1. GENERAL.--Individual protection will be sought and improved, or excavated whenever troops are halted in a combat zone.

Figure 30
Individual prone shelter or slit trench, oblique cross section.

  1. HALTS.--

    1. When the halt is expected to be brief, troops will take advantage of such natural protection as is afforded by the terrain (for example, ditches or holes in the ground).

(1) Top view.

Figure 31
Standing type one-man foxhole.

    1. When the halt is to be for a longer period but less than 6 hours (for example, a halt in an assembly area), individual prone shelters will be constructed. (See fig. 30.) Full advantage


      will be taken of natural cover and concealment in the construction of these shelters. This type of shelter does not provide as effective protection as the standing type one-man foxhole (see fig. 31 (1), (2), and (3)), but it permits the

(2) Side view.

(3) Rear view--Minimum 2-foot clearance required to protect against tank tracks.

Figure 31
Standing type one-man foxhole--Continued.


      man to receive rest and protection simultaneously and can be quickly dug. It furnishes protection from bomb and artillery fragments and small-arms fire but does not furnish full protection against the crushing action of tanks.

    1. When the duration of the halt may be more than 6 hours, standing type foxholes will be dug. Men occupy these foxholes only when an attack is in progress or imminent.

  1. DURING COMBAT.--Under conditions which make it probable that firing from shelters will be required, and when time

Figure 32
Standing type double foxhole or slit trench. (See fig. 37 for adaptation as an observation post.)

Note.--The individual prone shelter or slit trench for one man shown in figure 30 when deepened to 4 or 5 feet is large enough for two men and can be used as a standing fire trench. No slit trench should be used to protect more than two individuals.

    permits, protection for personnel and weapons will be provided. Suitable types of such protection are indicated below:

    1. For individuals.--

      1. Standing type one-man foxholes as shown in figure 31 (1), (2), and (3).

      2. Standing type double foxholes or slit trenches as shown in figure 32. This type affords slightly less protection than the one-man foxhole against bomb or shell fragments, but is equally effective against small-arms fire. It furnishes


        much less protection against the crushing action of tanks. It is more conspicuous to air observers than the one-man type. It tends to increase the combat effect of the troops by providing fighting comradeship. This type is particularly suitable

(1) Rear view.

(1) Top view.

Figure 33
Light machine-gun emplacement with three standing type one-man foxholes. (Spoil thrown up in front of the emplacement provides some protection to the crew from small-arms fire.)

        for occupancy by an automatic rifleman and his assistant or for other missions requiring men to act in pairs.

    1. For light machine guns.--

      1. Three standing type one-man foxholes for members of the crew, arranged generally as indicated in figure 33 (1) and (2). This type permits operation


Figure 34
Light machine-gun emplacement. (The gun platform is approximately 6 inches below ground level. Spoil is used to form a low parapet around the emplacement, or it is scattered; sod is used on top of the parapet.)

        of the weapon and affords the protection of the one-man type foxhole.

      1. An open standing emplacement, constructed approximately as indicated in figure 34. This type furnishes protection against small-arms fire and bomb and shell fragments, but affords less protection against the crushing action of tanks, which may destroy the gun platform. If this type is

Figure 35
Emplacement for 60-mm mortar with standing type one-man foxholes. (Standing type one-man foxhole for observer is also prepared. His location is within voice range of the mortar emplacement.)


        used, crew members should construct one-man type standing foxholes nearby.

    1. For 60-mm mortar.--

      1. Standing type one-man foxhole for each member of the crew, arranged approximately as shown in figure 35.

      2. A single emplacement for mortar and crew as shown in figure 36 (1) and (2). It is used to protect against bomb or shell (mortar and artillery) fragments as well as small-arms fire. However, it should be supplemented by nearby standing type foxholes for use of the crew in case of a tank attack. The observer's position should be close enough to the mortar to permit him to communicate with the crew by voice. The emplacement is a pit approximately 4 feet wide at ground level, 5 feet long, and 3½ feet deep. The emplacement must be large enough to receive the mortar, the gunner, and his assistant. Also, it must allow room for manipulation of the mortar, provide space for ammunition, and be sufficiently sloped on the forward edge to avoid interference with sighting and firing. Under favorable conditions, one man using engineer tools can dig this emplacement in medium soil in 4 hours.

  1. OBSERVATION POSTS.--When a defensive position is to be occupied for some time, observation posts, listening posts, or snipers' nests may be developed from foxholes which are widened, deepened, reinforced, and covered with a removable camouflaged top. (See figs. 37 and 38.) Other types utilizing a tree, a log and camouflaged clothing, and a hedge are shown respectively in figures 39, 40, and 41.

  2. CAMOUFLAGE.--Good camouflage matches the surrounding area. Too elaborate camouflage or poor camouflage only serves to attract attention to the fortified area. (See figs. 42, 43, and 44.)

  3. CONSTRUCTION REQUIRED IN ORGANIZING A RIFLE SQUAD DEFENSE AREA.--Figure 45 shows a bird's-eye view of the disposition of an interior squad in foxholes covering the squad sector between lines 14 and 14a. Foxholes in the rear portion of the squad area are dug to provide all-around defense; they may be either the standing one-man or double type. (See


(1) Side view.

(1) Top view.

Figure 36
Emplacement for 60-mm mortar.

Note.--Pit must be long enough to give room for gunner, mortar, and assistant gunner. It must be deep enough to give cover to all three below ground level.


Figure 37
Observation post in standing type double foxhole.

Figure 38
Observation post utilizing two standing type one-man foxholes, each with camouflaged removable top.


Figure 39
Observation post in tree.

Note.--Choose tree near edge of woods or in grove of trees so that surrounding foliage will form background for and screen observer.

Figure 40
Observation post behind log.

Note.--Observer's face should be smeared with mud or charcoal to prevent it from reflecting light. Camouflaged clothing or a covering of net or burlap will reduce possibility of observer being detected by enemy air or ground troops.


    figs. 19, 31, and 32.) Letters enclosed in rectangles are abbreviations to indicate the members of the rifle squad:

Letter Individual Weapon
S Sergeant, squad leader M1 rifle
C Corporal, assistant squad leader. M1903 rifle for antitank rifle grenades.
AR Automatic rifleman Browning automatic rifle
AAR Assistant automatic rifleman Carbine
AB Ammunition bearer Carbine
R Rifleman M1 rifle

Figure 41
Observation post in hedge.

(1) Wrong--To introduce unusual growth attracts attention.

(2) Right--On barren ground, leave position bare.

Figure 42
Camouflage--unusual growth.


(1) Wrong--To strew spoil with grass lying flat is unnatural. Also, grass lying flat will reflect light and be easily picked up on aerial photographs.

(2) Right--Cover spoil with sod or grass growing naturally.

Figure 43

(1) Wrong--Branches and brush piled horizontally are unnatural.

(2) Right--Branches and brushes should be placed in growing position.

Figure 44


Figure 45
Construction required in organizing rifle squad defense area.


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