Appendix I

The Recapture of Guam

The narrative of the Guam operation has been written only after careful examination of a wide variety of sources. Chief among these have been the reports, journals, war diaries, orders, and plans of the units involved. Descriptions of specific actions have been based mainly on the reports of the units most directly concerned. In general, the lowest echelons have been considered the best source for details, while reports of higher units familiar with the overall picture have been used in evaluating results.

More than 200 of the key participants in the Guam campaign have commented by interview or letter on preliminary drafts of this monograph or have replied to specific questions regarding various aspects of the operation. In many cases individuals have furnished information that is not contained in available records. For the most part, however, these comments have been used only to supplement existing official reports.

Since much of the material consulted had only a very general or indirect bearing on the campaign, this bibliography does not constitute a complete listing. Only the most useful sources, including all those cited in the text, have been included below. Unless otherwise noted all material listed is available in the records of the Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps.


CominCh P-007, Amphibious Operations--Invasion of the Marianas, dtd 30Dec44.

Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive to CinCPOA and CinCSoWesPac, Future Operations in the Pacific, Serial JCS 713/4, dtd 12Mar44. Filed at ONRL.1

CinCPac-CinCPOA Intelligence Items and Translations.

JICPOA Intelligence Items and Bulletins.

Military Intelligence Service, War Department, Survey of Guam, Serial S30-601, dtd June 1943. Filed at Record Section, Marine Corps Schools.

Military Intelligence Division, War Department, Order of Battle for the Japanese Armed Forces, dtd 1Mar45.

Office of Naval Intelligence--99, Strategic Study of Guam, dtd 1Feb44.

Commander, Fifth Fleet, Final Report on the Operation to Capture the Marianas Islands, dtd 26Oct44.

Commander, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet, Comments and Remarks on the Marianas Operation, dtd 5Mar45.

Commander, Support Aircraft, Pacific Fleet, Report of Support Aircraft Operations, Marianas, Serial 012, dtd 11Sept44. Filed at ONRL.

Task Force 58 Action Report of Operations in Support of the Capture of the Marianas, 2 vols., dtd 11Sept44.

Task Force 51 Operations Report, dtd 25Aug44.

Task Force 56 Report on FORAGER, 7 vols., contains separate reports from planning, operations, intelligence, logistics, personnel, and special staff officers, dtd 2Oct44.

Task Force 53 Operation Plan No. A162-44, dtd 17May44.


Task Force 53 Operations Report, dtd 10Aug44.

Task Group 53.2 Operations Report, dtd 11Sept44.

Task Unit 53.7.2 Report of Carrier Operations in Close Support of Amphibious Operations at Guam, 17Jul-1Aug44, dtd 8Aug44. Filed at ONRL.

III Amphibious Corps Operation Orders Nos. 1-11, 11May-10Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps Special Action Report, contains separate reports of planning, operations, intelligence, supply, personnel, air, naval gunfire, ordnance, signal, medical, and service group officers, dtd 3Sept44.

III Amphibious Corps Artillery Special Action Report, dtd 2Sept44.

III Amphibious Corps C-1 Journal, 20Jul-14Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps C-1 Periodic Reports, 31Jul-10Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps C-2 Journal, 21Jul-13Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps C-2 Periodic Reports Nos. 1-23, 21Jul-13Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps Prisoner of War Interrogations Nos. 17-24, dtd 28Jul44.

Task Group 56.2 Prisoner of War Interrogations Nos. 25-53, 31Jul-10Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps C-3 Journal, 12Jun44-24Feb45.

III Amphibious Corps C-3 Periodic Reports Nos. 1-24, 21Jul-14Aug44.

III Amphibious Corps C-4 Periodic Reports Nos. 1-23, 21Jul-14Aug44.

3d Marine Division Operation Plan No. 2-44, dtd 13May44.

3d Marine Division Operation Orders, 29Jul-30Oct44.

3d Marine Division Administrative Plan No. 2-44, dtd 13May44.

3d Marine Division Special Action Report, dtd 19 Aug44, contains comments and reports from all division special staff officers plus a special action report from each of the following units:

3d Marines
9th Marines (each battalion)
12th Marines
19th Marines (each battalion)
21st Marines
3d Service Battalion
3d Medical Battalion
3d Motor Transport Battalion
3d Headquarters Battalion (each company)
3d Tank Battalion
3d Joint Assault Signal Company
3d Amphibian Tractor Battalion
14th Defense Battalion (includes battalion journal)
IIIAC Motor Transport Battalion

3d Marine Division D-1 Journal, 21Jul-10Aug44.

3d Marine Division D-2 Journal, 3Jun-29Jul44.

3d Marine Division D-2 Journal, 29Jul-10Aug44.

3d Marine Division D-2 Periodic Reports Nos. 72-171, 25Jul-2Nov44.

3d Marine Division Prisoner of War Interrogations Nos. 396-485, 7Oct-4Nov44.

3d Marine Division D-3 Journal, 21Jul-22Oct44.

3d Marine Division D-3 Periodic Reports Nos. 1-73, 20Jul-30Sept44.

3d Marine Division D-4 Journal, 21Ju1-10Aug44.

3d Marines Operation Plan No. 3-44, dtd 27May44.

3d Marines Journal, 21Jul-12Aug44.

1st Battalion, 3d Marines Journal, 21Jul-16Aug44.

2d Battalion, 3d Marines Journal, 21Jul-24Aug44.

3d Battalion, 3d Marines Journal, 21-31Jul44.

9th Marines R-2 Journal, 21Jul-31Aug44.

9th Marines R-3 Journal, 22Jul-26Aug44.

9th Marines Unit Reports, 21Jul-19Sept44 (Fragmentary).

12th Marines Special Action Report for 26Jul44, dtd 15Aug44.

12th Marines Journal, 21Jul-15Oct44.

12th Marines Operation Summaries, 29Jul-1Nov44 (Fragmentary).

21st Marines Unit Reports, 22Jul-3Nov44 (Fragmentary).

3d Battalion, 21st Marines Journal, 21Jul-1Nov44.

3d Tank Battalion Special Action Report, dtd 19Apr45.

2d and 3d War Dog Platoons' Special Action Report, dtd 17Sept44.

77th Infantry Division Operation Orders and Overlays, 25Jul-16Aug44.

77th Infantry Division Operation Report, 21Jul-16Aug44, contains reports from all major component and attached units, Serial 377-0.3 (7055). Filed at AGOKC.2

77th Infantry Division G-1 Journal, 1Jul-13Aug44, Serial 377-1.2 (7364). Filed at AGOKC.

77th Infantry Division G-1 Daily Consolidated Report of Casualties, 1Jul-13Aug44, Serial 377-1.16 (21589). Filed at AGOKC.

77th Infantry Division G-3 Journal, 6Jun-10Aug44, Serial 377-32 (7008). Filed at AGOKC.

77th Infantry Division G-3 Periodic Reports, 23Jul-11Aug44, Serial 377-3.1 (21591). Filed at AGOKC.

77th Infantry Division Artillery After-Action Report, 21Jul-10Aug44, Serial 377-ART-0.3 (7333). Filed at AGOKC.

305th Infantry After-Action Report, 18Jun-9Aug44, Serial377-INF(305)-0.3 (28961). Filed at AGOKC.

305th Infantry Journal Record Book, 1Jul-8Sept44, Serial 377-INF(305)-0.7 (28962). Filed at AGOKC.

306th Infantry Operations Report, 1Apr-10Aug44, Serial 377-INF(306)-0.3 (28945). Filed at AGOKC.

306th Infantry Journal File, 23Jul-10Aug44, Serial 377-INF(306)-0.8 (12218). Filed at AGOKC.

306th Infantry Unit Reports, 23Jul-10Aug44, Serial 377-INF (306)-0.9 (28951). Filed at AGOKC.

307th Infantry Historical Records, 7Jul-10Aug44, contains Operations Report and S-2, S-3 Journal, Serial 377-INF(307)-0.3 (28960). Filed at AGOKC.

305th Field Artillery Battalion After-Action Report, 21Jul-10Aug44, Serial377-FA(305)-0.3 (7339). Filed at AGOKC.


1st Provisional Marine Brigade Operation Plan 7-44 (Preferred), dtd 11Jul44.

1st Provisional Marine Brigade Operations and Special Action Report, contains summary of events prior to 1Jul44, War Diary 1Jul-10Aug44, Operations Journal, and Operations Plans and Orders, dtd 19Aug44.

1st Provisional Marine Brigade Unit Reports Nos. 1-12, 21Jul-1Aug44.

22d Marines Journal, 21Jul-16Aug44.

22d Marines Unit Reports, 21Jul-21Aug44 (Fragmentary).

1st Battalion, 22d Marines Journal, 21Jul-9Aug44.

2d Battalion, 22d Marines Journal, 21Jul-21Aug44.

6th Tank Battalion Guam Action Report, contains the reports of the 4th and 22d Marines Tank Companies, dtd 30Mar45.

1st Armored Amphibian Group Action Report, dtd 1Aug44. From personal files of LtCol R. G. Warga.

Island Command A-2 Periodic Reports Nos. 4-127, 27Aug-28Dec44.

48th Bombardment Group (Medium), VII Bomber Command, Seventh Air Force Organizational History, August 1944. Filed at the Air University, Maxwell Field, Alabama.

318th Fighter Group, VII Fighter Command, Seventh Air Force Organizational History, August 1944. Filed at the Air University, Maxwell Field, Alabama.

War Diaries

Monthly war diaries for the period April 1944 through August 1944 have been consulted for all of the following organizations; these are listed overall rather than separately for purposes of convenience and simplicity.

Pacific Fleet
Fifth Fleet
V Amphibious Corps
III Amphibious Corps Artillery
3d Marine Division
1st Provisional Marine Brigade Marine Air Group 21
5th Field Depot
1st Battalion, 4th Marines
2d Battalion, 4th Marines
1st Armored Amphibian Battalion
3d Amphibian Tractor Battalion
4th Amphibian Tractor Battalion
9th Defense Battalion
10th Antiaircraft Battalion
14th Defense Battalion
Island Command, Guam (through September 1945)

Books, Pamphlets, Periodicals

Arnold, General of the Air Force Henry H., Global Mission. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949.

Aurthur, 1stLt R. A. and Cohlmia, 1stLt K., The Third Marine Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948.

Bridgewater, LtCol F. Clay, "Reconnaissance on Guam," The Cavalry Journal, May-June 1945.

Bruce, MajGen Andrew D., "Administration, Supply, and Evacuation of the 77th Infantry Division on Guam," Military Review, December 1944.

Callaway, Cdr Raymond R. (MC), "The Third Medical Battalion in Action: Bougainville and Guam," Historical Study, Marine Corps Schools Senior Course (1948-49). Filed at Record Section, Marine Corps Schools.

Carleton, Capt Philips D., "The Guam Operation," Campaign for the Marianas. Washington: Historical Division, USMC, 1946.

Cass, Bevan G., ed., History of the Sixth Marine Division. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948.

Cushman, LtCol Robert E., "The Fight at Fonte," Marine Corps Gazette, April 1947.

del Valle, MajGen Pedro A., "Guam, the Classical Amphibious Operation," Military Review, April 1947.

del Valle, BrigGen Pedro A., "Massed Fires on Guam," Marine Corps Gazette, December 1944.

Fink, PFC Stanley, "Co-Prosperity on Guam," Marine Corps Gazette, October 1944.

Frances, 1stLt Anthony A., "The Battle of Banzai Ridge," Marine Corps Gazette, June 1945.

Guam: Operations of the 77th Division; American Forces in Action Series. Washington: Historical Division, War Department, 1946.

Hoffman, Maj Carl W., Saipan: The Beginning of the End, Marine Corps Historical Monograph. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1950.

Hoffman, Maj Carl W., The Seizure of Tinian, Marine Corps Historical Monograph. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1951.

Hough, Maj Frank O., The Island War. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1947.

Isely, J. A. and Crowl, P. A., The U. S. Marines and Amphibious War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951.

Johnson, Capt Lucius W. (MC), "Guam Before December 1941," U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1942.

McMillian, Cdr I. E., "Naval Gunfire at Guam," Marine Corps Gazette, September 1948.

Nelson, LCdr F. J., "Guam-Our Western Outpost," U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1940.

Nelson, Lt F. J., "Why Guam Alone Is American," U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, August 1936.

Ours To Hold it High: The History of the 77th Infantry Division in World War II. Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1947.

Pratt, Fletcher, The Marines' War. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1948.

Rentz, Maj John N., Bougainville and the Northern Solomons, Marine Corps Historical Monograph. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1948.

Robson, R. W. The Pacific Islands Handbook-1944. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1945.

Rosinski, Dr. H., "The Strategy of Japan," Brassey's Naval Annual, 1946. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1946.


Rowcliff, RAdm G. J., "Guam," U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1945.

Smith, Cdr H. E. (CEC), "I Saw the Morning Break," U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, March 1946.

Smith, Gen Holland M., Coral and Brass. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1949.

Thompson, Laura, Guam and its People. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific), Naval Analysis Division, Interrogations of Japanese Officials, 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946.

United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific), Naval Analysis Division, Campaigns of the Pacific War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946.

Walker, Maj Anthony, "Advance on Orote Peninsula," Marine Corps Gazette, February 1945.

The War Reports of General of the Army George C. Marshall, General of the Army Henry H. Arnold, and Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King. New York and Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1947.

Yanaihara, Todao, The Pacific Islands Under Japanese Mandate. New York: Oxford University Press, 1940.


Cohlmia, 1stLt K., Preliminary Draft of the 3d Marine Division History.

Horie, Maj Yoshitaka, Explanation of Japanese Defense Plan and Battle of Iwo Jima, dtd 26Jan46.

Japanese Studies In World War II: Operations in the Central Pacific; Guam Operation, Serial 8-5.1 AC 55. Filed at the Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army.

McMillan, Capt George J., Official Report to the CNO on the Surrender of Guam to the Japanese, dtd 11Sept45.

Takeda, LtCol Hideyuki, Letter to the Director of Marine Corps History, dtd 20Feb52.

Takeda, LtCol Hideyuki, "The Outline of Japanese Defense Plan and Battle of Guam," dtd 4Oct46.


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1. The Office of Naval Records and Library, Navy Department, Washington 25, D. C.

2. The Adjutant General's Office, Kansas City Records Administration Center, Kansas City, 24, Missouri.

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