Paragraphs Section I. General 195-198 II. Ship-to-shore and ashore 199-207
- Adequate signal communication during landing operations can be had only if joint planning has foreseen and provided all necessary equipment, information, and instructions governing signal communication, joint training, signal communication security, and coordination of ship and shore signal means.
- Each transport has a communication center operated by Navy personnel assisted by Army personnel.
- Liaison officers exchanged between Army and Navy commanders should have copies of communication plans for the various phases of the operation, signal operation instructions, and copies of authorized cryptographic systems of their own service.
- The Navy is responsible for signal communication from shore to ship, and communication with Navy boats used for landing and all ships engage din or supporting the landing.
- A naval liaison detachment accompanies each combat team to provide radio and visual communication and operate facilities necessary for effective naval gunfire support of the combat team.
- The Army establishes its own signal communication ashore, and provides wire and messenger communication from the command post of each Army combat team to the commander of the naval liaison detachment assigned to accompany his combat team. This naval commander's command post is located habitually at the combat team command post.
- Signal communication systems employ all practicable agencies. (See FM 24-6 and FM 11-5).
- Prior to the landing of assault units, the use of radio is kept to a minimum in order to further the chance for surprise. The maximum use of made of other means of signal communication.
- Joint Plans.--
- Signal communication plans provide for--
- The additional personnel such as radio operators and visual signalmen required for transports; control vessels; boat groups, boat divisions, and wave commanders; the beachmaster; and fire-control parties ashore.
- The procurement, distribution, and test of signal equipment not normally provided, for example, radio sets for boats, vessels of control group, beachmaster, fire-control parties ashore, and transports; pyrotechnics for boats and control vessels; designating flags or lights for control vessels; semaphore and guide flags for boats; blinker tubes for boats; portable signal lamps for the beaches; and air-ground code and panels for fire-control parties ashore.
- The distribution of signal equipment to units for training prior to the arrival at port of embarkation.
- The preparation and issue of necessary waterproof covers for all equipment which may be damaged by spray.
- The preparation and distribution of joint signal operations instruction. (See par. 198.)
- The establishment of alternate channels. When within visual range, visual methods as well as radio and wire communication should be established. In addition to radio, wire, and visual communication between adjacent beaches, it is desirable to employ a messenger boat service.
- Prior to landing of assault units, curtailment in the use of signal communication is essential as a counterintelligence measure, the silencing of radio, both telegraph and telephone, is of primary importance as this means is most vulnerable to enemy interception and direction-finding agencies. Communication plans should provide complete instructions to all units on the silencing of radio for purposes of secrecy and to prevent interference on important channels.
- Instruction to Signal Communication Officers.--Prior to embarkation, all signal communication officers should be made cognizant of--
- The instruction covering the responsibility for communication during various phases of the expedition.
- The actual command set-up of the communication system.
- The instructions for both services covering communication
security. The communication channel requirements, cryptographic systems, and frequency plans for all phases of the operation.
- The signal operation instructions of the Army for the various phases of the operation and the similar instructions issued to cooperating units of the navy.
- Signal Plans.--Prior to embarkation the following signal plans and orders must be prepared and issued:
- Signal operations instructions covering--
- Radio call and frequency assignments for both Army and Navy stations.
- A common radio procedure. (See FM 24-10.)
- Common codes and ciphers with geographic appendix to each code.
- Pyrotechnic code, coordinated with Navy and Naval Air Service.
- Airplane identification markings.
- Visual signaling.
- Telephone and telegraphic code names and numbers.
- Assignment of attached signal communication personnel to shore parties, to liaison parties, and to reinforced organic signal communication units.
- Plans for the procurement and issue of special signal communication equipment and for the provision of waterproof covers for equipment which may be damaged by spray during landing.
- Plans for joint training in signal communication prior to embarkation (see sec. III, ch. 11).
- Plans for communication during movement overseas.
- Plans for communication during landing (a signal plan for each tactical plan).
- Signal communication plan for operations subsequent to landing. Each signal communication plan should include--
- Radio net organization and frequency assignments.
- Provision for communication security.
- Radio intelligence.
- Signal supply.
- Signal orders and operation instructions must be issued sufficiently early to permit all subordinate headquarters, both Army and Navy, to prepare and issue signal orders and instructions. Sufficient time should be allowed to permit a thorough
Figure 17.--Typical signal communication system for one beach
during landing phase of joint oversea expedition.
study by operating personnel for the appropriate sections of the signal orders and signal operating instructions.
Ship-to-Shore and Ashore
- Movement to Shore.--A typical joint signal communication system for one beach during the landing phase is shown in figure 17. During the ship-to-shore movement signal communication is maintained between--
- Boat group, wave, and boat division commanders, normally by visual signals and with the minimum of portable radio equipment.
- Boat group and wave commanders, control vessels, and attack force commander, generally by semaphore flags, blinker tube, radiotelegraph, radiotelephone, and boat messenger.
- Control vessels and fire support groups, principally by radio, signal lamp, and flag hoist.
- Navy artillery liaison party and Navy fire support group, by radio and visual signals (see fig. 18).
- Attack force commander and aircraft engaged on important reconnaissance missions, usually by radio.
- Pyrotechnic Signals.--
- Pyrotechnic signals are restricted to the transmission of messages of the highest priority. the influence of meteorological conditions on the visibility of pyrotechnic signals must be appreciated and considered.
- Although gunfire is placed on the beaches in accordance with a time schedule, and is observed and verified from the firing ships and control vessels, it is necessary to have an emergency pyrotechnic signal meaning "LIFT FIRE" that can be made by the leading wave if about to run into the salvo pattern of supporting gunfire. This signal is immediately relayed to the firing ships and control vessels by succeeding waves of the same boat group. Similarly, adequate arrangements must be made for timely communication with supporting aviation, especially that operating against beach defenses.
- Each rifle platoon in an assault battalion upon reaching the beach sends the prescribed pyrotechnic or other signals
indicating whether or not the landing has been successful. The signal indicating that the landing has not bee successful is controlled by an officer.
Figure 18.--Naval fire control signal communication.
- Platoon commanders leave at least one messenger on the beach to report to the company commander. This messenger informs the company commander of the direction in which the platoon has advanced and other pertinent information.
- Each rifle platoon of the assault battalion upon landing plants an identifying flag or marker on the beach where it can be seen from seaward. Screened lights are used at night.
- Company.--Company commanders upon landing leave messengers on the beach to report to the battalion commander. These messengers are given the direction of the advance of the company headquarters and other pertinent information.
At night or if advancing in brush, platoon and company headquarters mark the route of their advance with tape or other means to facilitate messenger communication with the beach. Messenger routes of battalions and larger units ordinarily follow the routes of wire lines.
- Combat Team.--
- Combat team commanders upon landing immediately establish their command posts unless this has been done by a staff officer who has preceded the respective commanders ashore. A staff officer and messengers are left at the beachmaster's headquarters to report to the regimental commander as soon as he lands.
- The initial signal communication system established is shown diagrammatically in figure 19. The combat team establishes a wire circuit to the observation post of the naval artillery liaison party.
- The artillery battery of the combat team establishes wire communication with the command post of the combat team. It is desirable that the artillery battery observation post is near the observation post of the naval artillery liaison party. this insures certainty of signal communication between these two observation posts and facilitates coordination of the field artillery and naval fires. Sufficient suitable type radios should be provided to enable each battery to communicate directly with the observation airplane.
- Direct radio communication should be established between the senior Army commander ashore and the superior commander afloat. Airplanes afford a valuable means of signal communication between the combat team commander and higher commanders afloat. A drop and pick-up message ground and panel station are provided near the command post of the combat team. A panel station also is established by the naval artillery liaison party in the vicinity of its observation post. While the combat team ordinarily is the lowest unit to which dropped messages are delivered, in an emergency or by prearrangement messages may be dropped to any unit or detachment.
- Messengers and other available agencies are employed to supplement wire communication and provide alternative means of communication. Use may be made of portable high frequency radio sets to supplement other types of communication ashore and to communicate with the regimental commander
Figure 19.--Initial signal communication system on beach.
after he lands. Communication established with subordinate units by messenger is indicated in figure 19.
- Beach Party.--A beachmaster is assigned to each beach. He establishes a communication center at each landing beach to handle communication between ship and shore. He employs radio, visual, and messenger boat communication with vessels designated in orders, messenger boat communication with adjacent beaches, and radio and visual communication with adjacent beaches when practicable.
- Shore Party.--
- The shore party is a special task organization of elements of the landing forces, commanded by an Army officer. He is a staff officer of the senior troops commander on the beach.
- The shore party consists of a command section and may comprise detachments of any or all of the following:
- Signal communication personnel and equipment.
- Military police.
- Supply personnel.
- Labor details.
- Chemical troops.
- Antiaircraft weapons.
- Antitank weapons.
- The shore party commander, likewise the beachmaster, with a part of the shore party and beach party land in the leading boat group. During the initial trip to the beach, shore party personnel may be used as gunners, ammunition passers, or to assist boat crews in other ways.
- The shore party commander and beachmaster must work in the closest cooperation in order to utilize all available personnel and facilities to the best advantage.
- The signal communication detachment of the shore party should include message center personnel, messenger personnel, and wire and radio teams with appropriate equipment.
- The shore party commander establishes his message center near the headquarters of the beachmaster. Signal communication is established from this message center to the combat team command post, the beachmaster's headquarters and, when directed, to command posts of adjacent shore parties. If it is necessary to employ a boat to lay the wire to
connect with other shore parties, provision for the necessary boat should be foreseen and indicated in orders.
- Other Units.--
- Infantry regiment and supporting artillery battalion.--Sufficient communication personnel and equipment of the infantry regiment and the supporting artillery battalion to establish their initial command posts and signal communication to their subordinate units accompany the second combat team at each beach.
- Infantry brigade and supporting artillery,--Action similar to that in a above is taken when the first combat team of the second infantry regiment of a brigade goes ashore.
- Larger units.--Signal detachments of larger units are sent ashore at the earliest practicable time, preceding the headquarters, for the purpose of establishing command posts, relieving shore parties of the signal communication responsibilities, and improving signal communication to subordinate units.
- Personnel and Equipment.--
- Signal communication plans provide signal personnel and equipment to replace losses during the ship-to-shore movement as well as during the early subsequent operations ashore, and to meet the needs of the situation for special equipment. This applies particularly to the assault combat teams and the shore parties.
- All signal communication equipment of the assault combat teams and shore parties is portable. Adequate equipment for laying wire is provided. To guard against total loss of equipment through the sinking of a boat, it is desirable to provide duplicate sets of equipment in separate boats. The lack of transportation and the disorganization likely to prevail during the early operations ashore impose unusual demands on the signal communication personnel of the assault combat teams. this personnel is frequently augmented by the attachment of regimental or higher unit signal communication personnel.
- In every case, wire to replace that expended by assault combat teams and reel units, with transportation therefore, for the mechanical laying of wire are sent ashore and pushed forward at the earliest opportunity.
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