A Chronology of the United States Marine Corps
1935-1946
Volume II

History And Museums Division
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps
Washington, D.C.

By
Carolyn A. Tyson

PCN 19000317800

Printed 1965 Reprinted 1971, 1977

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

Stock No. 008-055-00116-1

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20380


PREFACE

This is the second volume of a chronology of Marine Corps activities which covers the history of the U.S. Marines. It is derived from official records and appropriate published historical works.

This chronology is published for the information of all interested in Marine Corps activities during the period, 19351946 and is dedicated to those Marines who participated in the events listed.

Lieutenant General,
U.S. Marine Corps Chief of Staff

Reviewed and approved: 25 March 1971

--iii--

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction vii
Bibliography ix
Glossary xvi
The Year:
1935 1
1936 1
1937 2
1938 3
1939 4
1940 5
1941 8
1942 18
1943 37
1944 65
1945 101
1946 131

--v--

Introduction

This chronology is presented principally as a ready reference by time sequence to Marine Corps activities from the introduction of amphibious concepts in 1935 to the return to peacetime strength after World War II. The period 1941-1946, moreover, has been organized by geographic area so that the reader can place Marine Corps activities in proper perspective to world events. An exception to the use of geographic designations is the heading "USMC," employed to provide for those entries which effect the Marine Corps in its entirety. Because significant events prior to 1941 are limited, the geographic categorization was omitted in those years.

All military units and names that are not specified as to service and nationality are Marine Corps. Certain well known personalities--e.g. General MacArthur, Admiral Nimitz--are referred to by surname only.

--vii--

Bibliography

1stLt Robert A. Authur, USMCR, and 1stLt Kenneth Cohlmia, USMCR. The Third Marine Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948. (Cited as Authur and Cohlmia).

LtCol Whitman S. Bartley, USMC. Iwo Jima: Amphibious Epic. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1954. (Cited as Bartley).

Maj Charles W. Boggs, Jr., USMC. Marine Aviation in the Philippines. Washington: Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1951. (Cited as Boggs).

Bevan G. Cass, ed. History of the Sixth Marine Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948. (Cited as Cass).

Chief of Naval Operations. Memo to Distribution List dtd 21 March 1946. Subj: Basic Post-War Plan No. 2 (Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "Basic Post-War Plan No. 2").

Kenneth W. Condit and Maj John H. Johnstone, USMC. A Brief History of Marine Corps Staff Organization--Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 25. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Revised 1963. (Cited as Condit and Johnstone).

Kenneth W. Condit and Edwin T. Turnbladh. Hold High the Torch, History of the 4th Marines. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1960. (Cited as Condit and Turnbladh).

Howard M. Conner. The Spearhead: The World War II History of the 5th Marine Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1950. (Cited as Conner).

Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. Administrative History, 1 October 1946 - 1 April 1947 (Administrative History File, Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "FMFPac," 1Oct46-11Apr47).

Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. Administrative History, 1 September 1945 - 1 October 1946 (Administrative History File, Historical Branch. G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "FMFPac" 1Sep45-1Oct46.

Benis M. Frank. A Brief History of the 3d Marines--Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 35. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Reprinted 1962. (Cited as Frank).

Benis M. Frank and Henry I. Shaw, Jr. "Okinawa, The End of the War and After" History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, v. V, pt. III, chaps. 2, 3. MS. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC. (Cited as "Frank and Shaw").

--ix--

Col Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC. Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corp,s. 1775-1962. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1962. (Cited as Heinl (1)).

LtCol Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC. The Defence of Wake. Washington: Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, USMC, 1947. (Cited as Heinl (2)).

LtCol Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC. Marines at Midway. Washington: Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, USMC, 1948. (Cited as Heinl (3)).

LtCol Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC, and LtCol John A. Crown, USMC. The Marshalls: Increasing the Tempo. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1954. (Cited as Heinl and Crown).

Maj Carl W. Hoffman, USMC. Saipan: The Beginning of the End. Washington: Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1950. (Cited as Hoffman (1)).

Maj Carl W. Hoffman, USMC. The Seizure of Tinian. Washington: Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1951. (Cited as Hoffman (2)).

Home of the Commandants. Washington: Leatherneck Association, 1956. (Cited as Commandants).

Maj Frank O. Hough, USMCR. The Assault on Peleliu. Washington: Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1950. (Cited as Hough).

LtCol Frank O. Hough, USMCR, Major Verle E. Ludwig, USMC, and Henry I. Shaw, Jr. Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal--History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. v. I. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC. (Cited as OpHist, v. 1).

Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl. The U.S. Marines and Amphibious War: Its Theory and Its Practice in the Pacific. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951. (Cited as Isely and Crowl).

Maj John H. Johnstone, USMC Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Revised 1962. (Cited as Johnstone (1)).

Maj John H. Johnstone, USMC. United States Marine Corps Parachute Units--Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 32. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1961. (Cited as Johnstone (2)).

William L. Langer. An Encyclopedia of World History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1952. (Cited as Langer).

Maj O. R. Lodge, USMC. The Recapture of Guam. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1954. (Cited as Lodge).

--x--

Marine Barracks, Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Administrative Piles, 1 September 1945 - 1 July 1947 (Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "Cuba").

Maj Pat Meid, USMCR. Marine Corps Woman's Reserve--Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 37. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1964. (Cited as Meid).

LtCol C. H. Metcalf, USMC. "The Marines in China." Marine Corps Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (September 1938), pp. 35-37, 53-58. (Cited as Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (Sep38)).

Samuel Eliot Morison. Coral Sea. Midway and Submarine Actions--- History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. v. IV. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1949. (Cited as Morison).

Richard B. Morris. Encyclopedia of American History. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1953. (Cited as Morris).

Navy Department. "The Navy's Demobilization Program, NAVPERS 15637A." Washington, 1945. (Cited as "The Navy's Demobilization Program").

The New York Times. 12 January 1946. (Cited as New York Times).

Maj Charles S. Nichols, USMC, and Henry I. Shaw, Jr. Okinawa: Victory in the Pacific. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1955. (Cited as Nichols and Shaw).

Carl W. Proehl, ed. The 4th Marine Division in World War II. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1946. (Cited as Proehl).

Maj John N. Rentz, USMCR. Marines in the Central Solomons. Washington: Historical Branch, Headquarters, USMC, 1952. (Cited as Rentz).

Karl Schuon. U.S. Marine Corps Biographical Dictionary. New York: Frankline Watts, Inc., 1963. (Cited as Schuon).

Henry I. Shaw, Jr. The United States Marines in North China---Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 23. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Revised 1962. (Cited as Shaw (1)).

Henry I. Shaw, Jr. The United States Marines in the Occupation of Japan---Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 24. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Revised 1962.(Cited as Shaw (2)).

Henry I. Shaw, Jr., and Maj Douglas T. Kane, USMC. Isolation of Rabaul--History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, v. II. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1963.(Cited as OpHist. v. 2).

Robert Sherrod. History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1952. (Cited as Sherrod.)

LtGen Holland M. Smith, USMC. "The Development of Amphibious Tactics in the U.S. Navy, Part IV." Marine Corps Gazette v. 30, no. 9 (September 1946), pp. 43-47. (Cited as Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46)).

--xi--

Capt James R. Stockman, USMC. The Battle for Tarawa. Washington: Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, USMC, 1947. (Cited as Stockman).

Truman R. Strobridge. A Brief History of the 9th Marines--MarineCorps Historical Reference Series Number 33. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, Reprinted 1963. (Cited as Strobridge).

U.S. Department of the Navy. United States Naval Chronology. World War II. Washington: Naval History Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department, 1955. (Cited as Naval Chronology).

U.S. Marine Corps. Administrative History, 1 September 1945-1 October 1946 (Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46).

U.S. Marine Corps. Administrative History, 1 October 1946-1 April 1947 (Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC). (Cited as "Post-WW II Period," 1Oct46-1Apr47).

U.S. Marine Corps. Commandant. In Report...to the Secretary of the Navy. 1935-1949. Washington, 1935-1949. (Cited as CMCRpt).

U.S. Marine Corps. Commandant. Tentative Landing Operations Manual. Washington, 1935. (Cited as TLOM) [See Landing Operations Doctrine, United States Navy, 1938 (F.T.P. 167)].

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. G-1 Division, Personnel Accounting Section, Statistics Unit. (Cited as Statistics Unit).

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Biography File: Lieutenant Colonel W. T. H. Galliford. (Cited as "Galliford").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Biography Pile: Thomas Holcomb (Biography Pile No. 1). (Cited as "Thomas Holcomb").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Biography Pile: Lieutenant General Henry L. Larson, USMC. (Cited as "Larson").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Biography Pile: Alexander A. Vandegrift, l8th CMC (Biography Pile No. 1, "Statement presented by General Vandegrift to the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs 6 May 1946"). (Cited as "Vandegrift").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Historical Pamphlet Pile: "Marine Activities in Europe and Africa in World War II," by Carolyn Tyson. (Cited as Tyson).

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Historical Pamphlet Pile: Negro Marines ("Negro Marines in World War II"). (Cited as "Negro Marines in WW II").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Reference Service Log Pile, 29 November 1954: Strengths. (Cited as Strengths).

--xii--

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Reference Service Log Pile. 13 October 1946: Garrison Forces. (Cited as "Garrison Forces").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Reference Service Log File, 20 October 1953: Plans and Policies (P.R. Rugen memo to Head, HistBr dtd 15 Dec 1953). (Cited as "Plans and Policies").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Reference Service Log File, 10 July 1952: War Dogs ("War Dogs in the U.S. Marine Corps"). (Cited as "War Dogs").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Alcatraz ("Marines' Guards Open Major Battle to Subdue Convicts on Alcatraz Isle"). (Cited as "Alcatraz").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet (J. D. Thacker memo to Enlisted Performance Division dtd 5 November 1948). (Cited as "Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Demobilization ("Information on Demobilization," Lof1 No. 1108). (Cited as "Information on Demobilization").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Demobilization ("Personnel Demobilization--United States Marine Corps"). (Cited as "Personnel Demobilization").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Seventh Marines ("Chronology of the 7th Marines"). (Cited as "The 7th Marines").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Marine Corps League (Marine Corps League. 29th National Convention. 1952). (Cited as Marine Corps League. 29th National Convention. 1952).

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Posts and Stations - California, Oceanside-Camp Pendleton. (Cited as "Posts and Stations," Camp Pendleton).

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Posts and Stations - North Carolina, New River. (Cited as "Posts and Stations," New River).

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Reserve-General. (Cited as "Reserve-General").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Historical Branch, G-3. Subject File: Samoa. (Cited as "Samoa").

U.S. Marine Corps. Headquarters. Personnel Department, Muster Rolls and Unit Diaries, 1937-1946. (Cited as Muster Rolls).

U.S. Marine Corps. Historical Outline of the Development of Fleet Marine Force. Pacific. 1941-1950. (Cited as FMFPac).

--xiii--

U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. "The Secret Weapon, A History of the Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, chap. IV. MS. Washington: Public Affairs, Unit 4-1, Division of Reserve, Headquarters, USMC. (Cited as "Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, chap. IV).

Mary H. Williams. Chronology 1941-1945---Special Studies---United States Army in World War II. Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1960. (Cited as Williams).

Maj James M. Yingling, USMC. A Brief History of the 5th Marines---Marine Corps Historical Reference Series Number 36. Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, USMC, 1963. (Cited as Yingling).

Maj John L. Zimmerman, USMCR. The Guadalcanal Campaign. Washington: Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1946. (Cited as Zimmerman).

--xiv--

Appendix A
Glossary

B-17 Flying Fortress (4), Boeing
B-24 Liberator (4), Martin
B-25 Mitchell (2), North American
B-29 Superfortress (4), Boeing
CASD Carrier aircraft service detachment
CCP Chinese Communist Party
CCS Combined Chiefs of Staff
CinCAF Commander in Chief, Allied Forces
CinCAFPac Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Forces Pacific
CinCPac Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet
CinCPOA Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Area
CinCSWPA Commander in Chief, Southwest Pacific Area
CinCUS Commander in Chief, U.S.
CinCUSAFFE Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Forces, Far East
CNA Chinese Nationalist Army
CNO Chief of Naval Operations
ComAirNorSols Commander, Aircraft, Northern Solomons
ComCenPac Commander, Central Pacific
CominCh Commander in Chief
ComSoPac Commander, South Pacific
FEAF Far East Air Force
F4F Wildcat (1), Grumman
F6F Hellcat (1), Grumman
F4U Corsair (1), Chance-Vought
IJA Imperial Japanese Army
IJN Imperial Japanese Navy
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
OS2U Kingfisher (1), Vought-Sikorsky
PSJ Mitchell (2), North American
PBY Catalina (2), Consolidated
POA Pacific Ocean Area
P-40 Warhawk (1), Curtiss
P-51 Mustang (1), North American
P-400 Airacobra (export) (1), Bell
RCT Regimental Combat Team
rein reinforced
SBD Dauntless (1), Douglas
SB2U Vindicator (1), Chance-Vought
SCAP Strategic Command Allied Powers
SoPac South Pacific
SWPA Southwest Pacific Area
TBF Avenger (1), Grumman
USA U.S. Army
USAFFE U.S. Air Force, Far East
USN U.S. Navy
VMF Marine fighter squadron
VMF(N) Marine night fighter squadron
VMO Marine observation squadron
VMSB Marine scout-bomber squadron
VMTB Marine torpedo-bomber squadron
VP Navy patrol squadron

NOTE: Figures shown in parentheses indicate the number of engines on the subject aircraft.

--xvi--

A CHRONOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

by

Carolyn A. Tyson Volume II

The United States Marine Corps. 1935-1946

19 Jan-13 Mar Fleet Marine Force units participated in Fleet Landing Exercise No. 1 at Culebra, Puerto Rico, commanded by Brigadier General Charles H. Lyman, and in advanced training and experimental firings with the Special Service and Training Squadrons of the U.S. Fleet in the Caribbean area. (CMCRpt, 1935, p. 2: Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46), p. 43).
29 Mar The House of Representatives passed a bill (HR 40l6) providing that all grades of the Marine Corps have the same system of promotion and retirement as that of the line and staff of the Navy. (CMCRpt, 1935, p. 29).
29 Apr-12 Jun Fleet Marine Force units on the West Coast took part in U.S. Fleet Problem XVI, landing operations and the establishment of a base on Midway Island. (Gazette, v. 30. no. 9 (Sep46), p. 44).
25 May The Tentative Landing Operations Manual, 1935. was approved by the CNO for issue as a guide to forces of the Navy and Marine Corps conducting landings against opposition; major landing exercises were held between 1935 and 194l on the islands of Culebra and Vieques, Puerto Rico, or on San Clemente, California, to test its theories. (TLOM, 1935; OpHist, v. 1, p. 14).
30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 17,260--1,163 officers and 16,097 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
9 Aug Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force was transferred from Quantico to San Diego. (Muster Rolls).
14-16 Nov Fleet Marine Force organizations stationed at San Diego were engaged in exercises with the Fleet on the West Coast. (CMCRpt, 1936, p. 3).
1936
12 Jan-17 Feb Major Marine units participated in Fleet Landing Exercise No. 2 conducted at Culebra. Puerto Rico. (Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46), p. 44: CMCRpt, 1936, pp. 3, 6).
1 Apr The Division of Aviation was established at Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, and Colonel Rosa E. Rowell, the former Officer in Charge of the Marine Aviation Section, became the first Director of Aviation. (Sherrod, pp. 31, 437).
30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 17,242--1,208 officers and 16,040 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).

--1--

1936
1 Oct-31 Dec The 1st Marine Brigade carried out an extensive training program, combining field exercises and landings, in the Potomac area. (Isley and Crowl, p. 52).
16 Nov The 2d Marine Brigade conducted training with the Fleet atSan Clemente Island, off the California coast. (Gazette, v. 30,no. 9 (Sep46), p. 44).

1 Dec

Major General John H. Russell, Jr., 16th Commandant of the Marine Corps, retired upon reaching the statutory age limit. (Commandants, pp. 108, 114).
Brigadier General Thomas Holcomb was appointed 17th Commandant of the Marine Corps, with the rank of major general. (Commandants, pp. 114, 118).
1937
27 Jan-10 Mar Fleet Landing Exercise No. 3 was conducted on the West Coast in the San Clemente and San Pedro areas and included both the San Diego and Quantico elements of the Fleet Marine Force as well as an Army contingent. (Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46), p. 44; CMCRpt, 1937, p. 4).
6-8 May Marines commanded by Lieutenant Colonel W.T.H. Galliford carried out rescue and riot control duties at Lakehurst, New Jersey, after the flaming crash of the German airship Hindenburg. ("Galliford").
8 Jun Retired Major General Ben H. Fuller, 15th Commandant of the Marine Corps, died in Washington. D.C. (Commandants, pp. 103, 107).
30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 18,223--1,312 officers and 16,911 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
1 Jul In compliance with an order of the Navy Department, all Marine Corps Reserve tactical squadrons were designated as scouting squadrons. (CMCRpt, 1938, p. 44).
4 Aug The Marine Corps League was chartered by Congress although it had been officially formed in 1923. (Marine Corps League, 29th National Convention, 1952, p. 12).
8 Aug-8 Nov The Second Battle of Shanghai. The killing of two Japanese marines by Chinese near Shanghai led to the landing of a Japanese naval force. Due to the superior Chinese force, the Japanese were obliged to land an army which after heavy resistance forced the Chinese to withdraw from the city. (Langer, p. 1121).
12 Aug The 4th Marines at Shanghai, China, was augmented by a landing force from the USS Augusta of 50 Marines and 57 bluejackets. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 173).
13 Aug Elements of the 4th Marines occupied positions in Sector "C" at Shanghai, China, an area assigned to the regiment under the International Defense Scheme, in support of the Municipal Police. (Condit and Turnbladh, pp. 157, 168, 169).
16 Aug The American Advisor on Political Relations, in a memo to the Secretary of State, requested reinforcements for the 4th Marines at Shanghai. China. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 175).

--2--

1937
17 Aug The first group of American evacuees left Shanghai, China. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 174).
19 Aug A rifle company of two officers and 102 enlisted men arrived from Cavite, Philippines, to reinforce the 4th Marines in Shanghai, China. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 173).
26 Aug A second rifle company of two officers and 102 enlisted men arrived at Shanghai, China, and joined the 4th Marines. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 174).
28 Aug The 2d Marine Brigade headquarters and the 6th Marines departed San Diego for duty in Shanghai. China. (Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (Sep38), p. 57).
19 Sep The 2d Marine Brigade headquarters and the 6th Marines arrived in Shanghai, China, from San Diego raising the Marine strength in China to 2,536 men. (Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (Sep38), p. 57: Condit and Turnbladh, p. 175).
4 Oct The 4th Marines at Shanghai returned to the front lines after 10 days rest. Sector "C"--assigned to the regiment under the International Defense Scheme--was reorganized on a brigade basis into two regimental subsectors. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 175).
8 Nov-28 Nov 1941 During this period, in several incidents, the Japanese violated the International Settlement in Shanghai, China, leading to the arrest of Japanese gendarmes by Marines of the 4th Regiment. (Condit and Turnbladh, pp. 176-193).
1 Dec The 3d Marines, a reserve regiment with headquarters at San Francisco since its organization on 1 December 1925 was disbanded. (Frank, pp. 6. 27).
12 Dec Japanese naval aircraft attac4ed and sank the American gunboat Panay on the Yangtze above Nanking producing acute tension between the powers. Japan apologized two days later. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. l8l).
1938
13 Jan-15 Mar Fleet Landing Exercise No. 4 was held at Culebra, Puerto Rico; it was the most comprehensive and instructive landing operation held to that date. (Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46), p. 45; CMCRpt, 1938, p. 51).
17 Feb The 2d Brigade headquarters and the 6th Marines departed Shanghai, China, after participating in Fleet maneuvers, and returned to their regular station at San Diego. The 4th Marines became the only American unit in Shanghai, China. (Gazette, v. 22. no. 3 (Sep38), p. 57: Condit and Turnbladh, p. 178).
28 Feb A detachment of approximately 200 men, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel W. C. James, was organized at Peiping, China, and proceeded to Tientsin to establish a Marine Corps post at the U.S. Army barracks there. (Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (Sep38), p. 58).
2 Mar The last U.S. Army troops departed Tientsin, China, leaving Marinas in sole charge of the barracks there. (Gazette, v. 22, no. 3 (Sep38), p. 58).

--3--

1938
15 Mar-30 Apr Marine units participated in Fleet Problem XIX, at Hawaii, concerned with occupying an advanced base against a minor secondary opposition. (CMCRpt, 1938, pp. 40, 50).
20 Apr The 2d Marine Brigade, Fleet Marine Force, arrived at San Diego from Shanghai, China. (CMCRpt, 1938, p. 49).
23 Jun The president approved the Navy selection law which provided that the active list of the Marine Corps should, be 20% of the total authorized enlisted strength of the active list of the Navy. This act increased the Marine Corps authorized strength from 27,400 to 27,497. (CMCRpt, 1938, p. 5).
30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 18,365--1,359 officers and 16,997 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
1 Jul The Naval Reserve Act of 1938 became effective establishing a Marine Corps Reserve as a component part of the Marine Corps and consisting of the Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, the Organized Marine Corps Reserve, and the Volunteer Marine Corps Reserve. The new act. superseded the one of 28 February 1925. ("Reserve-General").
1939
3 Jan The report to Congress of the Navy's Hepburn Board, a Congressionally authorized fact-finding group, proposed a blue-print for base expansion in the Pacific which recognized the potential utility of Midway, Wake, Johnston, and Palmyra Atolls. From 1939 to 1941, island defenses were constructed in implementation of the Board's findings, principally by Marines of the 1st, 3d, and 6th Defense Battalions. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 64, 65).
13 Jan-19 Mar Marine units participated in Fleet Exercise No. 5, commanded by Brigadier General Richard P. Williams, conducted in the Caribbean. (Gazette, v. 30, no. 9 (Sep46), p. 46).
Jan The General Board of the Navy drafted Marine Aviation's missions: "Marine Aviation is to be equipped, organized, and trained, primarily for the support of the Fleet Marine Force in landing operations and in support of troop activities in the field; and secondarily, as replacements for carrier-based naval aircraft." (Sherrod, pp. 31, 32).
21 Apr The Division of Plans and Policies, directed by Colonel Henry L. Larsen, was activated by designation change from the Division of Operations and Training. ("Plans and Policies," p. 1).
1 May Aircraft One and Aircraft Two were redesignated the 1st Marine Aircraft Group and the 2d Marine Aircraft Group, respectively. (CMCRpt, 1939-1948, p. 32 (1939)).
30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 19,432-1,380 officers and 18,052 enlisted men. (Strengths, p. 6).

The 1st Marine Brigade (Quantico) and the 2d Marine Brigade (San Diego) were activated, each supported by a Marine Aircraft Group of corresponding number. (OpHist, p. 47).

1 Sep World War II began when Germany invaded Poland. (Morris, p. 362).

--4--

1939
3 Sep France and Great Britain with her Commonwealth Allies declared war on Germany. (Langer, p. 1135).
5 Sep The U.S. proclaimed its neutrality in the European war. (Morris, p. 362).
8 Sep President Roosevelt proclaimed a "limited national emergency" and ordered the increase of Marine Corps enlisted strength from 18,325 to 25,000 and authorized the recall to active duty of officers and men on the retired lists of the Marine Corps. (Naval Chronology, p. 1).
17 Sep Soviet forces invaded Poland. (Morris, p. 362).
27 Sep Organized resistance in Poland ended with the fall of Warsaw. (Morris, p. 362).
3 Oct The Declaration of Panama which established neutral zones in the Western Hemisphere was issued. (Morris, p. 362).
4 Nov The Neutrality Act of 1939, repealing the arms embargo of 1937, became law. (Morris, p. 362).
20 Dec The CNO, on approval of plans submitted by Colonel Harry Pickett, directed that the Commandant, Fourteenth Naval District establish when practicable a Marine detachment as a garrison on Midway. (Heinl (3), pp. 3, 4).
1940
11 Jan-13 Mar Fleet Landing Exercise No. 6 was conducted in the Caribbean with the 1st Marine Brigade and the 1st Marine Aircraft Group, both under the command of Brigadier General Holland M. Smith, taking part. (Gazette, v. 30. no. 9 (Sep46), p. 47).
30 Mar A Japanese-dominated government in China was established at Nanking under Wang Ching-wei. (Morris, p. 362).
9 Apr Germany occupied Denmark and invaded Norway. (Langer, p. 1135).
9 May British troops occupied Iceland. (Morris, p. 362).
10 May Germany invaded Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxemburg. (Langer, p. 1135).
11 May British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigned and was succeeded by Winston Churchill. (Morris, p. 363).
28 May-4 Jun British and French troops evacuated Dunkirk when the Belgium government capitulated. (Morris, p. 363).
31 May A reconnaissance party, commanded by Captain Samuel G. Taxis, was ordered to Midway by the Commandant, 14th Naval District to perform an initial survey and establish a small Marine camp. (Heinl (3), p. 5).
10 Jun Italy declared war on France and Great Britain. (Langer, p. 1135).
17 Jun-25 Aug Soviet forces occupied Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and incorporated them into the Soviet Union. (Morris, p. 363).

--5--

1940
22 Jun France and Germany concluded an armistice following the fall of Paris (13 June). (Langer, p. 1135).

Congress adopted national defense tax measures designed to yield $994,300,000 annually. (Morris, p. 363).

30 Jun The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 28,277--1,732 officers and 26,545 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
8 Jul The Joint War planning Committee completed a plan calling for an expeditionary force to be readied for embarkation from New York, on about 15 July, to occupy Martinique, the administrative and economic center of Prance's colonies in the Western Hemisphere; the 1st Marine Brigade was earmarked for the initial landing force. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 54).
9 Jul Captain Kenneth W. Benner, with one officer and eight enlisted Marines and two Navy hospital corpsmen, was ordered to Midway Atoll to relieve Captain Samuel G. Taxis and his detail and to perform reconnaissance and survey required for the antiaircraft defense of the islands. (Heinl (3), p. 5).
16 Jul Prince Fuminaro Konoye became premier of Japan. (Langer, p. 1165).
8 Aug-31 Oct Germany abandoned plans for the invasion of the British Isles. (Morris, p. 364).
10 Aug The British government announced the withdrawal of all its forces from Shanghai and North China. (Condit and Turnbladh, p. 188).
19 Aug Italian troops completed the occupation of British Somaliland. (Morris, p. 364).
1 Sep The Midway Detachment, Fleet Marine Force, consisting of nine officers and 168 enlisted Marines and approximately one-third of the 3d Defense Battalion's equipment, was established. (Heinl (3), p. 5).
2 Sep The U.S. agreed to exchange 50 destroyers in return for 99-year leases on certain British base sites in strategically placed British possessions. These included the Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Saint Lucia, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Marine security guard detachments were later ordered to occupy the bases. (OpHist, v: 1, pp. 53, 54).
16 Sep The Selective Training and Service Act was approved, (Morris, p. 364).
Summer Major Alfred R. Pefley made a thorough survey of Tutuila, American Samoa, and prepared a detailed plan for its defense. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 67).
27 Sep Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Treaty. (Langer, p. 1136).
29 Sep Midway Detachment, Fleet Marine Force, commanded by Major Harold C. Roberts, arrived on Midway from Pearl Harbor and began making camp and installing the atoll's defenses. (Heinl (.3), p. 45).

--6--

1940
1 Oct-9 Dec Aircraft and personnel of Marine Aircraft Group 1 participated in Special Landing Operation No. 2, conducted in the Caribbean area. (CMCRpt, 1941, p. 53).
5 Oct The Secretary of the Navy ordered all organized reserve divisions and aviation squadrons on call for active duty. ("Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, p. 1). Air Detachment, Marine Barracks, Parris Island (later Marine Corps Air Station, Parris Island) was organized. (Sherrod, p. 440).
15 Oct General mobilization orders were issued to the personnel of all Marine Corps Reserve Battalions directing that they be assigned to active duty not later than 9 November 1940. (CMCRpt, 1941, p. 58).
26 Oct A Marine Parachute Detachment was organized at the Naval Air Station. Lakehurst. New Jersey. (Johnstone (2), p. 2).
Oct The Navy, on request of the President, drafted a plan calling for an assault on Martinique by a naval force including a landing party of some 2,800 Marines of the 1st Marine Brigade supported by two reinforced Army regiments. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 55).
5 Nov President Roosevelt was elected to a third term of office. (Morris, p. 365).
10 Nov The Director of the Marine Corps Reserve issued a letter marking the end of the Organized Reserve and launching its integration into the regular Marine Corps. ("Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, p. 5).
1 Dec Major General Commandant Thomas Holcomb was appointed to a second term. ("Thomas Holcomb," p. 1).
16 Dec All aviation units of the Organized Marine Corps Reserve were mobilized, and the Marine Corps Reserve squadrons were disbanded and their personnel assigned to active duty. (CMCRpt, 1938-1949, p. 38 (1941)).The 7th Defense Battalion, a composite infantry-artillery unit, was organized at San Diego for duty at Tutuila, main island of American Samoa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 67).
20 Dec President Roosevelt named a four-man defense board, headed by William A. Knudson, to prepare defense measures and to hasten aid to Great Britain. (Langer, p. 1136).
21 Dec The rear echelon of the 7th Defense Battalion arrived at Pago Pago, Tutuila, American Samoa, for duty. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 68).
24 Dec The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing completed movement to the West Coast. (Sherrod, p. 47).
The 2d Marine Brigade was activated at Camp Elliott, California, by the 2d Marine Division; the 3d Marines, the 2d Battalion, 10th Marines, and the 2d Defense Battalion were assigned. Colonel Henry L. Larsen assumed command of the brigade. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 88).

--7--

1941
27 Jan WASHINGTON: Admiral Stark, CNO, ordered the 3d Defense Battalion to Midway and directed that detachments of the 1st Defense Battalion be established at Johnston and Palmyra and that the 6th. Defense Battalion be moved to Pearl Harbor as a replacement and reserve unit for the outposts. (OpHist. v. 1, p. 65).
29 Jan-27 Mar CONTINENTAL U.S.: Secret U.S.-British staff talks, held in Washington, produced a plan known as ABC-1, suggesting that in the event of U.S. involvement in the war the concentration of force should be on Germany first. (Morris, p. 365).
1 Feb USMC: The brigades stationed on the east and west coasts of the U.S. were officially activated as the 1st and 2d Marine Divisions, respectively. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 48).
CUBA:---The 4th Defense Battalion arrived at Guantanamo Bay from Parris Island, South Carolina, to garrison and defend the naval base there. (Muster Rolls; Heinl (1), p. 311).
3 Feb HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A Marine Corps airfield was established at Ewa when planes of Marine Aircraft Group 2 arrived from Ford Island. Oahu. (Sherrod, p. 44l).
14 Feb MIDWAY: The rear echelon of the 3d Defense Battalion arrived. (Heinl (3), p. 7).
15 Feb CONTINENTAL U.S.: Congress approved the construction of a new and extensive base for Fleet Marine Force operations on the eastern seaboard, to be located at New River, North Carolina. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 52).

An advance echelon of the 1st Defense Battalion left San Diego on the USS Enterprise for Johnston Island and Palmyra Atoll via Pearl Harbor. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 65. 66).

3 Mar JOHNSTON: Two 5-inch guns, six Marines, and two naval corpsmen were set ashore to prepare defenses. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 66).
11 Mar CONTINENTAL U.S.: The Lend-Lease Act was approved by President Roosevelt. (Morris, p. 366).
18 Mar SAMOA: The 7th Defense Battalion arrived; it was the first unit of the Fleet Marine Force to serve in the Southern Hemisphere during the Second World War. (Sherrod, p. 47).
24 Mar-15 Apr NORTH AFRICA: A North African offensive by German and Italian forces under General Erwin Rommel compelled the British to withdraw to Egypt. (Morris, p. 366).
5 Apr CONTINENTAL U.S.: The "Fifth Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act, 1941" was approved providing $14,575,000 for the establishment of a Marine Corps training area on the East Coast. (CMCRpt, 1941, p. 9).
6 Apr-1 Jun EUROPE: Germany invaded and captured Greece, Yugoslavia, and Crete. (Morris, p. 366).

--8--

1941
9 Apr INTERNATIONAL: The U.S. and Denmark signed an agreement pledging the U.S. to defend Greenland against invasion and granting her the right to construct, maintain, and operate defense installations in Greenland. (Morris, p. 366).
13 Apr INTERNATIONAL: Russia and Japan signed a neutrality treaty. (Langer, p. 1137).
14 Apr PALMYRA: A Marine garrison designated Marine Detachment, 1st Defense Battalion, was established for the defense of the island. ("Garrison Force").
18 Apr PACIFIC-In a letter to the CNO stressing the importance of Wake Atoll, Admiral Kimmel, CinCPac, asked that work on Wake's defense be given a higher priority than base construction and that a Marine defense battalion be assigned to the atoll. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 95).
22 Apr CONTINENTAL U.S.: An act was approved by Congress which increased the authorized enlisted strength of the Navy and provided that, thereafter, the authorized enlisted strength of the active list of the Marine Corps should be 20% of that of the Navy. (CMCRpt, 1941, p. 10).
1 May USMC: Marine Barracks, New River, North Carolina, was established with Lieutenant Colonel William p. T. Hill, commanding. (Muster Rolls.).
27 May CONTINENTAL U.S.: President Roosevelt proclaimed an unlimited state of national emergency. (Langer, p. 1137).
29 May CONTINENTAL U.S.: A U.S. Army and Navy plan to occupy the Portuguese Azores was approved by the Joint Board; it provided for a landing force of 28,000 combat troops, half Marine and half Army, to be commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 55).
7 Jun CONTINENTAL U.S.: President Roosevelt suspended planning for the Azores' operation when intelligence sources in Europe produced evidence that Germany did not plan to invade Spain and Portugal. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 38, 56).
13 Jun ATLANTIC: Major General Holland M. Smith relinquished command of the 1st Marine Division to become Commanding General, I Corps (Provisional), U.S. Atlantic Fleet, composed of the 1st Marine Division and the 1st Infantry Division, USA. (FMFPac, p. 10).
16 Jun USMC: The 1st Marine Brigade (Provisional), commanded by Brigadier General John Marston, was formally organized at Charleston. South Carolina, for duty in Iceland. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 38).
Spring CONTINENTAL U.S.: An American war plan was promulgated, making almost the whole of the Pacific an American strategic responsibility; it provided for the capture of the. Caroline and Marshall Islands and the development of bases at Midway, Johnston, Palmyra, Samoa, and Wake, all having Marine garrisons. (OpHist, pp. 63, 64).

--9--

1941
22 Jun USSR: Germany invaded the Soviet Union. (Morris, p. 366).
23 Jun WASHINGTON: Admiral Stark, CNO, directed that elements of the 1st Defense Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, be established at Wake "as soon as practicable." (OpHist, v. 1, p. 96).
26 Jun USMC: The I Corps (Provisional), U.S. Atlantic Fleet, commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith, was redesignated Task Force 18. U.S. Atlantic Fleet. (FMFPac, p. 10).
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 54,359--3,339 officers and 51,020 enlisted men. (Strengths, p. 6).
7 Jul USMC: The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Louis E. Woods, was organized at Quantico. (Sherrod, p. 438).

ICELAND: By agreement with the Icelandic government, the 1st Marine Brigade landed at Reykjavik, Iceland, to prevent the island's occupation by Germany for use as a naval or air base against the Western Hemisphere. (OpHist, pp. 40. 41: Morris, p. 367).

10 Jul USMC: The 2d Marine Aircraft Wing was organized at San Diego under the command of Colonel Francis P. Mulcahy. (Sherrod, p. 438).
15 Jul GREAT BRITAIN: The Marine Detachment, American Embassy, London, England, was activated. (Muster Rolls).
24 Jul INDO-CHINA: Japan occupied French Indo-China. (Morris, p. 367).
JOHNSTON: A Marine garrison designated Marine Detachment, 1st Defense Battalion was established for the defense of the island, ("Garrison Forces").
26 Jul PHILIPPINES: President Roosevelt nationalized the armed forces of the Philippines for the duration of the emergency and placed them under the command of General MacArthur, CinCUSAFFE. (Morris, p. 367).
28 Jul ATLANTIC: Task Force 18, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith, was redesignated 1st Joint Training Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. (FMFPac, p. 10).
1 Aug MIDWAY: Naval Air Station, Midway, under Commander Cyril T. Simard, USN, was commissioned. (Heinl (2), p. 8).
11 Aug MIDWAY: Lieutenant Colonel Harold D. Shannon, executive officer of the 6th Defense Battalion, arrived on Midway and immediately began preparations for the relief of the 3d Defense Battalion. (Heinl (3), p. 8).
12 Aug ATLANTIC: The 1st Joint Training Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith, was redesignated the Atlantic Amphibious Force. (FMFPac, pp. 10. 11).
14 Aug ATLANTIC: The Atlantic Charter was issued. (Langer, p. 1137).

--10--

1941
18 Aug USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Cushman, was organized at New Bern as Air Facilities under Development. (Sherrod, p. 439).
19 Aug WAKE: An advance party from the 1st Defense Battalion arrived on Wake. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 98).
1 Sep CHINA: The American Consul-General at Shanghai, the commander of the Yangtze Patrol, and the Commanding Officer, 4th Marine Regiment at Shanghai recommended that all naval forces in China be withdrawn. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 157. 158).
11 Sep MIDWAY: The 6th Defense Battalion relieved the 3d Defense Battalion as the atoll's garrison force. (Heinl (3), pp. 45, 48).
24 Sep ICELAND: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was detached from naval jurisdiction for service with the Army. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 44).
15 Oct WAKE: Major Lewis A. Hohn was relieved as Marine Detachment commander by Major James P. S. Devereux who also became Island Commander. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 99).
17 Oct JAPAN: Prince Fuminaro Knoye's cabinet was forced to resign and General Hideki Tojo became Japan's premier and minister of war. (Langer, p. 1137).
29 Oct ATLANTIC: The Atlantic Amphibious Force, commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith, was redesignated Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet. (FMFPac, p. 11).
1 Nov CONTINENTAL U.S.: The 2d Joint Training Force, commanded by Major General Clayton B. Vogel, was commissioned at Camp Elliot, California, and composed of the 2d Marine Division and the 3d Infantry Division, USA; it was the progenitor of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 12).
2 Nov WAKE: The atoll's garrison was augmented by a draft from the parent 1st Defense Battalion at Pearl Harbor bringing the total Marine strength to 15 officers and 373 enlisted men. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 100).
3 Nov JAPAN: The Chief of the Japanese Naval General Staff, Admiral Osami Nagano, IJN, approved the draft plan for an attack against the U.S. Pacific Fleet base at Pearl Harbor, (OpHist, v. 1, p. 62).
10 Nov CHINA: CinCAF received permission to withdraw U.S. gunboats and Marines from China. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 158).
19 Nov MIDWAY: A ground echelon from Marine Aircraft Group 21 was sent to prepare the island for aircraft. (Heinl (3), p. 45).
26 Nov PACIFIC: The Japanese Pearl Harbor attack force left the Kurile Islands. (Morris, p. 368).
27 Nov CONTINENTAL U.S.: The War and Navy Departments sent warnings of imminent war to commanders of U.S. forces in the Pacific. (Morris, p. 368).
28 Nov CHINA: USS Madison and Harrison evacuated the 4th Marines and its equipment from Shanghai to Olongapo, Philippines. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 159).

--11--

1941
28 Nov HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The air echelon of Marine Fighter Squadron 211, on secret orders, flew 12 F4F-3 fighters from Ewa to Ford Island for further transfer to USS Enterprise and then to Wake. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 101).

WAKE: Commander W. S. Cunningham, USN, relieved Major J.P.S Devereux as Wake Island Commander; nine Navy officers and 58 bluejackets arrived as the initial detachment of the Naval Air Station. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 103; Morison, v. VIII, p. 228).

29 Nov WASHINGTON: Admiral Stark, CNO, directed that defense recommendations based on Major Alfred R. Pefley's reconnaissance of Tutuila, Samoa, be implemented immediately; the naval governor was authorized to begin construction of coast defense and antiaircraft gun positions. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 67, 68).

WAKE: Major Walter L. J. Bayler arrived with a detachment of Marines from Marine Aircraft Group 21 to set up air base communication facilities. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 102).

30 Nov USMC: Total strength of the Marine Corps was 65,88l. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 48).

PHILIPPINES: USS Madison and Harrison arrived at Olongapo and disembarked the 4th Marines. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 159).

1 Dec USMC: Cunningham Field, Cherry Point, North Carolina, commanded by Colonel Thomas J. Cushman, was designated a Marine Corps Air Station for development purposes to relieve the facilities at Quantico. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 52; Sherrod, p. 439).

Marine Corps Air Station, Quantico, commanded by Major Ivan W. Miller, was established by redesignation from Base Air Detachment 1, Marine Barracks. (Sherrod, p. 440).

Marine Corps Air Station, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ford 0. Rogers, was established by redesignation from Marine Corps Air Facility, Bourne Field. (Sherrod, p. 440).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The 2d Defense Battalion and the 4th Defense Battalion, scheduled to be the permanent garrison on Wake Atoll, arrived at Pearl Harbor. (Muster Rolls; OpHist, v. 1, p. 66).

JAPAN: Japanese Destroyer Division 7 sailed from Tokyo with orders to proceed via a carefully planned route to Midway; this force and a small task unit of the larger fleet on its way to Pearl Harbor were provisionally designated as the Midway Neutralization Unit. (Heinl (3), p. 10).

4 Dec WAKE: Twelve F4F-3's of Marine Fighter Squadron 211 arrived on board the USS Enterprise. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 101).
5 Dec WAKE: Personnel of Marine Fighter Squadron 211 began daily dawn to dusk patrols from the atoll. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 102).

--12--

1941
7 Dec HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A Japanese carrier force inflicted heavy casualties on the American forces at Pearl Harbor; 2,280 persons were killed and 1,109 wounded, 188 planes were destroyed, and 19 ships sunk. Marine losses on the islands included 111 men killed or missing and 75 wounded and 33 aircraft destroyed and 12 damaged. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 73. 74; Williams, p. 3; Statistics Unit).

MIDWAY: Japanese destroyers Akebono and Ushio bombarded the atoll; the Marine garrison suffered 14. casualties and considerable damage to equipment. (Heinl (3), p. 4.5).

SAMOA: The Commanding Officer of the 7th Defense Battalion ordered his troops to man their positions; the Samoan Marine Reserve Battalion was called to active duty and assigned to reinforce the defenses. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 88).

JAPAN: Subsequent to attacks in the Pacific, Japan declared war on the U.S. and Great Britain. (Williams, p. 3).

8 Dec WASHINGTON: The U.S. declared war on Japan. (Langer, p. 1138).

WAKE: Japanese Air Attack Force No. 1, 24th Air Flotilla, based at Roi, bombed Camps One and Two and the airstrip. Seven of eight F4F-3's were destroyed, the airstrip was fired by an exploded 25,000-gallon aviation gas tank, and numerous casualties were sustained. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 107, 108).

GUAM: Saipan-based Japanese aircraft bombed the Marine garrison, sank the mine sweeper USS Penquin in Apra Harbor and caused extensive damage to installations. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 76; Lodge, p. 7).

PHILIPPINES: Army air installations on Luzon were attacked by fighters and bombers of the Japanese 11th Air Fleet. A small Japanese force landed on Bataan Island and established an air base. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 162. 163).

SOUTHEAST ASIA: Thailand and Malaya were invaded by the Japanese. (Morris, p. 369).

JAPAN: Vice Admiral N. Inouye, IJN, commander of the Japanese Fourth Fleet at Truk, set in motion war plans calling for the capture and development of Wake, Guam, and certain islands of the Gilberts, among them Makin and Tarawa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 115).

CHINA: Colonel William W. Ashurst, senior Marine officer in China, surrendered Marine detachments at Tientsin, Peiping, and Camp Holcomb as well as the Embassy guard to the Japanese. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 160, 161).

9 Dec WAKE: Installations were destroyed and the Naval Air Station on Peale Island and Batteries A and E on Peacock Point were damaged during an air attack by the Japanese 24th Air Flotilla. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 110. 111).

GUAM: The island sustained continued bombing by Japanese aircraft. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 76: Lodge, p. 7).

-13--

1941
  PHILIPPINES: Nichols Field, Luzon, was attacked. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 163).
10 Dec WAKE: During a Japanese air attack, a 125-ton dynamite cache was destroyed with major damage to the island's batteries. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 115; Heinl (2), p. 68).

GUAM: A Japanese naval landing party of about 400 men from the 5th Defense Force, based on Saipan, landed on Dungcas Beach while elements of the South Seas Detached Force of about 5,500 men made separate landings at Tumon Bay in the north, on the southwest coast near Merizo, and on the eastern shore of the island at Talafofo Bay. Captain George J. McMillan, USN, governor of the island and commander of the Marine garrison, surrendered to the Japanese naval commander. (OpHist, v. 1, pp.. 77, 76).

GILBERTS: Makin Island was seized by a Japanese landing force, and the Imperial Japanese Navy proclaimed Tarawa Atoll occupied. (Stockman, pp. 6. 74).

PHILIPPINES: Two Japanese combat teams from the 2d Formosa Regiment, 48th Division, landed at Aparri and Vigan in Northern Luzon and secured airfields for use by Army planes. Manila Bay was attacked; CinCAF ordered most of the remaining ships of the Asiatic Fleet still in the bay to sail south to safety. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 163. 164).

11 Dec EUROPE: Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. which recognized a state of war with these nations. (Morris, p. 368).

WAKE: An attempt to land a force of 450 men from Japanese Destroyer Squadron 6, commanded by Rear Admiral Kajioka, IJN, on Wake and Wilkes Islands was decisively defeated with the loss of two Japanese destroyers; the destroyer Hayate was the first Japanese surface craft to be sunk during World War II by U.S. naval forces. Pilots of Marine Fighter Squadron 211 strafed and bombed the retiring force. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 116-121; Heinl (2), p. 25).

PHILIPPINES: The Japanese were firmly established ashore and in practical control of the northern tip of Luzon. The 11th Philippine Army Division, responsible for the defense of the island north of Lingayen Gulf, offered no effective resistance. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 164. 165).

12 Dec WAKE: Wake and Peale Islands were bombed and strafed by Japanese patrol bombers from Majuro, but little damage resulted. A Japanese submarine was bombed and possibly sunk by Marine Fighter Squadron 211 25 miles southwest of the atoll. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 121, 122).

PHILIPPINES: Effective U.S. air support ended; Japanese naval planes of the 11th Air Fleet attacked Luzon in force and strafed the naval station at Olongapo. The advance assault detachment of the 16th Japanese Division landed unopposed at Legaspi in southeastern Luzon, took their airfield objective, and moved north. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 165; Williams, p. 5).

--14--

1941
13 Dec USMC: Marine Garrison Forces, l4th Naval District, was formed in Honolulu so that all Marine garrison forces in the l4th Naval District could be centrally administered; at this time all barracks and detachments under its command were in the Hawaiian Islands. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap 3, p. 27)..

PHILIPPINES: Japanese aircraft continued their attacks on Olongapo and Luzon completing the destruction of U.S. Army and Navy planes in the islands. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 165; Williams, p. 5).

14 Dec WAKE: Japanese air raids on the atoll by Kawanishi 97 flying boats from Wotje and Roi damaged Camp One and the airstrip; a plane of Marine Fighter Squadron 211 was destroyed leaving the atoll's defenders only one operational airstrip. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 123).
15 Dec HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher's Task Force 14, carrying a Marine expeditionary force which included elements of the 4th Defense Battalion and Marine Fighter Squadron 211. left Pearl Harbor on the USS Saratoga, Astoria, and Tangier for the relief of forces on Wake Atoll. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 130. Heinl (2), pp. 37-39)..

JOHNSTON: Two Japanese ships bombarded the island, destroying a 1,200-gallon oil tank. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 82).

17 Dec WAKE: Japanese air raids on the atoll ignited a diesel oil tank on Wilkes Island and damaged an evaporator unit on which the atoll depended for its water supply. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 125).

MIDWAY: Seventeen SB2U-3's from Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 231 arrived unexpectedly from Hickam Field, Hawaii; these obsolescent aircraft executed the longest massed flight overwater of single engine land planes on record (1,137 miles) (OpHist, v. 1, p. 216).

18 Dec PACIFIC: CinCPac ordered U.S. submarines of Task Force 7, which were patrolling in the vicinity of Wake Atoll, to move south out of the area until the relief expedition reached the atoll. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 131).
19 Dec WAKE: Japanese bombers from Roi seriously damaged defense battalion facilities at Camp One. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 126).

PHILIPPINES: Olongapo was bombed. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 165).

20 Dec WASHINGTON: Admiral King was appointed CinCUS (later CominCh). (Williams, p. 7).

WAKE: A U.S. Navy PBY arrived from Midway with information about the relief expedition which included Marine Fighter Squadron 221 and units from the 4th Defense Battalion; this was the atolls first physical contact with friendly forces since the start of the war. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 126).

PHILIPPINES: Lieutenant Colonel J. P. Adams, commander of Marines at Cavite, received orders to evacuate the area. CinCAF complied with General MacArthur's request that the 4th Marines at Olongapo be assigned to his command. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 165, 168).

--15--

1941
Japanese troops invaded Mindanao and seized Davao and its airfield. (Williams, p. 7).
21 Dec USMC: The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing arrived at San Diego from Quantico. (Sherrod, p. 437).

PACIFIC: Intelligence information arriving at Pearl Harbor indicated that a large force of shore-based Japanese planes was building up in the Marshalls and that enemy surface forces might be east of Wake where they could detect the approach of Task Force 14 carrying reinforcements to the atoll. Other reports indicated the presence of Japanese carriers, including the Soryu, northwest of Wake. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 131).

WAKE: A U.S. Navy PBY departed with the last U.S. personnel to leave the atoll. Japanese air raids seriously damaged Battery D's position on Peale Island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 127).

JOHNSTON: A Japanese submarine fired star shells over Sand Islet. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 62).

WASHINGTON: Political and military leaders of the U.S. and Great Britain met at the Arcadia Conference to chart the course of Allied operations against the Axis powers. The ABC-1 decision to concentrate on Europe was reaffirmed although sufficient men and material were to be committed against Japan to allow a gradual assumption of the offensive. The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS), a supreme military council membered by the chiefs of services of both nations was organized. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 85).

WAKE: Japanese dive bombers escorted by fighters from the Soryu-Hiryu carrier division destroyed all Marine Fighter Squadron 211 planes in commission. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 128).

JOHNSTON: The Japanese conducted surface bombardment of the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 83).

PHILIPPINES: The reinforced Japanese 48th Division landed in Lingayen Gulf on Luzon with Manila as the objective and effected a juncture with the Vigan-Aparri landing forces. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 166).

23 Dec WAKE: The Maizuru Second Special Naval Landing Force executed a predawn landing on the south shore of Wake and Wilkes Islands while carriers Soryu and Hiryu launched air strikes against Wilkes, Peale, and Wake Islands in support of the landing force. After almost 12 hours fighting, all islands had been surrendered. The relief expedition, Task Force 14, was recalled. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 132-149; Heinl (1), pp. 52, 68).

PHILIPPINES: General MacArthur decided to withdraw to Bataan. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 167).

24 Dec USMC: The 2d Marine Brigade, under the command of Colonel Henry L. Larsen, was activated at Camp Elliott, California; the 3d Marines, the 2d Battalion, 10th Marines, and the 2d Defense Battalion were assigned. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 88).

--16--

1941
  MIDWAY: Reinforcements, including about 100 officers and men from Batteries A and C of the 4th Defense Battalion, arrived from Pearl Harbor. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 216).

PALMYRA: A Japanese raider surfaced 3,000 yards south of the main island and fired at the dredge Sacremento, causing minor damage. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 83).

PHILIPPINES: A series of conferences concerning the withdrawal to Bataan took place in Manila. As a result, the 4th Marines was ordered to Corregidor to take over beach defenses there after assembly at Mariveles on the southern tip of Bataan, and the Marine commander was ordered to report immediately to General MacArthur for duty. The new command post of the 4th Marines was opened outside Mariveles, Bataan; the 1st Battalion underwent bombing by Japanese aircraft. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 167, 168).

25 Dec CHINA: The British garrison surrendered Hong Kong to the Japanese. (Morris, p. 369).

MIDWAY: The air echelon of Marine Fighter Squadron 221 arrived from the USS Saratoga retiring from the abortive attempt to relieve Wake Island and immediately began a daily schedule of air search and patrol. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 216).

26 Dec MIDWAY: The island's garrison was augmented by Battery B of the 4th Defense Battalion, an aviation contingent constituting the ground echelon of Marine Fighter Squadron 221, and additional equipment including radar. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 21).

PHILIPPINES: Four hundred and eleven Marines of the battalion at Cavite moved to Corregidor; Manila was declared an open city. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 168: Williams, p. 9).

27- 28 Dec PHILIPPINES: The 4th Marines moved to Corregidor with the exception of Batteries A and C and the radar detachment which remained on Bataan. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 170).
29 Dec PHILIPPINES: The Commanding Officer, 4th Marines assigned beach defense sectors to his battalions, and the troops moved to their new bivouac area. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 170, 171; Williams, p. 10).

Forty bombers of the 5th Japanese Air Group attacked Corregidor, ending "normal" above ground living there. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 170, 171).

30 Dec JOHNSTON: Additional 5-inch and 3-inch batteries and 16 more machine guns with the men to operate them arrived on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 83).
31 Dec PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz assumed command at the U.S Pacific Fleet as CinCPac. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 84).
Dec PALMYRA: The 1st Defense Battalion arrived on Palmyra Atoll with reinforcements to take over the defense of the area. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 83).

--17--

1942
1 Jan WASHINGTON: The United Nations Declaration was signed. (Morris, p. 383).
2 Jan USMC: The Marine Corps Supply Center, Barstow, California, was organized as Marine Barracks, Marine Corps Depot of Supplies. (Muster Rolls).

PHILIPPINES: Japanese troops entered Manila. (OpHist, v. 1. p. 172).

7 Jan PHILIPPINES: General MacArthur organized his forces into two corps and a rear area service command. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 172).
9 Jan PHILIPPINES: Marines from Batteries A and C, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, who remained on Bataan under naval control were integrated into a naval battalion for ground combat. (OpHist, v. .1, p. 175).
10 Jan PACIFIC: The American, British, Dutch, Australian Command in the western Pacific was organized to control defensive operations against the Japanese along a broad sweep of positions from Burma through the Philippines to New Guinea. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 86).
11 Jan SAMOA: U.S. Navy installations at Pago Pago were shelled by a Japanese submarine. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 205).
15 Jan SAMOA: Brigadier General Henry L. Larson was appointed the first military governor of American Samoa. ("Larson," p. 1).
20 Jan USMC: Pursuant to an act of Congress, Major General Commandant Thomas Holcomb became the first lieutenant general in the Marine Corps. ("Thomas Holcomb").
22-23 Jan PHILIPPINES: A 900-man Japanese force, the 2d Battalion, 20th Japanese Infantry, landed at Quinauan Point, and Longoskawayan Point, Bataan. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 177).
23 Jan SAMOA: The 7th Defense Battalion was reinforced by the 2d Marine Brigade (the 8th and 10th Marines, and the 2d Defense Battalion). (Sherrod, p. 48).

SOLOMONS: Japanese landed at Kieta, Bougainville Island. (Rentz, p. 141).

BISMARCKS: Japanese forces landed at Rabaul where they quickly overran the small Australian garrison there and occupied New Ireland. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 205; Hough and Crown, p. 206).

24-27 Jan MACASSAR STRAIT: The battle of Macassar Strait. Allied sea and air forces inflicted severe damage on a large Japanese invasion convoy in the first sea battle between the Allies and Japan, off Balikpapan, Borneo. (Morris, p. 369; Williams, p. 18).
25 Jan MIDWAY: A Japanese submarine shelled Sand Island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 217).
27 Jan PHILIPPINES: Elements of the 4th Marine Regiment participated in an attack to contain Japanese forces on Longoskawayan Point, Bataan. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 179).

--18--

1942
28 Jan PHILIPPINES: Mortars and machine guns of the 4th Marines were assigned to the 57th Philippine Scout Regiment to support their operations in partial relief of the naval battalion on Longoskawayan Point, Bataan; organized Japanese resistance in that sector ended. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 179).
31 Jan SOUTHEAST ASIA: British troops withdrew from Malaya to Singapore. (Morris, p. 369).
1 Feb USMC: Air Detachment, Marine Barracks, Parris Island, was redesignated Marine Corps Air Station, Parris Island. (Sherrod, p. 440).

PACIFIC: Task Forces 8 and 17 launched air attacks against Japanese installations in the Gilberts and Marshalls. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 207).

8 MIDWAY: A Japanese submarine fired on Sand Island causing minor damage to the radio towers. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 217).
9 Feb WASHINGTON: The first formal meeting of the JCS was attended by General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, USA; Lieutenant General Henry H. Arnold, Chief of the Army Air Corps; Admiral Stark, CNO; and Admiral King, CominCh. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 85).
10 Feb PACIFIC: The 2d Joint Training Force, commanded by Major General Clayton B. Vogel, was redesignated the Amphibious Force. U.S. Pacific Fleet. (FMFPac, p. 13).

MIDWAY: A Japanese submarine fired two rounds at American installations before being driven off by aircraft of Marine Fighter Squadron 221. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 217).

13 Feb PHILIPPINES: Destruction of the last survivors of the Japanese amphibious attempts at Longoskawayan Point and Quinauan Point was completed. (OpHist, v. 1, p. l80).
15 Feb SOUTHEAST ASIA: Singapore and its British garrison unconditionally surrendered to the Japanese. (Morris, p. 369).
17-18 Feb PHILIPPINES: A detachment of the USS Canopus crewmen, sailors from the Cavite Naval Ammunition Depot, and the majority of the general duty men were transferred to the 4th Marines on Corregidor. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 180).
19 Feb CUBA: The 9th Defense Battalion arrived in Guantanamo Bay via the USS Biddle from Norfolk, Virginia. (Muster Rolls).
19-20 Feb NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES: The Battle of Badoeng Strait. An Allied naval force attacked the retiring Japanese Bali occupation force; two Allied destroyers were sunk. (Naval Chronology, pp. 19, 20).
23 Feb CONTINENTAL U.S.: An oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California, was shelled by a Japanese submarine. (Morris, p. 370).

BISMARCKS: Rabaul was bombed by six B-17's of the Fifth Air Force in the first of a series of raids by small groups of Allied heavy bombers on Japanese installations there. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 478).

--19--

1942
27 Feb PHILIPPINES: A Japanese force landed on northeast Mindoro. (Williams, p. 26).
27 Feb-1 Mar JAVA SEA: The Battle of the Java Sea. An Allied naval force attacked a Japanese force covering the Java invasion convoy in a delaying action which resulted in the most severe U.S. naval losses since Pearl Harbor. (Morris, p. 369: Naval Chronology, p. 20).
1 Mar PACIFIC: The American, British, Dutch, Australian Command was formally dissolved. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 86).

MIDWAY: -Marine Aircraft Group 22 was organized on Midway from Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 231 and Marine Fighter Squadron 221. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 217).

3 Mar WASHINGTON: A dividing line for the Western Pacific was approved; Burma and all Southeast Asia west of a north-south line between Java and Sumatra fell under General Sir Archibald P. Wavell, British Commander in Chief in India, and the British Chiefs of Staff were charged with the strategic direction of the theater; the Pacific east of the new line was given over to American JCS control. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 86).

ATLANTIC: The Atlantic Amphibious Force, commanded by Major General Holland K. Smith, received its final redesignation so far as the Marine Corps was concerned when the command became the Amphibious Corps, Atlantic Fleet. (FMFPac, p. 11).

8 Mar ICELAND: The 1st Marine Brigade (Provisional), stationed at Reykjavik, Iceland, was relieved by U.S. Army troops. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 46).

NEW GUINEA: Japanese troops landed at Lae and Salamaua. (Morris, p. 369).

9 Mar WASHINGTON: Admiral King was appointed CNO in addition to his CominCh post. (Williams, p. 28).

NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES: The Japanese conquest of Java was completed. (Morris, p. 369).

10 Mar USMC: The 132,000 acre Santa Margarita Ranch, north of San Diego, was purchased as a new Marine Corps base. ("Posts and Stations," Camp Pendleton).

MIDWAY: Twelve Marine fighters, commanded by Captain Robert M. Haynes, intercepted a Japanese Kawanishi 97 flying boat in the first test of Marine fliers on Midway against enemy aircraft. This sighting gave added weight to Cincpac's estimate that the Japanese planned a new offensive toward Hawaii. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 216).

11 Mar PHILIPPINES: General MacArthur created a new headquarters, Luzon Force, to control the operations on Bataan and appointed Major General J. M. Wainwright, USA. as commander. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 182).
12 Mar PACIFIC: The Occupation of certain strategically important islands in the South Pacific began when Noumea, the capital of New Caledonia, was entered by a mixed American force; the construction of a major air base at nearby Tontouta began. (Zimmerman, p. 4).

--20--

1942
17 Mar PACIFIC: General MacArthur arrived in Darwin, Australia, to take command of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific. (Williams, p. 29).

SAMOA: Tutuila airfield in American Samoa was completed. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).

18 Mar NEW HEBRIDES: U.S. Army engineers arrived at Efate to construct an airfield. (Williams p. 29).
19 Mar SAMOA: The advance echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 13 arrived on Tutuila for duty with the Headquarters Samoan Area Defense Force. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).
20 Mar SAMOA: Negotiations for the use of land and other facilities in Western Samoa were completed when Brigadier General Henry L. Larsen and a New Zealand representative signed an agreement giving the Americans responsibility for the defense of all the Samoan islands. This group, together with Wallis Island, was considered a tactical entity and a new Marine brigade was to be organized to occupy the western islands. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).

PHILIPPINES: The War Department notified Lieutenant General J. M. Wainwright, USA, that he was to assume command of all forces remaining in the Philippines; United States Air Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) was created to supersede USAFFE. (OpHist, v. 1, p. l82).

21 Mar USMC: The 3d Marine Brigade was organized at New River, North Carolina, from elements of the 1st Marine Division and was assigned to garrison Western Samoa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).
23 Mar USMC: The Secretary of Navy designated the new Marine Corps Training Area at Santa Margarita Ranch as Camp Joseph H. Pendleton. (Muster Rolls).
25 Mar USMC: The 1st Marine Brigade (Provisional) was disbanded upon arrival at New York from Iceland. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 46).
28 Mar SAMOA: The 7th Defense Battalion was sent to Upolu, Western Samoa, as an advance force for the new garrison there; a small detachment was also established on Savii. (OpHist, V. 1, p. 90).
29 Mar NEW HEBRIDES: The 4th Marine Defense Battalion and Marine Fighter Squadron 212 were diverted from their deployment to Tongatabu and landed at Port Vila on Efate. (OpHist, V. 1, p. 218: Zimmerman, p. 4).
30 Mar WASHINGTON: Directives were drafted, for submission to Allied governments concerned, appointing General MacArthur as CinCSWPA and Admiral Nimitz as CinCPOA. SWPA was to include Australia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons, and most of the Netherlands East Indies; POA would compromise the North, Central, and South Pacific. (Williams, p. 30).
2 Apr SAMOA: The first flight echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 13 arrived at Tutuila and assumed the air defense of the American Samoa area. (Sherrod, p. 444).

--21--

1942
3 Apr PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPac, was confirmed as CinCPOA to comprise North, Central, and South Pacific. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 87; Williams, p. 30).
6 Apr ADMIRALTIES: A small Japanese naval force landed at Lorengau. (Williams, p. 32).
8 Apr PHILIPPINES: All munitions dumps were destroyed in Mariveles harbor, Bataan, under order of the Commander, Luzon Force. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 183).
9 Apr PHILIPPINES: Major General Edward King, Jr., USA, in command of Luzon Force, unconditionally surrendered his forces on Bataan. Only the antiaircraft gunners from the Mariveles area, including the 4th Marines' Battery C, escaped to Corregidor. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 183).

Japanese heavy artillery began the bombardment of Corregidor which eventually destroyed the majority of the island's defenses. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. l84. l85).

9-12 Apr PHILIPPINES: Escapees from Bataan joined the 4th Marines on Corregidor; the sailors from Mariveles were formed into a reserve battalion designated the 4th Battalion, 4th Marines. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 188).
18 Apr SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur assumed supreme command of the SWPA which included Australia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons, and most of the Netherlands East Indies; USAFFE became inactive. (Williams, pp. 34, 40).

PALMYRA: Marine Fighter Squadron 211 flew onto the island from the USS Lexington. (Sherrod, p. 49).

JAPAN: Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle, USA, with 16 B-25's from the USS Hornet bombed Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama, and Nagoya. (OpHist; v. 1, pp. 207. 208).

28 Apr SAMOA: Major General Charles F. B. Price arrived with his staff at Pago Pago to command the Headquarters Samoan Area Defense Force. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).
29 Apr PACIFIC: Admiral King, ComSoPac, established the South Pacific Amphibious Force composed primarily of the 1st Marine Division. (Williams, p. 35).
1 May SAMOA: The 8th Defense Battalion (rein) arrived on Wallis from Tutuila Island for the defense of the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90; Muster Rolls).
2 May MIDWAY: CinCPac conferred with the senior Marine officer on the island and directed him to submit a detailed list of all supplies and equipment needed to defend the atoll against a strong attack. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 219).
3 May SOLOMONS: Japanese "marines" from the 3d Kure Special Landing Force captured Tulagi Island while a task organization of the 3d Kure Force went ashore on Gavutu, a smaller island nearby; defensive positions were established immediately. This began their attempted encirclement of the Coral Sea. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 210, 237, 238).

--22--

1942
4 May CORAL SEA: The Battle of the Coral Sea. Planes from. Task Force 17 struck the new Japanese garrison at Tulagi, Solomon Islands, and Japanese ships still in the area. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 210).
5 May CORAL SEA: The Battle of the Coral Sea. Task Force 17 moved to intercept the Japanese Port Moresby Invasion Group. (Naval Chronology, p. 24).
5-6 May PHILIPPINES: The Japanese 61st Infantry Regiment and its supporting units landed on Corregidor along the beaches between Infantry and Cavalry Points in the Marine's East Sector. The initial landing was opposed by the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 191-193).
6 May PHILIPPINES: The 4th Marines' reserve companies and the 4th Battalion (reserve) were committed in an unsuccessful counterattack on the Japanese position in the East Sector. Major General J. M. Wainwright, USA, surrendered all forces in the Philippines; Colonel S. L. Howard, senior Marine officer, ordered the regimental and national colors of the 4th Marines burned to prevent their capture. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 195-199).
7 May CORAL SEA: The Battle of the Coral Sea. Carrier-based Japanese aircraft attacked and sank the U.S. fleet tanker Neosho and her convoying destroyer USS Sims. U.S. carrier aircraft struck the Japanese Covering Force, then protecting the left flank of the Port Moresby Invasion Group, and sank a light cruiser. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 210, 211).

PHILIPPINES: The Japanese occupied the last of the island forts. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 201).

8 May CORAL SEA: The Battle of the Coral Sea. U.S. and Japanese aircraft struck the other's carriers at nearly the same time. Although the U.S. sustained heavier damage and casualties than the Japanese, the Japanese invasion of Port Moresby was forestalled. The battle was the first major naval engagement in history where opposing surface forces neither saw nor fired at each other. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 210-213; Naval Chronology, p. 24).

SAMOA: The 3d Marine Brigade convoy arrived off Apia, American Samoa, and its commander assumed military control of Western Samoa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 90).

9 May SAMOA: Marine Observation Squadron 151 arrived from Norfolk, Virginia. (Sherrod, p. 459).
10 May-9 Jun PHILIPPINES: The Visayan-Mindanao Force and small Allied forces on Luzon and Palawan surrendered to the Japanese. (Williams, p. 37).
11 May ICELAND: Marine Barracks, Fleet Air Base, Naval Operating Base. Iceland, was established. (Muster Rolls).
20 May USMC: Cunningham Field, Cherry Point, North Carolina, capable of servicing the needs of the greater part of a Marine aircraft wing, was commissioned. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 52).

--23--

1942
PACIFIC: Reinforcements were sent to Midway and the Aleutians to repulse an expected Japanese invasion. (Williams, p. 38).

Rear Admiral John S. McCain, USN, became Commander, Air, South Pacific. (Williams, p. 38).

23 May USMC: The Training Center, Fleet Marine Force, was organized at Marine Barracks, New River, North Carolina, to include all Fleet Marine Force units and replacements except the 1st Marine Division. ("Posts and Stations," New River).
25 May MIDWAY: Companies C and D, 2d Raider Battalion, and the 37mm battery of the 3d Defense Battalion arrived on board the USS St. Louis. (Heinl (3), p. 46: OpHist, v. 1, p. 219).
26 May INTERNATIONAL: Great Britain and Russia signed a 20-year mutual aid pact. (Morris, p. 384).

MIDWAY: The 3d Defense Battalion's 3-inch antiaircraft group, a light tank platoon for mobile reserve, and 16 SBD-2's and seven F4F-3's arrived from the USS Kittyhawk. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 219).

JAPAN: The Carrier Striking Force of the Japanese Fleet, composed of four carriers plus an escort of battleships and lesser ships, sortied from the Inland Sea of Japan for Midway Atoll. (Heinl (3), pp. 25. 26).

28 May NEW HEBRIDES: A force of about 500 U.S. Army troops moved from Efate to Espiritu Santo to build an airfield in support of the proposed Solomon Islands landings. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 239).
1 Jun USMC: Recruiting of Negro Marines began. ("Negro Marines in World War II," p. 1).
2 Jun MIDWAY: Rear Admirals Raymond A. Spruance and F. J. Fletcher, USN, commanding Task Forces 16 and 17, respectively, rendezvoused about 325 miles northeast of Midway. (Morison, p. 97).
3 Jun MIDWAY: The Battle of Midway. Nine Midway based B-17s attacked elements of an approaching Japanese force but inflicted no damage. Task Forces 16 and 17 changed course to gain an advantageous position for the impending battle. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 221).

ALASKA: Japanese planes from two light carriers of the Second Mobile Force struck Dutch Harbor to cover diversionary Japanese landings in the western Aleutians and to distract attention from their attack on Midway. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 214. 215).

4 Jun MIDWAY: The Battle of Midway. The Japanese Striking Force launched the first attack wave against Midway; sea-plane hangers were set aflame and a large fire started in the fuel oil tanks on Sand Island, and Marine buildings including the powerhouse were destroyed on Eastern Island. Two groups of 12 and 13 planes from Marine Fighter Squadron 221 received heavy damage in an attempt to intercept the approaching force. Twenty-one Marine bombers together with aircraft from three U.S. carriers attacked the Japanese force; carriers Kaga and Soryu were sunk and Akagi. and Hiryu set afire and later sunk by the Japanese. U.S. carrier Yorktown was severely damaged and abandoned. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 223-230).

--24--

1942
5 Jun CONTINENTAL U.S.: The U.S. Congress declared war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. (Williams, p. 46).

MIDWAY: The Battle of Midway. Admiral Yamamoto, IJN, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, abandoned the Midway venture. U.S. aircraft attacked the withdrawing force, crippling two cruisers. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 228, 229).

6 Jun MIDWAY: The Battle of Midway. Planes from Task Force 16 sank one crippled Japanese cruiser withdrawing from Midway and critically damaged another; the USS Yorktown was sunk by torpedoes from a Japanese submarine. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 230; Williams, p. 40).
8 Jun SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: As a result of the Midway action, General MacArthur proposed to the Army Chief of Staff that a limited offensive to regain positions in the Bismarck Archipelago be undertaken. (Williams, p. 40).
12-21 Jun ALEUTIANS: The Japanese occupied Attu and Kiska Islands. (Morris, p. 370).
14 Jun NEW ZEALAND: The advance echelon of the 1st Marine Division, commanded by Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift, arrived at Wellington from the U.S. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 239).
19 Jun PACIFIC: Admiral Ghormley assumed command of the South Pacific Area and the South Pacific Force. (Williams, p. 42).
25 Jun WASHINGTON: Admiral King, CominCh, directed CinCPac and ComSoPac to prepare for an offense against the Lower Solomons. Santa Cruz Island, Tulagi, and adjacent areas were to be seized and occupied by Marines under CinCPac; U.S. Army troops from Australia would form the permanent occupation garrison. D-Day was scheduled for 1 August 1942. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 236).
26 Jun PACIFIC: Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift, commanding the 1st Marine Division, received the initial warning order of a projected Guadalcanal-Tulagi landing. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 242, 243).
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 142,413--7,138 officers and 135,475 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
1 Jul PACIFIC: Admiral Ghormley relinquished command of Army troops in the South Pacific area when Major General Millard F. Harmon, USA, became Commanding General, South Pacific Area, to head all Army forces in the Theater. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 240).
2 Jul WASHINGTON: "Joint Directive for Offensive Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area Agreed on by the United States Chiefs of Staff" was issued, setting the seizure of the New Britain-New Ireland-New Guinea area as the objective of these operations and breaking the goal down into three phases: Phase One- capture of Santa Cruz and Tulagi Islands along with positions on adjacent islands, to be commanded by Admiral Nimitz; Phase Two-seizure of other Solomon Islands and positions on New Guinea, to be commanded by General MacArthur; and Phase Three-capture of Rabaul and adjacent bases in New Britain and New Ireland, also to be under General MacArthur's command. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 236).

--25--

1942
NEW ZEALAND: The Intelligence Officer of the 1st Marine Division at Wellington left for Australia to gather data for the Guadalcanal-Tulagi landings. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 243).
8 Jul PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued his final plan of attack for the southern Solomons operation ordering the South Pacific Force to seize Santa Cruz Island and the Tulagi-Guadalcanal area. (Williams, p. 45).
10 Jul USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, El Centro, California, was organized. (Sherrod, p. 441).
11 Jul PACIFIC: The Japanese abandoned their plans to capture New Caledonia, Fiji, and Samoa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 237).

NEW ZEALAND: The rear echelon of the 1st Marine Division arrived at Wellington. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 239).

14 Jul USMC: The Marine Corps Air Station, Edenton, North Carolina, was designated Marine Corps Glider Base, under the 5th Naval District. (Sherrod, pp. 439, 440).
15 Jul NEW HEBRIDES: A detachment from the 4th Marine Defense Battalion arrived at Espiritu Santo with a heavy antiaircraft battery and an automatic weapons battery. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 239).
21 Jul NEW ZEALAND: The 1st Base Depot established an advanced echelon at Wellington. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 242).
22 Jul NEW GUINEA: A Japanese force landed near Buna Mission, the northern terminus of a 150-mile route over the Owen Stanley Mountains to Port Moresby. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 8).
28 Jul NEW HEBRIDES: The Espiritu Santo airfield became operational. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 24D.
2 Aug NEW HEBRIDES: Aircraft of Marine Observation Squadron 251 began to arrive at Espiritu Santo airfield. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 241).
3 Aug USMC: Major General Clayton B. Vogel, senior Fleet Marine Force commander at San Diego, was designated Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, San Diego Area, to head all Fleet Marine Force units in the 11th Naval District. (FMFPac, p. 12).
7 Aug USMC: Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific, was organized in accordance with a dispatch directive from the Commandant. (FMFPac, p. 33).

SOLOMONS: After preliminary bombardment, Task Groups Yoke and X-Ray of the 1st Marine Division landed in the Tulagi area and on Guadalcanal with naval and air support; this was the first American land offensive undertaken in the war against Japan. (Hough and Crown, p. 206; OpHist, v. 1 pp. 254-256).

The 5th Marines (less the 2d Battalion) landed on Red Beach, Guadalcanal, followed by the 1st Marines in reserve. The 1st and 5th Marines crossed the Tenaru River and moved unopposed toward the Ilu. Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift, commanding the Guadalcanal-Tulagi forces, ordered the occupation of the airfield and the establishment of a defensive line along the Lunga River. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 256-258).

--26--

1942
The 1st Raider Battalion landed unopposed at Blue Beach on the western shore of Tulagi Island followed by the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines. Colonel Merritt Edson, commanding the 1st Raider Battalion, launched a coordinated attack to the southeast but stopped at a heavily fortified ravine in the forward slope of Hill 28l. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 263-265).

Company B, 1st Battalion, 2d Marines, landed unopposed on Florida Island near Haleta to protect the left wing of the Tulagi landing; a similar landing by the remainder of the 1st Battalion, 2d Marines, followed at Halavo Peninsula. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 263).

The 1st Parachute Battalion landed on the northeast coast of Gavutu and advanced toward Gavutu's high ground. The 2d Marines, sent to reinforce the Gavutu-Tanambogo operation, met heavy resistance on the east shore of Tanambogo and withdrew. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 267, 268).

8 Aug PACIFIC: Admiral Ghormley, ComSoPac, approved a request by the Commander, Task Force 61 to withdraw his carrier force from the Guadalcanal area until sufficient land-based aircraft and fuel were available to support shipping. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 259).

GUADALCANAL: The 5th Marines and Company A, 1st Tank Battalion, crossed the Ilu and Lunga Rivers and moved toward the Kakum River. The 1st Battalion and the tanks met the first scattered Japanese resistance on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 258).

SOLOMONS: The 3d Battalion, 2d Marines (rein), joined later by two tanks from Company C, 2d Tank Battalion, landed on Gavutu to reinforce the 1st Parachute Battalion there. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 269, 270).

Elements of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, on Tulagi moved to the southeast to assist the 1st Raider Battalion in the sweep of that part of the island, resulting in the end of organized opposition on Tulagi. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 266).

The Battle of Savo Island. Elements of the Japanese Eighth Fleet attacked Allied shipping between Savo and Florida Islands; four Allied cruisers were lost and one destroyer damaged. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 260).

9 Aug SOLOMONS: Task Force 61, supporting the Guadalcanal-Tulagi landings, departed the Solomons for Noumea leaving the landing force without air or surface support until 20 August. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 260, 279).

Tanambogo and Gavutu were secured, and the occupation of the Nggela island group was completed when units of the 2d Battalion, 2d Marines, captured several small peripheral islands including Makambo, Mbangai, Kokomtumbu, and Songonangona. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 270).

The 1st and 2d Battalions, 2d Marines, went ashore on Beach Blue, Tulagi. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 270).

--27--

1942
11 Aug NEW HEBRIDES: Marine Observation Squadron 251 was installed at Espiritu Santo with 16 F4F-3's long-range photographic planes. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 24l).
12 Aug PACIFIC: Admiral Ghormley, ComSoPac, ordered Task Force 63 to employ all available transport shipping to carry supplies, ammunition and ground crews to Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 276).

GUADALCANAL: Lieutenant Colonel Frank Goettge, 1st Marine Division intelligence officer, led a 25-man reconnaissance patrol along the west bank of the Matanikau; only three men escaped ambush by the Japanese. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 281).

12-15 Aug USSR: The 1st Moscow conference met. (Morris, p. 385).
13 Aug USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, Santa Barbara, California, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Livingston B. Stedman, Jr., was organized. (Sherrod, p. 441). PACIFIC: Lieutenant General Haruyoshi Hyakutake, commanding the Japanese Seventeenth Army at Rabaul, was ordered to assume control of the ground action on Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 286).
15 Aug USMC: Air, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was organized at San Diego as Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific, and was made responsible for the organization, administration, and distribution of personnel and supplies of the 1st and 2d Marine Aircraft Wings and the 4th Marine Base Defense Battalion. (Sherrod, p. 437).
17-18 Aug GILBERT ISLANDS: About 200 Marines from Companies A and B of the 2d Raider Battalion were landed on Makin Atoll; they were partially successful in attempts to destroy Japanese installations, gather intelligence data, and divert attention from the action on Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 265, 286).
18 Aug GUADALCANAL: The 2d Battalion, 26th Japanese Infantry (rein), landed at Taivu Point while 500 men of the Yokosuka. Fifth Special Naval Landing Force arrived at Kokumbona; this was the first of many runs by Japanese destroyers and cruisers shuttling supplies and reinforcements to the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 268).

Henderson Field, named after Major Lofton Henderson, was completed. (Zimmerman, p. 65; OpHist, pp. 277, 279).

16-19 Aug GUADALCANAL: Company L, 5th Marines, crossed the Matanikau River and attacked the village of that name, while Company I made a successful amphibious raid farther west at Kokumbona to cut off any retreating Japanese. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 283).
20 Aug GUADALCANAL: The forward echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 23 (19 F4F's of VMF-223 and 12 SBD-3's of VMSB-232) arrived on Henderson Field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 279).

--28--

1942
21 Aug GUADALCANAL: The Battle of the Tenaru (Ilu) River. Elements of the 2d Battalion, 28th Japanese Infantry (rein.), launched attacks against Marine positions at the mouth of the Ilu River. The 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, crossed the river and enveloped the Japanese force while a tank attack success fully concluded the action. This was the first important ground combat on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 290, 291). The 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, from Tulagi arrived to reinforce the defense perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 298).
22 Aug USMC: The 4th Marine Aircraft Wing was commissioned at Ewa, Hawaii, as the 4th Marine Base Defense Air Wing and charged with providing air defense for bases, search and patrol, air-sea rescue, and shipping escorts in the Hawaiian area. (Sherrod, p. 438).

GUADALCANAL: The first Army Air Force aircraft, five P-400's of the 67th Fighter Squadron, landed on Henderson Field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 280).

24 Aug USMC: The U.S. Army assumed command of the Amphibious Corps, Atlantic Fleet, from the Marine Corps. The Marine commander Major General Holland M. Smith and his staff were reorganized as the Amphibious Training Staff, Fleet Marine Force, with headquarters at Quantico. (FMFPac, p. 11).

GUADALCANAL: Eleven Navy dive bombers arrived at Henderson Field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 280).

25 Aug SOLOMONS: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Planes from Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 232 at Henderson Field assisted in an attack on a Japanese task force carrying Guadalcanal reinforcements. A Japanese destroyer and transport were sunk, and many men of the Special Naval Landing Force were killed. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 292, 293).

NEW GUINEA: About 1,000 Japanese troops from Kavieng landed at Milne Bay but were driven back by the Milne defense force; the Japanese evacuated on the nights of 4 and 5 September. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 9).

27 Aug GUADALCANAL: An additional nine Army p-400's arrived at Henderson Field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 280).
28 Aug SAMOA: The 1st and 2d Battalions, 7th Marines (rein), sailed from Pago Pago, Tutuila on board the President Adams and President Hayes. ("The 7th Marines," p. 7).
30 Aug GUADALCANAL: The rear echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 23 (VMF-221 and-231) arrived on Henderson Field. (Sherrod, p. 445; Zimmerman, p. 74).
30-31 Aug GUADALCANAL: More than 6,000 Japanese troops of the Kawaguchi Force landed in the Tasimboko area west of Lunga Point near Kokumbona in an attempt to strike at the Marine perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 301, 302).

--29--

1942
31 Aug GUADALCANAL: The 1st Raider Battalion and the 1st Parachute Battalion arrived from Tulagi to reinforce the defense perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 298).
1 Sep GUADALCANAL: Seabees landed on the island to assist in developing the airfield. (Naval Chronology, p. 33).
3 Sep ITALY: Allied Forces landed in southern Italy. (Langer, p. 1159).

GUADALCANAL: Brigadier General Roy S. Geiger, commanding the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, arrived on the island with the command echelon of the wing. (Zimmerman, p. 83).

4 Sep SOLOMONS: The 1st Raider Battalion scouted Savo Island, found it free of Japanese, and returned to Guadalcanal. (Williams, p. 53).
5 Sep PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPac, requested the relocation of the Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific, from San Diego to Pearl Harbor. (FMFPac, p. 34).
8 Sep GUADALCANAL: The 1st Raider Battalion and the 1st Parachute Battalion, supported by planes of Marine Aircraft Group 23 and two destroyer transports, landed just east of Tasimboko, advanced west into the rear of the reported Japanese positions, and carried out a successful raid on a Japanese supply base. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 98, 99; Zimmerman, pp. 79-82).
11 Sep GUADALCANAL: Japanese bombers and zeroes attacked Henderson Field. F4F's from the USS Saratoga arrived on the field from Espiritu Santo. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 302).
12 Sep GUADALCANAL: The Battle of the Ridge. A Japanese light cruiser and three destroyers entered Sealark Channel and shelled Henderson Field. At about the same time, Major General Kawaguchi's ground force probed lightly at the raider-parachute force on Edson's ridge, south of the field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 303).

NEW HEBRIDES: The 7th Marines (rein) and elements of the 5th Defense Battalion arrived at Espiritu Santo from Samoa. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 310; Williams, p. 54).

13 Sep GUADALCANAL: The Battle of the Ridge. The 1st Raider Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel M. A. Edson, launched a counteroffensive against Kawaguchi's Force but was forced to withdraw north of its initial position. The Japanese attacked the center and right of the raider-parachute line defending the ridge. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 303, 305, 306).
14 Sep GUADALCANAL: The Battle of the Ridge. The Marine line on Edson's Ridge repulsed an attempt by the Kawaguchi Force to penetrate the Henderson Field perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 306 -308).

SAMOA: The 3d Marines arrived at Tutuila. (Frank, p. 7).

--30--

1942
16 Sep USMC: The 3d Marine Division was activated at Camp Elliott, California. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 34; Aurthur and Cohlmia, p. 6).
18 Sep GUADALCANAL: The 7th Marines (rein), 1st Marine Division, landed, and emergency supplies were unloaded at Kakum from ships of Task Force 65. The 1st Parachute Battalion departed with the task force for Espiritu Santo. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 311).
19 Sep USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, Eagle Mountain Lake, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Harold R. Lee, was organized at Fort Worth, Texas, to function as a glider training base. (Sherrod, pp. 440, 441).
23-27 Sep GUADALCANAL: An attempt by the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines (rein), the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, and the 1st Raider Battalion to cross the Matanikau River upstream was re-pulsed by defending Japanese. The 1st Battalion executed an amphibious landing west of Point Cruz to strike the Japanese Matanikau line from the rear but was forced to withdraw. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 314, 317).
24 Sep USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, Mojave, California, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John S. Holmberg, was established to provide, equip, and maintain facilities necessary to train Marine aircraft groups. (Sherrod, p. 44l).
25 Sep USMC: Camp Pendleton, named in honor of Major General Joseph H. Pendleton, was dedicated by President Roosevelt. ("Camp Pendleton," p. 2).
1 Oct USMC: The Amphibious Training Staff, Fleet Marine Force, recently moved from Quantico to San Diego, was disbanded and its personnel assigned to Headquarters, Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet. Major General Holland M. Smith relieved Major General Clayton B. Vogel as commander of the Amphibious Corps and as the Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, San Diego area. (FMFPac, p. 13).

The I Marine Amphibious Corps was commissioned at San Diego with Major General Clayton B. Vogel commanding. (FMFPac, p. 13).

2 Oct ELLICE ISLANDS: The 5th Defense Battalion occupied Funafuti. (Williams, p. 57).
4 Oct HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The Headquarters Squadron, Marine Air-craft Wing, Pacific, arrived at Ewa. (FMFPac, p. 34).

CUBA: The 9th Defense Battalion departed from Guantanamo Bay for Balboa, Canal Zone. (Muster Rolls).

5 Oct SOLOMONS: U.S. carrier aircraft raided the Buin-Faisi-Tonelei area., Bougainville. (Rentz, p. 141).

--31--

1942
7-9 Oct GUADALCANAL: In an advance to extend the perimeter, the 5th Marines engaged the Japanese at the mouth of the Matanikau River while the 7th Marines (-) and the 3d Battalion, 2d Marines (rein), crossed the river inland and raided the Point Cruz and Matanikau village areas. The raid thwarted an attempt by the 4th Japanese Infantry to cross the Matanikau and establish artillery positions there. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 319-321; Zimmerman, p. 101).
9 Oct GUADALCANAL: Marine Fighter Squadron 121, commanded by Major Leonard K. Davis, and the rear echelon of the 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division, arrived on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 326; Williams, p. 58).
11 Oct SOLOMONS: The Battle of Cape Esperance. A U.S. task force of four cruisers and five destroyers, protecting a convoy carrying reinforcements to Guadalcanal, turned back a Japanese bombardment group with its reinforcing fleet headed for an attack on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 324, 325).
13 Oct GUADALCANAL: U.S. transports McCawley and Zeilen arrived at Kakum with reinforcements from the 164th Infantry, Americal Division, USA, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, and casual Marines and supplies. The 1st Marine Division reorganized the perimeter into five defensive sectors with the greatest strength concentrated on the Matanikau River where the Japanese attack was expected from the west. Two Japanese air strikes damaged Henderson Field and Fighter 1 and destroyed 5,000 gallons of aviation fuel. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 326, 328, 329).
14 Oct GUADALCANAL: Japanese night bombers struck Henderson Field damaging 42 of the 90 operable planes and causing heavy casualties; air operations were moved to Fighter 1. Later, Japanese cruisers bombarded the field, while six transports, carrying Lieutenant General M. Maruyama, 2d Division, moved to Tassafaronga. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 327).
15 Oct GUADALCANAL: SBD's of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, supported by planes from Espiritu Santo, attacked the Japanese force unloading troops and supplies at Tassafaronga. About 3,000-4,000 men of the 230th and 16th Infantry Regiments as well as 80% of the ships' cargo were taken ashore before the Japanese were forced to flee up Sealark Channel; these troops, the last the Japanese were able to land before their concentrated attack on Henderson Field, brought the Japanese strength on the island to about 20,000 men. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 328).

Lieutenant General H. Hyakutake, commanding the Japanese forces on Guadalcanal, ordered his 2d Division to attack Henderson Field and tentatively set the assault for 18 October. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 329).

16 Oct GUADALCANAL: Marine Aircraft Group 14 relieved Marine Aircraft Group 23 as the administrative and maintenance agency at Henderson Field. Its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Albert D. Cooley, was named to head an Air Search and Attack Command organized to control all bombing reconnaissance and rescue operations on the island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 458).

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1942
18 Oct PACIFIC: Admiral Ghormley, ComSoPac, was relieved of the South Pacific Area command by Admiral W. F. Halsey. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 34l).
20 Oct GUADALCANAL: Lieutenant General M. Maruyama, IJA, postponed the assault on Henderson Field until 22 October. A Japanese combat patrol augmented by two tanks appeared on the west bank of the Matanikau River but was turned back by fire from the 3d Battalion, 1st Marines. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 330).
21 Oct WASHINGTON: Admiral King, CNO, informed CinCPOA that the JCS had agreed to strengthen the air forces in the South Pacific by 1 January 1943. (Williams, p. 60).
23 Oct GUADALCANAL: Japanese mortar and artillery fire was intensified along the Marine east bank positions of the Matanikau River. A Japanese tank and infantry assault across the river was repelled. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 332).
23-25 Oct PACIFIC: At a conference in Noumea, Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, promised Major General A. A. Vandegrift, commanding forces on Guadalcanal, more support for the Guadalcanal operation and requested additional help from CinCPac and Washington. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 341).
24-25 Oct GUADALCANAL: The Japanese launched an assault against the south flank of the defense perimeter; the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines (supported by fire of the 2d Battalion, 164th Infantry, USA, and reinforced by the 3d Battalion, 164th Infantry, USA), repelled repeated attacks. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 334, 335).
25-26 Oct GUADALCANAL: Japanese destroyers harassed U.S. shipping in Sealark Channel and beach positions of the 3d Defense Battalion at the same time that Japanese bombers attacked Henderson Field. An assault against the south flank of the Lunga Perimeter defended by the 1st Battalion of the l64th Infantry, USA (rein) was repulsed. A second Japanese attack, south of Hill 67 in the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines' zone penetrated the Marine line but was later driven off by elements of the 2d Battalion joined by a company of the 5th Marines. The Japanese force withdrew inland. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 333, 355-357).
26 Oct SOLOMONS: The Battle of Santa Cruz. The USS Enterprise and Hornet carrier groups moved into Sealark Channel and met a Japanese naval force in an air-air and air-surface battle; the Japanese force withdrew after hearing of its army's failure on the island. The USS carrier Hornet was fatally damaged. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 337, 339).
31 Oct-1 Nov GUADALCANAL: Parts of Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 132 and Marine Fighter Squadron 211 arrived at Henderson Field. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 343).
1-2 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, advanced east across the base of Koli Point to the Metapona River to investigate reports of Japanese activity there. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 345).

--33--

1942
2 Nov GUADALCANAL: Two 155mm gun batteries--one Marine and the other Army-landed in the Lunga Perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 342)
2-3 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 1st and 3d Battalions, 5th Marines, assisted by the 2d Battalion, attacked to compress the Japanese pocket west of Point Cruz. An advance by Companies P, I, and K overcame Japanese resistance. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 345).
4 Nov USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, California, was organized under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Theodore B. Millard. (Sherrod, p. 44l).

GUADALCANAL: The American zone was divided into the East and West sectors which were to receive their orders from the Commanding General, 1st Marine Division. Brigadier General William A. Rupertus assumed command of the East Sector and Brigadier General Edmund B. Sebree, USA, was placed in control of the West. (Zimmerman, p. 138).

The 164th Infantry, USA, left the perimeter to support the 7th Marines at Koli Point, while the 2d Raider Battalion was released from Aola Bay and moved toward Koli Point to cut off any Japanese fleeing east from the envelopment of the Marines and soldiers. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 348).

4-5 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 8th Marines arrived with its supporting 1st Battalion, 10th Marines (75mm pack howitzers). The 1st Battalion of the l47th Infantry, USA, Carlson's Raiders, the 246th Field Artillery's Provisional Battalion K, USA, and Seabees landed at Aola Bay, about 4O miles east of the Lunga River, to construct a new airfield. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 342, 343).
5 Nov GUADALCANAL: Lieutenant General A. A. Vandegrift ordered the 2d Raider Battalion to march overland toward Koli Point and cut off any Japanese fleeing east from the envelopment of the 7th Marines and the 164th Infantry, USA. (OpHist, p. 348; Zimmerman, p. 141).
6 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 7th Marines, attacking eastward, crossed the Nalimbiu River and moved along the coast. The Japanese retired from their positions east of the river. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 349).
7 Nov USMC: The organization of a women's reserve was approved by Major General Thomas Holcomb, Commandant of the Marine Corps. ("Marine Corps Reserve," chap. III, p. 26).

GUADALCANAL: Brigadier General Louis E. Woods relieved , v. 1, p. 362).

8 Nov NORTH AFRICA: The first major Allied operation in this theater opened when American and British forces landed in French North Africa. Twelve Marines, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel I. C. Plain, went ashore at Arzeu, assisted in taking three steamers and a patrol boat, then continued overland to the port of Mers-el-Kebir where they occupied an ancient Spanish fortress at the northern tip of Oran harbor. (Morison, v. 2, pp. 231-238; Morris, p. 374).

GUADALCANAL: The 1st and 2d Battalions, 7th Marines, and the 164th Infantry, USA, moved east to surround the Japanese on Koli Point. (Zimmerman, p. 140).

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1942
9-10 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 7th Marines and the 2d Brigade, 164th Infantry, USA, attacked the Japanese pocket at Gavaga Creek. (OpHist. v. 1, pp. 349, 350).
10 Nov USMC: The 3d Marine Aircraft Wing, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Calvin R. Freeman, was commissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina. (Sherrod, p. 438).
10-11 Nov GUADALCANAL: The 2d Marines augmented by the 8th Marines and the 164th Infantry, USA, pushed west from Point Cruz toward Kokumbona but were forced to retire and resume positions around the perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 350).

NORTH AFRICA: A party from the Marine Detachment of the USS Philadelphia, operating under the 47th Infantry, USA. landed at the port of Safi, French Morocco, and proceeded to the airport where they guarded the airport facilities until relieved. (Tyson, p. 2).

11-12 Nov GUADALCANAL: The Japanese force at Gavaga Creek escaped envelopment by elements of the 7th Marines and the 164th Infantry, USA. The attacking force swept the area where the Japanese had been trapped then withdrew across the Metapona River (12 November). (OpHist, v. 1, p. 352).

The 182d Infantry, USA (less the 3d Battalion) and supplies arrived and unloaded. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 352).

12 Nov SOLOMONS: Two Japanese bombardment groups and a convoy carrying the 38th Division departed the Shortlands for an attack on Guadalcanal while a third group ranged the Solomons in general support. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 351).

NEW HEBRIDES: Marine Aircraft Group 11 completed a move to Espiritu Santo where it could support Guadalcanal's Cactus Air Force. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 343).

12-13 Nov SOLOMONS: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. A Japanese bombardment group, headed for an attack on Henderson Field, was driven back by a U.S. naval force commanded by Rear Admiral D. J. Callahan, USN; planes from Henderson Field bombed and strafed the retiring Japanese ships. (OpHist, v. I, pp. 352-354).
12-17 Nov GUADALCANAL: Carlson's Raiders, patrolling the area around the village of Binu, skirmished with Japanese troops retiring from Gavaga Creek into the inland hills to skirt south of Henderson Field to Kokumbona. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 350).
13 Nov SOLOMONS: Japanese troops arrived at Munda point, New Georgia, to construct an airfield. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 42).
14 Nov SOLOMONS: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Planes from Henderson Field, the carrier Enterprise, and Espiritu Santo attacked Japanese transports headed for Guadalcanal with troops of the 38th Division and supplies; seven of the 11 transports were destroyed. Rear Admiral W. A. Lee, USN, with two battle ships and four destroyers engaged Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo's naval force, dispatched to cover the approaching transports, in a gun battle after which both forces retired. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 354-356).

--35--

1942
15 Nov GUADALCANAL: ComAirSoPac designated Henderson Field and Fighter 1 a Marine Corps Air Base, and Colonel William J. Fox became base commander. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 362).

SOLOMONS: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. The four remaining transports of the Japanese reinforcement group run aground on Tassafaronga, were destroyed by an attack of the 244th coast Artillery Battalion, USA, and the 3d Defense Battalion joined by a U.S. destroyer and planes from Henderson Field and Espiritu Santo. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 256. 257).

16 Nov USMC: The first Marine night fighter squadron (VMP(N)-531), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Frank H. Schwable, was commissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina. (Sherrod, p. 473).
18-22 Nov GUADALCANAL: Elements of the 164th and l82d Infantries, USA, screened on the left flank by Company B, 8th Marines, continued the advance west to secure a line of departure (extending from point Cruz inland for about 1,700 yards) from which to attack the main Japanese force concentrated at Kokumbona and the Poha River. The 1st Battalion, l82d Infantry, USA, cleared the Japanese from Point Cruz, and the Japanese deployed east to force a Matanikau bridgehead from which a new attack on the U.S. defenses could be launched. The offensive west was halted in late November when the Japanese attempted a stronger counter-offensive against the perimeter. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 357, 358, 363).
23-25 Nov GUADALCANAL: The airfields were reinforced by OS2U's; the 3d Reconnaissance Squadron, Royal New Zealand Air Force; night patrolling PBY's of Navy Patrol Squadron 12; the 12th, 68th, and 70th Fighter Squadrons, USA; and the 69th Bombardment Squadron, USA. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 363).
29 Nov WASHINGTON: The relief of the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal by the 25th Infantry Division, USA, was approved. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 351). GUADALCANAL: A Japanese naval force attempting to supply their troops in the Tassafaronga area was turned back by a U.S. naval task force. (OpHist, pp. 351, 364).
1 Dec GUADALCANAL: The 1st Marine Aviation Engineer Battalion relieved the 6th Naval Construction Battalion. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 362).
2 Dec SOLOMONS: General Hitoshi Imamura, commander of the Japanese Eighth Area Army, arrived in Rabaul to assume command of the Japanese South Pacific area and the Seventeenth Army and to retake Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 364).
3-11 Dec GUADALCANAL: Japanese destroyers dropped strings of supply drums off the island but few were received by the Japanese forces ashore. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 365).
4 Dec GUADALCANAL: The report of the 2d Raider Battalion patrol to the south reassured Major General A. A. Vandegrift of enemy concentration there. (Zimmerman, p. 157).

--36--

1942
5 Dec USMC: Executive Order No. 9-27 was issued placing all services under the provisions of the Selective Service Act. The Marine Corps continued its normal procurement procedures through January 1943. ("Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, pp. 6, 7).
8 Dec GUADALCANAL: The 3d Infantry Regiment, USA, and the 132d Regimental Combat Team, USA, arrived to begin the relief of the 1st Marine Division. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 360).
9 Dec GUADALCANAL: The 1st Marine Division was transferred operationally from ComSoPac to CinCSWPA and began to embark for Australia. Command of the troops on Guadalcanal passed from Major General A. A. Vandegrift to Major General Alexander M. Patch, USA, commanding the Americal Division and senior Army officer present. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 360; Hough and Crown, p. 206).
9-16 Dec GUADALCANAL: The 164th and l82d Infantries, USA, near Point Cruz were relieved by the 2d Marines (-), the 8th Marines, and the 132d Infantry (-), USA. (Zimmerman, p. 157).
17 Dec GUADALCANAL: The 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division, USA, arrived. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 360).

SOLOMONS: The Japanese completed a 4,700-foot long airstrip at Munda Point, New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 43).

20 Dec USMC: Marine Barracks, New River, North Carolina, was redesignated Marine Barracks, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. ("Administrative History of Camp Lejeune," pt. III, p. 4).
26 Dec GUADALCANAL: Brigadier General Francis P. Mulcahy, Commanding general of the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing, relieved Brigadier General L. E. Woods as Commander, Aircraft, Cactus Air Force. "(OpHist, v. 1, p. 362).
1943
1 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 2d Marine Aviation Engineer Battalion and the 27th Infantry, USA, landed. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 360, 362).
2 Jan GUADALCANAL: Major General Millard F. Harmon, USA, Commanding General, South Pacific Area, designated the Guadalcanal-Tulagi command as XIV Corps with Major General A. Patch, USA, as Corps commander. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 362).
3 Jan JAPAN: The text of the "Army-Navy Central Agreement on South Pacific Area Operations" setting forth Japan's newly approved strategy was radioed to Rabaul; key points, mainly airfields and anchorages, were to be occupied or strengthened in the northern and central Solomons and in eastern New Guinea after the evacuation of troops on Guadalcanal was completed. (OpHist, v. 2, p. III).

--37--

1943
4 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 161st Infantry, USA, the 6th Marines, and the 2d Marine Division headquarters arrived. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 360).
4-5 Jan SOLOMONS: A U.S. cruiser-destroyer force bombarded Munda airfield. (Williams, p. 82).
6 Jan GUADALCANAL: Brigadier General Alphonse DeCarre, commanding the advance echelon of the 2d Marine Division, assumed responsibility for all Marine forces except aviation on the island. (Zimmerman, p. 159).
9-22 Jan NEW GUINEA: Gona, a native village about seven miles north of Buna Mission, fell to the Australian 7th Division and Buna Mission to the 32d Infantry Division, USA. Japanese organized resistance was overcome on 22 January thus thwarting their attempt to capture Port Moresby. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 9).
10 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 25th Division (rein), USA, assigned to the capture of Hill 66 between the northwest and southwest forks of the Matanikau River, launched the final offensive on the island. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 366).
12 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 6th Marines and the artillery of the 2d Marine Division became part of the Composite Army-Marine Division, a provisional unit which also included the 82d and 147th Army Infantries and artillery of the Americal Division, USA. Warning orders for the relief of the 2d Marine Division were received. (Zimmerman, pp. 159, 160).

AUSTRALIA: The 1st Marine Division from Guadalcanal arrived at Melbourne for rehabilitation. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 307).

13-15 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 2d Marine Division launched its westward coastal attack. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 366, 367).
14-21 Jan AFRICA: At the Casablanca Conference, the Allied strategy of war for 1943 was determined. An advance toward the Philippines through the Central and Southwest pacific was agreed upon as was "unconditional surrender" of the enemy. (Williams, pp. 37, 38; Morris, p. 384).
15 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 2d Marines left the island for New Zealand. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 366).
20-23 Jan GUADALCANAL: The 25th Army Division attacked toward Kokumbona and by 23 January had taken the high ground to the south dominating the coastal area around the Japanese positions. The Composite Army-Marine Division pushed west toward the the southeast heights of Kokumbona and, against strong enemy opposition, overran it on the 23d. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 367, 368).
21 Jan USMC: Marine Fleet Air, West Coast, was commissioned at San Diego to administer, operate, train, and equip all Fleet Marine Force aviation units and personnel on the West Coast and to supply personnel and material to Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific. (Sherrod, p. 437).
23-24 Jan NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Kolombangara was bombed by a U.S. cruiser-destroyer and carrier group. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 557).
25 Jan GUADALCANAL: The Composite Army-Marine Division established contact with the 25th Army Division on the high ground above Kokumbona; units of the 27th Infantry, USA, reached the Poha River. (OpHist, v. 1, pp. 368, 369).

--38--

1943
26 Jan-8 Feb GUADALCANAL: The Composite Army-Marine Division attacked westward along the coast against light resistance from withdrawing Japanese forces. An attempt to trap the Japanese at Cape Esperance, by landing a U.S. Army unit to the west of the cape, failed when the Japanese completed their evacuation of the island on the night of 7-8 February. (OpHist, v. 1. pd. 369- 371).
27 Jan NEW HEBRIDES: Headquarters of the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing was established at Efate. (Muster Rolls).
29 Jan USMC: Mrs. Ruth Cheney Streeter was commissioned a Major, United States Marine Corps Women's Reserve and became its first Director. (Meid, p. 5).
7 Feb PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, issued a directive naming Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN, as the overall commander of the Russells operation and the 43d Infantry Division, USA (less RCT 172) as the principal component of the occupation force. The 3d Marine Raider Battalion and the antiaircraft elements of the 11th Defense Battalion were included in the major reinforcing units; Marine Aircraft Group 21 was assigned to operate from Banika Airfield. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 24).
9 Feb GUADALCANAL: Major General Alexander M. Patch, USA, commanding the XIV Corps, announced the "Total and complete defeat of the Japanese forces on Guadalcanal.." (OpHist, v. 1, p. 371).
15 Feb SOLOMONS: Commander, Aircraft, Solomons, a joint air command, headed by Rear Admiral Charles P. Mason, USN, was established on Guadalcanal. Admiral Mason relieved Brigadier General Francis P. Mulcahy who had controlled all aircraft stationed on the island during the final phase of its defense. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 455, 557).
21 Feb RUSSELLS: The 3d Raider Battalion went ashore unopposed on Pavuvu's Pepesala point while the 43d Infantry Division, USA, landed on the two beaches of Banika Island. Antiaircraft guns and crews of the 11th Defense Battalion were positioned on Banika. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 26).
23 Feb NEW GEORGIA GROUP: The Japanese Yokosuka 7th Special Naval Landing Force disembarked at Kolombangara with 1,807 men. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 47).
25 Feb SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur issued his campaign plan for the Southwest Pacific stating that the Central pacific route would be "time consuming and expensive in our naval power and shipping." (Hoffman (1), pp. 14. 15).
28 Feb SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur's staff completed a plan calling for a more deliberate advance in the Southwest Pacific. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 15).
1 Mar USMC: Marine Bomber Squadron 413, the first Marine medium bomber squadron, was commissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina. (Sherrod, p. 470).

--39--

1943
1-4 Mar BISMARCK SEA: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea. A Japanese convoy en route to the Huon Gulf, New Guinea, was decisively defeated by Australian and American squadrons based on New Guinea. This was the last Japanese attempt to use large vessels to reinforce positions in the Huon Gulf. (Williams, p. 96).
6 Mar RUSSELLS: Japanese fighters and bombers, first attacked installations defended by the 11th Defense Battalion. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 26. 557).

SOLOMONS: A U.S. naval force bombarded the Vila-Kunda area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 557).

8-25 Mar BOUGAINVILLE: A strong Japanese offensive which simultaneously attacked the Allied perimeter from the northwest, north, and east was defeated. The 155mm and 90mm batteries of the 3d Defense Battalion were employed as field artillery. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 285. 286).
9 Mar SOLOMONS: The Japanese Kure 6th Special Naval Landing Force went ashore with 2,038 men and took positions between Bairoko and Enogai and around the airfield at Munda. Rear Admiral Minoru Ota, commanding the 8th Combined Special Landing Force, assumed responsibility for the defense of the New Georgia sector. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 47).
12 Mar GUADALCANAL: The F4U was first employed in combat when the flight echelon of Marine Fighter Squadron 124 arrived at Henderson Field from Espiritu Santo. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 468).
12-15 Mar CONTINENTAL U.S.: The Pacific Military Conference met. (Williams, pp. 97, 98).
14 Mar RUSSELLS: The advance echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 21 landed on Banika Island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 470).
15 Mar PACIFIC: The 1st Marine Raider Regiment was organized for operations on Dragons Peninsula, New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 55; Muster Rolls).
15-17 Mar RUSSELLS: The 10th Defense Battalion relieved the 11th Defense Battalion. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 26).
17 Mar JOHNSTON: ISLAND: Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 243 arrived from Ewa, Hawaii. (Muster Rolls).
20 Mar SOLOMONS: Major John W. Sapp from Marine Torpedo-Bomber Squadron 143 led the first aerial mine-laying mission in the South Pacific, off the Solomons chain. (Sherrod, pp. 136. 137).
21 Mar NEW GEORGIA: A group of Marine scouts landed by PBY at Segi Plantation to reconnoiter the island; patrol reports indicated Segi's beaches would not accommodate a large landing force. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 44, 45).

--40--

1943
22 Mar JAPAN: The Japanese Army and Navy staffs issued a new directive for operations in the Rabaul area emphasizing the primacy of a defensive effort in New Guinea. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 36).
28 Mar WASHINGTON: The JCS issued a directive, cancelling that of 2 July 1942, which outlined a new scheme of operations for the campaign against Rabaul. The schedule called for the establishment of airfields on Woodlark and Kiriwina Islands to be followed by the seizure of bases on Huon Peninsula and the occupation of New Georgia, western New Britain, and southern Bougainville. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 17).
31 Mar SAMOA: The 2d Marine Brigade was disbanded in Pago Pago, American Samoa. ("Samoa").
1 Apr USMC: Marine Aircraft Group 53, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Prank H. Schwable, was commissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina, as the first Marine night fighter group. (Sherrod, p. 447).

NEW CALEDONIA: The 4th Base Depot, a supply organization, was activated at Noumea to provide support for the New Georgia occupation. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 57).

4 Apr RUSSELLS: The final elements of Marine Aircraft Group 21 landed on Banika Island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 470).
7 Apr GUADALCANAL: Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, IJN, began "I" operations, designed to drive the Allies out of the Solomons and New Guinea, with an attack on Tulagi Harbor by Japanese dive bombers and fighters. Only light damage resulted, but the diversion enabled the Japanese to slip reinforcements into Kolombangara Island by destroyer transport while ComSoPac concentrated his air strength at Guadalcanal to meet further attacks. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 28, 29, 557).
15 Apr RUSSELLS: The first airstrips on Banika, were declared operational. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 470, 557).
18 Apr PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, and General MacArthur CinCSWPA, met at Brisbane, Australia, and agreed that a Marine defense battalion with a naval construction battalion and a regimental combat team would be transferred to SWPA; 15 May was tentatively set as D-Day for the combined operations in New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 55-60, 62).
20 Apr TARAWA: Army B-24's operating from Funafuti bombed the atoll. ("Samoa").
21 Apr USMC: Marine Aircraft, South pacific, was established on a tentative basis to coordinate the administrative and logistical workload of the 1st and 2d Marine Aircraft Wings. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 456).
26 Apr SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur issued his third plan for the seizure of the New Britain, New Guinea, and New Ireland area calling for mutually supporting advances in the South and Southwest Pacific toward Rabaul. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 557: Williams, p. 106).

--41--

1943
1 May USMC: The Adjutant and Inspector's Department of Headquarters Marine Corps was abolished and the Personnel Department, encompassing the Divisions of Personnel Reserve, was organized to replace it. (Condit and Johnston, p. 20).
2 May SOLOMONS: Japanese commanders at Rabaul created the Southeast Detached Force for the defense of the central Solomons. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 557).
6 May SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: The New Britain Force received a warning order from General Headquarters for the occupation of western New Britain by combined airborne and amphibious operations. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 299).
10 May RUSSELLS: Air Solomons' interceptors turned back a raid by Japanese planes from the Eleventh Air Fleet at Rabaul. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 471).
11 May ALEUTIANS: U.S. forces landed on Attu. (Morris, p. 370).
12-25 May WASHINGTON: At the Trident Conference, the U.S. and Great Britain approved the U.S. "Strategic Plan for the Defeat of Japan" calling for a drive on Japan through the Central Pacific. (Williams, pp. 110. 112).
13 May NORTH AFRICA: The North African campaign formally ended. (Morris, p. 376).
19 May SOLOMONS: Thirty TBF's from Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 143 and Navy Torpedo Squadron 11, with a supporting flight of six heavy bombers, mined Buin-Kahili off Bougainville. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 470).
20 May USMC: The Director of Aviation also became Assistant Commandant (Air). (Sherrod, p. 437).
23 May SAMOA: The 22d Marines was detached from the 3d Marine Brigade and moved to Tutuila where it remained as a separate tactical unit. ("Samoa").
24 May USMC: The Marine glider program was abandoned. (Sherrod, p. 448).
27 May SAMOA: The 22d Marines was organized as the Garrison Force, Defense Force, Samoan Group. ("Samoa").
31 May SOLOMONS: Major General Noboru Sasaki arrived at Kolombangara to head the new Southwest Detachment, a joint Army-Navy defense force in the New Georgia group. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 48).
3 Jun PACIFIC: ComSoPac published Operation Plan 14-43 envisaging the seizure of positions in the central Solomons. Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN, was named to take overall supervision of the operation, and the 43d Army Division was designated as the largest ground unit to be involved. (Rentz, pp. 27. 170).

ALEUTIANS: All Japanese resistance to U.S. Army troops on Attu Island ceased. (Morris, p. 370; Williams, p. 109).

--42--

1943
7 Jun GUADALCANAL: The Japanese opened another series of air attacks on the island. (Williams, p. 113).
12 Jun RUSSELLS: Japanese aircraft from the 11th Air Fleet at Rabaul, headed for an attack on Air Solomons fighter strength in the islands, were turned back by Allied fighters. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 472).
13 Jun SOLOMONS: The last reconnaissance patrols to the New Georgia Group, which included teams of Marine Corps, Army, and Navy officers, landed at Segi and surveyed four probable landing spots at Rendova, Rice Anchorage, Viru Harbor, and Wickham Anchorage. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 45).
14 Jun PACIFIC: Admiral J. H. Newton relieved Admiral Halsey as ComSoPac, and the Solomon Islands were annexed to the SWPA ending SoPac's campaign against the Japanese. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 287).
16 Jun SOLOMONS: Major General John H. Hester, USA, commander of the New Georgia Occupation Force, issued Field Order #1; D-Day was set for 30 June. (Rentz, p. 32; OpHist, v. 2, p. 557).

RUSSELLS: A force of Japanese dive bombers with fighter cover attempting a third big attack on Air Solomons' fighter strength in the islands, and were destroyed by Allied aircraft. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 472).

17 Jun GUADALCANAL: The 9th Defense Battalion was relieved of its defensive role on the island and commenced training for the New Georgia operation. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 56).
21 Jun BOUGAINVILLE: The last Marine ground unit, the 3d Defense Battalion, was withdrawn. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 287).
21-22 Jun NEW GEORGIA: The 4th Marine Raider Battalion (less companies N and Q) and two companies from the 103d Regimental Combat Team, USA, were committed at Segi Point on the urgent insistence of the Coastwatcher there who was threatened by a Japanese advance from Viru Harbor. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 53, 64, 65).
22-23 Jun TROBRIANDS: U.S. Army units began the invasion of the islands with a landing on Woodlark Island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 557).
26 Jun JAPAN: Japanese air deployed from Buin to defend the central Solomons against Allied attack, was ordered back to Rabaul. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 79).
27 Jun NEW GEORGIA: Companies Q and P, 4th Raider Battalion, landed at Segi to launch a coordinated attack against Viru Harbor where a minor naval base for small craft was to be developed. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 67, 69).
29 Jun TROBRIANDS: The 158th Regimental Combat Team, USA, and the 46th Engineer Combat Company, USA, rein, landed unopposed on Kiriwini Island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 62).

--43--

1943
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 308,523--21,384 officers and 287,139 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).

PACIFIC: Converging drives on the Rabaul bastion by forces of ComSoPac and CinCSWPA opened with amphibious operations against the central Solomons, Trobriands, and New Guinea. (Williams, p. 115).

NEW GEORGIA: The Viru Occupation Unit landed at Nono, New Georgia, to join the 4th Raider Battalion in an attack on Viru Harbor. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 70).

VANGUNU: Companies N and Q, of the 4th Raider Battalion landed unopposed near Oloana Bay followed by the 2d Battalion 103d Infantry Regiment, USA, and supporting units. The Raiders and Company F, 103d Regiment, moving toward Wickham Anchorage, overran their objective. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 73-78).

NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Companies A and B, 169th Infantry, USA, secured the islands guarding the entrance to Roviana Lagoon and Zanona Beach on the shore line of New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 90).

RENDOVA ISLAND: Elements of the 172d and 103d Infantry Regiments, USA, and the 24th Naval Construction Battalion supported by the 9th Defense Battalion landed at Rendova Harbor against light resistance. Fighter planes from the Solomons-including those of Marine Fighter Squadrons 121, 122, 213, and 221-intercepted attacks by the 11th Japanese Air Fleet. Marine secured Kokorana and cleared firing area for a 90mm battery, besides taking part in the seizure of the island. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 79-83).

TROBRIANDS: U.S. Army troops and the 12th Defense Battalion occupied Woodlark Island. (Hough and Crown, p. 206).

NEW GUINEA: The 1st Battalion, 162d Infantry, USA, and supporting U.S. and Australian forces began an unopposed landing at Nassau Bay. (Williams, p. 115).

Jun MARTINQUE: The proposed plan for the occupation of Martinique died when Rear Admiral Georges Robert French High Commissioner for the Antilles, surrendered his command to Vice Admiral John S. Hoover, USN. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 55).
1 Jul CONTINENTAL U.S.: The Navy's V-12 program designed to recruit and train college students for future service as line officers, was launched; 11,500 Marines were to be included for training. ("Marine Corps Reserve," Chap. III, p. 18).

USMC: The Administrative Division was organized at Head-quarters to control the civilian personnel program and the placement of enlisted Marines. (Condit and Johnstone, p. 20).

PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, submitted a tentative plan for operations against the Marshalls. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 6, 7).

--44--

1943
NEW GEORGIA: Two platoons from Company P, 4th Raider Battalion, overran the Japanese detachment at the village of Tombe overlooking Viru Harbor, while the remainder of Company P and Company Q occupied Tetemara, a village on the west side of the harbor where the bulk of the defenders were located. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 71. 72).

RENDOVA: Additional troops and supplies including 90mm and 155mm batteries from the 9th Defense Battalion arrived. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 84).

1-4 Jul VANGUNU: The 4th Raider Battalion and Company P, 103d Regiment, USA, withdrew to Vura where a defensive perimeter was established from which a coordinated attack was launched against the main group of Japanese survivors, at Cheke Point. Kaeruka was retaken and Cheke Point overran with little opposition. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 78).
2 Jul NEW GEORGIA: Major General Noboiu Sesaki assumed sole command of all Japanese garrisons on New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 90).
2-3 Jul RENDOVA: Troops of the 43d Army Division began a shore-to-shore movement to New Georgia while guns of the 9th Defense Battalion and the 192d Field Artillery, USA, fired on Munda Airfield. Japanese bombers hit supply dumps on Rendova on 2 July causing heavy casualties, but failed in a similar attempt on the 3d. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 85, 88).
3 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The Southern Landing Group of the Munda-Biaroko Occupation Force landed troops of the 172d Infantry. 43d Army Division on Zanana beach. (Williams, p. 116).
4 Jul NEW GEORGIA: A 52-man detail from the 9th Defense Battalion's special weapons group arrived on the island and emplaced four 40mm guns for antiaircraft protection. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 92).

RENDOVA: The Japanese attempted the last sizeable daylight assault on the island; antiaircraft batteries of the 9th Defense Battalion downed 12 of 16 bombers that broke through the ring of Allied interceptor planes. As a result the focus of the air war shifted to New Georgia. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 88).

5 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The Northern Landing Group, commanded by Colonel Harry B. Liversedge, made a secondary landing on the island and established a beachhead at Rice Anchorage on the north coast. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 92).

NEW GEORGIA GROUP: A cruiser-destroyer force bombarded Vila, Kolombangara, and Bairoko Harbor. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

5-6 Jul SOLOMONS: The Battle of Kula Gulf. The Japanese succeeded in landing reinforcements on Kolombangara despite intervention by forces. (Rentz, p. 171).
8 Jul WAKE: Eight Army B-24's from Midway made the first land-based strike against the atoll. (Heinl (2), p. 68).

--45--

1943
8-10 Jul NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Companies N and Q of the 4th Raider Battalion patrolled Gatukai Island, east of Vangunu, where 50-100 Japanese troops had been reported but returned to Vangunu after finding none. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 78).
9 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The New Georgia Occupation Force attacked west in the Munda-Barike area toward Munda Airfield. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 94).
9-10 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The 1st Raider Battalion (rein) of the Northern Landing Group, attacking from Triri, seized Enogai. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 126-128).
9-12 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The 13th Japanese Regiment moved about 3,700 troops from Kolombangara Island to Bairoko. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 100).
10 Jul USMC: Marine Corps Air Station, El Centro, California, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. McQuade, was commissioned. (Sherrod, p. 441).

NEW GEORGIA: The Northern Landing Group seized Maranusa I and Triri villages on Dragons Peninsula. (Rentz, p. 171).

The airstrip at Segi was ready for limited operations as a fighter base. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 65).

Companies O and P, 4th Raider Battalion were relieved at Viru and returned to Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 72).

SICILY: The main invasion forces of the U.S. Seventh and the British Eighth Armies landed at St. Agata. (Williams, p. 117).

11 Jul PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, issued a directive to attack an unannounced position in the Bouganville area. Lieutenant General A. A. Vandegrift, Commanding General of I Marine Amphibious Corps, was selected to head the invasion force. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

The 1st Marine War Dog Platoon arrived in the South Pacific to serve on Bougainville as scouts, messengers, and night security guards with the 2d Marine Raider Regiment (Provisional). ("War Dogs").

NEW GEORGIA: The Segi Point landing-strip became operational. (Rentz, p. 171).

11-12 Jul NEW GEORGIA: A U.S. cruiser-destroyer force bombarded Munda. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 556).
12 Jul NEW GEORGIA: Companies N and Q, 4th Raider Battalion, departed to rejoin the remainder of the battalion at Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 78).
12-13 Jul SOLOMONS: The Second Battle of Kolombangara. An Allied surface force engaged a Japanese convoy carrying reinforcements to the central Solomons. The Japanese succeeded in landing 1,200 men on Kolombangara, but it was their last attempt to reinforce and resupply the New Georgia garrison by destroyer. (Rentz, p. 171; Williams, p. 118; and OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

--46--

1943
14 Jul USMC: The Marine Corps Glider Base at Edenton, North Carolina, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Zebulon C. Hopkins, was designated a Marine Corps air station. (Sherrod, pp. 439, 440).

NEW GEORGIA: Major General Oscar W. Griswold, USA, assumed command of the New Georgia Occupation Force from Major General John H. Hester, USA. Rear Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson, USN, relieved Rear Admiral Richmond R. Turner, USN, as Commander, III Amphibious Force. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 101, 102).

Marine Tanks and a special weapons detail from the 9th Defense Battalion and the 103d Infantry Battalion, USA, landed on Laiana Beach to support the New Georgia Occupation Force. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 97).

TROBRIANDS: Woodlark airfield was declared operational. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 63).

15 Jul SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Allied general headquarters circulated a plan for the occupation of western New Britain, to include, the general line Gasmata-Talasea; D-Day was programed for 15 November. (Hough and Crown, p. 13).
15-17 Jul NEW GEORGIA: Coordinated tank-infantry thrusts which included tanks of the 9th Marine Defense Battalion drove a wedge in the Japanese defenses stretching from Laiana beach northwest for more than 400 yards. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 102. 104).
17 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The 161st Infantry, 25th Division, USA, landed at Laiana beach and went into position at the center of the XIV Corps front. (Rentz, p. 171).

SOLOMONS: Aircraft Solomons executed a 192-plane strike on a large concentration of shipping in the Kahili-Buin area resulting in heavy destruction of Japanese air and surface forces. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 474: Rentz, p. 171).

17-18 Jul NEW GEORGIA: An unsynchrohized counter-attack by the 13th and 229th Japanese Regiments against the Laiana beachhead and the 169th Army Infantry's position farther north failed, ending all Japanese attempts to regain the initiative on the island. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 104-5: Rentz, p. 171).

The 4th Raider Battalion arrived at Enogai point, Dragons Peninsula, where it rejoined its parent regiment after a short rest on Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 133, 134: Rentz, p. 171).

18-24 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The New Georgia Occupation Force was reinforced by U.S. Army troops during a lull in combat. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 106).
20 Jul WASHINGTON: The JCS directed CinCPOA to plan and prepare for operations in the Ellice and Gilbert Islands. (Stockman. p. 1).

SOLOMONS: Marine land-based aircraft attacked Japanese shipping south of Choiseul Island; two Japanese destroyers were sunk. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

--47--

1943
20-21 Jul NEW GEORGIA: The Northern Landing Group (including the 1st Marine Raider Regiment, the 4th Raider Battalion, and the 3d Battalion, 148th Army Division) unsuccessfully attacked Bairoko Harbor then withdrew to Enogai, covered by one of the heaviest air strikes of the central Solomons campaign. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 135, 143; Rentz, p. 172).
21-22 Jul NEW GEORGIA GROUP: A six man patrol of Army, Navy, and Marine officers landed near Barakoma, Vella Lavella, to scout the area for a proposed landing on the island. (Rentz, pp. 131, 172).
25 Jul SOLOMONS: Major General Nathan P. Twining, USA, replaced Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher, USN, as Commander, Aircraft, Solomons. (Williams, p. 122).

EUROPE: King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy announced the resignation of Premier Mussolini and his cabinet. Marshall Pietro Badoglio became head of the Italian government. (Morris, p. 376).

25 Jul-25 Aug NEW GEORGIA: The final attack by the New Georgia Occupation Force opened with destroyer and torpedo and dive-bomber support. Marine tanks from the 9th Defense Battalion, joined (3 August) by those of the 10th and 11th Battalions, supported the infantry advance. Munda airfield fell on 1 August and Bairoko Harbor was reached on the 25th. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 110, 116).
31 Jul GUADALCANAL: The amphibious reconnaissance patrol composed of Army, Navy, and Marine Corps officers from Vella Lavella reported that a landing in the Barakoma area was feasible. (Rentz, p. 172).
5 Aug PACIFIC: Admiral Spruance, formerly chief of staff, CinCPOA, became ComCenPac and Commander, Fifth Fleet. (Heinl and Crown, p. 9).
6-7 Aug SOLOMONS: The Battle of Vella Gulf. U.S. naval forces defeated a Japanese attempt to reinforce the central Solomons area. (Rentz, p. 172).

NEW GEORGIA: Munda airfield became operational for emergency use. (Williams, p. 123).

8 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Battery B, 9th Defense Battalion, emplaced on Kindu Point to undertake the seacoast defense of Munda. (Rentz, p. 172).
8-9 Aug SOLOMONS: The main body of the Japanese Southeast Detached Force moved to Kolombangara. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).
9 Aug NEW GEORGIA: The Northern and Southern Landing Groups of the New Georgia Occupation Force established contact when a patrol from the 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry, USA, appeared at a roadblock southwest of Triri held by the 3d Battalion, 148th Infantry, USA. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 144, 558).

A light antiaircraft battery from the 11th Defense Battalion arrived at Enogai. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 144).

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1943
10 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Operational control of the Northern Landing Group passed to the 25th Army Division, and the 1st Marine Raider Regiment returned to Enogai. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 144).
11 Aug PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, received orders for the seizure of Vella Lavella by Task Force 31, to neutralize Japanese troops concentrations on Kolombangara; the forces on New Georgia were directed to continue their cleanup operations in the Munda area and to interdict Vila airfield on Kolombangara by artillery fire. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 153).
13 Aug NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Troops from the 43d Division, USA, landed on Vela Cela Island, between New Georgia and Baanga Islands, and reconnoitred without incident. (Williams, p. 127).

JAPAN: Japanese Imperial Headquarters issued Navy Staff Directive No. 267 authorizing the abandonment of the central Solomons after delaying actions. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

13-19 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Elements of the 169th and 172d Regiments, 43d Army Division landed on Baanga Island north of Munda Point and attacked Japanese troops fleeing from Munda. They were supported by artillery units at Munda and on offshore islands, including the 155mm gun batteries of the 9th Marine Defense Battalion. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 148. 149).
14 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Brigadier General Francis P. Mulcahy moved his Aircraft, New Georgia, command post from Rendova to Munda Point. Marine aircraft began operations from Munda airfield. (Rentz, p. 146; OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).
14-24 Aug CANADA: The Quebec Conference. The CCS directed that the advance through the Southwest-South Pacific by CinCSWPA and ComSoPac be continued while CinCPOA aimed a new offensive along the Central Pacific axis. Action in the Central Pacific would begin with the invasion of the Gilberts and Marshalls; Rabaul would be neutralized but not captured. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 167. 168; Williams, pp. 126. 129).
15 Aug SOLOMONS: The Northern Landing Force assaulted Vella Lavella near Barakoma. The 4th Defense Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, was responsible for the installation and operation of anti-aircraft and seacoast defenses and for the organization and occupation of a sector of the beach defenses. (Rentz, pp. 131, 172).

ALEUTIANS: U.S. Army and Canadian troops, reoccupied Kiska Island. (Morris, p. 370; "Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet", p. 1).

16 Aug USMC: The 4th Marine Division, commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, was activated at Camp Pendleton, California. It was the only Marine Division during World War II to be mounted and staged into combat directly from the continental United States. (Heinl and Crown, p. 20: Proehl, p. 16).
18 Aug USMC: The Division of Aviation was transferred from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air. (Sherrod, p. 437).

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1943
SICILY: Axis resistance in Sicily collapsed with the fall of Messina. (Langer, p. 1162).
20 Aug PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, submitted on outline plan for the Marshalls operation which assumed the success or continued progress of operations in the Gilberts and in the New Guinea-New Britain area. (Heinl and Crown, p. 7).

NEW GEORGIA: GROUP: Baanga Island was secured by elements of the 43d Division, USA, supported by artillery units at Munda, New Georgia, including the 155mm gun batteries of the 9th Defense Battalion. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 148, 149).

21 Aug SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Planners for the New Britain operation circulated an outline naming the units to furnish the assault elements which included the 1st Marine Division, the 32d Infantry Division, USA, and the 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. USA. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 300).
22 Aug ELLICE ISLANDS: An advance party of the 2d Marine Airdrome Battalion landed at Nukufetau where an air base was to be established. (Williams, p. 129).
24 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Colonel William O. Brice, heading Fighter Command, moved his command post to Munda airfield and relieved Commander, Aircraft, New Georgia, of responsibility for control of fighter aircraft operating there. (Rentz, p. 147).
25 Aug USMC: Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, at Camp Elliott, California, was redesignated Amphibious Corps with Major General Holland M. Smith retaining command. It was to be an administrative command with control over Marine elements in the Central Pacific area and a tactical organization to direct amphibious assaults comprising both Marine and Army troops. Responsibility for the training of amphibious troops on the West Coast passed to the Troop Training Unit, Amphibious Training Command, Pacific Fleet, activated simultaneously with the V Amphibious Corps. (FMFPac, pp. 15, 16).

SOUTHEAST ASIA: Lord Louis Montbatten was appointed Supreme Allied Commander. Southeast Asia. (Morris, p. 372).

26 Aug SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Allied general headquarters directed the New Britain assault force to "seize the Cape Gloucester area and neutralize Gasmata..and establish control over Western New Britain to include the general line Talasea-Gasmata, the Vitu Islands and Long Island" as well as to participate "in over-seas landing operations to capture Rabaul." (Hough and Crown, p. 13).
27 Aug ELLICE ISLANDS: The 2d Marine Airdrome Battalion and Seabee units occupied Nukufetau Atoll preparatory to the installation of an airfield and suitable defenses. (Sherrod, p. 223).

NEW GEORGIA GROUP: The 172d Infantry, USA, crossed Hathorn Sound from New Georgia to Arundel Island and seized artillery positions that had been harassing Munda point. (Rentz, p. 127).

--50--

1943
28 Aug ELLICE ISLANDS: A detachment of the 7th Marine Defense Battalion with troops from the 16th Naval Construction Battalion went ashore at Nanomeo in preparation for a move into the Gilbert Islands. (Sherrod, p. 223).
28-29 Aug NEW GEORGIA: The 1st Marine Raider Regiment and the 4th Raider Battalion departed Enogai to return to Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 145).
29-30 Aug NEW GEORGIA: Battery A of the 9th Defense Battalion at Viru Plantation about 7,000 yards northwest of Munda point, began firing their 155mm batteries at the Japanese garrison at Kolombangara. (Rentz, p. 125).
31 Aug AUSTRALIA: The 1st Marine Division was alerted for movement from Melbourne to an advanced staging area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).
1 Sep USMC: Marine Aircraft, Hawaiian Area, was established at Ewa to administer all Marine aviation units in the Hawaiian area except Headquarters Squadron, Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific. (Sherrod, pp. 35, 437).

WASHINGTON: A JCS directive was dispatched to CinCPOA allocating troops and naval forces for the Marshalls operation. These included the 4th Marine Division, the 7th Infantry Division, USA, and the 22d Marines augmented by base defense and development units. In addition, Admiral Nimitz was ordered to "seize or control Wake, Eniwetok and Kusaie" on completion of the Marshalls task. (Heinl and Crown, p. 8).

PACIFIC: An Allied task force arrived on Baker Island to develop it as a base from which future operations in the Central pacific could be supported. (Williams, p. 130).

NEW HEBRIDES: Aircraft, Northern Solomons was formed at Espiritu Santo, under Brigadier General Field Harris, in preparation for the northern Solomons offensive. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 558).

2 Sep USMC: Marine Corps Air Depot, Miramar, California, commanded by Colonel Caleb Bailey, was established. (Sherrod, p. 441).
3 Sep EUROPE: The British Eighth Army invaded Italy. (Morris, p. 376).
4 Sep NEW GEORGIA: The VII Amphibious Force landed SWPA troops on the Huon Peninsula preparatory to the eventual passage of General MacArthur's forces through the Vitiaz-Dampier Straits. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 168).
6 Sep WASHINGTON: The Joint War Plans Committee prepared a study entitled "Outline Plan for the Seizure of the Marianas, including Guam." (Hoffman (1), p. 16).
7 Sep ELLICE ISLANDS: A 5,000-foot airstrip was completed at Nanomea. (Williams, p. 132).
8 Sep EUROPE: The Italian government accepted the Allied terms of unconditional surrender. (Morris, p. 376).

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1943
10 Sep PACIFIC: Headquarters, V Amphibious Corps, was made directly responsible to ComCenPac. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 14, 15).
15 Sep PACIFIC: Major General Charles Barrett relieved Lieutenant General A. A. Vandegrift as Commanding General, I Marine Amphibious Corps. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 559)

The 2d Marine Division was attached to V Amphibious Corps for the seizure of Tarawa Atoll. (Stockman, p. 3).

NEW GEORGIA: The 14th Brigade, New Zealand 3d Division landed at Barakoma, Vella Lavella, to relieve U.S. Army troops there; Major General H. E. Barrowclough of the 3d Division assumed command of all Allied forces on the island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 155).

16 Sep NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Three platoons of Marine Defense battalion tanks reinforced the U.S. Army troops on Arundel Island. (Rentz, p. 173).
17 Sep PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, ordered the Commanding General, I Marine Amphibious Corps to take necessary action to establish a forward Marine Staging Base on Vella Lavella. (Rentz, p. 136).
18-19 Sep GILBERT ISLANDS: U.S. Navy and Army aircraft bombed Tarawa. (Stockman, p. 74).
20 Sep PACIFIC: The 4th Marine Division was assigned to the V Amphibious Corps for the Tarawa operation. (Heinl and Crown, p. 20).
20-21 Sep NEW GEORGIA GROUP: The last Japanese survivors on Arundel Island withdrew, and the island was declared secure. (Rentz, p. 173).
22 Sep PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, completed the initial planning required on area level, and the Marshalls project passed to ComCenPac for execution. (Heinl and Crown, p. 8).

Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, directed that a study be prepared for a. proposed landing at Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville; Rear Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson, USN, was placed in overall command of the operation. (Rentz, p. 142).

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Allied general headquarters issued orders for the assault on Cape Gloucester, New Britain; the landing was postponed until 26 December. (Williams, p. 136).

22-30 Sep SOLOMONS: Two patrols comprising Marines, naval officers, and New Zealanders scouted the northern end of Choiseul Island and Choiseul Bay. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 195).
23 Sep NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Barakoma airfield on Vella Lavella became operational. Brigadier General James T. Moore, relieved Brigadier General Francis Mulcahy and became a new task unit commander under Aircraft, Solomons. (Rentz, p. 148).

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1943
23 -27 Sep SOLOMONS: A Marine-Navy patrol team from the submarine USS Gato scouted the northeast coast of Bougainville in the vicinity of Kieta; their report was generally unfavorable to a landing in that area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 174).
23-26 Sep SOLOMONS: A Marine-Navy patrol, landing from the submarine USS Guardfish near the Laruma River in northern Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, scouted Cape Torokina and the area to the north; they reported the area lightly defended and acceptable for airfield development. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 174, 175).
24 Sep SOLOMONS: The first party with American scouts to go ashore on New Britain landed near Grass Point; the patrol searched unsuccessfully for a trail south between Mt. Tangi and Talawe. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 330).
25 Sep-8 Oct NEW GEORGIA GROUP: I Marine Amphibious Corps Forward Staging Area, Vella Lavella landed on the east coast at Junio River and Ruravai Beach, and to the south on Barakoma and established a Marine advance staging point. They were replaced (8 October) by the Vella Lavella Advance Base Command. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 157, 158).
27 Sep PACIFIC: Major General Charles D. Barrett, Commanding General, I Marine Amphibious Corps, issued instructions to the 3d Marine Division for the capture of Bougainville. (Rentz, p. 11).

NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Marine aircraft landed on Barakoma airfield, Vella Lavella, to begin operations from that base. (Rentz, p. 135).

1 Oct PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, CinCPac, informed CinCSWPA of his decision to invade Bougainville on 1 November, and General MacArthur promised him maximum air assistance from SWPA units. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 175. 559).
5 Oct PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued Operation Plan 13-43 directing ComCenPac to "capture, occupy, defend, and develop Makin, Tarawa, and Apamama and vigorously deny Nauru.." (Stockman, p. 2).
6 Oct NEW GEORGIA GROUP: Action in the central Solomons came to a close when U.S. Army units made an unopposed landing on Kolombangara. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).
6-7 Oct SOLOMONS: Battle of Vella Lavella. The Japanese completed their evacuation of forces on Vella Lavella despite allied interception, thus ending their occupation of the New Georgia Group. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 161).

WAKE:U.S. carrier aircraft struck Japanese positions on the island. (Heinl (2), p. 68).

8 Oct PACIFIC: Major General A. A. Vandegrift reassumed command of the I Marine Amphibious Corps on the death of Major General Charles D. Barrett. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).

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1943
9 Oct NEW GEORGIA GROUP: The 3d New Zealand Division declared Vella Lavella secured. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).

ELLICE ISLANDS: Nukufetau airstrip became operational. (Williams, p. 139).

12 Oct PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued Operation plan 16-43, the first formal operation plan to deal with the Marshalls. (Heinl and Crown, p. 10).

BISMARCKS: Allied Air Forces, in the first of a series of raids planned to support the pending Bougainville operation, mounted the largest strike of the war against Rabaul airfield, and Simpson Harbor. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 479).

14 Oct PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued a plan for operations in the Marshalls assigning troops to definite objectives and calling for the capture, occupation, and development of bases at Wotje, Maloelap, and Kwajalein; the target date for Wotje and Maloelap was set at 1 January 1944 and for Kwajalein Atoll, the following day. (Heinl and Crown, p. 10).

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Allied general headquarters approved a plan for the New Britain operation which proposed a landing by the 7th Marines (less one battalion) organized as Combat Team C on north shore beaches between Cape Gloucester and Borgen Bay; the remaining battalion was to land near Taual. The 1st Marines, organized as Combat Team B, would be in immediate reserve. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 300, 301).

15 Oct PACIFIC: I Marine Amphibious Corps Issued Operation Order No. 1 directing the 3d Marine Division to seize Cape Torokina, Bougainville. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).

SOLOMONS: Allied aircraft began an intensive pre-invasion bombardments of Bougainville. (OpHist, v. 1, p. 559).

20 Oct USMC: The First Joint Assault Signal Company was activated at Camp Pendleton, California, to coordinate supporting fires during amphibious operations; it was later attached to the 4th Marine Division for the Marshalls operation. (Heinl and Crown, p. 23).

NEW GEORGIA: Commander, Aircraft, Solomons displaced forward to Munda Airfield and began operations from that strip. (Rentz, p. 149).

20, 24, 25 Oct SOLOMONS: Fighter-bomber groups of the Allied air forces struck the Simpson Harbor and Rabaul airfields causing considerable damage to Japanese installations, reducing the Japanese ability to strike at the Bougainville assault forces. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 186).
22 Oct PACIFIC: I Marine Amphibious Corps ordered the 2d Parachute Battalion to land on Choiseul in the northern Solomons bn the night of 27-28 October to conduct a diversionary raid preliminary to the Bougainville landings. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).

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1943
  The Commander, V Amphibious Corps ordered his Reconnaissance Company to land on Apamama Atoll, Gilbert Islands, 19-20 November, and determine Japanese strength there. (Stockman, p. 63).
24 Oct SOLOMONS: Colonel William O. Brice relieved Lieutenant Colonel Samuel S. Jack as head of the Fighter Command. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 4S7).
27 Oct USMC: The first Marine observation squadron (VMO-1) was activated at Quantico. (Sherrod, p. 450).

BOUGAINVILLE: A Marine advance party landed at Atsinima Bay, north of the Karuma River, to prepare for an assault on the island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 559).

TREASURY ISLANDS: Elements of the 8th New Zealand Brigade Group (I Marine Amphibious Corps) made unopposed landings on Soanotalu and Stirling Islands and went ashore, against light opposition, at Blanche Harbor, Mono Island. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 191, 193).

28 Oct-4 Nov SOLOMONS: The 2d Marine Parachute Battalion, made an unopposed diversionary landing in the vicinity of Voza village, Choiseul, and patrolled the island until withdrawn. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 194. 203).
31 Oct PACIFIC: The 22d Marines was detached from Defense Force, Samoan Group, and assigned to the V Amphibious Corps. ("Samoa").
31 Oct-1 Nov SOLOMONS: Task Force 38 and 39 bombarded Buka and Bonis airfields and Ballali airstrip, as well as Faisi and several of the smaller islands, in preparation for the landing at Cape Torokina, Bougainville. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 187).

BOUGAINVILLE: After preparatory naval and air bombardment-in which Marine aircraft from Munda, New Georgia, participated -the 3d Marine Division, rein, landed at Cape Torokina with the 3d and 9th Marines and the 2d Raider Regiment in assault. Against heavy opposition, the division front lines were extended inland about 600 yards to the Laruma River and about 1,000 yards in front of Cape Torokina. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 207-210, 218, 219).

1 Nov SOLOMONS: The 3d Raider Battalion with one reinforced company assaulted Puruata Island and established a perimeter about 125 yards inland. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 214).
2 Nov SOLOMONS: The Naval Battle of Empress Augusta Bay. Task Force 39 turned back a Japanese naval attempt to counterattack the Cape Torokina landing. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 221, 223). Puruata Island was declared secured. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 214).
3 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: A small detachment of the 3d Raider Battalion moved to Torokina Island, after preparatory bombardment from the 12th Marines and 3d Defense Battalion on Bougainville. No live Japanese were found. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 228).

--55--

1943
5 Nov BISMARCKS: Task Force 38 covered by F6F's from Aircraft, Solomons flew the first carrier-based air strike on Rabaul causing heavy damage to Japanese warships and preventing another sea attack on the Bougainville beachhead. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 482, 483).
6 Nov SOLOMONS: A supporting echelon of troops from the 21st Marines with other 3d Marine Division elements and cargo arrived at Cape Torokina and Puruata Island. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 229, 230).
7 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: A Japanese battalion from the 17th Division launched a counterlanding against the left flank of the beachhead at Cape Torokina and attacked Marine positions almost immediately. Elements of the 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, and the 1st Battalion, 3d Marines, supported by effective artillery and mortar fire halted the advance. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 230- 234).
7-10 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: Piva Trail Battle. Japanese troops hit the right flank of the perimeter with a series of attacks against the 2d Raider's trail block about 300 yards west of the junction of the Piva-Numa Numa trails. A final thrust (9 November) by the Raider Regiment, supported by the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, scattered Japanese resistance; the 2d Battalion followed by the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, advanced past the junction, through Piva village, and set up defensive positions along the Numa Numa trail (10 November). (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 236. 240).
8 Nov USMC: The 3d Marine Brigade was deactivated. (Heinl and Crown, p. 122; "Samoa").

BOUGAINVILLE: A Japanese landing force was defeated by elements of the 3d, 9th, and 21st Marines after a full-scale attack by the 1st Battalion, 21st Marines, against the Japanese defenses. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 235).

I Marine Amphibious Corps assumed control of all forces ashore from the commander of the 3d Marine Division. The first elements of the 37th Infantry Division, USA, arrived. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 245).

SAMOA: The 2d Defense Battalion, assigned to V Amphibious Corps, left Pago Pago, American Samoa. ("Samoa").

9 Nov PACIFIC: Major General Roy S. Geiger relieved Lieutenant General A. A. Vandegrift, newly appointed 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps, as Commanding General, I Marine Amphibious Corps. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 177).

BOUGAINVILLE: The area between the Marine positions and the Laruma River was bombed and strafed by dive-bombers from Munda, New Georgia, completing the annihilation of the Japanese landing force. Control of the left flank sector passed to the 148th Infantry Regiment. 37th Division. USA. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 235).

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1943
11 Nov BISMARCKS: Carrier Task Force 38 and Task Group 50.3 raided Simpson Harbor, New Britain, sinking one destroyer and causing heavy losses to the Japanese Eleventh Air Fleet. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 484- 486).

BOUGAINVILLE: Additional elements of the 21st Marines arrived. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 560).

ELLICE ISLANDS: The 2d Defense Battalion arrived at Funafuti. ("Samoa").

13 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: The second echelon of the 37th Division, USA, arrived and its commander, Major General Robert S. Beightler, assumed command of the Army sector of the perimeter. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 245).

BISMARCKS: Preinvasion bombardment of western New Britain targets was begun. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 560).

13-14 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: Battle of the Coconut Grove. Company E, 2d Battalion, 21st Marines--advancing along the Numa Numa Trail to establish an outpost for the protection of an airstrip site-was attacked 200 yards south of the trails junction with the Easts-West Trail by a sizeable Japanese force located in a coconut palm grove. Company E, rein-forced by Companies F and G, overran the Japanese position. Their advance permitted the entire beachhead to move forward 1.000-1.500 yards. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 241-244).
13-19 Nov GILBERTS-MARSHALLS: Aircraft of Task Force 57 made daily strikes on Japanese bases and conducted searches and Photographic missions. (Stockman, p. 10).
15 Nov PACIFIC: Major General Holland M. Smith, commanding the V Amphibious Corps, issued Operation Plan 2-43, the first overall troop directive for the Marshalls operation. (Heinl and Crown, p. 10).
15-17 Nov WASHINGTON: The JCS proposed that strikes against Japan from the Marianas would start in December 1944, although the first B-29 raids would be launched from China bases beginning in early June of that year. (Hoffman (1), p. 17).
16 Nov PACIFIC: Tactical Group-1 (Eniwetok landing force) was organized for the command of V Amphibious Corps by General Order No. 55-43 under operations in the Marshalls. (Heinl and Crown, p. 122).

BOUGAINVILLE: A supply road, running laterally across the front of the perimeter from the Koromokina beaches to the Piva River, was completed. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 251).

ELLICE ISLANDS: The 2d Defense Battalion, assigned to V Amphibious Corps, left Funafuti. ("Samoa").

MARSHALLS: A U.S. carrier group from Espiritu Santo attacked Nauru Island to neutralize its airfield. (Stockman, p. 11).

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1943
17 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: Japanese aircraft attacked a convoy carrying Marine reinforcements to the island: the transport McKean was sunk with the loss of some personnel from the 21st Marines. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 560).
18-19 Nov TARAWA: Planes from the Southern Carrier Group attacked Betio, joined on 19 November by surface bombardment from Cruiser Division 5. (Stockman, p. 11).
19 Nov PACIFIC: Land and carrier-based aircraft joined in the final bombardment of the Gilberts, Marshalls, and Nauru in preparation for the invasion of the Gilberts. (Williams, p. 147).

BOUGAINVILLE: The final elements of the 37th Infantry Division. USA. arrived. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 560).

19-20 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: Battle of Piva Forks. (First Phase). The 3d Battalion, 3d Marines routed the Japanese positions on the Numa Numa Trail and established a perimeter defense at the junction of the Trail and the Piva River. The 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, occupied the Japanese position between the two forks of the Piva River and seized Cibik Ridge (20 November), a small forward ridge dominating the East-West Trail and the Piva Forks area from which the entire Empress Augusta Bay area could be observed. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 255-257).
20 Nov SOLOMONS: Major General Ralph J. Mitchell relieved Major General Nathan F. Twining, USA, as Commander, Aircraft, Solomons. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 487).

TARAWA: After preliminary naval and air bombardment, the 2d Marine Division (rein) landed on Red Beaches 1, 2, and 3 on the north coast of Betio with the 2d Battalion, 8th Marines, and the 2d and 3d Battalion, 2d Marines in assault; the 1st Battalion, 2d Marines, and 3d Battalion, 8th Marines, landed in reserve. A beachhead was established against determined resistance. (Stockman, pp. 12- 28).

GILBERTS: One reinforced regimental combat team from the 27th Infantry Division. USA. landed on Makin. (Stockman, p. 60).

21 Nov TARAWA: On Betio the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, was landed on Red Beach 2 to reinforce Marine positions there. The airfield was captured by Companies A and B of the 1st Battalion and most of the 2d Battalion, 2d Marines; the 1st and 2d Battalions pushed to the south coast, splitting the Japanese force on the island. The 3d Battalion, 2d Marines, advanced south and secured Green Beach. (Stockman, pp. 29-41).

The 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, landed on Blue Beach at the west end of Bairiki Island to intercept Japanese escaping from Betio. (Stockman, p. 40).

Company D of the 2d Tank Battalion advanced up the atoll. The 3d Platoon at Eita found no Japanese but the 2d Platoon located a position at Buota; the 1st Platoon went ashore about four miles farther up the atoll to the northwest, near Tabitwuea Village. (Stockman, p. 62).

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1943
GILBERTS: V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company landed on Joe Island, Apamama Atoll, overcame light resistance, then moved to the next islet. (Stockman, p. 64).
21-25 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: Battle of Piva Forks. (Final Phase). The 3d Marines widened the perimeter in the Piva Porks area ending serious opposition to the occupation and development of the Cape Torokina area. The 2d and 3d Battalions, 3d Marines, defeated the Japanese 23d Infantry in an attack along 800 yards of the east fork of the Piva River (24 November). (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 258 -267).
22 Nov TARAWA: Reinforcements landed on Green Beach, Betio, (3d Battalion, 6th Marines) and attacked eastward. The 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, advanced along the south coast to secure that side of the island, then attacked east toward the airfield. The 1st Battalion, 8th Marines gained several strong positions in an attack west to clear the Japanese from the boundary between Beaches Red 1 and 2, the only Japanese group that had not been compressed into the long tail of Betio east of the airfield. (Stockman, pp. 43-52).

GILBERTS: All organized resistance on Makin Atoll ended. (Stockman, p. 60).

22-23 Nov TARAWA: The 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, repelled three counterattacks on Betio. (Stockman, pp. 52- 54).
22-26 Nov EGYPT: At the Cairo Conference, the basic strategic concept governing the offensive stages of the war was approved. It envisioned an advance across the Pacific along two principle axes of operations; forces commanded by CinCSWPA were to move along the north coast of New Guinea to the Philippines while those of CinCPOA directed a con-verging drive through the Central Pacific to the core of the Japanese defenses. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 1: Morris, p. 385).
23 Nov TARAWA: The 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, secured the south-east tip of Betio while the 3d Marines overran the pocket of Japanese resistance on the boundary between Beaches Red 1 and 2. (Stockman, pp. 56-59).

Major General Julian C. Smith, commanding the 2d Marine Division, announced that all organized resistance on Betio had ceased. (Stockman, p. 59).

The 3d Battalion, 10th Marines, moved to Eita Village. (Stockman, p. 62).

BOUGAINVILLE: The 1st Parachute Battalion arrived from Vella Lavella. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 270).

23-24 Nov TARAWA: Japanese from the eastern tail of Betio were killed counterattacking the 6th Marines. (Stockman, p. 60).

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1943
24 Nov TARAWA: Two regimental combat teams, the 2d and 8th Marines of the 2d Marine Division, departed Bairiki for the 2d Division's new base camp at Kamuela, Hawaii, The 2d Defense Battalion arrived on the atoll from Samoa. (Stockman, p. 60; "Samoa").

Major General Julian C. Smith, 2d Marine Division commander, directed Brigadier General Leo D. Hermle to seize and occupy Apamama Atoll with a landing force built around the 3d Battalion, 6th Marines. The 2d Battalion, 6th Marines started its long march up the atoll from Buota to mop up all remaining Japanese. (Stockman, pp. 62, 64).

The 1st and 4th Platoons of the 3d Battalion, 10th Marines, scouted north to Ida Island, about halfway up the long side of the atoll. (Stockman, p. 62).

25 Nov SOLOMONS: The Battle of Cape St. George concluded a series of night naval engagements in the Solomons campaigns. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 560).

GILBERTS: The 1st and 3d Platoons, V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company, reported no opposition on Otto. (Stockman, p. 64).

26 Nov TARAWA: The 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, reached the southern end of Buariki, the last large island in the northwest of the atoll. Company E clashed with a Japanese patrol. (Stockman, pp. 62, 63).

GILBERTS: A landing force of the 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, arrived on Apamama to occupy the atoll. Rifle companies I and K went shore on John and Steve Islands, respectively. (Stockman, p. 64).

BOUGAINVILLE: Two companies of the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, occupied the abandoned Japanese positions on Grenade Hill. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 266).

27 Nov TARAWA: The 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, overcame Japanese resistance on Buariki. (Stockman, p. 63).
28 Nov TARAWA: Major General Julian C. Smith, commanding the 2d Marine Division, announced the capture of the atoll when troops from the 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, found no Japanese on Naa Islet and returned to Eita. (Stockman, pp. 63., 75).
28 Nov-12 Jan IRAN: The Teheran Conference met. (Langer, p. 1141).
29 Nov BOUGAINVILLE: The 1st Parachute Battalion with Company M, 3d Raider Battalion, and a forward observer team from the 12th Marines landed at a Japanese supply dump on Koiari beach to raid the Japanese system of communications and supply along the Bougainville coast but were forced to evacuate. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 270 -272).

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1943
GILBERTS: The 2d Marine Division Scout Company (Company D, 2d Tank Battalion) was ordered to reconnoiter three island atolls adjacent to Tarawa-Abaiang, Marakei, and Maiana. (Stockman, p. 65).
30 Nov SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Lieutenant General Walter Krueger, USA, issued Field Order No. 5 cancelling the proposed landing at Gasmata and activating a new task force, built around the 112th Cavalry Regimental Combat Team, USA, to undertake an attack on Arawe, New Britain; tentative landing dates were set for 15 December at Arawe and 26 December at Cape Gloucester. (Hough and Crown, pp. l8, 207).

GILBERTS: Elements of Company D, 2d Tank Battalion, scouted Abaiang and Makakei Atolls north of Tarawa but found only five Japanese. (Stockman, p. 65: Williams, p. 151)

1 Dec USMC: The first Marine air-transportable air-warning squadron was commissioned at Cherry Point. North Carolina. (Sherrod, p. 452).

GILBERTS: Scouts of Company D, 2d Tank Battalion, landed on Maiana Atoll near the village of Bickerel but departed after finding no Japanese. (Stockman, p. 65).

3 Dec USMC: Separate headquarters for the 1st and 2d Marine Air-craft Wings previously administered by Marine Aircraft, South Pacific were established. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 456).

BOUGAINVILLE: The 1st Marine Parachute Regiment arrived from Vella Lavella. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 273).

4 Dec TARAWA: Major General Julian C. Smith turned over his command of the Tarawa area to the Commander, Advanced Base, Tarawa, Captain Jackson R. Tate, USN. (Stockman, p. 65).

GILBERTS: Brigadier General Leo D. Hermle, commanding the 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, on Apamama Atoll, was relieved by the base commander. Captain W. D. Cogswell. USN. (Stockman, p. 64).

MARSHALLS: A neutralization campaign commenced with carrier and shore-based strikes against Nauru and Mille. (Heinl and Crown, p. 38).

BISMARCKS: Brigadier General Julian W. Cunningham, USA, commanding the Arawe operation, issued a formal field order for the seizure of positions in the Arawe area. The 112th Cavalry, USA, was directed to secure the peninsula and the islands forming Arawe Harbor and to send an amphibious patrol to the Itni River and Gilnit Village to check the possibility of overland contact with the Marines at Cape Gloucester. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 335).

8 Dec MARSHALLS: Nauru Island was attacked by air and sea beginning a month of shore-based bombardment of the islands. (Heinl and Crown, p. 39).

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1943
9 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: Ground crews of Marine Fighter Squadrons 212 and 215 landed and moved to the Torokina fighter field. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 489).
10 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: The Torokina airstrip was declared operational, and Marine Fichter Squadron 216 flew onto the field. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 283, 489).
12 Dec PACIFIC: CinCPOA and ComCenPac evolved a plan to assault Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls. (Heinl and Crown, p. 11).
13 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: Marine Fighter Squadron 216 flew its first direct air support mission with Hellzapoppin Ridge as the target. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 283).
14 Dec PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued a revision of Operation Plan 16-43; the target date for the Marshalls operations was rescheduled to 17 January 1944. (Heinl and Crown, p. 12).
15 Dec SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Amendment 1 to Field Order No. 5 was issued setting up the final organization for the Cape Gloucester task force. (Hough and Crown, p. 207).

NEW BRITAIN: Operations for the seizure of western New Britain began when the 112th Cavalry, rein, USA-spearheaded by Marine Buffalo and Alligator amphibious tractors and supported by land based Army Air Force fighters and naval bombardment-made a secondary landing on New Britain at Arawe and assaulted Pilelo Island, commanding the best passage into Arawe Harbor. Arawe and Umtingalu were cleared of Japanese forces and the garrison on Pilelo was destroyed. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 338, 339).

BOUGAINVILLE: XIV Corps, commanded by Major General Oscar W. Griswold, USA, assumed control of the Bougainville operation from I Marine Amphibious Corps. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 280).

17 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Allied fighters from New Georgia airfields, including F4U's of Marine Fighter Squadron 214, attacked Japanese planes leaving the Lakunai airfields during the first Allied fighter sweep against Rabaul. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 489, 490).

An amphibious patrol from the 112th Cavalry, USA, was dispatched from Arawe toward the Itni River to investigate Japanese strength these. Large concentrations of Japanese troops were reported at the mouth of the Itni, Aisega, and Sag-Sag (22 December). (OpHist, v. 2, p. 342).

18 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: The occupation of the hill mass dominating the area between the Piva and Torokina Rivers, begun on 27 November, was completed when the 1st and 3d Battalions, 21st Marines, captured Hallzapoppin Ridge. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 273 - 279).
18-25 Dec NEW BRITAIN: A Japanese unit landed at Omoi and attacked overland toward U.S. Army's perimeter at Arawe. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 342, 343).

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1943
19 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Strikes by the Fifth Air Force were intensified over the Cane Gloucester target area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 343).
20 Dec PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued the final Joint Staff study for the invasion of the Marshalls setting forth the following strategic decisions: the neutralization of Wotje, Maloelap, and Mille by bombing; the reduction of Eniwetok and Kusaie by air; and the seizure of Kwajalein Atoll as a Fleet anchorage with air bases at Kwajalein and Roi. (Heinl and Crown, p. 13).
21-22 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Two parties of Marine scouted the beaches near Tauali preparatory to the landing. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 331).
23 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Aircraft of Marine Fighter Squadron 214 attacked Rabaul imposing heavy losses on Japanese interceptors over Cape St. George. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 490).

MARSHALLS: Six SBDs of Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 331 participated in U.S. attack against shipping at Jaluit Atoll. (Sherrod, p. 227).

25 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: The first echelon of the Americal Division, USA, arrived to relieve the 3d Marine Division. (Williams, p. 156).
26 Dec NEW BRITAIN: The Western and Eastern Assault Groups of the 1st Marine Division-supported by the Fifth Air Force, Marine Fighter Squadrons 214, 216, 222, 223, and 321, and naval bombardment-landed on Green and Yellow Beaches, Cape Gloucester, and secured the main beachhead. A Japanese aerial counterattack caused severe damage to offshore shipping, but Japanese losses precluded any further attempts at a day-light raid on Cape Gloucester in comparable strength. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 345-356).

Major General Iwao Matsuda, commanding the Japanese forces on New Britain, was ordered to commit his reserve while the l41st Infantry and the 51st Reconnaissance Regiment were directed to join the forces defending Cape Gloucester. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 357, 358).

BISMARCKS: A reinforced boat company of the 592d Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment, USA, and an Australian radar station landed on Long Island, about 80 miles west of Cape Gloucester to set up a long-range radar on the island. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 345).

27 Dec PACIFIC: CinCPOA published a preliminary draft planning the Central Pacific operations for 1944. The timetable of operations for the POA and SWPA was as follows: Kwajalein, 31 January 1944; Kavieng and Truk (air attacks),

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1943
20 March 1944; Manus, 20 April 1944; Eniwetok, 1 May 1944; Mortlock, 1 July 1944; Truk, 15 August 1944; Tinian, Saipan, and Guam. 15 November 1944. (Hoffman (1), p. 18).

NEW BRITAIN: Japanese of the 2d Battalion, 53d Infantry, repeatedly attacked the center of the perimeter in the sector held by Combat Team C (7th Marines) badly crippling its strength. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 399. 360).

BOUGAINVILLE: The relief of the 3d Marine Division by the Americal Division, USA, began when the 164th Infantry, USA, replaced the 9th Marines on the front lines and assumed responsibility for the eastern sector of the beachhead. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 280, 560).

27-28 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Combat Team B (1st Marines) captured Hell's Point, a Japanese stronghold defending the Cape Gloucester Airdrome. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 362-365).
28 Dec BOUGAINVILLE: The last units of the 3d Marines, manning perimeter positions, were relieved by elements of the Americal Division. USA. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 280).
29 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Combat Team (5th Marines), less the 3d Battalion landed on Beaches Blue and Yellow, Cape Gloucester, to rein-force the 1st Marine Division's perimeter. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 360, 361, 365).
29-30 Dec NEW BRITAIN: Elements of the 1st Battalion, 53d Japanese Infantry, were crushed during a counterattack on the perimeter at the Tauali beachhead. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 371, 372).
29-31 Dec NEW BRITAIN: The 2d Battalion, 5th Marines (Combat Team A), and the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines (Combat Team B), reached Airfields Nos. 1 and 2 on Cape Gloucester and the airdrome was declared secured (31 December). (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 366, 367, 370).
30 Dec TARAWA: The Forward Echelon of Headquarters Squadron, 4th Marine Base Defense Aircraft Wing, commanded by Brigadier General Lewis G. Merritt, arrived on the atoll. (Muster Rolls).

BOUGAINVILLE: The bomber airfield at Piva was declared operational. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 283).

31 Dec USMC: Lieutenant General Thomas Holcomb, Commandant, retired with the rank of general. (Commandants, p. 119).

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1944
Jan-May WAKE: U.S. forces flew 996 sorties against the atoll. (Heinl (2), p. 68).
1-2 Jan BOUGAINVILLE: The 21st Marines was relieved by the 182d Infantry. Americal Division. USA. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 280).
2 Jan NEW BRITAIN: Brigadier General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Assistant Division Commander, 1st Marine Division, launched an attack by the 2d and 3d Battalions, 7th Marines, and the 3d Battalion, 5th Marines toward Borgen Bay. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 374, 375).

The 1st Marine Division's light aircraft began operating from airfield No. 1. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 380).

NEW GUINEA: Elements of the U.S. Sixth Army landed at Saidor. (Williams, p. 159).

3 Jan PACIFIC: Rear Admiral Turner, USN, issued Operation Plan A6-43 listing components of the assault on the Marshalls and setting forth the Joint Expeditionary Forces' mission. (Heinl and Crown, p. 15).

NEW BRITAIN: The 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, repulsed a Japanese counterattack on Target Hill, the most prominent objective within the Yellow Beach defenses. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 374-376).

4 Jan NEW BRITAIN: Elements of the 3d Battalions, 5th and 7th Marines, attacking toward Borgen Bay, overran the 2d Battalion, 53d Japanese Infantry, which was defending Suicide Creek. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 375-377).
5 Jan PACIFIC: Major General Holland M. Smith released V Amphibious Corps Operation Plan 1-44 superseding Operation Plan 3-43. It established the landing forces for the Marshalls operation, to include the Northern Landing Force, the Southern Landing Force, and the Majuro Landing Force and designated possible landing beaches on Roi, Namur, and Kwajalein Islands. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 19, 20).
9 Jan BOUGAINVILLE: The Americal Division, USA, continued its relief of the 3d Marine Division; the 132d Infantry entered the lines. (Williams, p. 161).

The fighter airfield at Piva was declared operational. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 283).

11 Jan NEW BRITAIN: Aogiri Ridge, defended by the 2d Battalion, 53d and 141st Japanese Infantries, fell to the 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, supported by Marine artillery. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 380-385).

Company B, 1st Tank Battalion, arrived at Arawe to support U.S. Army units there. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 392).

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1944
13 Jan PACIFIC: CinCPac-CinCPOA issued a second plan for Central Pacific operations in 1944 outlining the following time-table: a carrier raid on Truk in support of the invasion of the Admiralties and Kavieng, about 24 March; the capture of Eniwetok and Ujeland Atolls in the Marshalls, 1 May; the capture of Mortlock and Truk in the Carolines, 1 August; and the invasion of Saipan and Tinian, 1 November, and of Guam, 15 December. If Truk could be by passed, it proposed that the Palaus be invaded on 1 August. (Lodge, p. 17: Williams, p. 162).
14-16 Jan NEW BRITAIN: The 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, supported by Marine artillery captured Hill 660. A counterattack by elements of the Japanese l41st Infantry was repulsed marking the end of Japanese defenses in the Cape Gloucester-Borgen Bay area. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 385- 389).
16 Jan BOUGAINVILLE: The withdrawal of the 3d Marine Division from Bougainville was completed. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 280).
16-17 Jan NEW BRITAIN: Company B, 1st Tank Battalion, spearheaded as assault by U.S. Army troops against Japanese positions on the Arawe Peninsula. The Japanese were forced to withdraw to the Lupin area. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 392. 393).
21 Jan NEW BRITAIN: General Hitoshi Imamura, commanding the Eighth Area Army at Rabaul, ordered the Japanese force in western New Britain to withdraw and concentrate in the Iboki area for further movement to Talasea. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 398).

MARSHALLS: Organic weapons of the 25th Marines and the Special Weapons Battalion, 4th Marine Division, were concentrated along the north shore of Ennugarret to bear on Numur in support of the 24th Marines' assault there. (Heinl and Crown, p. 62).

26 Jan PACIFIC: The V Amphibious Corps staff drew up a tentative study for the rapid seizure of Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, which first reviewed the idea of two divisions striking on or about 1 May. Originally a landing by the 2d Marine was scheduled for 19 March but later postponed to 1 May. (Heinl and Crown, p. 121).
27-28 Jan PACIFIC: Representatives of the South, Southwest, and Central Pacific Commands met at Pearl Harbor to discuss, coordinate, and integrate their planning. The conferees reviewed the following two alternative schedules for operations in the Pacific: (a) Truk, 15 June; Marianas, 1 September; Palaus, 15 November and (b) Truk, bypass; Marianas, 15 June; Palaus, 10 October. (Hoffman. (1), p. 19).
29-30 Jan MARSHALLS: Carrier task forces followed by surface bombardment struck Taroa and Wotje; land-based planes bombarded Kwajalein and Roi-Namur. (Heinl and Crown, p. 39).

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1944
31 Jan MARSHALLS: Northern Landing Force troops from the 25th Marines landed on Mellu and Ennuebing Islands and captured Ennubirr, Ovella, Ennumennet, and Ennugarret Islands in Kwajalein Atoll. U.S. Army troops of the Southern Landing Force seized the islets guarding the Ninni Pass, Kwajalein Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 46, 55).

The V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company secured Calalin and Eroj, the islands commanding the entrance channel to Majuro Atoll, and crossed to Uliga and Darrit Islands; the 4th Platoon seized Majuro Island. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 58-61).

NEW BRITIAN: Marine patrols located Major General Iwao Matsuda's abandoned headquarters at Nakarop. (Hough and Crown, p. 207).

1 Feb MARSHALLS: Combat Team 23 (23d Marines) landed within the lagoon across the south beaches of Roi Island, Kwajalein Atoll, and after seizing NAT Circle, the final Japanese stronghold, the island was declared secured. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 64, 79).

Combat Team 24 (24th Marines, rein) assaulted Namur and its neighboring bit of land, PAULINE Point, in Kwajalein Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 81-87).

U.S. Army troops, spearheaded by the 32d and 184th Regimental Combat Teams, assaulted Kwajalein Island. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 100-102).

A detachment of the V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company captured Arno Atoll. The 2d Battalion, 106th Infantry, USA, landed on Majuro Atoll, and garrison and base development troops and equipment were unloaded on Uliga and Dalap Islands. (Heinl and Crown, p. 61).

2 Feb MARSHALLS: Major General Harry Schmidt, commanding the Northern Landing Force, ordered the 4th Marine Division reserve commander to proceed with the seizure of islands in the northern portion of Kwajalein Atoll, to be executed by Combat Team 25 and Company A, 10th Amphibian Tractor Battalion. Landing Team 2 made the initial movement, securing eight islands on the first day without opposition. (Heinl and Crown, p. 111).

The 7th Reconnaissance Troop, USA, began the seizure of minor islands in the southern sector of Kwajalein Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 112).

Combat Team 24 launched a coordinated attack toward NATALIE Point on Namur, and the island was secured when the two advancing forces joined on the point. The capture of Namur the major task of the 4th Marine Division in Kwajalein Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 95 -99).

2-3 Feb MARSHALLS: Units of the U.S. Fleet began to arrive at Majuro Atoll: work began on Dalep airfield. (Heinl and Crown, p. 61).

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1944
2-4 Feb MARSHALLS: Landing Team 1 (1st Battalion 23rd Marines) secured Boggerlapp, Boggerik, and Hollis Islands without opposition. (Heinl and Crown, p. 111).
3 Feb MARSHALLS: Rear Admirals Richmond K. Turner and Harry W. Hill conferred with Major General Holland M. Smith and Brigadier General Thomas E. Watson on plans for the occupation of Eniwetok; the target date for the landing was set at 12 February (later changed to 17 February). Admiral Hill was assigned to overall amphibious command, and General Watson's Tactical Group-1 was directed to provide the assault troops. (Heinl and Crown, p. 122).
4 Feb MARSHALLS: Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, announced that the capture and occupation phases of Majoro Atoll had been completed. The island commander, Captain Edgar A. Cruise. USN. assumed responsibility for the area. (Heinl and Crown, p. 61).

TRUK: Two planes from Marine Photographic Squadron 954 executed the first photo reconnaissance of the atoll. (Sherrod, p. 477).

4-7 Feb MARSHALLS: Landing Team 3 (3d Battalion, 25th Marines) assumed the role assigned to Landing Team 1 (1st Battalion, 25th Marines) of securing islands in northern Kwajalein Atoll. The landing team--augmented by Battery C, l4th Marines, and naval support-- captured 39 islands unopposed, completing the mission of the Northern Landing Force. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 111, 112).
5 Feb PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, approved final plans for the Eniwetok and Truk operations. (Heinl and Crown, p. 121).
6 Feb MARSHALLS: Elements of the 17th Regimental Combat Team, USA, secured Ennugenliggelap Island, completing the mission of the Southern Landing Force. Only Bigel and Eller Islands had offered resistance. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 113, 114).

The V Amphibious Corps formally released Tactical Group-1 as the landing force reserve of the Kwajalein operation and assigned it duty under the Commander, Task Group 51.11 to participate in the Eniwetok landing. (Heinl and Crown, p. 127).

7 Feb MARSHALLS: Ground elements of 4th Marine Base Defense Air Wing arrived at Roi. (Heinl and Crown, p. 168).
7-12 Feb USSR: The Crimea Conference met. (Langer, p. 1143).
8 Feb MARSHALLS: Kwajalein Atoll was secured. The bulk of the Southern Landing Force-the l4th Marines, the 23d Marines, and the 2d Battalion, 24th Marines-departed the Kwajalein area. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 109, 114. 168).

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1944
Combat Team 25 was selected to garrison Kwajalein Atoll and, together with Company A, 10th Amphibian Tractor Battalion, was temporarily detached from the 4th Marine Division to report to the atoll's commander. (Heinl and Crown, p. 112).
9 Feb MARSHALLS: Three Marine night fighters landed on Roi Island. (Heinl and Crown, p. 111).
10 Feb NEW BRITAIN: Operations in western New Britain were declared ended. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 394).

NEW GUINEA: The Huon Peninsula Campaign was concluded when Australian troops, advancing overland from Sio, met the American task force that had seized Saidor. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 394).

11 Feb MARSHALLS: The first U.S. plane landed on Roi Island's airfield. (Heinl and Crown, p. 108).
12, 14, 15 Feb MARSHALLS: The rear echelon of the 4th Marine Division departed the Kwajalein area. (Heinl and Crown, p. 109).
12-20 Feb BISMARCKS: Company B of the 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, landed on Rooke and patrolled the island. No Japanese were encountered. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 410).
13 Feb SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur issued a directive calling for the seizure of Manus in the Admiralties and Kavieng on New Ireland with a target date of 1 April. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 409).

NEW BRITAIN: The 35th Fighter Squadron, USA, moved onto Airfield No. 2, Cape Gloucester. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 409).

19 Feb-15 May GREEN ISLANDS: The 3d New Zealand Division (less the 8th Brigade), rein, secured Nissan Atoll. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 511).
16 Feb NEW BRITAIN: Army and Marine patrols from Arawe and Cape Gloucester, respectively, made contact at Gilnit on the Itni River thus securing western New Britain and bringing to a conclusion the combat operations in the southern Itni Valley. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 394, 403; Hough and Crown, p. 207).
17 Feb MARSHALLS: Task Group 51.11 shelled Engebi, Parry, Japtan, and Eniwetok Islands in Eniwetok Atoll while planes from Task Group 58.4 bombed and strafed the islands. Marines of Tactical Group-1, landing from Task Group 51.11, secured CAMELLIA and Rujiyoru Islands, Eniwetok Atoll. Artillery of the 2d Separate Pack Howitzer Battalion and the 104th Field Artillery Battalion, USA, was placed on CAMELLIA and Rujiyoru, respectively, and registered fire against Engebi Island. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 127. 128).

TRUK: An attack force of seventy planes from Carrier Forces, ComCenPac, were intercepted by 80 Japanese planes over the atoll; 60 Japanese aircraft were destroyed in the air and 40 more on the ground. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 126, 127).

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1944
17-18 Feb TRUK: Central Pacific task forces under Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, struck airfield installations and shipping in the atoll's anchorage, revealing the weakness of that base. The raid was the deciding factor in Japan's decision to withdraw all combat aircraft from Rabaul and an Allied decision to by-pass the atoll. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 499).
18 Feb MARSHALLS: The 22d Marines assaulted Beaches White 1 and Blue 3, Engebi Island, Eniwetok Atoll. The Tactical Group Commander declared the island secured except for an isolated pocket of Japanese. Landing Team 3 and the 2d Separate Tank Company were reembarked to participate with the 106th Infantry Regiment, USA, in the landing on Eniwetok Island. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 130-134).

Elements of Company D (Scout), 4th Tank Battalion, arrived on Bogon Island west of Engebi to intercept any Japanese fleeing in that direction. (Heinl and Crown, p. 127).

19 Feb BISMARCKS: U.S. Marine, Army, and Navy aircraft executed the last opposed air raid against Rabaul; after this date, the Japanese abandoned all air defense there. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 502, 561).

MARSHALLS: The V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company landed on Muzinbaarikku Island, Eniwetok Atoll, against opposition from Engebi Island positions. Company D (Scout) secured a number of islands southwest of Engebi. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 135, 136).

The 1st and 3d Battalions, 106th Infantry, USA, landed on Beaches Yellow 2 and 1, Eniwetok Island, respectively; the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines disembarked on Beach Yellow 1. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 136-140).

Brigadier General Thomas E. Watson, commanding Tactical Group-1, assigned the 22d Marines on Engebi Island to the capture of Parry Island. (Heinl and Crown, p. 143).

The ground echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 22 arrived at Engebi Island, Eniwetok Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 159).

19 Feb-15 May BISMARCKS: Aircraft, Solomons attacked Rabaul; Marine Bomber Squadron 413, relieving Army B-25s, raided around the clock. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 523. 524).
20 Feb MARSHALLS: Tactical Group-1 Operation Order 3-44 was issued postponing the attack on Parry Island until 22 February and providing for the reembarkation of the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, and the 2d Separate Tank Company on Eniwetok, on 21 February, to participate in the assault. (Heinl and Crown, p. 144).

Company D (Scout), 4th Tank Battalion, landed on the southern group in the western chain of islands, Eniwetok Atoll, and secured Rigili Island against light resistance and the other seven islands in the chain without meeting any Japanese. (Heinl and Crown, p. 143).

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1944
Landing Team 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, and the 1st Battalion, 106th Infantry, USA, attacked south on Eniwetok Island and secured the southern end. The 104th Field Artillery Battalion, USA, landed to support the attack on Parry Island and the advance of the 3d Battalion, 106th Infantry, up the northeast neck of Eniwetok Island. (Heinl and Crown, p. 141).

The 3d Army Defense Battalion relieved the 22d Marines on Engebi Island, Eniwetok Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 143, 144).

BISMARCKS: The Japanese abandoned the airfields ringing Blanche Bay. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 411).

21 Feb MARSHALLS: The northern end of Eniwetok Island was secured by U.S. Army troops, and the American flag was raised over the island. (Heinl and Crown, p. 142).

The V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company secured, without opposition, 10 islands and islets in the eastern rim of Eniwetok Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 143).

The 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, was withdrawn from Eniwetok Atoll in preparation for the invasion of Parry Island. (Williams, p. 175).

NEW BRITAIN: The 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, occupied Karai-ai, a key Japanese supply point. (Hough and Crown, p. 126).

22 Feb MARSHALLS: Landing Teams 1 and 2, 22d Marines, assaulted the northern portion of Parry Island and secured the island against stiff resistance. Its possession marked the successful completion of the Eniwetok operation. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 146-l48).
22-23 Feb MARIANAS: Task Force 58 struck the southern Marianas; initial intelligence photographs of Saipan, Tinian, and Aguijan were taken. (Hoffman (1), pp. 25. 266).
23 Feb MARSHALLS: The 3d Battalion, 106th Infantry, USA, landed on Eniwetok Atoll and began mopping-up activities. Landing Team 2, 22d Marines, and the 2d Separate Tank Company reembarked, followed by the remainder of Regimental Combat Team 22 on 24 February. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151).

NEW BRITAIN: The 17th Japanese Division received orders to withdraw to Rabaul. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 411).

24 Feb NEW BRITAIN: Marine patrols from sea and land reached Iboki, a primary Japanese supply base but found it abandoned; the last cohesive unit of the Japanese forces defending western New Britain had passed through the village on 16 February. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 408).

The 1st Battalion, 141st Japanese Infantry, withdrew northward from its defensive sector near Lupin. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 394).

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1944
25 Feb MARSHALLS: The 10th Defense Battalion assumed responsibility for Eniwetok Island. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151.

The 22d Marines departed Eniwetok Atoll for Kwajalein Island to relieve the 25th Marines there; various attached units were ordered to Hawaii. Only Regimental Combat Team 106, USA (less the 2d Battalion) remained of the assault force that had arrived at Eniwetok Atoll on 17 February. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151).

29 Feb MARSHALLS: The 22d Marines relieved Combat Team 25 as the garrison force on Kwajalein Atoll, and the combat team departed the area to rejoin the 4th Marine Division in Hawaii. (Heinl and Crown, p. 112).

ADMIRALTIES: A reinforced squadron from the 1st Cavalry Division, USA, landed on Los Negros Island against strong resistance. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 409).

1 Mar MARSHALLS: The atoll commander received orders to neutralize and control the Lesser Marshalls, those atolls and islands thought to be undefended or lightly held. (Heinl and Crown, p. 152).

Planes of Marine Aircraft Group 22 arrived at Engebi, Eniwetok Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 159).

2 Mar MARSHALLS: Regimental Combat Team 106, USA, was released from the operational control of Tactical Group-1 and became a part of the Eniwetok Atoll garrison force. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151).

ELLICE ISLANDS: The 5th Defense Battalion departed Nanumea for Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. (Muster Rolls).

3 Mar MARSHALLS: Brigadier General Thomas E. Watson, commanding Tactical Group-1, departed Eniwetok Atoll for Pearl Harbor. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151).
4 Mar MARSHALLS: The 4th Marine Base Defense Air Wing's campaign against Wotje, Jaluit, Mille, and Maloelap Atolls in the East Marshalls opened when Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 331 bombed Jaluit; the attacks continued until Japan's surrender. (Heinl and Crown, p. 159).
5 Mar MARSHALLS: The 22d Marines on Kwajalein Atoll had been disposed as follows: 1st Battalion, Bigej Island; 2d Battalion, Roi-Namur; 3d Battalion, Edgigan, and the remainder of the regiment on Ennubirr and Obella Islands with the regimental command post on Ennubirr. The 2d Separate Pack Howitzer Battalion relieved the 1st Battalion, 14th Marines, on Edgigan but Company A, 10th Amphibian Tractor Battalion, was directed to remain at Kwajalein to work with the 22d Marines. (Heinl and Crown, p. 152).
6 Mar NEW BRITAIN: Combat Team A (5th Marines), 1st Marine Division landed at Volupai Plantation on the Willaumez Peninsula in preparation for the Talasea operation. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 413 421).

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1944
7 Mar MARSHALLS: The first reconnaissance group including two reinforced companies from the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines departed Kwajalein Atoll to clear Wotho Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).
8 Mar BOUGAINVILLE: The Japanese opened their attack against the 37th Army Division's sector. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 561).
9 Mar MARSHALLS: Brigadier General Lewie G. Merritt, commander of the 4th Marine Base Defense Air Wing, established headquarters at Kwajalein. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 159. 160).

Two reinforced companies of the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, landed on Wotho Island, on the atoll of that name, West Group, without opposition. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).

ELLICE ISLANDS: The 7th Defense Battalion departed Nanumea for Kauai. Hawaiian Islands. (Muster Rolls).

NEW BRITAIN: Elements of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, captured Mt. Scheleuther and the Waru Villages on the Willaumez Peninsula, and found the Japanese had withdrawn south; Talasea was declared secure. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 423).

10 Mar WASHINGTON: The JCS agreed upon the following timetable for operations in the Pacific: the invasion of Hollandia, 15 April; the Marianas, 15 June; the Palaus, 15 September; Mindanao, Philippines, 15 November 1945; and Formosa, 15 February 1945. (Williams, p. 179).

MARSHALLS: Two reinforced companies from the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, secured Ujae and Lae Atolls, West Group, without opposition. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).

10 Mar-25 Apr NEW BRITAIN: The three infantry battalions of the 5th Marines patrolled north, south, and southeast Bitokara on Willaumez Peninsula to mop-up Japanese stragglers from western New Britain. (Hough and Crown, pp. 166, 167, Map 19).
11 Mar MARSHALLS: A reinforced platoon from the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, secured Lib Island, south of Kwajalein Atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).
12 Mar WASHINGTON: A JCS directive covering future Pacific operations ordered CinCSWPA to advance the date of his attack on Hollandia, New Guinea, to cancel the proposed operations against Kavieng, and after seizing bases in the Admiralties to isolate that Japanese base and the one at Rabaul. CominCh was instructed to step up carrier strikes against the Marianas, Palaus, and Carolines. Seizure of the southern Marianas was scheduled for 15 June 1944; the 1st Marine Division was to be returned to CinCPac control for employment as an assault division in the Palaus operation. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 429: Lodge, p. 17).

PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, ordered his amphibious commander to take Hollandia, New Guinea, on 20 March and recommended that the 4th Marines be used as the landing force. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 519).

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1944
14 Mar MARSHALLS: A Marine reconnaissance force comprising two reinforced companies from the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, re-turned to Kwajalein Atoll having completed their task of securing islands and atolls in the Western Group. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).
15 Mar PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, approved the operational plans for the seizure of Hollandia; Brigadier General Alfred H. Noble, Assistant Division Commander, 3d Marine Division, was directed to command the landing force. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 519).

SOLOMONS: Major General Hubert R. Harmon, USA, relieved Major General Ralph J. Mitchell as Commander, Aircraft, Solomons. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 528).

16 Mar NEW BRITAIN: Company K of the 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, reached Kilu Village on the Willaumez Peninsula where they engaged Japanese forces for the last time. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 425).
18 Mar SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General Headquarters and CinCPac-CinCPOA issued plans for the invasion of Hollandia. (Williams, p. l8l).

NEW BRITAIN: Patrols from the 5th Marines reached Numundo Plantation at the eastern base of the Willaumez Peninsula. (Hough and Crown, pp. 176, 207, Map 19).

19 Mar MARSHALLS: Two landing forces from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, departed Kwajalein Atoll to clear the South Group. (Heinl and Crown, p. 154).

GREEN ISLANDS: Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 243, Marine Torpedo-Bomber Squadron 134, and part of Naval Bomber Squadron 98 were detached from Strike Command, Piva, and transferred to Commander, Aircraft. Green. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 512).

20 Mar PACIFIC: CinCPOA's Joint Staff issued a study to guide commanders in their advance planning. It called for the employment of the V Amphibious Corps (the 2d and 4th Marine Divisions and the IV Corps Artillery, USA) in the seizure of Saipan and Tinian and the III Amphibious Corps (including the 3d Marine Division, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, and Corps artillery) in the recapture of Guam; the 27th Infantry Division, USA, was designated Expeditionary Troops Reserve and the 77th Infantry Division, USA, area reserve for Saipan. Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith was named the Commander, Expeditionary Troops and Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, was chosen overall commander. (Lodge, p. 18).

BISMARCKS: The 4th Marines landed on two beaches near the eastern end of undefended Emirau Island, St. Matthias Islands, to establish a light naval and air base. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 522).

20-21 Mar MARSHALLS: Two landing forces from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, landed on Ailinglapalap Island, South Group, and secured it against opposition on 21 March. One of the landing forces departed for Ebon, the southernmost atoll of the Marshalls. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 154, 155).
22 Mar HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was activated at Pearl Harbor. (Lodge, p. 19).

--74--

1944
MARSHALLS: Tactical Group-1, the Eniwetok landing force, was disbanded. (Heinl and Crown, p. 151).

NEW GUINEA: U.S. Army troops landed at Hollandia. (Hoffman (1). p. 266).

23 Mar BISMARCKS: U.S. destroyers shelled installations on Massau Island, St. Matthias Islands, forcing the Japanese to attempt to evacuate to Kavieng. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 522).
23-24 Mar MARSHALLS: Ebon Atoll, South Group, was secured by a landing team from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines. The troops proceeded to Namorik Atoll and Kili Island, South Group, where no Japanese were found, and the areas were secured. (Heinl and Crown, p. 156).
24 Mar MARSHALLS: The Japanese on Namu Atoll, South Group, surrendered to elements of the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines; the Marines de-parted for Kwajalein Atoll where they arrived the following day. (Heinl and Crown, p. 155).

BOUGAINVILLE: The Japanese launched their final attack against the XIV Corps, USA, perimeter; it was their last attempt to retake the Cape Torokina area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 286).

25 Mar WASHINGTON: The JCS issued a directive outlining a redisposition of forces in the South Pacific, to take effect on 15 June. The bulk of ComSoPac's strength was assigned to CinCSWPA's operational control for participation in the advance to the Philippines. Marine ground forces in the area were assigned to CinCPOA to take part in the Central Pacific drive, and Marine air units were detailed to General MacArthur's command to support the aerial blockade of by-passed enemy positions in the Solomons and Bismarcks. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 527).

BISMARCKS: The first supply echelon reached Emirau Island, St. Matthias Islands, carrying a battalion of the 25th Naval Construction Regiment, followed (30 March) by three additional battalions assigned to the construction of an air base and light naval facilities. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 522).

27 Mar MARSHALLS: A reinforced company of the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, began clearing the North and Northeast Groups; Ailinginae, Rongerik, and Bikar Atolls were by-passed. (Heinl and Crown, p. 157).

BOUGAINVILLE: The Japanese began to withdraw from the Empress Augusta Bay area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 561).

28 Mar MARSHALLS: The 2d Landing Team from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, returned to Kwajalein Atoll after securing islands and atolls in the Southern Group. (Heinl and Crown, p. 156).

BOUGAINVILLE: Elements of the 93d Infantry Division, USA, arrived at Empress Augusta Bay for combat duty. (Williams, p. 183).

28-30 Mar MARSHALLS: A reinforced company of the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, raised the American flag on Bikini after scouting the atoll. (Heinl and Crown, p. 157).
29 Mar USMC: Admiral King, CominCh, authorized the Commanding General, V Amphibious Corps, to exercise administrative and logistical control over all Fleet Marine Force units employed in Central Pacific operations. (FMFPac, p. 18).

--75--

1944
30 Mar NEW BRITAIN: A small Marine patrol destroyed the rear guard of the withdrawing 17th Japanese Division near Linga Linga. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 426).

ADMIRALTIES: Elements of the 7th Cavalry, USA, landed on Pityilu and destroyed the small Japanese garrison there. (Williams, p. 184).

30-31 Mar PALAUS: Task Force 58 struck the islands in support of the Hollandia operation in New Guinea, permanently crippling the Palaus as a naval base of real importance. The first systematic aerial photographs were collected. (Hough, p. 14).
30 Mar-3 Apr MARSHALLS: A reinforced company of the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, scouted Rongelap Atoll and declared it secure. (Heinl and Crown, p. 157).
31 Mar SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur disagreed with Cincpac's request that the 1st Marine Division be disengaged as soon as possible and withdrawn from New Britain to a base in the Solomons; he proposed, instead, that the division not be relieved until late June when the amphibious equipment necessary to accomplish the move would be available. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 429).
1 Apr USMC: The 9th Marine Aircraft Wing, commanded by Colonel Christian F. Schilt, was commissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina. (Sherrod, p. 439).

MARSHALLS: Ailuk Atoll, Northeast Group, was secured by a reinforced company of the 3d Battalion. 22d Marines. (Heinl and Crown, p. 156).

JAPAN: Imperial General Headquarters activated the 32d Army, with headquarters on Okinawa, to control the defense of the Nansei Shoto Chain. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 11).

2 Apr MARSHALLS: A reinforced company from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, secured Mejit Island. Northeast Group. (Heinl and Crown, p. 156).
2-27 Apr MARIANAS: The submarine USS Greenling reconnoitred the islands (Lodge, p. 23).
3 Apr PACIFIC: Commander, Expeditionary Troops approved a tentative operation plan for the recapture of Guam; the III Amphibious Corps, designated Southern Troops and Landing Force, was directed to make simultaneous landings at two points on the west coast of Guam. (Lodge, pp. 18, 19).

MARSHALLS: A reinforced company from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, secured Likiep Atoll. Northeast Group. (Heinl and Crown, pp. 156, 157).

ADMIRALTIES: The 2d Squadron, 12th Cavalry, USA, landed unopposed on Rambutyo Island. (Williams, p. 185).

5 Apr MARSHALLS: The reinforced company from the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, returned to Roi-Namur having completed its mission to seize the Northeast Group. (Heinl and Crown, p. 157).

--76--

1944
Utirik Atoll was secured against opposition by elements of the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, and the troops departed for Kwajalein. (Heinl and Crown, p. 158).

BISMARCKS: The forward echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 12 arrived on Emirau, St. Matthias Islands. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 573).

6 Apr CONTINENTAL U.S.: The Navy's Civil Readjustment Program was established to aid veterans in their transition to civil life and to inform them of their rights and benefits granted by Congress. ("The Navy's Demobilization Program," p. 11).

PACIFIC: V Amphibious Corps General Order No. 53-44 activated the Marine Administrative Command, V Amphibious Corps, to comprise a headquarters and Marine supply service; the I Marine Amphibious Corps was relieved of its administrative functions by the Commanding General, V Amphibious Corps. With this organization, a headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, existed in everything but name. (FMFPac, pp. 19, 20, 22).

V Amphibious Corps General Order No. 54-44 created the Marine Supply Service, V Amphibious Corps, consolidating therein the Supply Service, I Marine Amphibious Corps, and the Marine Supply Service of the Corps. (FMFPac, p. 20).

8 Apr NEW BRITAIN: Arrangements were made to relieve the 1st Marine Division by the 4Oth Infantry Division, USA, stationed at Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 429).
9 Apr PACIFIC: The activation date of the Marine Administrative Command, V Amphibious Corps, was changed from 6 to 10 April. (FMFPac, p. 20).
10 Apr CONTINENTAL U.S.: General Thomas Holcomb, retired Commandant of the Marine Corps, assumed duties as U.S. Minister to South Africa. (Schuon, p. 108).
11 Apr BISMARCKS: The 4th Marines on Emirau Island, St. Matthias Islands, was relieved by the l47th Infantry Regiment, USA. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 523).
12 Apr PACIFIC: The V Amphibious Corps staff was divided in order to exercise tactical command over both the V and III Amphibious Corps in combat. (FMFPac, p. 22).

BISMARCKS: Major General James T. Moore formally assumed command of all ground forces on Emirau Island, St. Mattias Islands. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 523).

13 Apr NEW BRITAIN: A 16-man Marine patrol landed on Cape Hoskins to reconnoiter the Japanese airfields 5,000 yards to the west. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).
14 Apr PACIFIC: The I Marine Amphibious Corps was redesignated the III Amphibious Corps. (FMFPac, pp. 20, 21).

--77--

1944
14 Apr MARSHALLS: Marine Night Fighter Squadron 532 flew the Marine Corps' first successful interception by F4U night fighters, near the Marshalls. (Sherrod, p. 234).
17 Apr MARSHALLS: Marines from the 1st Defense Battalion, V Amphibious Corps, landed on Erikub and Aur Atolls; no Japanese were found and one party returned to Majuro. (Heinl and Crown, p. 158).
18 Apr CAROLINES: B-24's of the 5th Bombardment Group, Thirteenth Air Force, began a series of attacks on Woleai Atoll from Momote airfield, Los Negros, in preparation for the Hollandia Landings. (Williams, p. 187).
21 Apr ADMIRALTIES: Seabees and aviation engineers completed the airstrip at Mokerang Plantation. Manus I. (Williams, p. 167).
21-22 Apr MARSHALLS: Elements of the 3d Battalion, 111th Infantry, USA, reconnoitred Ujelang, the westernmost atoll of the Marshalls, and raised the American flag before reembarking. (Heinl and Crown, p. 158).
22 Apr NEW GUINEA: Company A, 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, supported the assault forces at Tanahmerah Bay in the Hollandia operation. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 431).
23 Apr PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued Operation Plan 3-44 for the capture of the Marianas; Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, and Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN, followed suit. Task Force 56 (Expeditionary Troops) was directed to capture, occupy, and defend Saipan, Tinian, and Guam, and to be prepared for further operations. (Hoffman (1), pp. 27, 266).

NEW BRITAIN: The first echelon of the 40th Infantry Division, USA, arrived at Cape Gloucester to begin the relief of the 1st Marine Division. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).

24 Apr NEW BRITAIN: The 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, and detachments from a number of supporting units withdrew from Cape Gloucester. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).
25 Apr NEW BRITAIN: The 185th Infantry, 40th Infantry Division, USA, arrived at Willaumez Peninsula, and the Army commander took over responsibility for the area from the commander of the 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).

GUAM: The first photo mission was flown over the island. (Lodge, p. 23).

28 Apr NEW BRITAIN: The remainder of the 40th Infantry Division, USA, arrived at Cape Gloucester, and its commander assumed responsibility for the American forces on New Britain. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).

--78--

1944
30 Apr-1 May TRUK-CAROLINES: ircraft of Task Force 58 attacked the islands. (Williams, p. 189).
1 May PACIFIC: Northern Troops and Landing Force Operation Order 2-44 was issued ordering the 2d and 4th Marine Divisions to land on Saipan's western beaches in the Charan Kanoa vicinity. (Hoffman (1), pp. 27, 266).
2 May BISMARCKS: Marine Fighter Squadron 115, the first squadron of the Marine Aircraft Group 12 garrison on Emirau Island, St. Matthias Islands, arrived and flew its initial combat air patrol. (OpHist, v. 2., p. 523).
4 May NEW BRITAIN: The last elements of the 1st Marine Division departed leaving one Marine unit, the 12th Defense Battalion, at Cape Gloucester. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 430).
7 May PACIFIC: The III Amphibious Corps received its final operation and administrative plan for the seizure of Guam from Expedionary Troops Headquarters. (Lodge, p. 20).

NEW BRITAIN: A patrol of the l85th Infantry, USA, occupied Cape Hoskins airdromes and found the area deserted. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 431).

8 May HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Marine Air Hawaiian Area-was disbanded when the 3d Marine Aircraft wing arrived and its head-quarters assumed control of Marine aviation in the Hawaiian area. (Sherrod, p. 437).
10 May WASHINGTON: James V. Forrestal was appointed Secretary of the Navy. (William's, p. 191).

PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued "Joint Staff Study Revised" for the Palaus operation. It named Commander, Third Fleet in overall control; Commander, III Amphibious Force as Joint Expeditionary Force Commander, and Commanding General, III Amphibious Corps as Commanding General, Joint Expeditionary Troops; the landing date was set tentatively for 15 September. (Hough, p. 10).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Marine Aircraft Defense Detachment, Forward Area, Central Pacific, commanded by Colonel William L. McKettrick, was organized at Marine Corps Air Station, Ewa, by authority of the Commanding General, Marine Aircraft, Western Pacific. (Muster Rolls).

18 May ADMIRALTIES: The campaign was officially terminated by the Commanding General, Sixth Army. (Williams, p. 194).
20 May MARCUS ISLANDS: Carrier planes of the Fifth Fleet opened a two-day assault on the islands. (Williams, p. 195).
23 May BOUGAINVILLE: Navy and Marine Corps TBFs mined the Buin-Kahili waters. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 470).

--79--

1944
28 May WASHINGTON: Admiral King, CominCh, concurred with CinCPac's proposal to establish a Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific Ocean Area, to be commanded by Major General Holland M. Smith. He recommended that the change be effected after the assault on the Marianas and that the force consist of a headquarters with the III Amphibious Corps, the V Amphibious Corps, and the Administrative Command, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific Ocean Area, as subordinate units. (FMFPac, pp. 22, 23).
29 May PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, issued a Warning Order envisioning the seizure of the Palaus as a larger operation than either Saipan or Guam. The III Amphibious Corps (the 1st Marine Division and the 81st Infantry Division, USA) was directed to assault the southern islands of Peleliu and Angaur simultaneous with landings by XXIV Corps, USA, on the main island of Babelthuap. Major General Roy Geiger (Commanding General, III Amphibious Corps) was named Commander Expeditionary Troops and Landing Force; 8 September was designated as the target date. (Hough, pp. 10, 11).
3 Jun PACIFIC: CinCPOA and CinCSWPA issued a new campaign plan for operations in the Pacific establishing the following tentative schedule: capture of Saipan, Guam, and Tinian, 15 June 1944, and of Palau, 8 September 1944; occupation of Mindanao, 15 November 1944; and seizure of southern Formosa and Amor or Luzon 15 February 1945. (Hoffman (1), p. 22).
4 Jun ITALY: The Fifth Army, USA, entered Rome. (Langer, p. 1142).
5 Jun WASHINGTON: Admiral King, CominCh, issued a dispatch designating the Commanding General, V Amphibious Corps as the commander of all Fleet Marine Force ground units in the POA. It further provided for a Headquarters, Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific, to be established under the command of Major General Holland M. Smith and for the redesignation of the Marine Administrative Command, V Amphibious Corps, to Administrative Command, Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 23).
6 Jun WASHINGTON: The Joint War Planning Committee issued a study entitled "Operations Against Japan, Subsequent to Formosa" in which the following schedule for 1945 was suggested: Phase I-seizure of the Bonins and Ryukyus and attacks on the China coast, 1 April-30 June; Phase 2-consolidation and exploitation, 30 June-30 September; Phase 3-invasion of the Japanese home islands Kyushu, 1 October, and Honshu, 31 December. (Williams, p. 204).

FRANCE: Allied forces invaded Normandy. U.S. Marines participated as sharpshooters and operated ships' secondary batteries of 5-inch guns and smaller caliber antiaircraft guns on board ship during the landings. (Tyson p. 1).

9 Jun PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, ordered the establishment of Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 23).
11-14 Jun MARIANAS: Task Force 58 bombarded Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, and Pagan; Task Forces 52 and 53 joined the attack (14 June) on Saipan and Tinian. (Hoffman (1), p. 35).

--80--

1944
12 Jun USMC: The Marine Administrative Command, V Amphibious Corps, became the Administrative Command, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 24).
14 Jun USMC: The Marine Supply Service, V Amphibious Corps, was redesignated Supply Service, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 24).

VOLCANO-BONINS: Task Groups 58.1 and 58.4 struck Iwo, Chichi, and Haha Jima; it was the deepest penetration of Japanese waters made to date by a carrier striking force. (Hoffman (1), p. 43).

15 Jun WASHINGTON: The JCS directive of 25 March calling for a redisposition of forces in the Pacific went into effect, and CinCSWPA assumed command of all forces west of longitude 159 East. The south Pacific campaign against the Japanese was virtually ended. (OpHist, v. 2, pp. 527. 528, 561).

PACIFIC: Admiral Halsey, ComSoPac, relinquished his command of the South Pacific Area to Admiral Newton, and became Commander. Third Fleet. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 528).

SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: Command planners issued the final plan for operations from the Bismarcks, along the coast of New Guinea, to Mindanao, Philippines. It called for the following: the establishment of air bases on Vogelkop Peninsula and Morotai, between July and October, to coincide with POA's invasion of the Palaus; the invasion of the Philippines at Mindanao, 25 October, to gain bases from which to support operations in mid-November against Philippine tar-gets farther north; and the invasion of Luzon, early 1945. (Williams, p. 211).

SOLOMONS: Units of Aircraft, Solomons became part of a new organization, Aircraft, Northern Solomons, with an initial strength of 40 flying squadrons-- 23 of which were Marines. Major General Ralph J. Mitchell was appointed commander. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 528).

Elements of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing on Guadalcanal were ordered across the 159th Meridian to become part of Aircraft, Northern Solomons. (Boggs, pp. 7, 8).

SAIPAN: Preceded by naval gunfire and carrier air support, the 2d and 4th Marine Divisions, rein, (V Amphibious Corps) assaulted the west coast of the island near Charan Kanoa- the 2d Division landed to the north of Afetna Point and the 4th Division to the south; the 23d Marines seized Charan Kanoa. A beachhead 10,000 yards wide and about 1,500 yards deep was established against heavy opposition; Japanese counterattacks on the beachhead during the night of 14-15 June failed. (Hoffman (1), pp. 45-71).

The 2d Marines, the 1st Battalion, 29th Marines, and the 24th Marines (2d Marine Division reserve) executed an unopposed feint landing in the Tanapag Harbor area. (Hoffman (1), pp. 47, 48).

--81--

1944
JAPAN: China-based B-29s attacked Kyushu beginning the U.S air offensive against the Japanese homeland. (Williams, p. 211).
16 Jun SAIPAN: The 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, cleared Afetna Point, and the 4th Marine Division attacked inland toward the northernmost objective. The remainder of the 2d Battalion, 2d Marines, including the regimental headquarters, arrived ashore and was attached to the 2d Marine Division; the 27th Infantry Division, USA, commenced landing. A Japanese tank attack against the 4th Division's zone on the night of 16-17 June aborted. (Hoffman (1), pp. 77-91).

MARIANAS: Vice Admiral Raymond Spruance, USN, commanding Task Force 58, cancelled the Guam landing, scheduled for 18 June, upon learning that the Japanese Fleet had sortied from Philippine waters. (Hoffman (1), p. 77).

17 Jun SAIPAN: The 105th Infantry, USA, landed. (Hoffman (1). p. 97).
18 Jun SAIPAN: The 4th Battalion, 10th Marines, repulsed a Japanese landing off Flores point. The 4th Marine Division severed the southern portion from the remainder of the island in compliance with a Northern Troops and Landing Force operation order calling for an attack by all divisions; the 165th Infantry, USA, captured Aslito Airfield and the ridge southeast of the field. (Hoffman (1), pp. 100-106).
19 Jun SAIPAN: The 27th Infantry Division, USA-approaching Nafutan Point on the east coast--reached Magicienne Bay; the 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, in the 2d Marine Division zone captured Hill 790. (Hoffman (1), pp. 107, 108).
19, 20 Jun PHILIPPINES: The Battle of the Philippine Sea. Planes of Task Force 58 decisively defeated aircraft of the Japanese Fleet over the Marianas and westward; one Japanese carrier and a tanker were sunk in addition to 424 planes destroyed. (Hoffman (1), pp. 112, 113).
20 Jun SAIPAN: The 2d and 4th Marine Divisions completed their pivoting movement to the north during which the 3d Battalion, 25th Marines, captured Hill 500. The 106th Infantry Regiment, USA, landed as the Northern Troops and Landing Force reserve. (Hoffman (1), pp. 114, 118).

MARIANAS: Battery B, 531st Field Artillery Battalion, XXIV Corps Artillery, USA, began firing on Tinian from Saipan positions. (Hoffman (1), p. 148).

21 Jun SAIPAN: Major General Holland M. Smith directed the 27th Division, USA (less one battalion and one light tank platoon) to assemble northwest of Aslito Airfield in Northern Troops and Landing Force reserve; one battalion was to continue the division's clean-up of Nafutan point. The order was later modified so that a regimental combat team (RCT 105) rather than a battalion would remain at the point. (Hoffman (1), p. 122).

BOUGAINVILLE: The 3d Defense Battalion, the last Fleet Marine Force ground unit in the active South Pacific area, was withdrawn to Guadalcanal. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 561).

--82--

1944
22 Jun SAIPAN: Company K, 6th Marines, reached the summit of Tipo Pale. (Hoffman (1), pp. 128-131).

Aslito airfield became operational, and the 19th Army Fighter Squadron landed and assumed responsibility for the combat air patrol; the 165th Infantry, 27th Division, USA, moved into the division assembly area northwest of the airfield. (Hoffman (1), pp. 131, 133, 134).

23 Jun SAIPAN: The 2d Battalion, 23d Marines, seized the peak of Hill 600. (Hoffman (1), p. 136).

The 73d Army Fighter Squadron arrived on Aslito Airfield. (Hoffman (1), p. 135).

24 Jun SAIPAN: The 4th Marine Division attacked eastward on Kagman Peninsula. Major General Ralph Smith, commanding the 27th Division, USA, was relieved by Major General Sanderford Jarman, USA. after the division failed to advance. (Hoffman (1), pp. 141-144, 146).
24 Jun-4 Jul VOLCANO-BONINS: A U.S. carrier task force again bombarded the islands including Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 215).
25 Jun SAIPAN: Mt. Tapotchau, Saipan's key terrain feature, was captured by the 8th Marines, and Kagman Peninsula was seized by the 4th Marine Division. (Hoffman (1), p. 267).

Island Command, an organization which would administer the island after its capture, assumed responsibility for the southern part of the island. (Hoffman (1), p. 156).

25-6 Jun SAIPAN: Eleven Japanese barges from Tinian, carrying Saipan reinforcements, were dispersed by U.S. destroyers. (Hoffman (1), p. 156).
26 Jun SAIPAN: A warning order directed the 4th Marine Division, designated Northern Troops and Landing Force reserve, to move back into the lines on 27 June and take over the right of the V Amphibious Corps' front; the 25th Marines would remain at Hill 500 in reserve. (Hoffman (1). d. 158).

The 317th Japanese Independent Infantry Battalion, 47th Independent Mixed Brigade, moved through the outposts of the 2d Battalion, 105th Infantry, USA, and struck Aslito Airfield, Hill 500 (held by the 25th Marines), and the 14th Marines artillery firing positions between Hill 500 and Aslito Airfield; the attacking force was repulsed with heavy losses. (Hoffman (1), pp. 161-163).

27 Jun-20 Jul GUAM: Carrier Task Force 58 began a series of harassing raids on Guam concentrating its fire on Orote Peninsula installations: Task Force 53 later joined the bombardment force (8 July). (Lodge, p. 33).
28 Jun SAIPAN: Company K, 6th Marines, secured the Tipo Pale strongpoint. (Hoffman (1). d. 176).

Major George W. Griner, Jr., USA, assumed command of the 27th Infantry Division relieving Major General Sanderford Jarman. USA. (Hoffman (1). d. 267).

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1944
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 475,604--32,788 officers and 442,8l6 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).
1-2 Jul SAIPAN: The Japanese were observed withdrawing north-ward (1 July). Northern Troops and Landing Force swung to the Tanapag area, northwest Saipan, and the 2d Marine Division made its greatest forward surge since D-Day. The 2d Marines began to move through Garapan (2 July). (Hoffman (1), pp. 186-192).
2 Jul SAIPAN: General Saito, commanding all Japanese Army forces on Saipan, issued a formal operation order calling for the withdrawal of defenses from the Garapan-Tapatchon-Kagman Peninsula line to the Tanapag-Hill 221-Hill 112 line. (Hoffman (1), p. 195).
3 Jul SAIPAN: The Northern Troops and Landing Force, advancing northwest, reached the Tanapag Seaplane Base. The 1st and 2d Marines captured the town of Garapan, and the 3d Battalion, 2d Marines, seized the commanding ground overlooking Tanapag Harbor. (Hoffman (1), pp. 196-198).
3-4 Jul SAIPAN: The 23d Marines captured Hills 721 and 767. (Hoffman (1), p. 204).
4 Jul SAIPAN: The 1st Battalion, 105th Infantry, USA, secured Flores point. (Hoffman (1), p. 202).

The 3d Battalion, 2d Marines, established a coast-line defense on Matcho point in the Garapan area. The 2d Marines (less the 2d Battalion) and the 6th Marines were detached from the 2d Marine Division and assigned as Northern Troops and Landing Force reserve. (Hoffman (1), pp. 196-200).

The Northern Troops and Landing Force attack northwest was diverted to the northeast by an operation order which directed it to seize the northern part of the island including the Marpi point area. (Hoffman (1), p. 206).

6 Jul SAIPAN: The 4th Marine Division was ordered to expand to the northeast, pinch out the 27th Infantry Division, USA, north of Makunsha, and take over the entire frontage for the sweep to Marpi point. The 27th Division was to mop-up the Tanapag-Makunsha-Narakiri Gulch area and cut off any Japanese retiring to the north. The 1st and 2d Battalions, 25th Marines, advanced to the east and west slopes of Mt. Petoskara, and 700-800 civilians passed through the 1st Battalions' lines to surrender. (Hoffman (1), pp. 213, 220, 221).

MARIANAS: In preparation for the invasion of Guam, Major General Holland M. Smith, Commanding General, Expeditionary Troops, attached the 77th Infantry Division, USA, to the III Amphibious Corps. (Williams, p. 225).

--84--

1944
6-7 Jul SAIPAN: The Japanese launched an all out banzai attack along Tanapag Plain as well as smaller thrusts against the 4th Marine Division lines to the northeast. The 105th Infantry, USA, located on the high ground overlooking Harakiri Gulch, and the 3d Battalion, 10th Marines, about 500 yards south west of Tanapag village were the hardest hit. (Hoffman (1), pp. 221-226).
7 Jul PACIFIC: CinCPOA issued a second warning order for the Palaus operation directing that the overall operation be split into two phases. Plans for the southern Palaus remained intact but the objectives of the XXIV Corps, USA, were shifted from Babelthuap to Yap and Ulithi with a tentative landing date of 5 October. The southern Palaus were to be attacked on 15 September. Major General Julian C. Smith was placed in charge of X-Ray Provisional Amphibious Corps, to control the 1st Marine Division and the 81st Infantry Division. USA. (Hough, pp. 11, 12).

SAIPAN: The 1st Battalion, 165th Infantry, USA, moved through Harakiri Gulch and reached the plateau overlooking the coastal plain. (Hoffman (1), p. 131).

Northern Troops and Landing Force attached an additional regiment, the 2d Marines, to the 4th Marine Division for the drive northeast. (Hoffman (1), p. 235).

8 Jul SAIPAN: The 2d Marine Division passed through the 27th Army Division's lines for the mop-up of Tanapag Plain, and the 27th Division reverted to Northern Troops and Landing Force reserve. The 1st and 2d Battalions, 106th Infantry, USA, relieved the 105th Infantry, USA, at Harakiri Gulch. (Hoffman (1), p. 230).

The 23d Marines reached the beach northeast of Makunsha after crossing the western coastal plain of the island and seizing Karaberra Pass. (Hoffman (1), pp. 237-239).

9 Jul SAIPAN: The 4th Marine Division reached Marpi Point, the extreme northeast tip of the island. All organized resistance ceased and the Expeditionary Force commander declared the island secured. (Hoffman (1), pp. 242, 243).
10 Jul MARSHALLS: The 305th Regimental Combat Team, USA, joined Task Force 53 on Eniwetok, assigned to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade for the assault on Guam. (Lodge, p. 176).
10-11 Jul MARIANAS: The Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, V Amphibious Corps, and Underwater Demolition Teams 5 and 7 reconnoitred the Tinian landing beaches. (Hoffman (2), p. 22).
12 Jul PACIFIC: Major General Holland M. Smith relinquished his command of the V Amphibious Corps to Major General Harry Schmidt and assumed command of Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 24).
13 Jul SAIPAN: The 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, captured Maniagassa Island in Tanapag Harbor. (Hoffman (1), p. 246).

TINIAN: A Northern Troops and Landing Force operation order called for the seizures of Mt. Maga and the Force Beachhead Line, embracing Faibus San Hilo Point on the west, Mt. Lasso in the center, and Asiga Point on the east. (Hoffman (2), p. 24).

--85--

1944
14-21 Jul GUAM: Underwater demolition teams reconnoitred assault beaches, made diversionary checks of possible landing points on the west coast, and cleared barriers from the assault areas. (Lodge, pp. 34, 35).
15 Jul MARIANAS: Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill, USN, assumed command of the Northern Attack Force relieving Vice Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN. (Hoffman (2), p. 148).
16 Jul PALAUS: The Peleliu Island Command was organized as the 3d Island Base Headquarters under Brigadier General Harold D. Campbell. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 5).
18 Jul JAPAN: The cabinet of Premier Tojo fell, and a new one was subsequently formed under Kumaki Koiso. (Williams, p. 233).
21 Jul GUAM: Southern Troops and Landing Force (III Amphibious Corps)-supported by land and carrier-based Marine, Navy, and Army Air Force planes and naval gunfire-made simultaneous landings on the west coast of the island and on Cabras Island against heavy opposition. The 3d Marine Division (rein) assaulted the area between Adelup and Asan Points to the north, and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade (rein) landed to the south between Agat Village and Bangai point. Later, the 305th Regimental Combat Team, 77th Infantry Division, USA, went ashore and assembled in an area 400 yards inland from Gaan Point. (Lodge, pp. 38-53, 56, 57).

The Japanese counterattacked the beachhead and penetrated the lines of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade on the night of 21-22 July. As a result, the 38th Japanese Infantry (less the 3d Battalion) was destroyed as a fighting force. The brigade employed local reserves to restore its frontlines. (Lodge, pp. 54-56).

22 Jul GUAM: The 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, reached the summit of Mt. Alifan. (Lodge, p. 66).
23 Jul GUAM: The 77th Infantry Division, USA (less the 307th Infantry) began landing to the south and relieved the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in their southern sector. The 307th Infantry went ashore as III Amphibious Corps reserve the following day. (Lodge, pp. 70-73).

MARIANAS: Elements of the 3d Marine Division completed the occupation of Cabras Island. (Williams, 0. 235).

24 Jul TINIAN: Preceded by artillery, ship, and air bombardment, the 4th Marine Division landed on White Beaches against light opposition and secured a beachhead 2,900 yards at its widest point. The 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, reached the western edge of Airfield No. 3 and cut the main road from Ushi Point to the central and southern parts of the island. (Hoffman (2), pp. 41-59).

GUAM: The Southern Landing Force had its beachhead firmly established and the Japanese bottled up on Orote Peninsula; the 77th Division, USA, had taken over most of the Force Beachhead Line. (Lodge, p. 69).

--86--

1944
MARIANAS: The 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, on Cabras turned the island over to the l4th Defense Battalion. (Lodge, p. 63).
25 Jul TINIAN: The 4th Marine Division repulsed an early morning counterattack by the 1st Battalion, 135th Japanese Infantry, directed principally to the extreme right and left flanks and near the center of the beachhead. Ushi Point Airfield was captured by the 8th Marines and Mt. Maga by the 25th Marines. (Hoffman (2), pp. 62-68, 71-75).

The 2d Marine Division landed as force reserve on White 1. (Hoffman (2), pp. 69, 70).

GUAM: The 77th Division, USA (less the 307th Infantry in III Amphibious Corps reserve) was ordered to hold the Force Beachhead Line while the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade assaulted Orote Peninsula. The 3d Marine Division was instructed to capture the high ground overlooking Mt. Tenio Road. (Lodge, p. 74).

VOLCANO-BONINS: Six carriers of Task Force 58 raided the islands; five Japanese ships were sunk and 13 planes destroyed. (Hoffman (2), p. 77).

25, 27 Jul GUAM: Japanese counterattacks by the 58th Keibitai (rein) and the 2l8th Regiment (less the 1st Battalion) against the 22d Marines' position on Orote Peninsula and the 3d Marine Division's Asan beachhead were repulsed with crippling losses to the Japanese. (Lodge, pp. 77-88).
25-28 Jul CAROLINES: Task Force 58 executed a three-day reconnaissance-in-force of the western islands. (Hoffman (2), p. 77).
26 Jul HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: President Roosevelt met with CinCSWPA, CinCPOA, and Admiral William D. Leahy, Chief of Staff to the President, at Pearl Harbor to consider strategy for the Pacific area. The feasibility of by-passing the Philippines in favor of Formosa was discussed. (Williams, p. 237).

TINIAN: Supported by artillery and naval gunfire, the 2d and 4th Marine Divisions captured Mt. Lasso unopposed, thereby denying the Japanese their best observation post for the control of mortar and artillery fire against the beachhead. (Hoffman (2), pp. 77-79).

26-29 Jul GUAM: With air, naval gunfire, and artillery support, the 4th and 22d Marines, 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, secured Orote Peninsula (29 July) and the Marine Barracks, Guam on the peninsula. The 22d Marines (less the 3d Battalion) moved into III Amphibious Corps reserve southeast of Agat, and the 4th Marines and the 3d Battalion, 22d Marines, remained on Orote. Orote airfield was declared operational. (Lodge, pp. 88-95).
27 Jul GUAM: Patrols from the 77th Reconnaissance Troops, USA, which had been guarding the Maanot Reservoir, were deployed south to determine Japanese strength in that part of the island. (Lodge, p. 105).

--87--

1944
TINIAN: Ushi Point Airfield became operational. (Hoffman (2), pp. 82, 83).
27-29 Jul GUAM: The 3d Marine Division with the 77th Infantry Division, USA, captured the Force Beachhead Line, the commanding ground along Adelup-Aluton-Tenjo-Alifun-Futi Point, thereby gaining command of the center of the island and permitting observation to the north. This ended Phase I of the recapture of the island. (Lodge, pp. 96-102).
28 Jul GUAM: Elements of the 305th Infantry, 77th Division, USA, reached the top of Mt. Tenjo without meeting opposition, and the 2d Battalion, 307th Infantry, USA, assumed the defense of the hill mass. (Lodge, p. 105).
30 Jul GUAM: An operation order, issued by the Commanding Officer, Southern Troops and Landing Force, directed that the island be cut in half on the Agan-Fauja-Pago Bay line and that the attack swing to the northeast. The 1st Marine Brigade was ordered to take over the southern part of the Force Beachhead Line to release the 77th Division, USA, for operations to the north. (Lodge, p. 122).

TINIAN: The 4th Marine Division, rein, captured Tinian Town against light opposition; the 25th Marines crossed Airfield No. 4. (Hoffman (2), pp. 94-97).

31 Jul USMC: Marine Aircraft, South Pacific was decommissioned. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 529).

GUAM: The III Amphibious Corps launched its attack to seize the northern portion of the island. The 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division-to the left-captured Agana, the capital of Guam, and occupied positions along the Agana-Pago Bay Road. (Lodge, p. 124).

The 77th Infantry Division, USA, advanced toward the east coast of the island. (Lodge, p. 129).

1 Aug PACIFIC: U.S. Army Forces, POA, commanded by Lieutenant General Robert C. Richardson, USA, superseded U.S. Army Forces, CenPac. Army Air Forces, POA, was activated under Lieutenant General Millard F. Harmon. (Williams, p. 24l).

TINIAN: All organized resistance ceased although some Japanese held forth in caves on the southern coast. Lieutenant General Harry Schmidt, commanding Northern Troops and Landing Force, declared the island secured. (Hoffman (2), p. 116).

GUAM: The 307th Infantry, USA, captured the Agana-Pago Bay Road making it available for the movement of equipment and supplies to the northeast. (Lodge, p. 131).

2 Aug GUAM: The 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, advancing northward, captured Tiyan airfield. (Lodge, p. 127).
3 Aug TINIAN: The American flag was officially raised over the island. (Hoffman (2), p. 148).

GUAM: The 4th Marines (less Companies A and F), 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, moved toward Toto in the north of the island. (Lodge, p. 140).

--88--

1944
3-4 Aug GUAM: The 77th Infantry Division, USA, captured the town of Barrigada (3 August) with its important water supply and secured the mountain north of the town the next day. (Lodge, pp. 131-137).
3-6 Aug GUAM: The 3d Marine Division captured the Finegayan positions thus breaking the outer ring of the Mt. Santa Rosa defense. (Lodge, pp. 137-144).
4 Aug GUAM: Planes from Marine Aircraft Group 21 landed on the island as the first Marine aircraft that had served there in 13 years. (Sherrod, p. 253).
5 Aug GUAM: The Commanding Officer, 77th Infantry Division, USA, received orders from the III Amphibious Corps to capture Mt. Santa Rosa and the remainder of the island, a Corps effort with the 77th Division making the main assault. (Lodge, pp. 147, 148).
6-7 Aug TINIAN: The 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, assumed responsibility for the 2d and 4th Marine Divisions sectors and continued mop-up activities; the 2d and 4th Divisions commenced embarkation for Saipan and Maui, Hawaii, respectively. (Hoffman (2), p. 120).
7 Aug GUAM: The III Amphibious Corps launched its final attack to capture the northern end of the island. The 77th Division, USA, seized Yigo and advanced toward Mt. Santa Rosa. The 3d Marine Division and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade were in position to drive northward. (Lodge, pp. 148-150).

The first Marine aircraft (of VMF-225) based on Orote airfield began flying combat missions over the island. (Lodge, p. 150).

8 Aug PACIFIC: CinCPac directed-to take place as soon as practicable - that Major General Roy Geiger, commanding the III Amphibious Corps, and key staff members report to Guadalcanal to take charge of the Palaus landings and that Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith, commander of Force Expeditionary Troops, Marianas, return to Pearl Harbor and continue his duties as Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. All assault troops remaining in the Marianas were to be assigned to the V Amphibious Corps and, when the situation warranted, the Corps commander was to transfer operational control of the troops to the various island commanders. Vice Admiral John H. Hoover, USN, Commander, Forward Area Central Pacific, would assume responsibility for the defense and development of the Marianas. (Lodge, p. 160).

GUAM: The 307th Infantry, 77th Division, USA, captured Mt. Santa Rosa, and effective resistance ceased in the division's zone. (Lodge, pp. 151, 152).

Colonel B. W. Atkinson became island provost marshall. (Lodge, p. 161).

9 Aug GUAM: The 3d Marine Division launched an attack to capture the remainder of the island. The III Amphibious Corps gained the northern beaches. (Lodge, pp. 155, 157).

--89--

1944
Brigadier General Lemuel Shepherd, Jr., commanding the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, announced that all organized resistance had ceased in the brigade zone. (Lodge, p. 157).

CinCPOA and the commandant of the Marine Corps landed at Orote Airfield and inspected front line units and installations; top level conferences were held to discuss the future role of the island in the advance to Tokyo. (Lodge, p. 158).

SAIPAN: Aslito Airfield became operational for B-24s. (Hoffman (2), p. 148).

10 Aug GUAM: Major General Roy S. Geiger, commanding Southern Troops and Landing Force, announced that all organized resistance had ended, and mopping-up activities began. (Lodge, p. 158).

The III Amphibious Corps issued an operation order outlining the future activities of the units on Guam. The 77th Division, USA, and the 3d Marine Division were directed to establish a line across the island from Fadian Point to a point northwest of Tumon Bay; emphasis then was to be placed on mopping-up. (Lodge, p. 158).

TINIAN: The Capture and Occupation Phase of the operation ended. The Defense and Development Phase began under the Tinian Island Command, headed by Major General James L. Underwood, which directed the mop-up by the 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division. (Hoffman (2), pp. 120, 121, 149).

11 Aug GUAM: The 306th Infantry, 77th Division, USA, captured the Mt. Mataguac command post, killing the top Japanese commander on the island Lieutenant General Obata. (Lodge, pp. 158, 159).
12 Aug WASHINGTON: The Joint War Planning Committee submitted a plan for the seizure of the Bonins to the JCS contending that Iwo Jima was the only practical objective in the group because it was the only island that could support a large number of fighter aircraft and because its topography rendered it unusually susceptible to preliminary softening. (Bartley, p. 20).

GUAM: Major General Roy S. Geiger, Commander of the Southern Troops and Landing Force, left for Guadalcanal to assume control of the Palaus landing. He was relieved by Major General Harry Schmidt. (Lodge, pp. 160, 161).

13 Aug PACIFIC: Major General Roy Geiger relieved Major General Julian Smith as commander of the Western Landing Forces (Task Group 36.1). X-Ray provisional Amphibious Corps was deactivated but most of its staff was retained by General Smith who continued in command of the higher echelon designated Expeditionary Troops, Third Fleet. (Hough, p. 12).

GUAM: The command post of the III Amphibious Corps closed and was later reopened on Guadalcanal. Headquarters detachments of the V Amphibious Corps set up their command posts near Agana and took control of the remaining III Amphibious Corps elements. Clean-up activities began under the new command, coordinated with the Island Command operations section under Lieutenant Colonel Shelton C. Zern. (Lodge, p. 161).

--90--

1944
14 Aug GUAM: The V Amphibious Corps had established a line from Naton Beach to Sassayan point above which the 3d Marine Division and the 77th Division, USA, maintained one infantry regiment and one artillery battalion each for mop-up activities. The remainder of the 3d Division was assigned to the east coast road between Pago and Ylig Rivers and that of the 77th Division occupied the hills east of Agat along the Harmon Road. (Lodge, pp. 161, 162).
15 Aug PACIFIC: The III Amphibious Corps, having completed its operations in the Marianas sooner than expected, was definitely committed to the invasion of the Palaus next. (Williams, p. 249).

GUAM: Major General Henry L. Larsen, Commanding General, Island Command, assumed control of the island. (Lodge, p. 161).

20 Aug GUAM: Task Force 53 was formally dissolved when Rear Admiral L. F. Reifsnider, USN, Senior Officer Present in the Area, turned over his duties to the Deputy Commander, Forward Area, Central Pacific. (Lodge, p. 160).
21 Aug SOLOMONS: Commander, Aircraft, Northern Solomons, centralized the direction of tactical air operations under his headquarters. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 529).
21-31 Aug GUAM: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade departed the island for Guadalcanal. (Lodge, p. 162).
23 Aug GUAM: Operational control of the 3d Marine Division passed to Island Command, and the 1st and 3d Battalions, 306th Infantry, USA, were assigned to the 3d Division. (Lodge, p. 162).
24 Aug PACIFIC: The Administrative Command, Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific, was abolished by redesignation of its headquarters to Provisional Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. (FMFPac, p. 25).
25 Aug EUROPE: Paris was liberated. (Morris, p. 377).
26 Aug GUAM: The 1st and 3d Battalions, 306th Infantry, USA, reverted from the 3d Marine Division to the 77th Army Division's control, and the mop-up zones of both units came under the Marine division. (Lodge, p. 162).

The last naval commander of the island's assault force left the Marianas after transferring responsibility for the Central Pacific to Admiral Halsey, Commander, Third Fleet. (Lodge, p. 160).

29 Aug EUROPE: In the invasion of Southern France, a landing party from the Marine detachments of the USS Augusta and Philadelphia went ashore on the islands of Ratonneau and If in Marseilles harbor to accept the surrender of German forces on the islands and to disarm the garrisons. (Tyson, p. 2).
31 Aug USMC: The Commandant directed the abolition of the Administrative Command and the organization of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, to consist of the following: Headquarters Troops; the III Amphibious Corps; the V Amphibious Corps; Fleet Marine Force, Air, Pacific; Force Artillery; Force Antiaircraft Artillery; Force Amphibian Tractor Group; Force Reserve (combat units not assigned); Fleet Marine Force Supply Service; Force Service Troops; Fleet Marine Force Transient Center; and Marine units under island commands (administrative only). (FMFPac, p. 26).

--91--

1944
1 Sep GUAM: Island Command assumed control of all forces remaining on the island. (Lodge, p. 162).
7 Sep USMC: The Commandant directed that the chart included in his letter of 31 August be modified by the deletion of Fleet Marine Force, Air, Pacific, and indicated that the command status of aviation units would be set forth later. (FMFPac, p. 27).
7-12 Sep PACIFIC: The Third Fleet began a probing operation in the Western Carolines and the Philippines with strikes against Yap and the Palaus Islands (7 and 8 September), Mindanao, Philippines (9 and 10 September), and the central Philippines (12 September), revealing weak Japanese resistance there. (Boggs, p. 9).
8 Sep WASHINGTON: The JCS issued a directive to CinCSWPA and CinCPOA for the invasion of the Philippines. (Williams, p. 266).
10 Sep PALAUS: Task Group 38.4 (fast carriers), having bombarded targets in the Volcano-Bonins and Yap and Ulithi Islands, arrived off the Palaus and began a two day strike against the antiaircraft positions and the beach defenses on Peleliu and Angaur in preparation for the invasion. (Williams, p. 268).
11 Sep PACIFIC: The air echelon of Marine Night Fighter Squadron 531 arrived in the Russell Islands as the first naval-aviation night fighter squadron to operate in the South Pacific. (Sherrod, p. 473).
12 Sep PALAUS: The Western Fire Support Group of Western Attack Force (Task Force 32) arrived off the islands and began naval bombardment in preparation for the projected landings. The group was covered by Task Group 38.4 and escort carrier forces making aerial attacks. (Williams, p. 270).
12-16 Sep CANADA: The Second Quebec Conference met. (Williams, pp. 269, 274).
15 Sep WASHINGTON: The JCS decided to by-pass Mindanao, Philippines, in favor of Leyte and moved up the landing date from 20 December to 20 October. CinCPOA forces assigned to preliminary operations against Leyte were released to CinCSWPA for use in the campaign. The only Marine Corps ground troops (artillery men from the V Amphibious Corps) to see action in the Philippines were part of this group. (Boggs, p. 10).

PELELIU: Preceded by carrier-based air and heavy bomber support, the 1st Marine Division, rein (III Amphibious Corps) landed on Beaches White and Orange against heavy opposition. The 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, drove eastward preparatory to turning north and deployed across the southern edge of the airfield; Company L reached the eastern shore, cutting the island into two parts. A Japanese tank-infantry counterattack against the airfield aborted, and Company L, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, drove north in the wake of the Japanese repulsion, reaching nearly the center of the field. The 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, advanced south to capture the Japanese isolated there. (Hough, pp. 36-54).

--92--

1944
INDONESIA: The 31st and 126th Regimental Combat Teams, USA, landed on the southwest coast and Gila Peninsula, Morotai. (Boggs, p. 12).
16 Sep USMC: Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific, was redesignated Air-craft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, in accordance with a CominCh directive. (FMFPac, p. 27).

PELELIU: The 5th Marines, supported by the 1st Marines, swept the north portion of the airfield. Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, reached the east shore and consolidated the beach position there; Company K attacked southward to the southeast promontory followed by the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines. (Hough, pp. 59-62).

The 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, landed on Beach Orange 3 in 1st Marine Division reserve and was attached to the 1st Marines. The 1st Marines launched an attack northward against the ridge system following the axis of Peleliu's northwest peninsula which harbored the core of Japanese resistance. (Hough, pp. 64. 65-70. 74).

17 Sep PACIFIC: With authority from the Commandant of the Marine Corps (31 August), the "provisional" designation was dropped and Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and Headquarters and Service Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, came into formal existence. (FMFPac, p. 26).

PELELIU: The 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, seized Hill 200, and Company L, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines secured the southern promontory. (Hough, pp. 64, 65, 78).

17-20 Sep PALAUS: Regimental Combat Teams 321 and 322, 81st Army Division, secured Angaur Island although a sizeable pocket of Japanese resistance remained in the northwest corner of the island. (Hough, pp. 106-108).
18 Sep PELELIU: In the 1st Marines' zone, the 2d Battalions, 1st and 7th Marines, captured Hill 210, and Company B, 1st Battalion (1st Marines) seized Hill 205. The 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, secured the southern portion of the island with the capture of the southeast promontory. (Hough, pp. 65-67, 83).
19 Sep PELELIU: Elements of the 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, reached the Five Sisters, the southern face of the final pocket of Japanese resistance; Company C crossed Horseshoe Valley and gained the summit of Hill 100. A patrol from Company K, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, reached the east coast below Purple Beach, and Company G occupied the southern end of the beach and patrolled toward the northeast. Two artillery observation planes from Marine Observation Squadron 3 flew onto the island. (Hough, pp. 73, 85, 135).
20 Sep PACIFIC: Headquarters, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing received word that its seven dive-bomber squadrons would be employed in the Luzon campaign. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 531).

--93--

1944
PELELIU: In the 1st Marine Division zone, the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, advanced east and Company P succeeded in gaining the crest of Hill 260 facing the Five Sisters. Company G, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, secured the northern tip of the northeast peninsula and sent a patrol to the off-lying Island A. Marine Observation Squadron 3 began operations from the airfield. (Hough, pd. 73, 88, 134).
21 Sep SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: General MacArthur radioed U.S. Chiefs of Staff that he was able to mount a major assault against Luzon, Philippines, on about 20 December as a result of the acceleration of the Leyte invasion. He suggested that the Formosa operation would be unnecessary if Luzon was occupied. (Williams, p. 283).

PELELIU: The 1st Marines, owing to heavy casualties, ceased temporarily to exist as an assault unit on the regimental level and retired to the eastern defense zone to recuperate. (Hough, p. 88).

PALAUS: Company B of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, seized Island A off the northeast coast of Peleliu, and Company F secured the adjacent island of Ngabad without opposition. (Hough, p. 73).

23 Sep PELELIU: Company G, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, concluded the regiment's mission in its northeast zone with the seizure of a small island due north of Ngabad, thereby isolating Japanese resistance on the northwest peninsula. (Hough, pp. 73, 74).

Regimental Combat Team 321, 81st Infantry Division, USA, debarked on Beach Orange and was ordered to isolate enemy resistance in "Umurbrogol Mountain" with the cooperation of the 7th Marines; the 2d and 3d Battalions of the combat team relieved the 1st Marines on the western shore. (Hough, pp. 109, 110).

24 Sep PELELIU: Company E of the 321st Infantry Regiment, USA, seized Hill 100, the northern extremity of the "Umurbrogol Mountain" in which the main center of Japanese resistance was located. The first Marine fighter planes, an advance echelon from Marine Night Fighter Squadron 541, flew into base on the airfield. The Japanese garrison was reinforced from the island to the north. (Hough, pp. 104, 113, 134).

CAROLINES: Regimental Combat Team 323, 81st Infantry Division, USA, secured Ulithi Island. (Williams, p. 287).

25 Sep PELELIU: Neal Task Force, USA, seized Hill B, south of Hill 100, isolating the Japanese pocket of resistance on the northwest peninsula, and the 5th Marines attacked toward the tip of the peninsula and established a perimeter there. (Hough, pp. 116-118).
26 Sep PELELIU: The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, attacked toward the Amiangal "Mountain," the island's northernmost hill system. Company B secured Hill 2, and the 2d Battalion by-passed Hill 1 and advanced north. The 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, secured Hill 80 and reached the northwest peninsula's eastern shore, sealing off the northern tip of the island. Marine Fighter Squadron 114 arrived on the 8irfield. (Hough, pp. 118, 112, 134).

--94--

1944
27 Sep PELELIU: Regimental Combat Team 321, USA, advanced to compress Umurbrogol Pocket and sweep north through the central ridge system which had been by-passed by the 5th Marines. The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, secured Hill 1. (Hough, pp. 122. 129, 130).

The U.S. flag was raised at the 1st Marine Division command post to symbolize that the island was secured. (Hough, p. 166).

28-29 Sep PELELIU: The 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, secured Ngesebus Island off Peleliu's northern shore, and Company G, 2d Battalion, captured the northern tip of the northwest peninsula. (Hough, pp. 123-126).
29 Sep PELELIU: The 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, relieved those elements of Regimental Combat Team 321, USA, facing the northern perimeter of Umurbrogol Pocket. (Hough, p. 143).

RYUKYUS: The initial mapping mission for the Okinawa operation was flown by B-29s. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 20).

30 Sep PELELIU: Northern Peleliu was secured and organized resistance declared ended; final mopping-up was assigned to Regimental Combat Team 321, USA. (Hough, pp. 127, 128).
Sep-Oct 1944 WAKE: Army B-24s executed repeated strikes on the atoll. (Heinl (2), p. 68).
1 Oct PELELIU: The remainder of Marine Fighter Squadron 122 and Marine Night Fighter Squadron 541 arrived on the airfield filling the complement of Marine Aircraft Group 11 assigned to the island. (Hough, p. 134).

PHILIPPINES: To provide the most effective combat control during the operation, Marine Aircraft Group 24 became an all-SBD outfit (comprising VMSB-133, -236, and -341), and a new Headquarters, Marine Aircraft Group 32 was sent from Hawaii to command the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing's remaining SBD squadrons (VMSB-142, -224, and -243). (OpHist, v. 2, p. 531).

2 Oct CONTINENTAL U.S.: CinCPOA and CominCh, meeting at San Francisco, decided to substitute the Okinawa landing for the Formosan one. (Bartley, p. 21).

PELELIU: Elements of Regimental Combat Team 321, supported by Company G, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, seized Radar Hill thereby completing the mop-up of the northern peninsula. (Hough, p. 133).

3 Oct WASHINGTON: The JCS issued a new directive to guide the Pacific War to a conclusion. CinCPOA was ordered to provide fleet cover and support for the occupation of Luzon by SWPA forces, 20 December 1944, and to occupy one or more positions in the Nanpo Shoto, 20 January 1945, and in the Nansei Shoto 1 March 1945. (Bartley, p. 22).

--95--

1944
PELELIU: The 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, secured Walt Ridge, and Company K, 3d Battalion, reached the summit of Boyd Ridge, the two tactically important ridges which bounded the Umurbrogol Pocket on the east. (Hough, pp. 147, 148).
4 Oct INDONESIA: The Morotai operation was declared at an end although mopping-up continued. (Williams, p. 295).
7 Oct PACIFIC: CinCPOA published a Joint Staff study and issued it to his major subordinate commanders for use in the preliminary planning of the Iwo Jima invasion. (Bartley, p. 23).
9 Oct PACIFIC: Major General Holland M. Smith received a CinCPOA directive ordering the seizure of Iwo Jima and naming the following commanders to the operation: Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, Operation Commander; Vice Admiral Richmond Turner, USN, Joint Expeditionary Force Commander; General Smith, Commanding General, Expeditionary Troops; and Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill, USN, Second in Command, Joint Expeditionary Force. (Bartley, p. 24).

PALAUS: Elements of Regimental Combat Team 321, USA, secured Garakayo, the largest island lying off Peleliu's northern approach. (Hough, p. 171).

10 Oct PELELIU: Companies E and G, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, attacking Umurbrogol Pocket, secured Baldy Ridge. (Hough, p. 160).

RUYKYUS: The fast carrier force of the Third Fleet struck Okinawa, and intelligence photographs were acquired. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 20).

11 Oct PACIFIC: The final decision on the status of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was given in Pacific Fleet Letter 53L-44 which stated that the Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was a type commander for all units comprising the force and as such was under the direct control of CominCh. Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was defined as a major component of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, although operational control of its tactical units was to remain with the Commander, Air Force. Pacific Fleet, unless otherwise assigned. (FMFPac, pp. 27-29).

PELELIU: Hill 140, a position of tactical importance situated north of the Five Brothers, was secured by elements of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines. It provided a site from which fire could be directed on the Horseshoe and the draw between Walt and Boyd Ridges. (Hough, pp. 160. 161).

12 Oct PELELIU: The "Assault Phase" of the operation was declared ended, signifying a transfer of command functions from the assault forces to the Central Pacific administrative echelons which comprised the Forward Area (Vice Admiral J. H. Hoover, USN), the Western Carolines Sub Area (Rear Admiral J. W. Reeves, Jr., USN), and the Island Command (Brigadier General H. D. Campbell). (Hough, p. 167).
13 Oct HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The V Amphibious Corps headquarters moved to Pearl Harbor to facilitate planning for the Iwo Jima operations (Bartley, p. 24).

--96--

1944
14 Oct PACIFIC: The Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, designated Major General Harry Schmidt (Commanding General, V Amphibious Corps) as Landing Force Commander for the Iwo Jima operation and directed him to prepare plans. (Williams, p. 303).
15 Oct PELELIU: The permanent relief of the 1st Marine Division by the 81st Infantry Division, USA, began when the 2d Battalion, 321st Infantry, took over the area held by the 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, across the northern end of the Umurbrogol Pocket. (Hough, p. 167).

SAIPAN: Aslito airfield became operational for B-29s. (Hoffman (1), p. 267).

16 Oct PELELIU: Command of operations in the Umurbrogol Pocket passed officially to the Commanding Officer, 321st Infantry, USA, thus completing the relief of the 5th Marines who remained on the island in general reserve. The 7th Marines commenced movement to Purple Beach for embarkation to the Russells. (Hough, pp. 167, 168).
17 Oct SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: The Commander, Army Air Force issued detailed instructions concerning air facilities for the Luzon campaign and named actual units to participate, including the seven dive-bomber squadrons of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. (Boggs, p. 58).

PHILIPPINES: The 6th Ranger Infantry Battalion, USA, captured Dinagat, Suluam, and Homonhon Islands in the Leyte Gulf, completing Phase One of the Leyte campaign. Four Marine air officers from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing including Major General Ralph J. Mitchell (ComAirNorSols) landed as observers. (Boggs, p. 19).

17-18 Oct PELELIU: The 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, engaged Japanese infiltrators who had reoccupied caves a short distance south of Umurbrogol Pocket; this was the last combat action of the 1st Marine Division on the island. (Hough, p. 169).
18 Oct WASHINGTON: The Joint War Plans Committee issued "Operations for the Defeat of Japan" in which Iwo Jima was listed as a contributing operation to the overall objective of the war, the ultimate invasion of the industrial centers of Japan. (Bartley, pp. 22, 23).

JAPAN: Tokyo ordered a major counteroffensive against forces threatening the inner defense of Japan, to begin when the U.S. invasion force moved to Leyte, Philippines. (Williams, p. 306).

19 Oct PACIFIC: Major General Harry Schmidt, commanding the Iwo Jima Landing Force, issued the first tentative operation blue-print to his troops. (Bartley, p. 25).
20 Oct PACIFIC: The Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, issued a directive to the Commanding General, Iwo Jima Landing Force in which troop assignments for training, planning, and operations were designated. The V Amphibious Corps was to be ready for combat by 15 December. (Bartley, p. 25).

PELELIU: The 81st Infantry Division, USA, established its command post on the island, and the III Amphibious Corps and the 1st Marine Division staffs departed. (Hough, p. 174).

--97--

1944
PHILIPPINES: The main invasion of Leyte began when the X and XXIV Corps, Sixth U.S. Army, went ashore on the east coast of the island. (Boggs, p. 19).
21 Oot WASHINGTON: The JCS ordered CinCSWPA to assault Luzon on 20 December and CinCPOA to land Marines on Iwo Jima on 20 January 1945. The invasion of the Ryukyus was to follow on 1 March 1945. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 17).

USMC: Marine Carrier Groups, Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was established as a tactical command with headquarters at Santa Barbara, California. (Sherrod, p. 329).

The Provisional Air Support Command was organized. (FMFPac, p. 37).

23-26 Oct PHILIPPINES: The Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Third and Seventh U.S. Fleets destroyed the power of the Japanese Navy in the last serious threat to the U.S. reinvasion of the islands. The Japanese lost four carriers, three battleships, 10 cruisers, nine destroyers, and a submarine; the U.S. also sustained heavy losses. (Boggs, pp. 20-22).
24 Oct PACIFIC: Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, General Order No. 30-44 was issued enumerating the relationships between Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and the Air Force, Pacific Fleet, in aviation matters. (FMFPac p. 37).
25 Oct TINIAN: The 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, assumed responsibility for the mop-up of the island when other elements of the regiment returned to Saipan. (Hoffman (2), p. 121).
27 Oct PHILIPPINES: The Army Air Force assumed control of air activities in Leyte from U.S. Navy carriers when the first P-38s landed at Tacloban field. (Boggs, p. 24).
28 Oct CHINA: Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, USA, commander of U.S. forces in China, was recalled to Washington, and Major General Albert C. Wedemeyer, USA, assumed his command. (Morris, p. 372).
30 Oct PELELIU: The final 1st Marine Division units-the 5th Marines (rein)-departed the island. (Hough, p. 170).
2 Nov PHILIPPINES: The U.S. Sixth Army had gained control of Leyte Valley and its airfields. (Boggs, p. 20).
3 Nov GUAM: The 77th Infantry Division, USA, departed the island. (Lodge, p. 177).
4 Nov PACIFIC: Marine Carrier Groups of Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was redesignated Marine Air Support Groups to comprise four carrier air groups. (Sherrod, p. 329).
7 Nov CONTINENTAL U.S.: President Roosevelt was elected to a fourth term of office. (Morris, p. 383).

--98--

1944
SOLOMONS: Commander, Aircraft, Northern Solomons, issued Operations Instructions No. 24-44 assigning dive-bomber squadrons of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and Headquarters and Service Squadrons of Marine Aircraft Groups 24 and 32 to the Fifth Air Force (308th Bombardment Wing (H)) for operational control during the Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, occupation. Marine Scout-Bomber Squadrons 133, 142, 236, 241, 243, 244, and 341, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, were directed to provide close air support for ground operations in the Lingayen area and Central Luzon while Headquarters and Service Squadrons, Marine Aircraft Groups 24 and 32 were to establish base and servicing facilities for the Marine scout-bomber squadrons. (Boggs, p. 58).
10 Nov USMC: The 4th Marine Base Defense Air Wing was redesignated the 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, commanded by Major General Louis E. Woods. (Sherrod, pp. 438, 439).
11 Nov PALAUS: The 81st Cavalry Reconnaissance Troops, USA, seized Gorokoltan Island. (Hough, p. 175).
11-12 Nov VOLCANO-BONINS: U.S. Navy surface forces bombarded Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 215).
15 Nov SAIPAN: The 3d 155mm Howitzer Battalion arrived from Peleliu. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 32).

PALAUS: The 81st Cavalry Reconnaissance Troops, USA, seized Ngeregong Island. (Hough, p. 175).

24 Nov JAPAN: Saipan-based B-29s bombed Tokyo; this was the first raid by land-based aircraft on the Japanese capital. (Bartley, p. 216).
25 Nov PACIFIC: CinCPOA issued Operation plan 11-44 for the invasion of Iwo Jima. The Fifth Fleet commander was directed to seize the island and develop air bases there; the invasion date was tentatively set for 3 February. (Williams, p. 337).
26-30 Nov PHILIPPINES: CinCSWPA requested that Marine Fighter Squadron 541 at Palau be transferred to Leyte in exchange for P-61s there, and on the recommendation of Admiral Halsey, he ordered Marine Aircraft Group 12 in the Solomons forward to Tacloban. (Boggs, p. 29).
27 Nov PELELIU: Regimental Combat Team 323, USA, secured Umurbrogol Pocket, and its commander reported officially that the Peleliu operation was ended. (Hough, p. 176).

NEW BRITAIN: he 40th Infantry Division, USA, was relieved by the Australian 5th Division. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 431).

30 Nov PACIFIC: Allied Air Forces directed that four of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing's F4U squadrons be transferred to the operational control of the Fifth Air Force on Leyte, Philip-pines, to free the Third Fleet's carriers for the attack on Japan. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 533).

--99--

1944
3 Dec PHILIPPINES: Marine Night Fighter Squadron 541 of the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing on Peleliu and Marino Aircraft Wing 12 (VMF-115, -211, -218, and -313) from the Solomons arrived at Tacloban under the operational direction of the 308th Bombardment Wing, Fifth Air Force. (Boggs, pp. 29, 30).
5 Dec PHILIPPINES: Marine Night Fighter Squadron 541 and Marine Aircraft Group 12 made their first aerial contact with the Japanese. while covering naval forces. (Boggs, pp. 31, 32).
7 Dec PHILIPPINES: Marine aircraft attacked a Japanese convoy carrying reinforcements to Ormoc Bay. Pilots of Marine Fighter Squadron 211 critically damaged a Japanese destroyer withdrawing from Leyte. Later, with planes from Marine Fighter Squadron 2l8 and 313 and Army P-40s, they sunk a troop transport and damaged two destroyers of the convoy. (Boggs, pp. 33, 34).
8 Dec VOLCANO-BONINS: U.S. Navy surface units shelled Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 216).
8 Dec-19 Feb 1945 VOLCANO-BONINS: B-24s of the Seventh Air Force stationed in the Marianas attacked the islands; PBJs from Marine Bomber Squadron 612 participated in the raids from early December until 31 January. (Bartley, p. 39).
10-25 Dec PHILIPPINES: Pilots of Marine Aircraft Group 12 flew striking missions in support of ground troops on Leyte. (Boggs, pp. 43, 44).
10 Dec SAIPAN: The 8th 155mm Gun Battalion arrived from Peleliu. (Nichols and Shaw. p. 32).

USSR: France and the USSR: signed a treaty of alliance in Moscow. (Williams, p. 349).

11 Dec PHILIPPINES: Twelve F4Us from Marine Aircraft Group 12 with P-40s twice intercepted a Japanese reinforcement convoy off the northeast tip of Panay Island. The aircraft later sunk four of the 10 Japanese ships in the convoy, five miles from Palompon. (Boggs, pp. 34-36).
12 Dec PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 12 supported by P-40s sank one Japanese destroyer of a reinforcement convoy and set fire to the tank landing ship, off the northeast tip of Panay. This was the last large-scale Japanese attempt to reinforce the Leyte garrison. (Boggs, pp. 34-37).
15 Dec PACIFIC: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, recommended to the JCS that the Iwo Jima and Okinawa operations be postponed until 1 April and 19 February 1945. respectively. (Bartley, p. 23).

PHILIPPINES: Elements of the U.S. Sixth Army landed at San Jose Bay, Mindoro, covered by units of the Fifth Air Force including Marine planes of Marine Aircraft Group 12 and Marine Night Fighter Squadron 541. Marine flyers continued to support the landing force until 18 December. (Boggs, pp. 40-42).

--100--

1944
23 Dec PACIFIC: The Commanding General, V Amphibious Corps Landing Force issued the preferred plan for the invasion of Iwo Jima calling for a landing by the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions on the southeast coast of the island, schedule tentatively for 19 February 1945. The 3d Marine Division would be held in floating reserve until released to the Corps. (Bartley, p. 25; Williams, p. 360).
24-27 Dec VOLCANO-BONINS: U.S. Navy surface units bombarded the islands, including Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 216).
26 Dec PHILIPPINES: Leyte was declared secured, and the U.S. Eighth Army relieved the Sixth the following day. (Boggs, pp. 44. 46).
28 Dec CAROLINES: The first Marine fighter squadrons to board a big carrier (VMF-124 and -213) embarked on the USS Essex at Ulithi for a series of strikes on Formosa and Luzon, 3-9 January 1945. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 3, 4).
30 Dec TINIAN: B-29s landed on the airfield. (Hoffman (2), p. 149).
31 Dec PACIFIC: The Commander, Fifth Fleet issued Operation Plan 13-44 directing the Joint Expeditionary Force to secure Iwo Jima and begin base development there, establish a military government, and withdraw the assault forces at the conclusion of the capture and occupation phase; 19 February was confirmed as D-Day. (Williams, p. 364).
Dec-Jan 1945 PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 12 conducted fighter sweeps in support of the projected Luzon landing. (Boggs, pp. 46, 47).
1945
1 Jan TINIAN: The 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, departed the island for Saipan after five months' garrison duty. (Hoffman (2), p. 121).
2-12 Jan PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group l4 (VMO-212, -222, and -223) landed at Guiuam, Samar Island, under the operational command of the Fifth Air Force. (Boggs, pp. 48, 50).
3 Jan PACIFIC: Aircraft of Marine Fighter Squadrons 124 and 213, operating from the carrier USS Essex, struck Formosa and the Ryukyus; this was the first instance of Marine fighter squadrons attacking land installations from a carrier. (Boggs, pp. 43, 145).
5 Jan VOLCANO-BONINS: U.S. Navy vessels shelled Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 216).
6-7 Jan PHILIPPINES: U.S. Navy and Marine airmen from carriers of the Third Fleet made repeated strikes on Luzon; over 100 Japanese aircraft were destroyed. (Boggs, p. 48).
9 Jan PHILIPPINES: The U.S. Sixth Army landed on beaches of the Lingayen Gulf. Luzon. (Bartley, p. 2).
10 Jan PHILIPPINES: An advance party of Marine aviators from Marine Aircraft Groups 24 and 32 landed on Lingayen Beach. (Boggs, p. 65).

--101--

1945
PACIFIC: Marine Fighter Squadrons 124 and 213 on board the carrier USS Essex participated with the Third Fleet in a series of strikes against targets on the coast of Indochina and on Hong Kong and Formosa. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 4, 5).
11 Jan PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan, commanded by Colonel Clayton C. Jerome, was organized on Luzon. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 561).

The forward echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 24 arrived in Lingayen Gulf. Luzon. (Boggs, p. 66).

24 Jan VOLCANO-BONINS: A powerful U.S. naval surface force bombarded Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 216).
25 Jan PHILIPPINES: The first planes, from Marine Scout-Bomber Squadrons 133 and 24l, arrived at Mangaldan airstrip, Luzon, to provide close air support for U.S. Army operations on Luzon. (Boggs, p. 69; Sherrod, p. 299).
27 Jan PHILIPPINES: Aircraft of Marine Scout-Bomber Squadron 241 flew the first mission by Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan in support of U.S. Army operations in the Philippines. (Boggs, p. 71).

Marine Aircraft Group 32 arrived at Mangaldan where it became part of Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan under the control of the 308th Bombardment Wing, Army Air Forces. (Sherrod, pp. 445, 456).

CAROLINES: Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, and Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher, USN, assumed command of the Pacific Fleet's striking force from Admiral Halsey and Vice Admiral John McCain, USN. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 37).

31 Jan PHILIPPINES: Colonel Clayton Jerome was designated commander of the base at Mangaldan, Luzon. (Sherrod, p. 299).
Jan-Jun WAKE: Navy shore-based VP squadrons executed repeated sorties against the atoll. (Heinl (2), p. 68).
1 Feb PHILIPPINES: The Luzon beachhead was secured, and the U.S. Army concentrated its efforts on the capture of Manila. (Boggs, p. 73).
1-3 Feb PHILIPPINES: The 1st Cavalry Division, USA, at Guimba, Lingayen Gulf, pushed through La Union Province toward Manila assisted by flyers of Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan providing air cover, flank protection, and reconnaissance. (Boggs, pp. 73, 80).
3 Feb PHILIPPINES: U.S. Army troops entered Manila. (Bartley. p. 216).
4-11 Feb USSR: The Yalta Conference met in the Crimea. (Morris, p. 386).

--102--

1945
10 Feb-4 Mar PACIFIC: Task Force 58 from Ulithi-including Marine Fighter Squadrons 123, 216, 217, 212, and 451 on board large carriers- attacked Tokyo (16, 17, and 25 February), furnished air support for the Iwo Jima Landing forces (beginning 19 February), and participated in a series of strikes on Okinawa (1, 2 March). ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 5, 10).
16 Feb PHILIPPINES: U.S. Army parachute troops assaulted Corregidor. (Boggs, p. 89).
16-17 Feb JAPAN: The Fast Carrier Force of Task Force 58 struck Honshu to divert attention from the Iwo Jima operations. (Bartley, p. 216).
16-18 Feb VOLCANO-BONINS: Amphibious Support Force, Task Force 52 conducted preparatory bombardment of Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 216).
19 Feb IWO JIMA: Preceded by preliminary naval and air bombardment, the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions landed abreast on Green, Red, Yellow, and Blue Beaches along the southeast coast of the island. The 27th and 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division, reached the western beach and isolated Mt. Suribachi. Front lines of the 4th Marine Division extended to the eastern edge of the airfield. (Bartley, pp. 5l-64).

PHILIPPINES: Forty-eight planes from Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan struck derelict ships in Manila Harbor to assist the 37th Army Division's penetration of the waterfront sector. (Boggs, pp. 89, 90).

20 Feb PHILIPPINES:U.S. Army troops under cover of Marine aircraft were landed on Biri Island to insure control of the San Bernardino Straits. (Naval Chronology, p. 129).
21 Feb IWO JIMA: The 21st Marines, in the V Amphibious Corps reserve, was committed in the 4th Marine Division zone. Japanese Kamikazes attacked support ships off the island. (Bartley, p. 216).
22 Feb IWO JIMA: The 3d Battalion, 28th Marines, reached the base of Mt. Suribachi. Task Force 58 departed for a second air strike against the Tokyo area leaving Task Group 58.5 behind to provide night fighter protection. (Bartley, pp. 76, 91).
23 Feb IWO JIMA: A detachment from Company E, Regimental Combat Team 28, raised the American flag atop Mt. Suribachi. The volcano was encircled when elements of Company E contacted the 1st Battalion, 28th Marines, near the southern tip of the island. (Bartley, pp. 76-78).

The 3d Marine Division (less RCT's 3 and 21) was re-leased to the V Amphibious Corps from Expeditionary Troops reserve but remained afloat. (Williams, p. 411).

--103--

1945
24 Feb IWO JIMA: The 3d Marine Division (less RCTs 3 and 21 already ashore) began landing on Beach Black. Charlie-Dog Ridge, a strongly defended area running along the southeast edge of the east-west runway on Airfield No. 2, was secured by the 2d and 3d Battalions, 24th Marines. The 2d Separate Engineer Battalion rehabilitated a 1,500-foot strip on the north-south runway of Airfield No. 1 (24 and 25 February). (Bartley, pp. 96-98, 112).
25 Feb IWO JIMA: The 3d Marine Division assumed responsibility for clearing the central portion of the Motoyama Plateau en-compassing Airfields Nos. 2 and 3 and Motoyama Village. The 12th Marines began landing. (Bartley, pp. 98, 99, 112).
25-26 Feb JAPAN: Planes of Task Force 58 raided the Tokyo area. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 37).
26 Feb IWO JIMA: Two planes from Marine Observation Squadron 4, the first U.S. aircraft to land on the island, flew in from the U.S. escort carrier Wake Island. (Bartley, p. 112).
27 Feb IWO JIMA: The 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, in the 3d Marine Division zone, overran Hill PETER and the crest of 199 OBOE to the north of Airfield No. 2; the airfield was captured by the 1st and 2d Battalions, 9th Marines. Marine Observation Squadron 5 commenced operations from Airfield No. 1. (Bartley, pp. 103, 126, 127).

Major General James E. Chaney, Commanding General, Army Garrison Forces and Island Commander, landed with his headquarters and a detachment of the 147th Infantry Regiment, USA, and advance elements of the VII Fighter Command, USA. (Bartley, pp. 114, 115).

28 Feb IWO JIMA: The 3d Battalion of the 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division, captured Motoyama Village and the high ground overlooking Airfield No. 3. (Bartley, p. 105).

PHILIPPINES: U.S. Army troops invaded Palawan. (Bartley. p. 216).

1 Mar IWO JIMA: Sixteen light planes of Marine Observation Squadrons 4 and 5 were based ashore. Commander, Landing Force Air Support Control Unit assumed responsibility for support aircraft and became Commander, Air, Iwo Jima. (Bartley, pp. 112, 116).

RYUKYUS: Planes of Task Force 58 photographed Japanese positions and hit island defenses on Okinawa. (Nichols and (Shaw, p. 37).

2 Mar IWO JIMA: Units of the 5th Marine Division overran Hill 362A, the heavily fortified western anchor of the Japanese main cross-island defenses. (Bartley, pp. 124, 125, 134-136).

In the 3d Marine Division zone, the 2d Battalion, Regimental Combat Team 24, overran Hill 382. (Bartley, p. 163).

--104--

1945
3 Mar IWO JIMA: The 3d Marine Division cleared Airfield No. 3, and the 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, 3d Division, captured Hills 357 and 362B, east of the Motoyama Plateau. No important Japanese resistance remained between the 2d Battalion and the eastern coast of the island. (Bartley, pp. 108, 109, 216).

PHILIPPINES: Manila fell to the U.S. Sixth Army. (Williams, p. 423).

U.S. Army troops landed on Masbate, Burias, and Ticao Islands supported by Marine aircraft. (Naval Chronology, p. 132).

4 Mar IWO JIMA: The first B-29 landed on the island. (Bartley, p. 216).

PHILIPPINES: Air Warning Squadron 4 arrived at Leyte Gulf from Los Negros, Admiralties. (Boggs, p. 109).

5 Mar IWO JIMA: The 3d Marines in Expeditionary Troops Reserve returned to Guam. (Bartley, p. 116).
5-31 Mar PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Groups, Dagupan flew 186 separate missions in northern Luzon in support of guerrilla fighters. (Boggs, p. 102).
6 Mar CONTINENTAL U.S.: The USS Gilbert Islands-the second Marine escort carrier to be commissioned-embarked Marine Carrier Group 2 (VMF-512, VMTB-143, and CASD-2) at San Diego, California, and departed for the Pacific the following month. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 19).

IWO JIMA: After intensive artillery and naval gunfire preparation, elements of the 3d, 4th, and 5th Marine Divisions attacked to the northeast and east in an all-out effort to breach the Japanese final defense line. (Bartley, pp. 116, 117, 143, 169).

Brigadier General Ernest C. Moore, USA, Commanding General, Fighter Command, landed on Airfield No. 1 with the commander of the 15th Fighter Group and planes of the 47th Fighter and 548th Night Fighter Squadrons, USA. (Bartley, p. 117).

7 Mar IWO JIMA: Company K of the 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, seized Hill 362C, a Japanese stronghold located in the northeastern sector of the island. (Bartley, pp. 109, 117, 119, Map II).

Major General James E. Chaney, USA, Island Commander, assumed responsibility for base development, air defense, and operation of the airfields. Brigadier General Ernest C. Moore, USA. became Commander. Air. Iwo Jima. (Bartley, p. 118).

8 Mar IWO JIMA: Iwo-based planes of the 15th Fighter Group, USA, took over combat air patrol duties and flew close support missions until 14 March; carrier aircraft departed on 10 March. (Bartley, p. 118).
8-9 Mar IWO JIMA: The 4th Marine Division repulsed a large-scale Japanese counterattack during which the Japanese sustained heavy losses. (Bartley, pp. 172, 174).

--105--

1945
The forward echelon of Marine Torpedo-Bomber Squadron 242 arrived from Tinian to fly antisubmarine patrol. (Bartley, p. 118).
9 Mar IWO JIMA: Patrols of the 3d Marine Division reached the northeast coast. (Bartley, p. 217).
10 Mar IWO JIMA: The 3d Marine Division zone of action, up the center of the island, was cleared with the exception of a Japanese pocket in the 9th Marines' area and scattered resistance in the cliffs overlooking the beach. The Amphitheater-Turkey Knob salient in the center of the 4th Marine Division zone was eliminated. (Bartley, pp. 122, 175, 176).

PHILIPPINES: Elements of the U.S. Eighth Army, augmented by ground echelons of Marine Aircraft Groups 12 and 32 plus Air Warning Squadron 4, assaulted Mindanao near Zamboanga. Marine Aircraft Group 12 furnished air support for the landing. (Boggs, p. 112).

10-13 Mar PACIFIC: Marine Fighter Squadrons 112, 123, 124, 212, 213, 216, 217, and 451 were detached from Task Force 58 and re-turned to the U.S. Marine ground, crewmen remained to service Navy F4Us. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 5, 6, 10).
11 Mar IWO JIMA: The final phase of the campaign opened with the 3d and 4th Marine Divisions driving to the east coast and the 5th Marine Division to the north. (Bartley, p. 178).
12 Mar IWO JIMA: The 1st and 3d Battalions, 9th Marines, in the 3d Marine Division zone, attacked west toward "Cushman's Pocket," a last strongpoint of enemy resistance on the island. (Bartley, pp. 178, 179).
14 Mar IWO JIMA: The official flag raising ceremony, at the V Amphibious Corps headquarters, marked the proclamation of U.S. Navy Military Government in the Volcano Islands. Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith, Commander, Expeditionary Troops, departed for Guam. (Bartley, p. 187).

RYUKYUS: ask Force 58 staged the final raid preliminary to the Okinawa landings. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 38).

14-16 Mar IWO JIMA: The first phase of operations against "Cushman's Pocket" opened with an attack by the 1st and 2d Battalions, 9th Marines (rein). (Bartley, p. l8l).
14-20 Mar JAPAN: Marine Fighter Squadrons 214 and 452 on board the USS Franklin joined the Fifth Fleet and participated in attacks against Kyushu airfields (18 January), the Inland Sea (19 March), and Kobe and Kure harbors (19 March). ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 10-13).
15-18 Mar PHILIPPINES: Marine Fighter Squadrons 115, 211, 2l8, and 313 from Marine Aircraft Group 12 flew onto Moret Field, Mindanao, from Leyte. They were the first air units to arrive at the new Marine air base. (Boggs, p. 114).

--106--

1945
16 Mar IWO JIMA: The 1st and 2d Battalions, Regimental Combat Team 21 (rein), overran "Cushman's Pocket" and reached the northern coast of the island at Kitano's Point, thus eliminating all Japanese resistance in the 3d Marine Division zone. (Bartley, pp. 181, 182).

Regimental Combat Team 25 cut through to the beach road on the eastern coast of the island and announced the complete destruction of all resistance in the last stronghold of the 4th Marine Division zone. (Bartley, pp. l84. 185).

The island was declared secured; the only remaining resistance came from the western half of Kitano Point and the draw to the southwest. (Bartley, p. 189).

17 Mar IWO JIMA: Elements of the 5th Marine Division attacked north to clear the remaining Japanese from Kitano Point on the northern coast of the island. (Bartley, p. 189).
18 Mar PHILIPPINES: Elements of the 40th Infantry Division, USA, supported by Marine aircraft from Samar, landed on Panay. (Boggs, p. 118).
18-19 Mar JAPAN: In preparation for the invasion of the Ruykyus, carrier planes from Task Force 58 raided the Japanese home-land to neutralize enemy airfields on Kyushu and hit enemy fleet units in the Kure-Kobe area. (Williams, pp. 444, 445).
19 Mar CONTINENTAL U.S.: The first Marine escort carrier to be commissioned, Block Island, embarked Marine Carrier Group 1 (VMF-511, VMTB-233, and CASD-1) at San Diego and departed for Pearl Harbor and assignment with the Fleet. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 18).

IWO JIMA: The 4th Marine Division departed for Maui, Hawaiian Islands. The 3d Marine Division took over patrol and defense responsibilities from the other divisions as they moved out. (Bartley, p. 193).

20 Mar IWO JIMA: The 147th Infantry, USA, arrived from New Caledonia to take over the defense of the island and was attached to the 3d Marine Division for operational control. (Bartley, p. 193).
21 Mar USMC: Commandant General Alexander A. Vandegrift became the first four-star general in the Corps on active duty. (Commandants, p. 122).
23-25 Mar RYUKYUS: Task Force 58, including Marine Fighter Squadrons 112. 123. 221. and 45l on board the USS Bennington and Bunker Hill, flew sorties over Okinawa during the last of softening up operations. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 13, 14).
24-26 Mar PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 32 (VMSB-236, -142, -341, and -243) moved from Luzon to Zamboanga, Mindanao. (Boggs, p. 102).
25 Mar IWO JIMA: Regimental Combat Team 28 eliminated the last pocket of Japanese resistance, in the western half of Kitano Point. (Bartley, p. 189).

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1945
25-31 Mar RYUKYUS: Task Forces 52 and 54 bombarded Okinawa in preparation for the landing. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 46).
26 Mar IWO JIMA: Two hundred to 300 Japanese from the north attacked Marine and Army bivouacs near the western beaches, but the force was destroyed by troops of the VII Fighter Command, USA, and the 5th Pioneer Battalion. (Bartley, p. 192).

The capture and occupation phase of the campaign was announced completed and the Commander, Forward Area, Central Pacific, assumed responsibility for the defense and development of the island. Major General James E. Chaney, USA, took over operational control of all units ashore, and Brigadier General Ernest Moore, USA, was designated Air Defense Commander. Major General Harry Schmidt closed the V Amphibious Corps command post and departed leaving the 9th Marines to assist in mop-up activities. (Bartley, pp. 193, 217).

RYUKYUS: Troops of the 77th Infantry Division, USA, landed on Kerama Retto, securing Yakabi, Geruma, and Hokaji Shima and establishing firm footholds on Aka and Zamami Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 39-42).

PHILIPPINES: Elements of Marine Aircraft Group 14 supported the landing of U.S. Army forces on Cebu Island. (Boggs, p. 119).

26-31 Mar RYUKYUS: The 8th Japanese Air Division from Sakishima Gunto executed Kamikaze attacks on Allied ships standing off Kerama Retto. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 44, 45).
26-27 Mar RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Reconnaissance Battalion (less Company B) landed on the four reef islets of Keise Shima, discovered no enemy, and reembarked. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 42).

A British Carrier Force, Task Force 57, struck the Sakshima Gunto as part of its planned schedule of preliminary operations supporting the Okinawa assault. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 45).

27 Mar IWO JIMA: Units of the 5th Marine Division departed for Hawaii. (Bartley, p. 193).

RYUKYUS: Elements of the 77th Army Division landed on separate beaches of Tokashiki Shima, the last remaining major target in the Kerama Retto island group, and occupied Amuro and Ruba Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 42).

27-28 Mar RYUKYUS: Company A, Fleet Marine Force Reconnaissance Battalion, made a rubber boat landing on Aware Shima but found no Japanese and reembarked. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 42).
28-29 Mar RYUKYUS: Forces of the 77th Division, USA, mopped-up Japanese resistance on Kerama Retto, securing Aka, Zamami, and Tokashiki Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 42).

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29 Mar RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Reconnaissance Battalion scouted Mae and Kuro Shima, midway between Kerama Retto and Keise Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 42).

PHILIPPINES: The 40th Infantry Division, USA, landed on Negros Island with air cover furnished by Marine Aircraft Group 14. (Boggs, p. 119).

1 Apr OKINAWA: Preceded by naval gunfire and air support, the III Amphibious Corps (1st and 6th Marine Divisions, rein) and the XXIV Corps, USA, landed north and south of Bishi Gawa River, respectively, on the Hagushi beaches of the island's western shore. The XXIV Corps captured Kadena airfield and advanced south along the coast to the Chatan vicinity, and the III Amphibious Corps made extensive ground gains to the south. Yontan airfield was secured by the 4th Marines, and the 7th Marines moved through Sobe Village, a first priority objective. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 63-69).
2 Apr OKINAWA: The 2d Marine Division effectively immobilized the main body of Japanese forces by a diversionary feint against the Minatoga beaches on the eastern side of the island. Forward elements of the 7th Infantry Division, USA, reached the eastern coast, severing the island. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 69, 73, 74).

The first American aircraft on the island, a plane from Marine Observation Squadron 2, was landed at the Yontan airstrip. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 72).

PHILIPPINES: Marine aircraft covered landings by elements of the 41st Army Division at Sanga Sanga and Bongao Islands, Sulu Archipelago. (Boggs, p. 121).

3 Apr WASHINGTON: The JCS designated General MacArthur as Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Forces, Pacific, and Admiral Nimitz as commander of all naval forces in the Pacific. (Williams, p. 472).
4 Apr OKINAWA: The 6th Marine Division attacked north up the west coast road; it was relieved of responsibility for the Yontan airstrip by the 29th Marines in the III Amphibious Corps reserve. The 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, occupied the Katchin Peninsula. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 77, 78).

All three runways of the Yontan airfield were declared operational for fighter aircraft. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 72. 73).

IWO JIMA: The 147th Infantry, USA, assumed full responsibility for ground defense and mopping-up, and the 9th Marines prepared to leave for Guam. (Bartley, p. 193).

5 Apr RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Reconnaissance Battalion landed on the northern coast of Tsugen Shima, Eastern Islands, the only one of the six islands guarding the en-trances to Okinawa's eastern beaches that was defended in strength. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 87).

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JAPAN: Premier Koiso and the entire Japanese Cabinet resigned. (Morris, p. 373).
6 Apr OKINAWA: The 96th Army Division opened its attack against the Shuri defenses in the southern sector of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 119).
6-7 Apr OKINAWA: Japanese from Kyushu launched the first of 10 major Kamikaze attacks on Allied shipping off Okinawa. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 83-85, 282).
7 Apr PACIFIC: The Battle of the East China Sea. Planes of Task Force 58 sank the super-battleship Yamato, a cruiser, and four destroyers, ending all chance of a Japanese sea attack on Okinawa. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 282).

OKINAWA: The first F4U of Marine Aircraft Group 31 landed on Yontan airfield. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 266).

RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Reconnaissance Company scouted the remainder of the Eastern Islands-Takanare, Heanza, Hamahika, and Kutake Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 87, 88).

JAPAN: Eighty P-51s from Iwo Jima escorted Army B-29s over Japan in the first U.S. land-based fighter aircraft flight to the Japanese home islands. (Bartley, p. 217).

8 Apr OKINAWA: The 29th Marines, 6th Marine Division, moved across the base of the Motobu Peninsula and occupied the villages of Gagusuku and Yamadadobaru. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 94).
9 Apr OKINAWA: The main body of the 27th Infantry Division, USA, went ashore on Beaches Orange near Kadena. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 88).

The Kadena airfield was adjudged ready for its first planes, and Marine Aircraft Wing 33 began tactical operations from the field immediately. (Sherrod, p. 379).

PHILIPPINES: Troops of the 41st Infantry Division, USA, landed on Jolo Island accompanied by a support air team from Marine Aircraft Group 32. (Boggs, p. 122).

10 Apr OKINAWA: The 2d Battalion, 29th Marines, seized Unten Ko on the Motobu Peninsula where the Japanese had established a submarine and torpedo boat base. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 94).
10-11 Apr RYUKYUS: Elements of the 27th Infantry Division, USA, assaulted and captured Tsugen Shima, the only defended position in the Eastern Islands. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 90).
12 Apr CONTINENTAL U.S.: On the death of President Roosevelt, Vice-President Harry S. Truman took the oath of office as President. (Morris, p. 383).

IWO JIMA: The last unit of the 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, who remained behind to assist in mop-up activities, departed for Guam. (Bartley, p. 193).

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12-14 Apr OKINAWA: The Japanese launched coordinated counterattacks against the XXIV Corps, USA, line coinciding with a second round of major aerial suicide attacks. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 122-124).
13 Apr RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion occupied Minna Shima, an island lying off the northwest coast of Okinawa, in preparation for an assault on Ie Shima. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 112).
14 Apr OKINAWA: The 4th and 29th Marines launched a coordinated attack on the Motobu Peninsula inland in an easterly direction and west and southwest from the center of the peninsula, respectively. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 97).

PHILIPPINES: SBDs from Marine Aircraft Group 24 flew the last Marine aviation mission on Luzon, in support of the 37th Army Division. (Sherrod, p. 311).

16 Apr OKINAWA: The 6th Marine Division launched a full-scale attack from three sides against Japanese positions on the Motobu Peninsula; Companies A and C, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, took possession of Yae Take, the key terrain feature of the peninsula. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 96, 100, 101).
16-21 Apr OKINAWA: The 77th Infantry Division, USA, assaulted and captured Ie Shima, a island lying off the northwest coast of Okinawa. Marine Aircraft Groups 31 and 33 flew combat air patrol in support of the landing. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 111. 115-118: Sherrod, pp. 379, 381).
17 Apr PHILIPPINES: Ground echelons of Marine Aircraft Group 24 participated in the U.S. Eighth Army's landing on Mindanao. (Boggs, pp. 124-128).
19 Apr OKINAWA: The XXIV Corps, USA, launched a three division assault against the Shuri defenses in the southern sector of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 126. 128).
20 Apr OKINAWA: The 4th and 29th Marines reached the north coast of Motobu Peninsula having eliminated all organized resistance on the peninsula. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 104).

PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 24 began to arrive at Malabang, Mindanao, from Luzon. (Boggs, p. 128).

21 Apr USMC: The Provisional Air Support Command was disbanded, and Marine Air Support Control Units, Amphibious Forces, Pacific, was organized in its stead. (FMFPac, p. 37).
22 Apr PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 24 at Malabang commenced air operations in support of the 24th and 31st Army Divisions pushing eastward across Mindanao. (Boggs, p. 128).
24 Apr OKINAWA: The Japanese withdrew to the second ring of the Shuri defensive zone. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 131).

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25Apr-26Jun CONTINENTAL U.S.: The San Francisco Conference met and issued a charter for the United Nations Organization. (Langer, p. 1171).
26 Apr OKINAWA: The XXIV Corps, USA, opened a three division assault against the second ring of the Shuri defenses. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 132, 133).
28 Apr OKINAWA: The 3d Battalion, 165th Infantry, USA, captured Machinato airfield. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 134).
30 Apr OKINAWA: The 1st Marine Division was attached to the XXIV Corps, USA, and began moving south to relieve the 27th Army Division. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 135. 136).

EUROPE: Adolf Hitler committed suicide after having selected Admiral Karl Doenitz as his successor. (Williams, p. 524).

SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Fourteenth British Imperial Army, aided by U.S. and Chinese forces, completed the expulsion of Japanese armies from the area. (Morris, p. 373).

2 May OKINAWA: The 27th Division, USA, officially passed to Island Command control. The 165th Infantry, USA, was as-signed responsibility for the 1st Marine Division sector, and the 105th and 106th Infantries, USA, were sent north to relieve the 6th Marine Division on Motobu Peninsula and in the areas farther north. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 269).

EUROPE: Berlin fell, and German forces in Italy surrendered. (Morris, p. 378).

3-4 May OKINAWA: The Japanese launched an all-out ground and air attack on the XXIV Corps, USA, positions and U.S. shipping off the island. Marine aircraft and antiaircraft gunners as well as units of the 1st Marine Division assisted in repulsing the assault. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 144-150).
7 May USMC: "Base Post-War Plan No. 1" was approved by the CNO; it provided that the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, consist of a Marine division at Camp Pendleton, a Marine aircraft wing in California, a reinforced Marine Brigade and a Marine aircraft group in the western Pacific, and five carrier aircraft groups with the Amphibious Forces. (FMFPac, p. 39).

OKINAWA: The III Amphibious Corps took over the western sector of the Tenth Army front in the southern sector of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 282).

8 May OKINAWA: The first elements of the 6th Marine Division entered the lines on the island's southern front and relieved units of the 7th Marines along the Asa Kawa. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 154).

EUROPE: The war in Europe formally ended following Germany's unconditional surrender (7 May). (Morris, p. 378).

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10 May-19 Jun OKINAWA: Marine escort carrier Block Island supported the Okinawa operation as a component of Task Unit 32.1.3 (on 27 May, 52.1.3). The USS Gilbert Islands, the 2d Marine escort carrier, joined the force on 1 June. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 18, 19).
11 May OKINAWA: The Tenth Army, USA, opened an all-out attack to reduce the inner Shuri defenses; the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, eliminated the last organized resistance in the Awacha Pocket. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 160, 163, 282).
15 May PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 14 ended combat operations at Samar in preparation for its departure to Okinawa. (Boggs, p. 119).
17 May OKINAWA: The amphibious phase of the Okinawa operation was ended. Vice Admiral Harry W. Hill, USN, relieved Vice Admiral Richmond K. Turner, USN, in control of naval activities and air defense as Commander Task Force 51. Admiral Hill was directed to report to Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner, USA, who took command of all forces ashore and assumed responsibility for the defense and development of captured objectives. (Nichols and Shaw. d. 174).
18 May OKINAWA: The 29th Marines, 6th Marine Division, captured the Sugar Loaf position, the western anchor of the Japanese Shuri defenses. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 180, 181).
21 May RYUKYUS: Marine Torpedo-Bomber Squadron 131 landed on Ie Shima to participate with other squadrons of Marine Aircraft Group 22 in the Okinawa campaign. (Sherrod, p. 399).

Marine Fighter Squadrons 113, 314, and 422 of Marine Aircraft Group 22 joined other squadrons of the group (VMF-533, VMF(N)-533) on Ie Shima in support of operations on Okinawa. (Sherrod, p. 399).

25 May WASHINGTON: The JCS approved a directive calling for the invasion of Japanese home islands, schedule for 1 November. (Williams, p. 54l).

OKINAWA: Pilots from Marine escort carrier Gilbert Islands flew their first combat air patrol and close air support strikes. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 19).

29 May USMC: The President increased the authorized strength of the Corns to 503.000. (CMCRpt, 1946, p. 2).

OKINAWA: The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, gained the crest of Shuri Ridge and secured Shuri Castle, the core of the Shuri bastion. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 206).

30 May OKINAWA: The major portion of the 32d Japanese Army had evacuated the Shuri lines, successfully escaping the flanking drives of the III Amphibious Corps and the XXIV Corps, USA, and withdrew to Kiyamu Peninsula at the southernmost part of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 207-209).

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31 May OKINAWA: The 1st Marine Division in concert with the 77th Division, USA, completed the occupation of Shuri. The Japanese developed a new defensive position along the Kokuba Gara and around Tsukasan. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 212, 213).
1 Jun PACIFIC: The Supply Service of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was redesignated as Service Command. (FMFPac, p. 31).

OKINAWA: The XXIV Corps, USA, changed the direction of its main attack against the Japanese final defenses in the southern sector of the island. The 7th and 97th Divisions, USA, were instructed to attack south while the 77th Division, USA, assumed responsibility for the 97th Division's former zone. The III Amphibious Corps launched a coordinated drive by the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions and secured the high ground overlooking the main east-west road of the Kokuba Gawa Valley in the Japanese new defensive position. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 213).

3-9 Jun RYUKYUS: The 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, secured Iheya and Aguni Shima west of Okinawa. Immediate steps were taken to set up air warning and fighter direction installations to strengthen the defensive perimeter surrounding Okinawa. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 243, 244).
4 Jun OKINAWA: The III Amphibious Corps boundary was shifted to the west, and the 1st Marine Division-attacking in the narrowed III Amphibious Corps zone-was made responsible for cutting off Oroku Peninsula, capturing Itoman, reducing the Kunishi and Mezado ridge positions, and driving to the southern-most point of the island, Ara Sake. The XXIV Corps, USA, was assigned the commanding Yaeju Dake-Yuza Dake Encarpment. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 244).

The 4th Marines spearheaded an amphibious assault by the 6th Marine Division against the Oroku Peninsula in the southwest sector of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 217-219).

5 Jun EUROPE: The European Advisory Commission met to establish German occupation zones. (Morris, p. 387).
7 Jun PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Group 14 began movement from Samar to Okinawa. (Boggs, p. 141).
8 Jun PACIFIC: Marine Fighter Squadrons 112 and 123, the last remaining Marine squadrons in Task Force 38 (redesignated from Task Force 58, 27 May), were detached from the force and sent to Leyte. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 14).
10 Jun PACIFIC: Air Force, Pacific, and USAFFE were consolidated. (Williams, p. 545).
11 Jun OKINAWA: Major General Louis E. Woods assumed command of both the Tactical Air Force and the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 262).
13 Jun OKINAWA: Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd, commanding the 6th Marine Division, announced that all organized resistance on Oroku Peninsula had ceased. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 228).
14 Jun WASHINGTON: The JCS directed Generals MacArthur and Henry H. Arnold, USA, and Admiral Nimitz to prepare plans for the

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immediate occupation of Japan in the event that Japan suddenly collapsed or capitulated. (Williams, p. 546).

RYUKYUS: The 6th Reconnaissance Company secured Senaga Shima, an island lying off the southeast coast of Oroku Peninsula. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 228).

15 Jun OKINAWA: The 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, arrived on the island and was attached to the 1st Marine Division. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 250).
17 Jun CONTINENTAL U.S.: The fourth Marine escort carrier to be commissioned, the Vella Gulf, with Marine Carrier Group 3 (VMP-513, VMTB-234, and CASD-3) on board sailed from San Diego for Pearl Harbor. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 20).

OKINAWA: The XXIV Corps, USA, had gained control of all the commanding ground on the Yaeju Dake-Yuza Dake Encarpment, its primary objective. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 249).

A 7,000-foot runway at Yontan airfield was completed. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 267).

18 Jun OKINAWA: Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner, USA, Tenth

Army commander, was killed while observing the progress of the 8th Marines' first attack on the island. Major General R. S. Geiger, senior troop commander, assumed temporary command of the Tenth Army and directed it final combat operations. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 250).

Tank-infantry teams of the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, crushed the last organized resistance on Kunishi Ridge. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 251).

20 Jun-9 Aug WAKE: U.S. Navy forces executed the major surface bombardment of the atoll. (Heinl (2), p. 68: Naval Chronology, pp. 158, 164).
21 Jun OKINAWA: Organized resistance in the III Amphibious Corps zone ended when units of the 1st Marine Division secured Hill 8l, and the 29th Marines-in the 6th Division zone- swept through Ara Sake, the southernmost point of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 254. 256).

Major General R. S. Geiger, commanding the Tenth Army, declared the island secured. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 257).

22 Jun OKINAWA: A formal ceremony attended by representatives of all elements of the Tenth Army marked the official end of resistance by the Japanese 32d Army. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 257).

The 1st and 6th Marine Divisions and the 7th and 97th Army Divisions were ordered to conduct a sweep to the north. Ten days were allotted to complete the mopping-up action. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 259).

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23 Jun OKINAWA: General J. W. Stilwell, USA, formally relieved Major General R. S. Geiger as Commanding General, Tenth Army. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 259).

The 381st Infantry, USA, mopped-up the final elements of the 24th Japanese Division in the southern part of the island. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 259).

25 Jun OKINAWA: The Tenth Army launched its four division clean-up drive to the north. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 259).
26-30 Jun RYUKYUS: The Fleet Marine Force Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion captured Kume Shima, the last and largest island of Okinawa Gunto. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 259, 260).
29 Jun WASHINGTON: The JCS decided to intensify the air blockade from bases on Okinawa and Iwo Jima and in the Marianas and Philippines. The following courses of action in the Pacific were agreed upon: the defeat of Japanese units in the Philippines, the allocation of all forces necessary to guarantee the security of western Pacific sea lanes prior to the invasion of Kyushu, Japan, and the acquisition of a sea route to Russian Pacific ports. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 21, 22).
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 474,680-37,067 officers and 437,613 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).

PHILIPPINES: Organized resistance on Mindanao ceased. (Boggs, p. 131).

1 Jul PACIFIC: The final phase of the naval war against Japan opened when the Third Fleet sortied from Leyte, Philippines, to attack the home islands and destroy the Japanese naval and air forces. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 25).

OKINAWA: General J. W. Stilwell, Tenth Army commander, established Headquarters, Ryukyus Area and assumed responsibility as a Joint task force commander directly under CinCPOA for the defense and development of all captured islands and the waters within 25 miles. CinCPac dissolved Task Force 31 and Vice Admiral H. W. Hill, USN, and his staff departed for Pearl Harbor; Rear Admiral Calvin H. Cobb, USN, took over as Commander, Naval Forces, Ryukyus, under General Stilwell. Tactical Air Force, Tenth Army, became Tactical Air Force, Ryukyus. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 260, 261).

4 Jul PACIFIC: Marine escort carrier Cape Gloucester with Marine Carrier Group 4 (VMF-351, VMTB-132, and CASD-4) on board arrived at Okinawa where it was attached to Task Group 31.2. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 19, 20).
5 Jul PHILIPPINES: The Philippines campaign was declared ended. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 283).
10 Jul WASHINGTON: The JCS ordered the activation of the U.S. Army Strategic Air Force in the Pacific, to be commanded by General Carl A. Spaatz, USA, and controlled strategically by the JCS. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 23).

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OKINAWA: CinCPac ordered Major General Louis E. Woods' Tactical Air Force to conduct operations in conjunction with the Eighth Air Force, U.S. Army Strategic Air Force in the Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 23).
12 Jul PHILIPPINES: Marine flyers supported landings by the 24th Army Division at Sarangzni Bay, Mindanao; this was their last major support mission of the war. (Boggs, p. 131).
13 Jul SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: The FEAF was formed to conduct tactical operations in support of the invasion of Kyushu, Japan. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 23).
14 Jul OKINAWA: The Tactical Air Force was dissolved, its mission completed, and the FEAF assumed control of the attack against Japan. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 266).
16 Jul CONTINENTAL U.S.: At Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first atomic bomb was successfully exploded. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 28).
17 Jul-2 Aug EUROPE: The Potsdam Conference met in Germany. The U.S., in company with the United Kingdom and the Republic of China, issued the Potsdam Declaration calling for the unconditional surrender of Japan (26 July). (Langer, p. 1171; "Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 31, 32).
19 Jul WASHINGTON: The JCS directed CinCPOA to transfer the control of American-held areas in the Ryukyus to CinCAFPac on or about 1 August; CinCPOA was to retain responsibility for the operations of naval units and installations there. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 24).
24-26 Jul PACIFIC: Pilots on board the Marine escort carrier Vella Gulf (VMF-513, VMTB-234, and CASD-3) flew sorties against Pagan and Rota Islands north of Guam. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 20).
1 Aug OKINAWA: Marine Carrier Group 4 on board the Marine escort carrier Cape Gloucester (attached to Task Group 31.2), departed Okinawa to cover minesweeping operations in the East China Sea and to launch strikes against shipping in the Saddle and Parker Island groups near Shanghai. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 19, 20).

PHILIPPINES: The four SBD squadrons of Marine Aircraft Group 32 closed tactical operations in the Philippines preparatory to returning to the U.S. on 15 August. (Boggs, p. 133).

3 Aug PACIFIC: The commander of the FEAF directed that the Headquarters, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and Marine Aircraft Group 61 to be moved to the Philippines. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 536).
4 Aug OKINAWA: The 27th Infantry Division, USA, reached Hedo Misake, ending a three and a half month mopping-up action in northern Okinawa, begun on 17 May. (Nichols and Shaw, pp. 269, 283).

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6 Aug JAPAN: The first atomic bomb to be exploded in combat was dropped on Hiroshima. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 283).
8 Aug PACIFIC: Advance copies of Admiral Halsey's Operation Plan 10-45 for the occupation of Japan were distributed setting up Task Force 31 (Yokosuka Occupation Force). (Shaw (1), p. 2).

USSR: The USSR: declared war on Japan, to be effective on 9 August. (Williams, p. 551).

9 Aug BISMARCKS: Marine aircraft flew their last bombing mission against Rabaul when PBJs from Marine Bomber Squadrons 413, 423, and 443 and Marine Aircraft Group 61 headquarters raided the area. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 536).

JAPAN: The second atomic bomb to be exploded in combat was drooped on Nagasaki. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 283).

CHINA: Soviet force invaded Manchuria. (Williams, p. 551).

10 Aug PACIFIC: Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, directed the 6th Marine Division to furnish a regimental combat team to the Third Fleet for possible early occupation duty in Japan. Brigadier General William T. Clement, Assistant Division Commander, was named to head the Fleet Landing Force. (Shaw (1), p. 2).

Rear Admiral Oscar C. Badger, USN, was designated Commander, Task Force 31 (Yokosuka Operation Force), and all ships were alerted to organize and equip bluejacket and Marine landing forces for occupation duty in Japan. (Shaw (1), p. 2).

JAPAN: Japan sued for peace on the basis of the terms enunciated in the Potsdam Declaration (26 July). ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 33).

11 Aug CONTINENTAL U.S.: President Truman informed the Japanese that a Supreme Commander would accept its surrender and that the Emperor and High Command would have to issue a cease fire to all Japanese armed forces before the Allies could accept Japan's suit for surrender. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap 2, p. 33).

PACIFIC: Preliminary plans for the activation of Task Force Able, to participate in the occupation of Japan, were prepared by the III Amphibious Corps. The task force was to consist of a skeletal headquarters detachment, the 5th Marines (rein), an amphibian tractor company, and a medical company. (Shaw (1), p. 2).

Concurrently, officers designated to form the staff of Major General William T. Clement, commanding the Fleet Landing Force, were alerted and immediately began planning for Task Force Abie's departure for Japan. Warning orders were passed to the staff directing that a regimental combat team with attached units be ready to embark within 48 hours. (Shaw (1), p. 2).

12 Aug USMC: Plans were initiated for the establishment of Separation Centers at Great Lakes, Illinois, and Bain-bridge, Maryland, to speedily demobilize all eligible personnel on schedule. ("Personnel Demobilization," p. 4).

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13 Aug WAKE: The last U.S. air raid on the atoll was executed by Marine Corps aircraft against Peacock Point battery. (Heinl (2), p. 68).
14 Aug CONTINENTAL U.S.: President Truman announced that a cease fire was in effect and that the war had ended. General MacArthur was designated SCAP and given authority to accept the surrender of Japan for the governments of the U.S., Republic of China, United Kingdom, and USSR: . ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 34, 35).

PACIFIC: CinCPOA ordered the cessation of all offensive operations against Japanese forces. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 34).

JAPAN: Japan accepted the Allied unconditional surrender terms. (Williams, p. 551).

15 Aug USMC: The Commandant and the Under Secretary of the Navy approved the general plan for demobilization of the Ad-justed Service Rating System of Discharge and Separation commonly known as the "Point System." ("Post-WW II Period," lSep45-1Oct46, pp. 1, 2).

WASHINGTON: Amplification of JCS General Order No. 1 called for key areas of Japan, Korea, and the China coast to be occupied. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 35).

19 Aug GUAM: Rear Admiral Oscar C. Badger, USN, formed the ships assigned to Task Force 31 into a separate tactical group for the occupation of Japan. (Shaw (1), p. 3).

PHILIPPINES: The headquarters of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and Marine Aircraft Group 61 completed their transferal to the islands. (OpHist, v. 2, p. 536).

20 Aug PACIFIC: The Japanese emissaries to Manila received General Order No. 1. Under its terms, the Japanese commanders of forces in the Pacific islands south of Japan would surrender to CinCPOA or his representatives, and the commanders of forces in Japan proper, the Philippines, and the southern section of Korea would surrender to CinCSWPA or his representatives. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 35).

A threatening typhoon forced Admiral Halsey to post-pone the date of the landing at Yokosuka, Japan, originally scheduled for 25 August, to the 28th. (Shaw (1), p. 6).

MARIANAS: Vice Admiral George D. Murray, USN, Commander, Marianas, organized the Marianas Surrender Acceptance and Occupation Command (Task Group 94.3) to standardize the conduct of the surrender and occupation program. It was comprised of the Truk, Bonins, and Palau Occupation Units, the Guam Evacuation Unit, and three other units commanded by naval officers. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 2b, 3).

GUAM: The 4th Regimental Combat Team assigned to occupation duty in Japan, arrived and joined Task Force 31. (Shaw (1), p. 4).

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21 Aug USMC: Letters of Instruction Nos. 1108 (male enlisted personnel), 1109 (male reserve officers), and 1110 (women's reserve) governing demobilization became effective; eligibility for discharge was based on a system of credits. ("Information on Demobilization," pp. 1-6).

PACIFIC: Lieutenant General Robert L. Eichelberger, USA, commanding the Eighth Army, directed that the landing by Task Force 31 at Yokosuka, Japan, be made at the naval base. The reserve battalion of the 4th Marines was directed to land on Futtsu Saki to eliminate any threat by shore batteries and coastal forts. (Shaw (1), pp. 4, 5).

22 Aug MARSHALLS: The Japanese garrison on Mille Atoll surrendered; it was the first Japanese group in the POA to capitulate. ("Prank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 3, 4).
23 Aug PACIFIC: Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, directed Marine Aircraft Group 31, then at Chimu airfield on Okinawa, to move to Japan as a supporting air group for the northern occupation. (Shaw (1), p. 10).
25 Aug PACIFIC: SCAP informed Task Force 31 that the typhoon danger would delay U.S. Army air operations in Japan for 48 hours. The landing was postponed until 30 August and the Third Fleet's entry into Sagami Wan, the outer bay which led to Tokyo Bay, until the 28th. (Shaw (1), p. 6).
27 Aug PHILIPPINES: The forward echelon of Marine Bomber Squadron 611 left for Peleliu to join the 4th Marine Aircraft Wing. (Boggs, p. 133).
28 Aug JAPAN: The first American task force, consisting of combat ships of Task Force 31, entered Tokyo Bay and dropped anchor off Yokosuka. (Shaw (1), p. 6).

Technicians from the Fifth Air Force landed at Atsugi and began operations preparatory to subsequent landings. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 39).

29 Aug PACIFIC: Tentative plans for the employment of the III Amphibious Corps in North China were issued; the mounting out date was set for 15 September. (Shaw (2), p. 1).

JAPAN: Admiral Nimitz, CinCPOA, arrived in Tokyo Bay and authorized Admiral Halsey to begin the rescue of Allied prisoners immediately. (Shaw (1), p. 7).

30 Aug JAPAN: The 11th Airborne Division, USA, and the various advance headquarters staffs landed at Atsugi from Okinawa in conjunction with the arrival of the amphibious landing force-comprising U.S. Marines and sailors, British sailors, and Royal Marine Commandos-at Yokosuka and on the Harbor forts off Miura Peninsula. The first landing craft carrying elements of the 2d Battalion, 4th Marines, went ashore at Futtsu Saki, found the coastal guns and mortars rendered useless, and reembarked. The main landing of the 4th Marines on Beaches Red and Green, Yokosuka, went without incident, and the regiment moved to the Initial Occupation Line and set up a perimeter defense for the naval base and airfield. (Shaw (1), pp. 7-9; "Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 37-39).

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Major General William T. Clement, commanding the Fleet Landing Force, received the surrender of the Yokosuka Naval Base area, and the First Naval District capitulated to Rear Admiral Robert B. Carney, USN. (Shaw (1), p. 8).

CAROLINES: Brigadier General Robert Blake was designated Prospective Island Commander, Truk. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. III, p. 9).

CHINA: A British naval force reoccupied Hong Kong. (Williams, p. 551).

31 Aug PACIFIC: The Headquarters and Service Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," pt. I, p. 1)).

JAPAN: Company L of the 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, landed at Tateyama Naval Air Station on the northeastern shore of Sagami Wan to reconnoiter the beach approaches and cover the 3 September landing by the 112th Cavalry, USA. (Shaw (1), p. 9).

1 Sep USMC: The Adjusted Service Rating System of Discharge and Separation (Point System) went into effect. ("Personnel Demobilization," p. 2).

JAPAN: Allied troops had gained control of most of the strategic area along the shores of Tokyo Bay, except Tokyo. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 39).

PHILIPPINES: Marine Aircraft Groups, Zamboanga was dissolved and operational control of Moret Field and Air defense of Mindanao were transferred to the 13th Fighter Command, USA. (Boggs, p. 133).

CUBA: The Marine Barracks, Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, was redesignated a Marine Corps base. ("Cuba," p. 1).

2 Sep JAPAN: Japan surrendered formally to the Allied Powers on board the Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The Marine Detachments of the Missouri as well as Marine officers from Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, the staffs of CinCPac-CinCPOA, and the Third Fleet were present. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 39, 40).

USMC: By the end of the war, the Marine Corps had reached a peak strength of 485,833. The major Marine ground commands in the Pacific consisted of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, at Oahu, the III Amphibious Corps on Guam, and the V Amphibious Corps on Maui. Marine Divisions were located as follows: the 1st Division, Okinawa; the 2d Division, Saipan; the 3d Division, Guam; the 4th Division, Maui; the 5th Division, at sea en route to Japan; and the 6th Division (less the 4th Regimental Combat Team at Yokosuka), Guam. Of the Marine aviation organizations, Air, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, was based at Ewa and the Marine aircraft wings were distributed as follows: the 1st Wing, Mindanao; the 2d Wing, Okinawa; the 3d Wing, Ewa; and the 4th Wing, Majuro. The groups and squadrons of the wings were based either with the wings or on various islands throughout the Pacific. A Marine carrier group in four escort carriers, under the operational control of Carrier Division 27, was attached to the 3d Wing. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 42, 43).

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2 Sep JAPAN: Advance elements of the U.S. Eighth Army's occupation force entered Tokyo harbor while ships carrying the Head-quarters of the XI Corps, USA, and the 1st Cavalry Division, USA, docked at Yokohama. The 112th Cavalry, USA, moved to Tateyama. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

CAROLINES: Japanese army and navy officers on Truk Island, the largest Japanese force in the Pacific, surrendered. The terms of the capitulation committed Japanese troops on the following islands to surrender: Truk, Wake, the Palaus, Mortlake (Nomoi), Mille, Ponape, Kusaie, Jaluit, Maloelap, Wotje, Puluwat, Woleai, Rota, Pagan, Namoluk, Nauru, and Ocean. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 5, 8).

MARIANAS: The commander of Japanese forces on Rota Island capitulated to Colonel Howard N. Stent, representing the Island Commander of Guam, Major General Henry L. Larsen. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 5).

PALAUS: The Japanese area commander capitulated the Palau Group and all forces under his command, including Yap, to Brigadier General Ford 0. Rogers, Island Commander, Peleliu. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 5).

3 Sep JAPAN: The 112th Cavalry, USA, relieved Company L of the 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, at Tateyama Naval Air Station, and the Marines returned to Yokosuka. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

A U.S. Army task force of the 32d Infantry Division was flown into Kanoya to secure an emergency field on the aerial route to Tokyo from Okinawa and the Philippines. (Shaw (1), p. 16).

VOLCANO-BONINS: The commander of the Japanese forces in the Bonins surrendered to Commodore John H. Magruder, Jr., USN, on Chichi Jima. ("Frank and Shaw, v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 16).

4 Sep MARCUS ISLAND: The 11th Military Police Company (Provisional) of the 5th Military Police Battalion, Island Command, Saipan, arrived as the island's guard. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V. pt. III, chap. 3, p. 4).

MARIANAS: Rota Island was formally occupied. Shortly thereafter, Colonel Gale T. Cummings was appointed the temporary island commander, and Marines and Seabees under his command immediately began to repair the airstrip on the island. ("Frank and Shaw, v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 5).

WAKE:The Japanese commander capitulated his forces to Brigadier General Lawson H. M. Sanderson, commander of the 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, representing the Commander, Marshalls-Gilberts Area, and the atoll was designated a Naval Air Facility. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 13, 15).

6 Sep JAPAN: Ships' detachments of bluejackets and Marines, sent ashore for security duties, had returned to their parent vessels, and the provisional landing units were deactivated. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

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The 4th Marines took over responsibility for the Yokosuka naval base area and the sailors, sea-going Marines, and British forces there returned to their ships. (Cass, p. 205).

The 32d Infantry Division, USA, was substituted for the 3d Marine Division in the occupation force. (Shaw (1), p. 14).

BISMARCKS: Japanese forces at Rabaul surrendered to the Australians. (Hough and Crown, p. 207).

7 Sep JAPAN: The first echelon of the Headquarters, Marine Air-craft Group 31 and the planes of Marine Fighter Squadron 441 flew onto Yokosuka airfield from Okinawa, under the command of the Third Fleet. The group was the first aviation unit to operate in Japan. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

RYUKYUS: Genera 1 J. W. Stilwell, USA, accepted the surrender of the Japanese Ryukyus garrison, signifying the beginning of American political hegemony in the area. (Nichols and Shaw, p. 283).

WAKE: Occupation forces, including a Marine detachment of two officers and 54 enlisted men from Engebi, Marshall Islands, began to arrive. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 15).

8 Sep PACIFIC: The III Amphibious Corps order for embarkation to North China was issued. (Shaw (2), p. 1).

JAPAN: Task Force 31 was dissolved when the Commander, Fleet Activities, Yokosuka, assumed responsibility to SCAP for the naval occupation area. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

11 Sep GUAM: Lieutenant Colonel Hideyuki Takeda, IJA, surrendered the last unified element of the Japanese defenders on the island. (Lodge, p. 165).
11 Sep-2 Oct EUROPE: The London Conference met but failed to agree on treaties for the Axis countries concerned. (Morris, p. 392).
14 Sep JAPAN: A reconnaissance party led by Colonel Daniel W. Torrey, commanding Marine Aircraft Group 22, landed and inspected Omura airfield, selected as the base of Marine air operations in southern Japan. (Shaw (1), p. 15).
16 Sep JAPAN: An advance reconnaissance party from the V Amphibious Corps-led by Colonel Walter W. Wensinger, Corps Operations Officer, and consisting of key staff officers of the Corps and the 2d Marine Division-arrived at Nagasaki to prepare for the landing of the V Amphibious Corps troops supported by Army units. (Shaw (1), p. 14).

Marine Aircraft Group 31 at Yokosuka airfield came under the operational control of the Fifth Air Force. (Shaw (1), p. 10).

19 Sep JAPAN: Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, USN, as Commander Fifth Fleet relieved Admiral Halsey of his responsibilities in the occupation of Japan and assumed command of all naval operations in the Empire. (Shaw (1), p. 30).

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20 Sep JAPAN: Lieutenant Colonel Fred D. Beans relieved Brigadier General William T. Clement, commanding Task Force Able, of his responsibilities at Yokosuka, and the general and his staff returned to Guam to rejoin the 6th Marine Division. (Shaw (1), pp. 10, 11).

A second reconnaissance party from the V Amphibious Corps which included key officers from the Corps and the 5th Marine Division arrived at Sasebo and completed preparations for the landing of Corps troops augmented by Army units. (Shaw (1), pp. 14, 15).

An advance flight echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 22 flew onto Omura airfield from Okinawa to support occupation operations. (Shaw (1), pp. 15, 16).

22 Sep JAPAN: The 5th Marine Division and the V Amphibious Corps headquarters troops arrived at Sasebo. The 26th Marines (less the 2d Battalion) reinforced by the 2d Battalion, 28th Marines, landed on beaches at the naval air station and relieved Japanese guards on base installations and stores. They were followed by units of the 13th and 27th Marines and the 5th Tank Battalion which established guard posts and security patrols ashore. (Shaw (1), p. 15).
23 Sep JAPAN: Major General Harry Schmidt, V Amphibious Corps commander, established his command post ashore at Sasebo and took control of the 2d and 5th Marine Divisions. (Shaw (1), p. 16).

Most of the remaining elements of the 5th Marine Division landed at Sasebo, and Major General Thomas E. Bourke set up his command post ashore. Patrols began probing the immediate countryside; Company C (rein) of the 27th Marines was sent to Omura to establish a security guard over the naval air training station there. (Shaw (1), p. 15).

Marine Fighter Squadron 113 landed on Omura airfield. (Shaw (1), p. 15).

The 2d and 6th Marines, 2d Marine Division, landed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the harbor at Nagasaki for occupation duty and relieved the Marine detachments from the cruisers USS Biloxi and Wichita which had been serving as security guards. (Shaw (1), p. 16).

24 Sep JAPAN: General Walter Krueger, commander of the U.S. Sixth Army, assumed control of all forces ashore. The remainder of the 2d Marine Division landed at Nagasaki. (Shaw (1), p. 16).
25 Sep JAPAN: Major elements of the U.S. Sixth Army began landing at Wakayama. (Shaw (1), p. 16).
27 Sep JAPAN: An advance party of the V Amphibious Corps reached Fukuoka, largest city in Kyushu and administrative center of the northwestern coal and steel region. (Shaw (1), p. 19).

CAROLINES: The Prospective Island Commander, Truk was re-designated the Prospective Commanding General, Occupation Forces, Truk and Central Carolines, under the Jurisdiction of Island Commander, Guam. As Commander, Brigadier General Robert Blake was responsible for the occupation and development of Truk "as a fleet anchorage with facilities ashore

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limited to recreational purposes and for the support of assigned aircraft and the servicing of transient aircraft." ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 9, 10).
30 Sep JAPAN: Leading elements from the V Amphibious Corps began arriving at Fukuoka, Kyushu. Brigadier General Ray A. Robinson, Assistant Division Commander of the 5th Marine Division, was given command of the Fukuoka Occupation Force which consisted of the 28th Marines (rein) and Army augmentation detachments. (Shaw (1), p. 19).

CHINA: The III Amphibious Corps arrived at the Tangku docks for the occupation of North China. The 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, entrained for Tientsin. (Shaw (2), p. 2).

1 Oct CHINA: The 1st Battalion, 7th Marine (rein), arrived at Chinwangtao where its commanding officer put a stop to fighting between Communist regular and guerrilla forces and former Japanese puppet troops. The Marines replaced the puppet forces on their perimeter defenses. (Shaw (2), p. 2).

The 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, arrived in Tientsin from the Tangku docks for occupation duty. (Shaw (2), p. 2).

JAPAN: A U.S. Army task force occupying Kanoya airfield- the only major Allied unit ashore in Kyushu other than the 2d and 5th Marine Divisions-was transferred to the command of the V Amphibious Corps from the FEAF. (Shaw (1), p. 16).

2 Oct JAPAN: The Reconnaissance Company of the 5th Marine Division pushed north from Sasebo and moved onto Hirado Island. (Conner, p. 147).
3-4 Oct CHINA: A Communist company raided the Hsin Ho dump, guarded by the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, and stole several cases of ammunition, most of which were recovered. (Shaw (2), pp. 16, 17).
4 Oct JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps changed the boundary between the 2d and 5th Marine Divisions to include Omura in the 2d Division zone. The 5th Division security detachment at the Marine air base was relieved by the 3d Battalion, 10th Marines, and the detachment returned to parent control. (Shaw (1), p. 22).
5 Oct JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps expanded the 5th Marine Division zone to include Saga Prefecture and the city of Kureme and the 2d Division zone to include Kumamoto Prefecture, Kyushu. The 2d Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, moved to Saga City. (Shaw (1), pp. 20, 22).
6 Oct CHINA: Major General Keller E. Rockey, commanding the III Amphibious Corps, accented the surrender of the 50,000 Japanese troops in the Tientsin-Tangku, Chinwangtao area. (Shaw (1), p. 3).

Headquarters of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was established at the French Arsenal near the airfield east of Tientsin. (Shaw (2), p. 4).

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Marine engineers guarded by a rifle platoon, sent to clear roadblocks on the Tientsin-Peiping road, were fired on by 40-50 Chinese troops. This was the first major armed clash between Marines and Chinese Communists in North China. (Shaw (2), p. 3).
6 Oct-3 Nov HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: The 4th Marine Division departed from Maui for the U.S. (Proehl, chap. VIII).
7 Oct CHINA: -Roadblocks on the Tientsin-Peiping road were removed by Marine engineers supported by a rifle company of the 1st Marines, a tank platoon, and carrier air cover. The 5th Marines arrived in Peiping, 65 miles beyond Tientsin. (Shaw (2), p. 3: Yingling, p. 37).

The proposed landing of the 29th Marines, 6th Marine Division, at Communist-held Chefoo in Shantung was postponed. (Shaw (2), p. 5).

JAPAN: Marine Aircraft Group 31 at Yokosuka airfield was returned to naval control by the Fifth Air Force. (Shaw (1), p. 12).

10 Oct USMC: Marine Separation Centers were activated at the U.S. Naval Training Centers in Bainbridge, Maryland, and Great Lakes, Illinois. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 46).

CHINA: The 50,000 Japanese forces in the Peiping area surrendered to the Eleventh War Area commander. (Shaw (2), p. 3).

VOLCANO-BONINS: The advance echelon of the 1st Battalion, 3d Marines, landed on Chichi Jima as part of the Bonins Occupation Force. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 19).

11 Oct CHINA: The 6th Marine Division began landing at Tsingtao and secured Tsangkou airfield about 10 miles from the city. (Shaw (2), p. 5).
12 Oct CHINA: Observation planes of Marine Observation Squadron 6 landed at Tsangkou airfield near Tsingtao. (Shaw (2), p. 5).
13 Oct CHINA: The 6th Marine Division command post at Tsingtao was opened. (Cass, p. 214).

JAPAN: All units of the 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, had established themselves in and around Kumamoto and begun the process of inventory and disposition. (Shaw (1), p. 22).

The 26th Marines, north and east of Sasebo, was alerted for transfer to the Palau Islands. (Shaw (1), p. 21).

OKINAWA: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Naval Operating Base, Okinawa, was activated. (FMFPac, 1Sep45_1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).

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15 Oct JAPAN: The Oita Occupation Force-Company A (rein) of the 5th Tank Battalion operating as infantry-set up in Oita City and conducted a reconnaissance of the military installation in the coastal prefecture. The company served as an advance party for troops of the 32d Infantry Division, USA. (Shaw (1), pp. 20, 21).
18-19 Oct JAPAN: The 127th Army Infantry (less the 1st Battalion) landed at Sasebo under operational control of the 5th Marine Division to take over the 26th Marines' zone. (Shaw (1), p. 21).
19 Oct JAPAN: The 26th Marines was detached from the 5th Marine Division and returned to Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, control. (Shaw (1), p. 21).
21 Oct CHINA: The flight echelon of Marine Aircraft Group 32 reached Tsingtao. (Shaw (2), p. 7).

JAPAN: The 26th Marines (less the 2d Battalion to be disbanded) departed Sasebo for the Palau Islands to supervise the repatriation of Japanese troops from the Western Carolines. (Shaw (1), p. 21).

24 Oct JAPAN: The Fukuoka Occupation Force was dissolved when the 32d Infantry Division, USA, opened its command post in Fukuoka. A base command force comprising the service elements that had been assigned to the occupation force was set up to support the operations in northern Kyushu. (Shaw (1), p. 23).

The 27th Marines (less the 1st Battalion) established its headquarters in Kurume and assumed responsibility for the central portion of the 5th Marine Division zone. (Shaw (1), p. 20).

25 Oct CHINA: The Japanese formally surrendered the Tsingtao garrison in Shangtung to Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd and Lieutenant General Chen Pao-Tsang, CNA, acting for the Chinese Central Government. (Shaw (2), p. 6).

JAPAN: Marine Aircraft Group 22 at Sasebo was returned to the operational control of the U.S. Navy. (Shaw (1), p. 24).

26 Oct PALAUS: The 26th Marines arrived on Peleliu Island to relieve the 111th Infantry, USA, as the garrison force. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 5).
27 Oct JAPAN: The 2d Battalion, 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division, assigned to the eastern half of Kagoshima, arrived at Kanoya from Nagasaki and relieved the U.S. Army task force there. (Shaw (1), pp. 22, 23).
29 Oct CHINA: The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, moved to Tangku to guard the railhead there and to Taku, the main port of entry in North China. (Yingling, p. 37).

JAPAN: A motor convoy carrying the major part of the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, moved from Kumamoto to Kagoshima City to assume control of western Kagoshima. (Shaw (1), p. 22).

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30 Oct CHINA: The III Amphibious Corps ordered the 6th Marine Division to provide a reinforced infantry battalion for duty in the Chinwangtao area. (Shaw (2), p. 9).

JAPAN: The 2d Battalion, 2d Marines, 2d Marine Division, assumed operational control of the Army Air Force detachment manning the emergency field at Kanoya from a battalion of the 32d Division, USA, and the battalion prepared for return to Sasebo to rejoin its regiment. (Shaw (1), p. 23).

31 Oct CHINA: Major General Louis E. Woods arrived in Tientsin to assume command of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing from Brigadier General Thomas Larkin. (Shaw (2), p. 7).
Oct JAPAN: The occupation zone of the 4th Marines in northern Japan was reduced to include only the naval base, airfield, and town of Yokosuka. (Shaw (1), p. 11).
1 Nov JAPAN: Control of the 4th Marines at Yokosuka passed from the U.S. Eighth Army to the Commander, U.S. Fleet Activities, Yokosuka. (Shaw (1), p. 11).

WAKE:The atoll was commissioned an Island Command and a Naval Air Base. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 16).

3 Nov USMC: The 4th Marine Division returned to the U.S. from Maul, Hawaiian Islands. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 33).
7 Nov RYUKYUS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Ryukyus Area was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Sep46-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug46-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 1)).
14 Nov JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps had established effective control over its entire zone of responsibility. (Shaw (1), p. 23).

MARIANAS: The 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division, on Guam came under the control of the Truk Occupation Force as its military element. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 11).

14-15 Nov CHINA: Marines guarding a train carrying Major General DeWitt Peck, commander of the 1st Marine Division, clashed with Communist forces near Kuyeh. (Shaw (2), p. 8).
20 Nov JAPAN: The 4th Marines was removed from the administrative control of the 6th Marine Division and came directly under Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. Orders were received directing that preparations be made for the 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, to relieve the regiment of its duties in Japan, effective 31 December. (Shaw (1), p. 11).

Marine Aircraft Group 22 left Sasebo for the U.S. (Shaw (1), p. 24).

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23 Nov JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps began to relieve the 5th Marine Division of its areas of responsibility and to assign its personnel to the 2d Marine Division and the 32d Infantry Division, USA. (Conner, p. 174).
24 Nov JAPAN: The control of Saga and Fukuoka Prefectures passed to the 2d Marine Division and the 32d Army Division, respectively. (Shaw (1), p. 25).
25 Nov JAPAN: The base command at Fukuoka, a remnant of the de-activated Fukuoka Occupation Force, ceased to function when the 32d Division, USA, took over its duties. The 28th Marines and the 5th Tank Battalion occupation forces at Yamaguchi Prefecture and Fukuoka and Oita Prefectures, respectively, were relieved by U.S. Army units. (Shaw (1), p. 23). ~

CAROLINES: The 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, and the Truk Occupation Force arrived on Truk Island. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 11).

27 Nov WASHINGTON: President Truman appointed General of the Army George C. Marshall as the Special Representative in China in an attempt to mediate the differences between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists. (Shaw (2), p. 10).
28 Nov CONTINENTAL U.S.: The 4th Marine Division was disbanded at Camp Pendleton, California. (Proehl, chap. VIII: "Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 33).
30 Nov OKINAWA: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Naval Operating Base, Okinawa, was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).
1 Dec USMC: Headquarters directed that the rank titles and insignia for enlisted Marines be changed to simplify personnel administration and accounting procedures. "Special" and "Special Branch" warrant officers were abolished. (FMFPac, 1Oct46-1Apr47, Enclosure A ("Personnel," p. 2)).

JAPAN: The 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, sailed for the U.S. to be disbanded. (Shaw (1), p. 11: Strobridge, p. 12).

In accordance with SCAP directives, Japanese army and navy personnel employed in demobilization activities were transferred to civilian status under newly created government ministries and bureaus. (Shaw (1), p. 23).

VOLCANO-BONINS: The remainder of the 1st Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, landed on Chichi Jima as part of the Bonins Occupation Forces. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 19).

GUAM: The 3d Marines' headquarters departed for the U.S. (Frank, p. 17).

5 Dec JAPAN: The first transports-carrying elements of the 5th Marine Division-left for the U.S. (Shaw (1), p. 25).
8 Dec JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps received a dispatch directive from the U.S. Sixth Army stating that the Corps would be relieved of all occupation responsibilities on 30 December. The I Corps was to take over the V Amphibious Corps' area and troops. (Shaw (1), p. 25).

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The 2d Marine Division assumed all of the 5th Division's remaining occupation responsibilities. (Shaw (1), p. 25).
10 Dec MARSHALLS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Eniwetok was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Oct46-1Apr47, Enclosure A ("Status of Fleet Marine Force Pacific," 1Oct46-1Apr47, pp. 1, 2)).
13 Dec CHINA: Approval for the III Amphibious Corps to disband the 6th Marine Division was received from the Commanding General, China. (Shaw (2), p. 11).
15 Dec CONTINENTAL U.S.: The 3d Marines arrived at San Diego from Guam and proceeded to Camp Pendleton, California, to become Dart of the Marine Training and Replacement command. (Frank, p. 17).

WASHINGTON: Admiral Nimitz replaced Admiral King as the CNO. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 54).

19 Dec JAPAN: The last elements of the 5th Marine Division departed Sasebo for the U.S. (Shaw (1), p. 25).
20 Dec USMC: Headquarters Squadron, Marine Fleet Air, West Coast's designation was changed to Headquarters, Marine Air, West Coast. (Muster Rolls).
22 Dec MARCUS ISLAND: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Marcus Island was activated. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).
24 Dec JAPAN: The 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, reinforced by regimental units and a casual company formed to provide replacements for ships' Marine detachments, relieved the 2d Battalion of all guard responsibilities. (Shaw (1), p. 11).
28 Dec USMC: The 3d Marine Division (less the 1st Battalion in the Bonins and the 2d Battalion on Truk) was disbanded on Guam. Replacement drafts boarded Marine escort carriers for the trip to China where they were to Join the 1st Marine Division; Marines schedule for discharge or reassignment were transferred to a transient center on Guam to await transportation to the U.S. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 33, 34).
31 Dec USMC: The 3d Marine Aircraft Wing was decommissioned at the Marine Corps Air Station, Ewa, Hawaiian Islands. ("post-WWII Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 56).

JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps was relieved of all occupation responsibilities when the U.S. Eighth Army relieved the Sixth and assumed command of all Allied occupation troops in Japan. (Shaw (1), p. 25).

The 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, at Yokosuka assumed the duties of the regiment. (Shaw (1), p. 12).

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1946
1 Jan JAPAN: The 2d Battalion, 4th Marines, on duty in Yokosuka, sailed for the U.S. after being relieved by the 3d Battalion. (Shaw (1), p. 11).
6 Jan JAPAN: The token regimental headquarters detachment of the 4th Marines in Yokosuka departed to join the 6th Marine Division in Tsingtao, North China. (Shaw (1), p. 12).
8 Jan JAPAN: The last elements of the V Amphibious Corps including the headquarters of Major General Harry Schmidt left Sasebo for San Diego. (Shaw (1), p. 25).
10 Jan CHINA: A Committee of three (General George C. Marshall, USA; General Chang Chun, CNA; and Chou En-lai, CCP) agreed on a cease-fire to take effect at midnight on 13 January. (Shaw (2), p. 10).
11 Jan WASHINGTON: A detachment of Marines from Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. was the honor guard at the Library of Congress when the Magna Carta was taken from its wartime depository and presented to the British Ambassador for return to England. (New York Times).
14 Jan WAKE: The Marine Detachment, Wake was activated. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).
22 Jan USMC: The Commandant directed the Commanding General, Marine Barracks, Quantico to form a special infantry brigade to be prepared for expeditionary service and maintained in a state of readiness. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 34).
28 Jan USMC: The headquarters and two battalions of the First Special Marine Brigade were formed at Quantico and another battalion at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The Brigade was maintained in a state of readiness during the remainder of the fiscal year, and it participated in the only major training mission undertaken during the fiscal year, a joint amphibious exercise conducted during May in the Caribbean area. (CMCRpt, 1946, p. 4; Muster Rolls: "Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 34).
31 Jan JAPAN: The 2d Marine Division relieved the 32d Division, USA, of duties in Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, and Oita Prefectures. At this time, the prefectural duties of the major Marine units were: 2d Marines, Oita and Miyazaki; 6th Marines, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, and Oita; 8th Marines, Kumamoto and Kagoshima; 10th Marines, Nagasaki. (Shaw (A), p. 26).

MARIANAS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Marianas Area was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 1)).

4 Feb USMC: Administrative and operational control of the 1st Special Marine Brigade passed to the Brigade commander, Brigadier General Oliver P. Smith. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 34).

JAPAN: Advance elements of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force began moving into the Hiroshima Prefecture in the I Corps zone. (Shaw (1), p. 26).

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1946
5 Feb USMC: Headquarters Battalion, 5th Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, California, was disbanded in accordance with Area Special Order 40-46, dated 31 January. (Muster Rolls).
8 Feb USMC: Brigadier General Oliver P. Smith, commanding the 1st Special Marine Brigade, was directed to maintain his command on two weeks readiness and to report to the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet for planning purposes. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 34).
10 Feb MARSHALLS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Wake was redesignated Marine Detachment (Provisional), Eniwetok and transferred there with orders to disband on conclusion of the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 16).

The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Marcus Island was redesignated the Marine Detachment (Provisional), Kwajalein. (FMFPac, lSep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).

15 Feb USMC: The Headquarters, 2d Marine Aircraft Wing departed the Pacific for the U.S. (FMFPac, 1Sep45;-1Oct46, En-closure A (AirFMFPac, p. 6)).

JAPAN: The V Amphibious Corps was disbanded, and the 2d Marine Division became responsible for the Corps' zone. (Shaw (1), pp. 25, 26).

Three-fourths of the Yokosuka Occupation Force was redesignated the 2d Separate Guard Battalion (Provisional), Fleet Marine Force, and remained at Yokosuka for interior guard duty. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 25).

19 Feb USMC: The Secretary of the Navy authorized the establishment of the Marine Air Reserve Training Command to administer and direct the training of the Marine Corps Air Reserve. ("Personnel Demobilization," pp. 7, 8).
26 Feb USMC: The Marine Air Reserve Training Command was activated at Glenview Naval Air Station, Illinois, to administer, coordinate, and supervise all Marine Air Reserve activities. ("Marine Corps Reserve," chap. IV, p. 6).

CAROLINES: The Base Headquarters Company, Occupation Forces, Truk and Central Caroline Islands was redesignated the Marine Detachment (Provisional), Truk. ("Frank and Shaw, v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 12).

27 Feb CAROLINES: The 2d Battalion, 21st Marines, was detached from the Occupation Force, Truk and Central Caroline Islands and returned to Guam where it was disbanded (5 March). ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 13).
1 Mar PALAUS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Peleliu was activated. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization, 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6).

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1946
7 Mar JAPAN: The British Commonwealth Occupation Force formally took control of the Hiroshima Prefecture from the 24th Infantry Division, USA. (Shaw (1), p. 26).
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PHILIPPINES: The 4th Marines, captured on Corregidor in 1942, was reactivated as part of the 6th Marine Division by authority of the 6th Division Secret Special Order No. 108-46, dated 7 March. (Muster Rolls).
13 Mar MARIANAS: The 4th Marine Aircraft Wing closed its command post on Guam and embarked its headquarters for the West Coast. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 56).
14 Mar MARIANAS: The 4th Marine Aircraft Wing sailed from Apra Harbor, Guam, for the U.S. (Muster Rolls).
15 Mar PALAUS: The 26th Marines on Peleliu was disbanded and the Marine Detachment (Provisional), Peleliu became the island garrison force. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 5, 6)).
18 Mar PHILIPPINES: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Samar was activated. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).
22 Mar USMC: The Basic Post-War Plan No. 2 was issued providing that (1) the strength of the Marine Corps was to be 100,000 enlisted and a proportionate number of officers; (2) the Fleet Marine Force was to consist of two Marine divisions to be located at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and at Guam and a Marine brigade (rein) at Camp Pendleton, California; (3) Marine aviation was to consist of two aircraft commands--Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, with responsibility in the West Coast-Hawaii-Marianas area and another to consist of the overall command of six Marine carrier groups. The final Corps components were to be Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and Headquarters, Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic, and Force Troops assigned to each command. ("Basic Post-War Plan No. 2"; "Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, pp. 57a-59).
23 Mar JAPAN: The British Commonwealth Occupation Forces relieved the 6th Marines in Yamaguchi Prefecture, reducing the 2d Marine Division zone to the island of Kyushu. (Shaw (1), p. 26).
26 Mar USMC: The 4th Marine Aircraft Wing arrived at San Diego and was disbanded by authority of the CNO. (Muster Rolls).
31 Mar USMC: The Headquarters and Service Battalions, III Amphibious Corps were disbanded in North China by authority of Special Order 22-46, dated 21 March. (Muster Rolls).

The 9th Marine Aircraft Wing was decommissioned at Cherry Point, North Carolina. (Muster Rolls).

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1946
1 Apr USMC: The 3d Marine Brigade was activated at Tsingtao, China, by redesignation from the 6th Marine Division which had been reduced to a strength commensurate with the peacetime needs of the Corps. (Muster Rolls: Shaw (2), p. 12; FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).
8 Apr CHINA: The 5th Marines' headquarters was moved to Taku from Japan. (Yingling, p. 37).
10 Apr MARCUS ISLAND: The Heavy Antiaircraft Artillery Battery (Provisional) was redesignated Marine Barracks, Marcus, under the administrative control of the Department of the Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 4a).
15 Apr CAROLINES: Occupation Force, Truk and Central Caroline Islands was changed to Commander, Truk and Central Caroline Islands. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 13).

PALAUS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Peleliu was redesignated Marine Barracks, Peleliu when administrative control of the unit passed to the Department of the Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 4, 5).

16 Apr MARCUS ISLAND: The island guard-the 11th Military Police Company (Provisional) of the 5th Military Police Battalion, Island Command, Saipan-was disbanded. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 4).
25 Apr-15 Oct EUROPE: Meetings of the Paris Peace Conference were held to consider treaties for the Axis satellites. (Morris, n. 393).
1 May USMC: Marine Corps Reserve Bulletin No. 1 advised all personnel released from active duty service that they could retain connection with the Corps through membership in the Reserve. ("Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, chap. IV, p. 4).

CHINA: The China Theater was deactivated and most of its residual functions were assumed by the Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces in China. Operational control of Marine forces in China reverted to the Commander, Seventh Fleet. (Shaw (2), p. 13).

2 May CONTINENTAL U.S.: Marine volunteers, commanded by Major Albert Arsenault, assisted civilian police in combatting rioting prisoners on Alcatraz Island, California. ("Alcatraz")
6 May USMC: Commandant General Alexander A. Vandegrift appeared before the Senate Naval Affairs Committee to speak against S. 2044, a bill to reduce the size of the Marine Corps. ("Vandegrift").
12 May MARCUS ISLAND: The Marine Barracks, Marcus Island was disbanded. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 4a).
20 May RYUKYUS: The 8th Military Police Battalion (Provisional) became the Marine Barracks, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 24).
1 Jun MARIANAS: The 1st Base Headquarters Battalion, Guam became a Marine barracks. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3 p. 24).

--134--

1946
VOLCANO-BONINS: The 1st Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, of the Bonins Occupation Forces was disbanded on Chichi Jima. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 19a).
1 Jun-5 May 1949 MARIANAS: The Marine garrison on Guam became responsible for the custody, discipline, feeding, clothing, and in some cases execution of Japanese war criminals confined in its custody when the War Criminal Stockade was closed. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 26).
10 Jun CHINA: The III Amphibious Corps headquarters was deactivated and most of its staff assigned duties on the staff of the 1st Marine Division. The new organization, with a total authorized strength of 24,252, was designated Marine Forces, China, with Major General Keller E. Rockey commanding. (Shaw (2), p. 14).

At Tsingtao, the headquarters and supporting troops of the 3d Marine Brigade merged with those of the 4th Marines. (Shaw (2), p. 14).

MARIANAS: The 5th Military Police Battalion (Provisional) was redesignated the Marine Barracks, Saipan. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 24).

13 Jun JAPAN: The 2d Marines-responsible for the Oita and Miyazaki Prefectures--left Sasebo, Kyushu, bound for Norfolk, Virginia. The 8th Marines followed soon after. (Shaw (1), p. 27).
15 Jun JAPAN: Major General Leroy P. Hunt turned over his zone, the island of Kyushu, to the 2l|th Infantry Division, USA, concluding Marine responsibility for the occupation of Kyushu. (Shaw (1), p. 27).

The 2d Separate Guard Battalion (Provisional), Fleet Marine Force, at Yokosuka was reduced and became the Marine Detachment, Fleet Activities, Yokosuka, under the administrative control of the Department of the Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 25).

20 Jun JAPAN: Marine Aircraft Group 31 embarked at Yokosuka for the U.S., completing the roll-up of Marine Corps Aviation in the Pacific and Marine occupation activities in northern Japan. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 56; Shaw (1), p. 12).

PHILIPPINES: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Samar was redesignated a Marine barracks and its administrative control passed from Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, to the Department of the Pacific. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Aug45-1Oct46, pt. I, p. 6)).

24 Jun JAPAN: The 2d Marine Division headquarters left Kyushu for the U.S. (Shaw (1), p. 27).
27 Jun USMC: The Division of Reserve was transferred from the Personnel Department and reactivated as a separate division of the Commandant's office. ("Marine Corps Reserve," pt. III, p. 5).

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1946
30 Jun USMC: The active duty strength of the Marine Corps was 155,679--14,208 officers and 14,471 enlisted. (Strengths, p. 6).

The Navy V-12 College Program, a source for Marine Corps officers, was deactivated. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 52).

1 Jul USMC: The Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Stations at Atlantic, Congaree, and Gillespie and the Marine Corps Air Station, Eagle Mountain Lake, Texas, were deactivated. ("Personnel Demobilization," p. 7).

The functions of the office of the Marine Corps Women's Reserve were transferred from the Personnel Department to the Division of Reserve. The Division of Recruiting was removed from the Personnel Department to the Offices of the Commandant. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, pp. 17, 18).

The Logistics Support Plan No. 1, Marine Corps (Interim) was issued. It was the culmination of planning for mobilization, initiated in early 1946. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep55-1Oct46, p. 27).

Inductees or reservists with 30 months of active duty became eligible for discharge regardless of the number of points acquired. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 47).

JAPAN: The 6th Marines' Headquarters and Service Company and Weapons Company departed Sasebo, Kyushu. (Muster Rolls).

2 Jul JAPAN: The major elements of the 2d Marine Division had departed for the U.S. (Shaw (1), p. 27).
4 Jul PHILIPPINES: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Head-quarters, Commander, Philippine. Sea Frontier, became the Marine Detachment, Commander, Naval Forces, Philippines. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 2, p. 24).
7 Jul CHINA: The Chinese Communist Party issued a manifesto attacking the U.S. policy toward China and its support of the Central Government. (Shaw (2), p. 14).
12 Jul USMC: The 2d Marine Division docked at Norfolk, Virginia, from Japan and proceeded to Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, where it arrived the following day. (Muster Rolls).
13-24 Jul CHINA: Executive Headquarters successfully negotiated for the return of seven Marine brigade guards ambushed and captured by Chinese Communists in an area about 15 miles from Peitaiho. (Shaw (2), p. 14).
16 Jul USMC: The Supply Department was organized in conformity with the President's Reorganization Plan No. 3 which provided that the former Quartermaster and Paymaster Departments be consolidated into a single agency and designated the Supply Department. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 18).

--136--

1946
1 Aug USMC: Corps aviation strength was established by a confidential letter from the Commandant at a Marine aircraft wing and a Marine aircraft group, the units of which were to be variously deployed on the West Coast and in the Central and Western Pacific. The proposed combined strength in peacetime of the Fleet Marine Force, both Atlantic and Pacific, was set at 2,149 ground and 1,498 aviation officers and 36,493 ground and 11,848 aviation enlisted men. (FMFPac, p. 40).

CHINA: The 1st Marine Division directed that Marine forces in Tsingtao be reduced to a reinforced infantry battalion and that the 4th Marines (rein) return to the U.S., less the 3d Battalion which was to remain as a separate unit under the operational control of the Commander, Naval Port Facilities, Tsingtao. (Shaw (2), pp. 15, 16).

15 Aug USMC: The Terminal Leave Division, Performance Branch, Personnel Department, was activated to administer the provisions of the "Armed Forces Leave Act of 1946." ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 20).
19 Aug CUBA: The Marine Corps Base, Guantanamo Bay was redesignated Marine Barracks, Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay. (Cuba, p. 3).
28 Aug MARSHALLS: The Marine Detachment (Provisional), Bikini was disbanded. (FMFPac, 1Sep45-1Oct46, Enclosure A ("Schedule of Demobilization," 1Jul46-1Oct46).
31 Aug CONTINENTAL U.S.: The First Special Marine Brigade stationed at Quantico and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, was disbanded. (CMCRpt, 1947, p. 7).
1 Sep CONTINENTAL U.S.: Since 1 October 191x5, U.S. Navy ships had returned approximately 1,300,000 officers and men of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard to the U.S. from overseas. ("The Navy's Demobilization Program," p. 1).
3 Sep CHINA: The last elements of the 4th Marines (less the 3d Battalion) embarked for the U.S., and the 3d Battalion came under direct naval command. (Shaw (2), p. 16).
6 Sep CHINA: From this date, Marine guards were assigned solely to trains transporting American personnel and supplies. The Chinese Nationalist Army had assumed responsibility for the security of the coal fields and the rail line between Peiping and Chinwangtao. (Shaw (2), p. 16).
11 Sep USMC: Headquarters and Service Company and Weapons Company, 6th Marines, Fleet Marine Force, changed to Headquarters and Service Company and Weapons Company, 3d Marine Brigade, Fleet Marine Force. (Muster Rolls).
12 Sep CHINA: The 4th Marines, rein, (less one battalion) was returned to the U.S. to join the 2d Marine Division at Camp Lejeune. North Carolina. (CMCRpt, 1947, p. 7: Muster Rolls).
18 Sep CHINA: Major General Keller E. Rockey, commander of Marine Forces, China, was relieved by Major General Samuel L. Howard. (Shaw (2), p. 16).

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1946
30 Sep USMC: The Marine Corps Air Facility at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, had been reduced to a caretaker status. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 48).
1 Oct USMC: Peacetime strength, set at 100,000 male regular Marines, had been nearly reached with approximately 95,000 regulars on active duty and with very few of them due for discharge until 1948. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 53).

Aviation shore establishments had been theoretically based on a post-war level. The Marine Corps Air Stations at Mojave and El Centro, California, had converted to Navy control and were redesignated as Naval Air Stations. The Marine Corps Air Station, Parris Island, South Carolina, was deactivated. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep45-1Oct46, p. 48; "Personnel Demobilization," p. 7).

All reservists and selectees became eligible for discharge regardless of the length of their active duty. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Sep46-1Oct46, p. 8).

PACIFIC: The 10 provisional Marine detachments and military elements of occupation forces that had been formed since the end of the war-excepting those on Wake, Kwajalein, and Eniwetok-had been either disbanded or redesignated a Marine barracks or made a permanent Marine detachment. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 24).

4 Oct USMC: Headquarters issued a directive ordering all enlisted male selectees, reservists, and regulars whose enlistments had expired be discharged or placed on terminal leave by 18 October, except for certain retentions authorized. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Oct46-1Apr47).
7 Oct JAPAN: Marine Aircraft Group 31 was returned to naval control by the Fifth Air Force. (Shaw (1), p. 12).
12 Oct CAROLINES: Administrative control of the provisional Marine detachment of the Commander, Truk and Central Caroline Islands passed to the Department of the Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 13).
15 Oct PACIFIC: The administrative authority of the Commanding General, Marine Garrison Forces, 14th Naval District, was extended to embrace all garrisons in the POA except for Fleet Marine Force units, Marine Corps air stations, and shore-based air warning units. The headquarters was redesignated Headquarters, Marine Garrison Forces, Pacific, and the garrison commander became the Commanding General, Marine Garrison Forces, Pacific. ("Post-WW II Period," 1Oct46-1Apr47).

JAPAN: Regular reconnaissance flights in the Tokyo area were discontinued and the operations of Marine Aircraft Group 31 were confined largely to mail, courier, transport, and training flights. (Shaw (1), p. 12).

1 Dec CONTINENTAL U.S.: The Marine Barracks, Parris Island, South Carolina, was redesignated a Marine Corps recruit depot. (Muster Rolls).

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1946
10 Dec PACIFIC: The provisional Wake and Eniwetok detachments were disbanded. The Kwajalein unit was redesignated Marine Barracks, Kwajalein under the administrative control of Marine Garrison Forces, Pacific. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 24).
16 Dec USMC: Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic, under the operational control of the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet, was activated by the Commanding General, 2d Marine Division who assumed its command. ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, p. 35).

Commandant General Alexander A. Vandegrift received the report of the committee studying the effects of an atomic attack on the amphibious assault, which maintained that the effectiveness of the World War II type of assault was obsolete. (Heinl (1). d. 513).

Dec USMC: Marine aviation commands in the Atlantic and Pacific Areas were designated as subordinate units of the Fleet Marine Forces, Atlantic and Pacific, respectively. In the process of this change, the 2d Marine Aircraft Wing at Cherry Point, North Carolina, was redesignated Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic (16 December). ("Frank and Shaw," v. V, pt. III, chap. 3, pp. 35, 36: Muster Rolls).

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1977 246-626/1080

--139--

The device reproduced on the back cover is the oldest military insignia in continuous use in the United States. It first appeared, as shown here, on Marine Corps buttons adopted in 1804. With the stars changed to five points, this device has continued on Marine buttons to the present day.

Eagle, Globe & Anchor

 

Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Larry Jewell & Patrick Clancey, HyperWar Foundation