Appendix I

This bibliography cites only the more important and useful of the several thousand separate documents consulted in the preparation of this monograph. These basic sources were supplemented by letters from and interviews with key participants in the campaign. Those letters and interview reports are available in the files of the Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters Marine Corps, and, within the limitations of security and restrictions imposed by originators, are available for the use of any bona fide student. Letters and interview reports are not included in this bibliography, but are cited in footnotes to the text.


Ames, Col E. O. Notes on Visit to Munda Area, period 18-23Aug43. (c. 24Aug43). The official report of an on-the-spot observer.

Army Ground Forces (War College). Observers Report. Serial 319.1/35 (Foreign Obsrs) (C) (22Aug43) GNGBI; 21Sep43. (022258). Unnumbered New Georgia File. Includes copy of personal ltr fr Gen Griswold to Gen McNair dtd 29Aug43.

Baxter, Col Stuart A. Operations of the 148th Inf (-3d Bn) in New Georgia 18Jul-5Aug43. This is an informal report by the regimental commander to his troops. It is exceedingly well written, and gives the point of view on the regiment level. It is overly critical of the 161st Inf, which was to the right of the 148th during the advance on Munda.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Air Target Folder and Bulletin 2 (16); Viru Harbor. Serial 00556; 19Feb43.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Air Target Folder and Bulletin 21. Prepared by Objective Data Section 15Jan43.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Air Target Folder and Bulletin 29; Vila, Kolombangara. Serial 00580; 28Feb43.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations. Munda, New Georgia. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 24Nov42-28Jul43 inclusive. This jacket contains the story of discovery and observation of progress of the Munda airstrip.

CinCPac-C!nCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations, New Georgia. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 18Dec42-12Sep43 inclusive. Mar Corps Photo-Inter file.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations, Rendova Harbor, New Georgia. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 1Dec42-16Jan43 inclusive.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations, Russell Islands. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 9Dec42-10Mar43 inclusive. Mar Corps Photo-Inter file.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations, Vila, New Georgia. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 22Jan-20Sep43 inclusive. Mar Corps Photo-Inter file.

CinCPac-CinCPOA (Intelligence Center). Photo Interpretations, Viru Harbor, New Georgia. Separate serials for each set of photos; dtd 10Oct42-7Mar43 inclusive.

CinCPac-CinCPOA. Joint Intelligence Center of the Pacific Ocean Areas Item No. 2687, translation of a Japanese diary.

CinCSoWesPac. ATIS Bulletin 918. Item #2, translation of an enemy diary kept by a member of the Kure 6 SNLF.

CinCSoWesPac. ATIS Bulletin 946. 21Apr44. Translation of an enemy diary, kept by a Lt (jg) of the Kure 6 SNLF. Captured on Admiralties.

CinCSoWesPac (CinCFE). ATIS Bulletin 14016B. Imperial General Headquarters Navy Staff Section Orders. This document is a collection of Japanese Navy Orders, translated after the war by Gen MacArthur's Tokyo Headquarters.

CinCSoWesPac (CinCFE). ATIS Bulletin 16268. War Diary of Japanese Naval Operations. This document, prepared after the war in Tokyo, was translated by Gen MacArthur's headquarters.


CinCSoWesPac. ELKTON, Plan of Operations. 28Feb43. One of Gen MacArthur's plans designed to reduce Rabaul. Copy filed in Naval Records and History Division, Navy Department. ELKTON was the first of three such plans, the other two being designated ELKTON II and ELKTON III. The code name was devised in Gen MacArthur's headquarters by junior staff officers who were impressed by the enforced and hasty marriage of the three American services for the purpose of conducting operations.

CinCSoWesPac. ELKTON III, Plan of Operations. 26Apr43. This plan originated in Gen MacArthur's headquarters; essentially it was the one followed to complete the Solomon Islands operations.

CinCSoWesPac. RENO I, Plan of Operation. 25Feb43. One of Gen MacArthur's many plans setting forth the concept of a southern route of approach toward Japan. Copy filed in Naval Records and History Division, Navy Department.

CinCSoWesPac. Warning Orders for Operations. 30Apr43. Presents in detail Gen MacArthur's concept of operations designed to reduce Rabaul.

CNO. Tentative War Plan for use against Japan, 547. Prepared in Oct, 1919, this plan envisaged island-hopping across the Central Pacific to the Marianas and thence to Japan.

CNO (F-111). TOENAILS: Running Estimate. No serial or file; dtd 30Jun-6Aug43 inclusive. Particularly valuable for high level operations. A day-to-day account maintained by the senior Marine officer in the office of CNO, for the use of JCS.

ComAir New Georgia. Special Action Report. No serial; dtd c. 1Jan44. Divided into two phases, this report covers all activities of ComAir New Georgia, FwdEch 2dMAW, and New Georgia Air Force from 29Jun-20Oct43. Appended are orders, daily intelligence summaries, and air support requests.

ComAirSols. Daily and Weekly Intelligence Summaries. Dates are dates of reports.

ComAirSols. Fighter Availability; Enemy Planes Shot Down; Own Losses; Feb-Jul43. 7Aug43. Estimates of enemy planes shot down must be used with care; otherwise this document is helpful in determining facts and figures for specific periods.

ComAirSols (Fighter Command). Combat Reports. These are the personal reports of individual pilots, made upon return from action. These reports contain survival accounts.

ComAirSols (Fighter Command). Combat Reports of VMF-123 and VF-12 for Aug and Sep 1943. Covers period of Vella Lavella operation.

ComAirSols. Mine Laying Operations by Aircraft in the Buin-Tonolei area. Serial OM-19; 23Mar43. This is a technical report, submitted to Adm Halsey by Adm Mason.

ComAirSols (Strike Command). Daily Intelligence Summaries. These summaries often include notes to pilots or instructions for operations.

ComAirSols (Strike Command). Mine Laying in Kahili and Shortland Island areas. No serial; 29May43. This is a technical report submitted by Col Schilt to Adm Mitscher and forwarded in turn to Adm Halsey and CNO.

ComAirSols (Strike Command). Record of Events. Covering period from formation until close of TOENAILS operation. Valuable for records of types and numbers of Allied planes committed to various strikes. Must be used with caution in so far as evaluation of results is concerned.

ComAirSols (Strike Command). War Diary, 2Apr-25Jul43. No serial or date. This mimeographed document has proved of value in assembling information concerning the designations of the Marine squadrons involved in the Central Solomons campaign.

ComAirSols. Use of the TBF at CACTUS (Guadalcanal). A technical report on the employment of this plane in various operations, particularly hunter-killer operations. Dtd 5 and 18May and 13Aug43.

ComAirSoPac (Task Force 33). Ltr to CG, Thirteenth Air Force. Serial 00337; 24Apr43. Approved the assignment of USAAF planes to Fighter and Bomber commands.

ComAirSoPac (Task Force 33). Ltr to CG, Thirteenth Air Force. Serial 00556; 18Jun43. This ltr formallizes the organization of ComAirSols.

ComAirSoPac (Task Force 33). Operation Plans 2-43, 3-43, 4-43, and 6-43. All these refer to the air war in the Central Solomons.

ComAirSoPac (Task Force 33). Operation Plan 7-43. Serial 00557; 18Jun43. Attached hereto is an annex indicating the estimated distribution of aircraft in the South Pacific area, by squadron and type.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Index of Place Names for the New Georgia Group, Solomon Islands. Prepared by the C-2 Mapping Sub-Section, IMAC. 1Jul43. Unless otherwise specified, this document was used as the authority for spelling and assignment of names to geographic features.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Ltr. Serial 01162; 19Jul43. Translations of Japanese documents.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Ltr. Serial 01244; 2Aug43. Translations of Japanese documents.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Ltr. Serial 01249; 2Aug43. Translations of Japanese documents.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Ltr. Serial 01324; 10Aug43. Translations of Japanese documents.

ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Translations of Captured Japanese Documents. Each of these was assigned a number at SoPac headquarters, as it was translated. The most important of these are included between Items 600 and 800. They include diaries, letters, orders, and reports. The orders issued by Gen Sasaki, Adm Ota, Capt Kojima, Cdr Yoshimura and others are contained herein.


ComSoPac (Combat Intelligence Center). Item number 43/153. Translations of diaries. These definitely establish date of Japanese landings on New Georgia for purposes of airfield construction.

ComSoPac. Daily Digest. Dec43-Oct43. A daily intelligence summary, with tables of claims and admissions appended.

ComSoPac. Memo, serial 0062, 12Jan43. Directs the SoPac Naval Base commander to prepare plans for the reconstruction and utilization of the Japanese base at Munda at an early date.

ComSoPac. Memo, serial 0070, 13Jan43. Directs planning for an operation on New Georgia to commence on 1 or 15Feb, 1 or 15Mar, or 1Apr.

ComSoPac. Memo, serial 00121c, 8Dec42. Directs beginning of staff planning for a campaign designed to seize Central Solomons.

ComSoPac. Memo, serial 00202, 16Jan43. Enclosure D is an estimate of Army aircraft availability for the New Georgia operation; enclosure E is Adm Turner's recommendation concerning the operation.

ComSoPac. Objective Report, Munda Point. 25Jan43.

ComSoPac. Objective Report 25-13, New Georgia Group. No serial or file; 15Feb43. Contains numerous sketch maps and two aerial photographs.

ComSoPac. Objective Report 25-14, Munda-Vila. Serial A8/(25) over 00554; 18Mar43.

ComSoPac. Operation Plan 14-43. Serial 00958; 3Jun43. This is Adm Halsey's plan for the invasion of New Georgia.

ComSoPac. Photo Interpretation Unit Report No. 42. 4Dec42. The first verification of the existence of the reported Japanese airstrip at Munda.

ComSoPac. War Diaries for Dec42-Sep43. Include the substance of orders received and issued as well as succinct statements concerning the progress of operations and planning.

ComSoPac. Weekly Air Combat Intelligence Reports. 18Apr-25Dec43. Valuable for accounts of friendly air activities, this document must be used with caution in so far as destruction claims are concerned.

Craig, Col E. A. Observations on New Georgia, 18-23Aug inclusive. 28Aug43. This is the report of an official, on-the-spot observer.

CTF-61. Operation Plan A4-43. Serial FE25/A16-3(1) over 00113. 15Feb43. Operation CLEANSLATE.

Department of the Army (Historical Division). Memo for the AsstDirMarCorpsHist. Serial CSHIS 322 (9Aug49); 26Aug49. Lists commanders of combat units that participated in the TOENAILS operation. In the absence of other information, this memo was used to determine the names of unit commanders.

Department of the Army (Historical Division). Translation of Japanese Document: "Records on Supreme Command of the Imperial Headquarters." Prepared in Nov 1946 and on file at the HistDiv, DeptArmy.

11th Defense Battalion. Historical Diary for period 15Jul42 through 31Jul43. This short history tells the story of the organization and operations of this battalion.

11th Defense Battalion (Special Task Force). Operatious Order No. 1-1943. "Operation CLEANSLATE". This order, signed by Maj Winecoff, directs the Special Task Force of the battalion to begin landing in the Russells on D-Day (21Feb43), and conduct offensive missions thereafter as directed.

11th Defense Battalion. War Diaries for Jun, Jul, Oct, Nov, and Dec 1943. This battalion served in the New Georgia area during the latter part of the campaign.

11th Defense Battalion. War Diary for Aug and Sep 1943. Serial, 705c-5 over REL/dlm; 28Oct43. This document fails to note the actions of its Tank Platoon, which was attached to the 9thDefBn during this period.

Ellis, Earl H. "The Advanced Base Problem." Copy of a lecture delivered at the Naval War College in Newport in 1913 by Marine Captain Earl H. Ellis. This remarkable document presents the concept and fundamentals of operations followed by the United States during the Pacific war, fought 28 years later.

Emrich, Maj Cyril E. Ltr to CO, 10th Defense Battalion. 1Jul43. This is a report of observations on the loading and movement of the 9th Defense Battalion.

Far East Command (Military Intelligence). Southeast Area Naval Operations, Part II. This is a narrative, prepared by Japanese citizens attached to Gen MacArthur's headquarters after World War II, treating enemy operations in the Solomons-Bismarcks-New Guinea area. It is subject to error and must be used with care. It is particularly valuable when used in conjunction with the ComSoPac translations of captured Japanese documents.

Fighter Command, Guadalcanal. Records of Events, 1Feb-25Jul43; Air Combat Intelligence Log, 10Feb-10Jul43; Action Reports, 1Apr-13Jul43. All these documents, prepared concurrently in the field, are filed in MarCorps HistBr, G-3. They must be used with caution as they are based on pilot reports. Information concerning friendly activities such as numbers of planes involved and lost, however, is authentic.

Fighter Command, Guadalcanal. Summaries of enemy planes shot down by squadrons. Document assembled by Capt Warren H. Goodman, USMCR, on 20Nov44, from squadron destruction reports. Following squadrons included: VMF 121, 223, 224, 212, 124, 112, 122, 221, 213. This document must be used with caution and strict comparisons made with contemporary enemy documents.

I Marine Amphibious Corps Forward Echelon, (Corps Troops). Operations Order 1-43. 23Sep43. This is the order, signed by Maj Schmuck, that provided for the landing on and seizure of the Ruravi-Juno area on Vella Lavella.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. C-2, Reconnaissance Report of visit to New Georgia and Kolombangara, 15-20Oct43. Prepared on 27Oct by Capts Hopwood and Collins of the 3d NZ Div. Reconnaissance was made to determine what type of defenses to expect when IMAC moved northward.


I Marine Amphibious Corps. C-3 Memo to ComSoPac War Plans Officer. Serial (0-55) over 13/93-ge; 19Jan43. Gives state of combat readiness of MarCorps units in the South Pacific.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. Index of Place Names for the New Georgia Group. Accepted and adopted by the Combat Intelligence Center, South Pacific Force, this document was disseminated on 1Jul43, and is the document used as authority for geographic names in this monograph.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. Informal Staff Memo. Contains notes of Col G. E. Monson, C-2, and Dr. J. W. Ellis, Corps Surgeon, relative to planning for the New Georgia operation.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. Ltr to Maj Schmuck, 17Sep43. This ltr, signed by Gen Barrett, directs Schmuck to form a landing force and establish a forward base at Vella Lavella.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. Report of CO, Corps Troops and Staging Area, Vella Lavella, 17Sep-8Oct43. Signed by Maj Donald M. Schmuck.

I Marine Amphibious Corps. Warning Order 18-43, 22Sep43. This is the formal order on which the landing of the forward echelon of Corps Troops on Vella Lavella was based.

1st Marine Raider Battalion, 1st Marine Raider Regiment. Action Report 4Jul-29Aug43. Serial 1365-95 over GWH/wpk over 793; 27Sep43.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Annex "A" (Intelligence) to Operation Plan (TOENAILS). 24Jun43.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Journal of the New Georgia Campaign, Jun-Jul-Aug43. No serial or file. This is the original document, maintained in the field on captured Japanese paper by Corp A. A. Haas, of the R-2 (regimental intelligence) Section. It was compiled from the various logs, journals, reports, and message files available to Haas during the campaign.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Messages, New Georgia. These are the original field messages sent during the operation. Unfortunately the file is not complete as many messages were discarded or otherwise lost. However, this file is extremely valuable.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Muster Rolls. Jun, Jul, and Aug43. This includes the Muster Rolls submitted by the 1st and 4th Raider Battalions, and the headquarters of the regiment.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Patrol Reports. No serial or file; dates are dates of reports. Contains original reports submitted by patrol leaders; covers action in Triri area, 23Jul-15Aug43.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. R-1 Reports. No serial; 11Aug43. MarCorps HisBr, G-3 numbers 1055 and 1056. These are a table of casualties and a report from the battalion surgeons.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. R-2 Estimate of the situation. No date, file, or serial number. This is the original draft of the estimate, made before the operation, with marginal notes. Reveals mission, possible courses of action, probable enemy reaction, etc.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. Special Action Report-Daily Summary Narrative. Serial 281 over HBL/eak; 6Oct43. Covers period 4Jul through 29Aug; includes a 20-page appendix containing observations on the combat operations involved and recommendations based on lessons learned.

1st Marine Raider Regiment. War Diary, 15Mar through 30Sep43. Serial 284 over HBL/eak; 6Oct43. Contains only a sketchy, and sometimes inaccurate, account of the Raiders' activities during the period.

43d Inf Division. Division History. A portion of a manuscript entitled "History of 43d Infantry Division World War II, July 1-September 30 incl. 1943." Includes a narrative, annexes and appendices, and an operation report for the New Georgia operation. This document is filed with other similar "histories" in DeptArmy (AG) jacket 343-11.4/(2319).

43d Inf Division. Employment of Tanks in Arundel Operation. No file or serial; 23Sep43. Signed by LtCol S. P. Marland, Jr., the G-3.

43d Inf Division. Field Orders. Including numbers 1 through 17, dtd 17Jun43 through 22Aug43. Annexes appended. DeptArmy (AG) file 343-32.1/(A1175).

43d Inf Division. G-3 Periodic Reports. Including numbers 1 through 10, dtd 30Jun through 22Aug43. Filed with the Division Field Orders in jacket 343-32.1/ (A1175).

43d Inf Division. Ltr to CG, USAFISPA. 17Apr43. Encloses "Summary of the occupation of the Russell Islands." Contains a forwarding endorsement by Gen Harmon, which reveals some high-level thinking concerning the operation.

XIV Corps. Maps, Charts, and Water Supply Plan for the TOENAILS operation. Each document has a separate date.

4th Defense Battalion. Ltr to CMC. 12Feb44. This document is a short history of the activities of this battalion from 1Jul42 to 1Feb44.

4th Defense Battalion. Operations Report for Period 1-15Sep43. No file or serial 18Sep43. This is a routine report to CG, IMAC, to CTF-31, and to CO, MarDefGpSols.

4th Defense Battalion. Special Action Report, Vella Lavella. Serial 1975 over HSF/jrr; 9Jan44. A detailed report of 13 pages, with Northern Landing Force Order #1, an antiaircraft mission report, and position overlays attached. Forwarding endorsements hereto are detailed.

4th Defense Battalion. War Diaries for Aug, Sep and Oct, 1943. Valuable for day-to-day information concerning the Vella Lavella operation.

4th Marine Raider Battalion, 1st Marine Raider Regiment. Special Action Report (Segi Point 20Jun-10Jul43) (Vangunu Island 28Jun-12Jul43) (Bairoko Harbor 17Jul-29Aug43) (General Observations and Recommendations). Serial 1975-50 over MSC/jab over 0076; 14Sep43. Contains numerous sketch maps and overlays. Chronological hour by hour account.

4th Marine Raider Battalion, 1st Marine Raider Regiment.


War Diary, 26Feb-31Aug43. Serial 1975-50 over MSC/jrl over 0075; 14Sep43.

Griswold, Gen O. W. Ltr to Gen L. J. McNair. 29Aug43. This ltr was reproduced and distributed for information by the Army Ground Forces on 21Sep43. This document is invaluable as a source of observations, recommendations and criticisms.

Hall, Col W. C. Observations on New Georgia Operations, 18-23Aug43. A report to 3dMarDiv Chief of Staff. 25Aug43. This is a G-4 report.

Harmon, Gen M. F., USA. Ltr to War Department General Staff. 1May43. Contains Gen Harmon's concept of operations for the advance up the Solomons ladder.

Helena. Report of Marine Detachment in loss of ship in operations of war. Serial 1000 over CL 50/A163/KK over 0583; 27Jul43. Report is signed by CO of detachment.

Humphreys, Maj Wilson F. Operations at Rendova and Munda Point. 25Jul43. This is a report of the official observer from the 14thDefBn, FMF. This is by far the most penetrating report submitted by a junior officer.

Joint Basic War Plan RAINBOW 5. A copy of this plan is in the Navy Records and Library Office, Washington. This document has been consulted but not quoted in the preparation of this monograph.

JCS. Directive to Gen MacArthur and Adm Nimitz. 30Mar42. This directive sets up the original boundaries within which the two commanders were to operate.

JCS. Joint Directive for Offensive Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area Agreed On by the United States Chiefs of Staff. 2Jul42. This was the basic order, divided into three parts, by which forces under MacArthur and Nimitz (Ghormley) began operations eventually designed to seize Rabaul. The directive also arranged for the westward movement of the boundary between the South and Southwest Pacific Areas from 160° to 159°.

JCS. Operational Narrative; TOENAILS, running account. Covers entire operation from L-Day to 18Aug43. This document was prepared in journal form for briefing JCS working level personnel on the progress of the operation from day-to-day.

Linscott, Col H. D. and Capt J. H. Doyle, USN. Memo to Gen DeWitt Peck. Serial 0058; 20Jan43. Contains the CTF-31 views concerning a proposed operation in the Central Solomons.

Marine Corps Headquarters. Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia, 712. Approved by the Commandant on 23Jul21, this document was the plan for Marine participation in the event of war with Japan. It is a detailed estimate of the situation on each of the innumerable possible targets in the Pacific.

Marine Corps Headquarters (Casualty Division). Memo to AsstDirMarCorpsHist. Serial DGU-1158-mfe; 5Jul49. Lists casualties suffered by MarCorps units in TOENAILS operation.

Marine Corps Headquarters (Decorations and Medals Branch). Award of Navy Unit Commendation to the 9th Defense Battalion. Serial 1740 over DGP-298-sjs over MC-798515 of 5Aug46. Enclosures hereto include: Gen Pedro A. DelValle ltr to SecNav, 18Feb46, with endorsements by Gen F. P. Mulcahy, Gen Roy S. Geiger, Adm C. W. Nimitz, Adm A. R. McCann, Adm J. H. Towers, Gen A. A. Vandegrift; Certificate of 43d Inf Division, 12Sep43; Commendation from Gen J. L. Collins, 13Oct43; Commendation from Gen H. R. Barker, 6Aug43; Commendation from Gen O. W. Griswold, 2Dec43.

Marine Corps Headquarters (Decorations and Medals Branch). Files on Liversedge, Griffith, Wismer, Rothschild, et al. Contains correspondence relative to the award of medals and commendations to personnel of the 1stMarRdrRgt and 9thDefBn.

Marine Corps Headquarters (Personnel Department). Muster rolls of 4th, 9th, 10th and 11th Defense Battalions; the 1st Marine Raider Regiment; Headquarters IMAC; Marine Detachment USS Helena; 1st MAW, 2dMAW and subordinate units thereof. These old records, no longer maintained by MarCorps, have proved invaluable in determining the whereabouts and condition of personnel within units on specific dates.

McAlister, LtCol Francis M. Report of Duty as Observer During Operations Against the Japanese on New Georgia, 17Jun-30Jul43. Serial 9/48-bgr; 7Aug43. This report is especially valuable for contemporary information concerning engineer activities. It is cited in the narrative as McAlister report.

McHenry, Col George W. Report on New Georgia (Munda) Operations. Private notes in personal possession of Col McHenry. No bibliographic data exists. See 3d Mar Div Observers Report, New Georgia (Col McHenry and LtCol Gabbert), cited below for revised version of these notes.

McNenny, LtCol W. J. Observer Report, New Georgia Operation, to CG, IMAC. Serial 13/93-lfs (0-531); 17Jul43. Col McNenny, Assistant C-3 of IMAC, observed the planning and initial combat operations at Rendova and Zanana Beach with the critical eye of an operations officer. His report is particularly valuable.

Military Intelligence Service, Washington. Order of Battle of the Japanese Armed Forces (with amendments). This document, printed in Jul43, represented the combined views of the Allied nations. It was kept up to date as additional information became available.

New Georgia Occupation Force. Field Order #1. 16Jun43. The first of Gen Hester's orders for the New Georgia operation.

New Georgia Occupation Force. Field Order #2. 24Jun43. Contains an operations overlay and an intelligence annex. Indicates several changes from the concept set forth in Gen Hester's order of 16Jun.

New Georgia Occupation Force. Field Order #3. 28Jun43. This order envisaged seizure of Munda airfield during the night of 8-9Jul after a direct landing on Munda Point by the 3d Bn, 103d Inf supported by


9thDefBn tanks. When this order was issued Gen Hester still intended to utilize only Zanana Beach for the landing of his division on New Georgia.

New Georgia Occupation Force. Operations memo. In effect these are orders attaching and detaching supporting elements of certain units.

New Georgia Occupation Force. Operation Memos 7 and 8, 1943. Dtd 5Aug43, these memos concern the attachment of the tank platoons to infantry regiments.

9th Defense Battalion. Informal Combat Report of the New Georgia Campaign. 9Sep43. This report consists of 13 pages of introspection, self-criticism and recommendations for future operations.

9th Defense Battalion. Ltr to CG, IMAC. Serial WJS/tef, 9Sep43. Forwards report of tank platoon and contains recommendations concerning employment of tanks in jungle warfare.

9th Defense Battalion (155mm Group). Work Sheets, 29Jun-21Jul43. Daily reports; dates are date of each report. Contains information concerning location of troops, weather, general operations, and specific activities of the group.

9th Defense Battalion. Operation Order 5-43. Serial 1960 over WJS/aes; 24Jun43. Attached hereto are administrative annexes 1 through 6, an embarkation annex, and Administrative Order 5-43.

9th Defense Battalion. Quarterly report of antiaircraft operations. Serial 1975 over WJS/aes over 000167; 13Oct43 Covers period 18Jun-18Sep43. Attached hereto is a short compilation of comments made by HQMC.

9th Defense Battalion. Report of Operations, Feb42-Mar44. This document is a brief history of the organization, training, and movements of the battalion. It includes maps of action.

9th Defense Battalion (Tank Platoon). Report of the 9thDefBn TkPlat operation in the New Georgia area. WJS/tef; 24Aug43. A detailed, 16-page report. Unfortunately it fails to cover any action after 5Aug.

9th Defense Battalion. War Diaries for Jun, Jul, Aug and Sep43. Appended hereto are copies of orders received and issued by the battalion; copies of reports submitted; other pertinent data.

Northern Landing Force. Force Order #1, 11Aug43. This is Gen McClure's order for the invasion of Vella Lavella. It was issued on the same day as Adm Wilkinson's order.

148th Inf. Narrative report on combat activities of 1st Battalion, 148th Inf. 13Sep43. This document, prepared by the S-2 (Capt Bird), describes in considerable detail the combat activities of the 1st Battalion.

148th Inf Regiment USA (3d Battalion). Unit Reports, 4Jul-3Aug43. No serial, dates are dates of reporting. Includes 12 separate reports concerning own situation and enemy situation. Reports signed by battalion commander. Covers action on Dragons Peninsula.

145th Inf Regiment USA (3d Battalion). Daily Situation Reports, 5-10Jul43. No serial; dates are dates of reporting; overlays included in some instances. Covers activities on Dragons Peninsula.

Schmuck, Maj Donald M. Ltr to CG, IMAC. 30Jan44. This is a report of operations of the Forward Echelon, Corps Troops, on Vella Lavella.

2d Marine Aircraft Wing. Narrative account of activities. This is an informal history, prepared in the field in early 1944 by the Wing Intelligence Officer.

2d Marine Aircraft Wing. Record of Events, 1943.

2d Separate Wire Platoon. Report of Activities, 27May-18Jul43. This unit was part of the 1st Signal Battalion, IMAC. Parts of it served at Viru, Rendova, Segi and Munda.

Seventh Fleet. Terrain Study No. 54 (Area Study of New Georgia Group). Serial A8 over 0591; 26Apr43. Contains confidential study prepared by HqSoWesPac 26Mar43, which included many maps and photographs.

Sixth Army (ALAMO Force). DEXTERITY G-3 Journal No. 7. Includes G-2 Periodic report 19 for week of 8-15Dec43, annex A of which is a translation of a ltr from Gen Sasaki to the Seventeenth Army Chief of Staff. This ltr contains Sasaki's observations on American tactics.

Task Force 18 (Task Group 36.1). Operation Order 10-43. Serial 00111; 1Jul43. This is Adm Ainsworth's order to his Force to land the Northern Landing Force at Rice Anchorage and provide requisite naval support.

Task Force 31. Action Report--Occupation of Vella Lavella, 20Sep43. This report contains annexes, maps, and charts. It covers the amphibious phases of the Vella Lavella operation.

Task Force 31. Daily Intelligence Summaries. These are the daily evaluations made by Adms Turner and Wilkinson regarding enemy capabilities and results of friendly operations.

Task Force 31. Dispatch 0001 of 11Jul43. Changes to Western Force Loading Order Number 11-43.

Task Force 31. Dispatch 2320 of 13Jun to all holders of Operation Plan A8-43. 14Jun43. This dispatch makes several minor modifications in Adm Turner's plan.

Task Force 31. Endorsement to ComDesRon 22 ltr, serial 0012 of 5Sep43. Serial 00635; 20Dec43. This is Adm Wilkinson's view of the action of 16-19Aug, off Vella Lavella.

Task Force 31 (LST Group 14). War Diary of period 12-22Aug43. Serial 061; 20Aug43 (sic). Concerns the work of the Second Echelon at Vella Lavella.

Task Force 31 (LST Group 15). Action Report. Serial 0015; 12Oct43. This report concerns the movement of Task Group 31.6 into Vella Levella.

Task Force 31. Ltr, to all holders of Eastern Force loading order 1-43. Serial 0013b; 22Jun43. This document changes the composition of Eastern Force in accordance with the situation arising out of the premature seizure of Segi.

Task Force 31. Ltr to ComSoPac, serial 0036, 13Jan43. Suggests immediate move against New Georgia;


recommends reorientation of boundary between SoPac and SoWesPac.

Task Force 31. Operation Order A12-43, 11Aug43. This is Adm Wilkinson's order directing the seizure of Vella Lavella.

Task Force 31. Operation Plan A8-43. Serial 00274; 4Jun43. This plan includes appendices and annexes. It is the basic plan for the amphibious phase of the TOENAILS operation.

Task Force 31. Report of Occupation of Vella Lavella, 12Aug-3Sep43. Serial 00400; 20Sep43. Appended hereto is Adm Wilkinson's operation order with its appendices and annexes.

Task Force 31. War Diary for Sep43. Contains a general account of the progress of the TOENAILS operation, as seen from Adm Wilkinson's headquarters.

Task Force 32. Memo to ComSoPac. Serial 00284; 12 Jun43. This memo recommends that additional forces be made available to Adm Turner for the conduct of the TOENAILS operation.

Task Group 31.1 (Western Force). Dispatch 2333, 26Jun43. 27Jun43. Changes to Western Force Loading Order Number 2-43.

Task Group 31.1 (Western Force). Loading Orders 1 through 15. Dtd 13Jun-16Jul43.

Task Group 31.1 (Western Force). Operation Order A11-43. Serial 0019b; 28Jun43. This order puts Adm Turner's operation plan into effect; it also changes the orders to the Liversedge group.

Task Group 31.3 (Eastern Force). Changes to Eastern Force Loading Orders 1-43 and 2-43. 14Jul43. These changes were dictated by resistance encountered, and poor beach conditions in Eastern New Georgia.

Task Group 31.3 (Eastern Force). Loading Orders Numbers 1 through 4, dtd 16Jun-7Jul. Covers operations and loading for each particular echelon of transports in the Segi, Wickham, Viru areas.

Task Group 31.3 (Eastern Force). Operation Order AL10-43. Serial 008b; 21Jun43. Adm Fort's order for the seizure of Segi, Vangunu, and Viru Harbor.

Task Group 36.9. Operation Plan 6-43. Serial 0028; 25Jun43. Adm Merrill's plan for the bombardment of Munda Point on 9Jul43.

10th Defense Battalion. War Diaries for Feb, Jul, Aug, Sep and Oct 1943. The diary for Aug (serial 1975-50 over PAF/hmb of 3Sep43) contains the SAR of the Tank Platoon. This latter document is cited in the text as 10thDefBn, TkPlat report.

Third Fleet. Operation Plan 12-43. An airmailgram of 22Jun43. Provides for mining Munda area and bombardment of Shortlands area.

3d MarDiv. Observers Report, New Georgia (Col E. O. Ames) Serial 5-280; c. 24Aug43. Observations of CO, 21st Marines, Munda Operation, 18-23Aug43.

3d MarDiv. Observers Report, New Georgia (Col E. A. Craig). Serial EAC/cm; 28Aug43. Observations of CO, 9th Marines, Munda Operation, 18-23Aug43.

3d MarDiv. Observers Report, New Georgia (Col McHenry, LtCol Gabbert and LtCol Smith). No serial or file; 23Jul43. Contains edited reports of subject officers, with Col Bowser's (D-3 3d MarDiv) penciled notes.

3d MarDiv. Operation Order 13-43. 14Sep43. This is a warning order; it attaches certain division elements to the 2d Parachute Battalion for movement to Vella Lavella.

3d Raider Battalion. Operation CLEANSLATE. 9Apr43. Signed by LtCol S. S. Yeaton, this document is the report of the 3d Raider Battalion on its actions in the Russells.

Thirteenth Air Force. Ltr to ComAirSoPac. Serial AG 320.2; 16Apr43. Proposes assignment of USAAF planes to ComAirSols Fighter and Bomber commands.

37th Inf Division. Report of Operations, Munda Campaign, New Georgia Operation. No serial or file; 25Aug43.

Turner, R. K. "Speech to National War College." Through the kindness of Adm Turner, a copy of this speech, delivered on 23Feb51, was made available to the author. It is a particularly valuable source of information concerning the thinking that lay behind preparation of the RAINBOW plans.

25th Inf Division. Operations of the 25th Inf Division in the Central Solomons. . . . An unsigned operational study covering division activities from entry of first units to end of campaign. Mimeographed, with charts, tables and maps attached. Various sections prepared by cognizant officers.

VMSB-142. Scout Bomber Operations against Munda Point, 12-27Dec42. This account concerns the activities of SBD's during the initial strikes against Munda.

War Diaries of Marine Corps Aviation Units for 1943 have been consulted as follows: VMF's 111, 112, 121, 122, 123, 213, 214, 215, 221, 441; VMSB's 131, 132, 141, 142, 143, 233, 234, 241; VMJ-253; VMO-251; VMTB-143; MAG's 13, 25; 2d MAW.

Watson, LtCol E. S. (G-3, 43d Division). Movement of a Task Force by Small Landing Craft. Enclosure to CG, 43d Div ltr to CG, USAFISPA, 17Apr43. Concerns the Russell Islands operation.


Buchanan, A. R., editor. The Navy's War: A Mission Completed. New York: Harper & Brothers, by The Aviation History Unit, OP-519B, DCNO (Air). A narrative report of the role of naval aviation in the Second World War.

Central Office of Information. Among Those Present. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1946. The British account of activites of native troops in the Solomons. Although not a penetrating analysis, this helpful pamphlet is most interesting.

Craven, Wesley F. and James L. Cate, editors. The Army Air Forces in World War II, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950. This is volume IV of the Air Force's history of World War II operations. It is an authoritative and well documented story, in the main, of the air war in the Pacific during the period: Aug42-Jul44.


DeChant, John A. Devilbirds; the Story of United States Marine Corps Aviation in World War II. New York: Harper & Brothers; 1947. A popularized history of Marine aviation in the Pacific during World War II.

Feldt, Eric A. The Coastwatchers. New York and Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1946. This book is a personalized account by a Commander of the RAN who was one of their leaders. It contains a few minor inaccuracies concerning American activities in the Solomons.

Ghormley, Robert L. Memoirs, Ms. The as yet unpublished views of the first ComSoPac, made available to HQMC by the Admiral in 1948. A most enlightening account of prewar planning and initial operations around Guadalcanal.

Hall, D. O. W. Coastwatchers. Wellington, N.Z.: Department of Internal Affairs (War History Branch), 1951. This brief pamphlet is the story of New Zealand coastwatchers who operated in the Solomons and elsewhere during the Pacific war.

Halsey, William F. and Julian Bryan, III. Admiral Halsey's Story. New York: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947. This book is a particularly valuable source of sidelights on Solomon Islands operations. It contains the ComSoPac personal point of view.

Hough, Frank O. The Island War: The United States Marine Corps in the Pacific. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1947. A most readable and by far the most accurate of the popular histories of the Marine Corps in World War II.

Howlett, Lieutenant R. A. The History of the Fiji Military Forces, 1939-1945. Christchurch, New Zealand: Whitcombe and Toombs, Ltd, 1948. This little book offers interesting information concerning Fiji troops that participated in the Solomon Islands campaigns.

Hubler, Richard G. and John A. DeChant. Flying Leathernecks. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1944. This book is a popularized version of Marine Corps Aviation, 1941-44.

Hydrographic Office, United States Navy. Sailing Directions For the Pacific Islands. Volume I (Western Groups), 4th edition, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. Also known as H. O. No. 165, this volume is a valuable source for descriptions of the various Pacific islands and their surrounding waters. Must be used with caution however, as some of the data contained herein are inaccurate.

Isely, Jeter and Philip A. Crowl. The U. S. Marines and Amphibious War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1951. A scholarly study of the theory and practice of amphibious war as related to World War II. Gives only sketchy treatment to the Central Solomons.

Josephy, Alvin M., et al. Uncommon Valor: Marine Divisions in Action. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1946.

Karig, Captain Walter, USNR, and Commander Eric Purdon, USNR. Battle Report, Pacific War: Middle Phase. New York and Toronto: Rinehart and Company, 1947. Although prepared from official sources this volume is not an official publication of the Navy Department. In actuality, it is simply a popularization and expansion of the ONI Combat Narratives.

King, Fleet Admiral Ernest J. U.S. Navy at War, 1941-1945: Official Reports to the Secretary of the Navy. Washington: United States Navy Department, 1946.

Marshall, George C. The Winning of the War In Europe and the Pacific; Biennial Reports of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1945, to the Secretary of War. New York: Simon and Schuster (for the War Department), 1945.

Miller, John, Jr. Guadalcanal: The First Offensive. Washington: Department of the Army (Historical Division), 1949. This authoritative and definitive volume is one of a series concerning the U.S. Army in World War II, now being prepared by the Department of the Army.

Morison, Samuel E. Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950. Volume VI in the History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II. Covers the period 22 July 1942 to 1 May 1944. This work is unparalleled as a readable, accurate and all-inclusive source of information concerning U.S. Navy activities in the Pacific during the period covered.

Morison, Samuel E. Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950. This book is volume IV in Admiral Morison's History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II. It covers the Pacific War from May 1942 to August 1942.

Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. Navy. Bombardments of Munda and Vila-Stanmore, January-May 1943. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944. A combat narrative, volume IX in the Solomon Islands Campaign series.

Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. Navy. Operations in the New Georgia Area, 21 June-5 August 1943. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944. A combat narrative, volume X of the Solomon Islands campaign series.

Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. Navy. Kolombangara and Vella Lavella, 6 August-7 October 1943. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944. A combat narrative, volume XI in the Solomon Islands Campaign series.

O'Sheel, Patrick and Gene Cook, editors. Semper Fidelis; The U. S. Marines in the Pacific, 1942-1945. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1947. A collection of news releases.

Pratt, Fletcher. The Marines' War. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948. An interestingly written but not very inclusive account of the New Georgia campaign is contained herein.

Robson, R. W. The Pacific Islands Handbook, 1944. North American Edition, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1945. This book contains a short historical and geographic survey of each of the Pacific islands.

Sherrod, Robert. History of Marine Corps Aviation in


World War II, Washington, DC: Combat Forces Press, 1952.

USMC. An Evaluation of Air Operations Affecting the U. S. Marine Corps in World War II. Multilith Printing, Quantico, Virginia: Marine Corps Schools, 1945. A technical and soul-searching account of various Marine air support operations in World War II.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Interrogations of Japanese Officials. 2 Volumes, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946. These volumes are a collection of interviews with Japanese officers. Made after the war, these interviews are subject to error because of faulty memory.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946. This work is an impartial and expert study of the effects of the Allied South Pacific campaign against the Japanese base at Rabaul.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Campaigns of the Pacific War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1945. This is an extremely valuable summary of naval engagements and the progress of naval campaigns. It contains a few minor errors.

Zimmer, Joseph E. The History of the 43d Infantry Division, 1941-1945. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: The Army and Navy publishing Company. This divisional history draws from official War Department sources and contains a good account of the division's participation in the New Georgia campaign.


Batterton, Maj Roy J., Jr. "You Fight By the Book." Marine Corps Gazette, July, 1949, Vol. XXXIII, No. 7.

Fooks, LtCol H. E., RA. "The War in the Pacific: Guadalcanal to Leyte Gulf." Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, August, 1950, Vol. XCV, No. 597.

Griffith, Col Samuel B., II. "Action at Enogai." Marine Corps Gazette, March, 1944, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3.

Griffith, Col Samuel B., II. "Corry's Boys." Marine Corps Gazette, May 1949, Vol. XXXIII, No. 5.

"Marine Aviation in the Munda Campaign." Marine Corps Gazette, October, 1943, Vol. XXVII, No. 6.

Mathieu, Charles, Jr. "The Capture of Munda." Marine Corps Gazette, November, 1943, Vol. XXVII, No. 7.

McDevitt, Frank J. and Murrey Marder. "The Capture of Enogai." Marine Corps Gazette, September, 1943, Vol. XXVII, No. 5.

Morehouse, Clifford. "New Landing Craft." Marine Corps Gazette, December, 1943, Vol. XXVII, No. 8.

The 0.N.I. Weekly. Issues for 7Oct42-24Nov43 inclusive. A confidential publication issued weekly by the Office of Naval Intelligence for the use of officers of the Navy.

Shaw, Cdr James C. "The Japanese Guessed Wrong at New Georgia." Marine Corps Gazette, December, 1949, Vol. XXXIII, No. 12.

Shaw, Cdr James C. "The Rise and Ruin of Rabaul" Naval Institute Proceedings, June, 1951, vol. LXXVII, No. 6.


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