanes, ships, boats, and equipment.
- Landing force training prior to the assembly of the joint force begins with the individual and progresses through successive echelons, with emphasis on the training of the
individual soldier and the leaders of small units. Men and animals are trained in swimming. Expedients are used in lieu of ships and small boats; for example, men are taught to go down the side of a ship by using nets hung from the second story windows of their barracks, and they learn their places in small boats by means of diagrams. Individuals and small units are trained in the assault of machine-gun nests and similar beach defenses. Instruction is given in the destruction of barbed wire entanglements both in water and on shore. Additional as well as assigned signal communication personnel are trained. Shore parties are constituted and instructed in their duties. Squad, platoon, company, and battalion combat teams are trained successively on terrain similar to that expected in the landing operation. Throughout all instruction both initiative and teamwork are stressed. Sand tables, relief maps, ordinary maps, and air photographs or mosaics are used for the purpose of war gaming the contemplated landing attack.
- After the assembly of the joint force, training progresses through the stages requiring ships, boats, and naval equipment, and cooperation of Army and Navy personnel. It culminates with as many exercises as possible in which landing groups embark on ships, debark personnel and equipment into landing boats, and make actual landings. During each of these exercises beach and shore parties are required to function, and teamwork and cooperation are developed. Actual problems of signal communication, supply, and evacuation are included.
- Embarkation Exercises.--Training and tests in loading personnel, equipment, and supplies on ships for speed. economy of space, and accessibility should be conducted when transports are available. The exercises furnish data on which are based readjustments of embarkation plans to secure maximum efficiency in loading.
- Personnel are drilled in assembling by boatloads in assigned compartments or spaces below deck, and in movement by designated routes to gangways, both with and without blackout conditions on the transport. Officers and men are trained in their individual duties in preparing equipment and animals for debarkation.
- Training under open water conditions supplements preliminary debarkation training on shore, and is essential to secure proficiency and confidence when the ships and small boats are oscillating. Men must learn by practice to use ship ladders or cargo nets, to carry arms and equipment while debarking, and their stations and duties in the small boats. Practice increases proficiency and lessens the probability of accidents. Similarly, training is required to expedite debarkation of matériel and supplies, and to determine by test the methods of stowage, debarkation, and loading of small boats which will save time. During this period of training special consideration should be given to determine the best method of lowering equipment and supplies from transports to small boats, and to actual practice of the methods adopted. In addition to the training landing force personnel, these training exercises insure that Navy boat crews, gunners, and boat division and boat group commanders are familiar with Army personnel and matériel to be embarked in the small boats, and that boats will be brought alongside transports in the proper order for expeditious loading.
- Movement From Ship to Shore.--Landing exercises insure that the landing force will move from ship to shore in the least vulnerable formations and arrive at the points desired in the best condition and formation for action. Naval personnel in each boat and boat division and the Army personnel transported therein become a team; similarly, boat groups and the landing groups they transport develop teamwork. Such training tests Navy operation in getting boats into assembly and rendezvous areas, advancing to and crossing the line of departure according to schedule, and keeping the desired formation and direction of movement in the dash to the beach. This ship-to-shore training is similar in purpose to extended order exercises for ordinary land operations. Guide airplanes are trained in their functions. Gas and antiaircraft defense in small boats is practiced.
- Firing From Small Boats.--Prior to and during the landing exercises, the landing force personnel who are to assist the Navy as gunners for boat guns and those who are to fire weapons of the landing force during the ship-to-shore movement are trained in firing from moving boats. This
training includes antiaircraft firing as well as firing at shore targets.
- Landing on Beach.--During the joint training period, landing force personnel are trained in landing on the beach during daylight and darkness and in varying depths of water and surf conditions, first by single boatloads, then by boat division loads, and lastly by complete landing groups. Training is also given in landing matériel from small boats and from lighters and barges, and in the use of special equipment such as boat rig A.
- Advance From Beach.--Training in the assault of beach defenses conducted prior to the assembly of the joint force is supplemented during the joint training period. The advance from the beach is tied in with the ship-to-shore movement and the landing, and all concerned get a complete picture of the operation. The exercises cover--
- Coordination of ship gunfire.
- Conduct of supporting fire from boat guns.
- Close support by aviation.
- The operation of the signal communication, supply, and evacuation systems.
- Coordination of beach and shore party activities.
- Functioning of naval and field artillery liaison parties.
- Manhandling of weapons and ammunition.
Joint Signal Communication Training
- Army and Navy Aviation.--
- Navy aviation personnel should be trained in signal communication with the ground units to be supported during the landing, recognition of Army panel and pyrotechnic signals used in lieu of radio, and picking up messages from and dropping messages to ground troops. In addition, this Navy personnel is made cognizant of so much of the signal communication plans and instructions issued to ground troops as may be necessary for effective operations.
- Army observers assigned to Navy airplanes are trained in the use of the Navy radio equipment and in Navy spotting procedure.
- All radio communication personnel are trained in joint Army and Navy radio procedure. (See FM 24-6 and FM 24-10.)
- Army Ground Elements.--Army ground elements are trained in identification of friendly and hostile aircraft. The personnel of those Army radio stations that will be required to communicate with Navy airplanes engaged in reconnaissance, liaison, and Army artillery adjustment missions receive training in communicating with the Navy aviation personnel that will be assigned to cooperate with them in the actual landing. Elements of the antiaircraft defense forces are informed of the recognition signals (visual or radio) that will be employed by Navy aircraft operating in support of the landing.
- Naval Liaison and Communication Detachments.--Naval liaison officers and naval communication detachments assigned to accompany the Army assault elements are trained in the use of the mobile field radio equipment and the Army visual (including pyrotechnic) signals such as--
- Landing successful.
- Landing not successful.
- Reached objective.
- Location of front lines.
- Gunfire falling short.
- Lift gunfire to next objective.
- Place gunfire on a particular objective.
- Liaison and Communication Officers.--
- Liaison officers between the higher elements of command of the two services make themselves thoroughly familiar with--
- Provisions governing responsibility for signal communications during the several phases of a landing operation.
- Actual command set-up of the signal communication systems.
- Rules of both services governing signal communication security.
- Signal communication officers are made cognizant of the communication channel requirements, cryptographic systems, and frequency plans for the operation.
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