Appendix B: Chronology

The following listing of events is limited to those coming within the scope of this book, and those forecasting events to be treated in the volumes to follow.

10 November 1775 Continental Congress authorizes raising of two battalions of Marines
11 July 1798 Congress reactivates Marine Corps
10 June 1898 Battalion of Marines seizes Guantanamo Bay; preliminary thinking on Advanced Base concept begin.
13 July 1910 Marine School for Advanced Base Training established
25 April 1915 Forst modern amphibious assault: Brisith land on Gallipoli
27 April 1917 First Marine aviation unit formed: "Marine Aeromautic Company, Advanced Base Force"
28 June 1919 Treaty of Versailles gives Japan mandates for German islands in Central Pacific
23 July 1921 "Operations Plan 712" accepted by Major General Commandant, establishing Marine Corps concept of strategy in the Pacific
7 December 1933 Fleet Marine Force established
15 January 1934 Tentative Manual for Landing Operations published
1 September 1939 Germans invade Poland; World War II begins
7 May Pacific Fleet ordered by President to remain indefinitely in Hawaiian waters
5 July Export Control Act invoked against Japan to prohibit exportation of strategic materials and equipment
19 July President signs Naval Expansion Act containing provisions for "Two Ocean Navy"
29 September Midway Detachment, FMF arrives at Midway
8 October U.S. advises its citizens to leave Far East
12 May Ambassador Nomura of Japan presents Secretary of State Cordell Hull with Japanese proposal for a "just peace in the Pacific"
27 May President declares a state of unlimited emergency; he announces that the Atlantic Neutrality Patrol is extended and that Pactic Fleet units have been transferred to the Atlantic
12 June All Naval Reserve personnel not in deferred status are called to active duty
22 June Germany, Italy, and Romania declare war on Russia and invade along a front from the Arctic to the Black Sea
7 July 1st Marine Brigade lands in Iceland. 1st Marine Aircraft Wing forms at Quantico, Va.
10 July 2d Marine Aircraft Wing forms at San Deigo, Calif.
15 August Naval Air Station, Palmyra Island, and Naval Air Facility, Johnston Island established
11 September President orders Navy to attack any vessel threatening U.S. shipping
14 November Marines are ordered to leave Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China
20 November Ambassador Nomura presents Japan's "final proposal" to keep peace in the Pacific
26 November Secretary of State submits final proposals for adjustment of U.S.-Japanese relations
27 November Adm Stark, CNO, sends war warning to commanders of the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets
30 November Japanese Foreign Minister Tojo rejects U.S. proposals for settling Far East crisis
7 December Japanese attack Pearl Harbor,
8 December U.S. declares war on Japan. Japan attacks Allied bases in the Pacific and Far East, and lands on Batan Island north of Luzon, P.I., and on east coast of Malay Peninsula. U.S. Marines and other Allied nationals interned at Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China
9 December Japanese occupy Tarawa and Makin Islands in Gilberts
10 December Guam surrenders to Japanese landing force
11 December U.S. declares war on Germany and Italy. Wake Island defenders repulse Japanese landing attempt. Japanese make additional landings in Philippines
20 December Adm E.J. King becomes Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet
21 December Naval defense forces in Philippine Islands move headquarters to Corregidor
22 December Japanese land at Lingayen Gulf, P.I.
23 December Wake Island surrenders to Japanese
25 December British surrender Hong Kong
26 December Manila, P.I., declared an open city
31 December Adm C.W. Nimitz assumes command of Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor
2 January Manila and Cavite, P.I., fall to Japanese
11 January Japanese begin invasion of Netherlands East Indies
22 January Allied forces evacuate Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea
23 January Japanese occupy Rabaul, New Britain, and land at Kieta on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands
24 January Japanese land at Kavieng, New Ireland
1 February U.S. carrier task forces raid Japanese positions in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands
6 February U.S. and Britain establish Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS)
8 February Japanese land at Gasmata, New Britain
9 February Japanese land at Singapore
15 February Singapore surrenders
27 February Battle of Java Sea
1 March Battle of Sunda Strait
8 March Japanese land at Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea
9 March Java surrenders to Japanese, ending conquest of Netherlands East Indies
10 March Japanese invade Finschhafen, New Guinea
11 March Gen MacArthur leaves Philippines for Australia
12 March U.S. forces arrive in New Caledonia
26 March Adm King relieves Adm Stark as Chief of Naval Operation (CNO)
29 March Marines arrive at Efate, New Hebrides
30 March Pacific Ocean divided into Pacific Ocean Areas under Adm Nimitz, and Southwest Pacific Area under Gen MacArthur
1 April Japanese occupy Buka Island, Solomons
5 April Manus Island, Admiralties, occupied by Japanese
9 April Bataan falls to Japanese
18 April Doolittle raid strikes Tokyo, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagoya
2 May Japanese land on Florida Island, Solomons
3 May Japanese occupy Tulagi, Solomons
4-8 May Battle of the Coral Sea
6 May Corregidor and Manila Bay forts surrender
12 May Last U.S. troops in Philippines surrender on Mindanao
28 May U.S. forces arrive at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides
3 June Japanese bomb Dutch Harbor; land on Kiska and Attu, Western Aleutians
4-6 June Battle of Midway
14 June First echelon of 1st Marine Division arrives at Wellington, New Zealand
19 June VAdm Ghormley assumes command of South Pacific Area and South Pacific Forces
25 June President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill conclude conference in Washington; decision reached for combined efforts to develop atomic bomb
18 July Amphibious Force, South Pacific Area, is established under command of RAdm Turner
21 July Japanese land at Buna, New Guinea
7 August 1st Marine Division land on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, and Guadalcanal in Southern Solomons to launch the first U.S. offensive of the war
8 August 1st MarDiv wins control of Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo and captures airfield on Guadalcanal
9 August Battle of Savo Island forces U.S. ships to retire from Guadalcanal area, leaving control of waters temporarily to Japanese
17 August 2d Raider Battalion (Carlson's Raiders) land from submarines at Makin Island in the Gilberts. Raid is completed following day
20 August First fighter aircraft arrive on Henderson Field, Guadalcanal
21 August Marines turn back first major Japanese attack on Guadalcanal in Battle of the Tenaru
24-25 August Naval Battle of Eastern Solomons
13 September Marines repulse second major Japanese ground attack at Guadalcanal in the Battle of the Ridge
18 September 7th Marines arrive on Guadalcanal
11-12 October Naval Battle of Cape Esperance. U.S. forces under Adm Spruance engage Japanese ships of the "Tokyo Express"
13 October 164th Infantry Regiment of Americal Division arrives to reinforce 1st MarDiv
14 October Japanese battleships and cruisers bombard Henderson Field
18 October VAdm Halsey relieves VAdm Ghormley as Commander South Pacific Area and South Pacific Force
20-25 October Marines and Army troops fight off heavy ground attacks of major Japanese counteroffensive
26 October Naval Battle of Santa Cruz Island: U.S. force sustains heavy loss, but checks Japanese movement toward Guadalcanal
8 November Allied Expeditionary Force invades North Africa
12 November Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (12-15 Nov) begins as Japanese aricraft attack U.S. transports Guadalcanal
13 November RAdm Callaghan's task group of cruisers and destroyers engages Japanese raiding group including two battleships, in second night of Battle of Guadalcanal. U.S. force heavily damaged, but Japanese retire
14 November Japanese cruisers and destroyers bombard Henderson Field
15 November RAdm Lee with two battleships and four destroyers turns back large Japanese naval group to end naval Battle of Guadalcanal
16 November U.S. Army forces land south of Buna, New Guinea
9 December MajGen A.A. Vandegrift, CG 1st MarDiv, is relieved by MajGen A.M. Patch, CG Americal Division, as commanding general of Guadalcanal. 1st MarDiv make preparations to retire from combat zone to rehabilitate and retrain
17 December U.S. Army forces begin attacks against Japanese in the Mount Austen area
10 January Gen Patch's XIV Corps on Guadalcanal begins offensive to the west
23 January XIV Corps' westward advance captures Kokumbona on Guadalcanal coast
23 January U.S.-Australian counteroffensive secures Buna-Sanananda area, New Guinea
29-30 January Naval Battle of Rennell Island
1 February Japanese begin to evacuate troops from Guadalcanal
8 February Evacuation of some 11,000 Japanese troops from Guadalcanal is completed
9 February Gen Patch's Cape Esperance envelopment force joins with western advance and Guadalcanal is declared secure


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