The following listing of events is limited to those coming within the scope of this book, and those events treated in previous volumes applying equally to the matters discussed in this work.
1941 8Dec Personnel of American Embassy Guard, Peiping, and of Marine Legation Guard, Tientsin, become first Marine POWs in World War II. 10Dec Guam surrenders to Japanese landing force. 23Dec Wake Island falls to enemy. 1942 6Feb U.S. and Great Britain establish Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS). 9Mar Java surrenders to Japanese, ending conquest of Netherlands East Indies. 30Mar Pacific Ocean divided into Pacific Ocean Areas under Adm Nimitz and Southwest Pacific Area under Gen MacArthur. 9Apr Bataan falls to the Japanese. 6May Corregidor and Manila Bay forts surrender. 1943 2-6Dec At Second SEXTANT Conference in Cairo, Allied leaders agree upon strategic concept for prosecution of Pacific War. 1944 1Jan LtGen Alexander A. Vandegrift becomes 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2Jan U.S. Army troops land at Saidor, New Guinea. 31Jan-7Feb U.S. forces assault and capture Kwajalein and Majuro 16-17Feb Task Force 58 strikes Truk, revealing weakness of that base. 17-22Feb U.S. forces assault and capture Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshalls. 20Feb-28Mar U.S. forces assault and capture the main islands of the Admiralties. 6Mar 1st Marine Division lands near Talasea on New Britain in the Bismarcks. 12Mar JCS issue directives to CinCPOA and CinCSWPA regarding future operations in their respective areas. 22Apr U.S. Army troops land at Aitape and Hollandia in northern New Guinea, beginning drive up the coast. 6Jun Allied forces invade the continent of Europe at Normandy.
Joint War Plans Committee issues study establishing 1945 Pacific invasion schedule for planning purposes.
15Jun-9Jul U.S. forces assault and capture Saipan in the Marianas. 19-20Jun Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japanese naval air arm suffers decisive defeat. 18Jul Premier Hideki Tojo resigns. 21Jul-10Aug U.S. forces assault and capture Guam in the Marianas. 24Jul-1Aug VAC troops assault and capture Tinian in the Marianas.
26-29Jul Adm Nimitz and Gen MacArthur meet with President Roosevelt at Pearl Harbor to determine future Pacific strategy. 11-16Sep At OCTAGON Conference in Quebec, CCS establish a new schedule of Pacific operations. Kyushu to be invaded in October and Honshu in December 1945. 15Sep U.S. Army troops assault and capture Morotai in the Netherlands East Indies. 15-30Sep U.S. forces assault and capture Peleliu and Angaur in the Palaus. 23Sep U.S. Army troops seize Ulithi Atoll in the Western Carolines. 3Oct JCS direct Adm Nimitz to invade Ryukyus (Operation ICEBERG) two months following Iwo Jima operation. 9Oct CinCPOA issues warning order for ICEBERG. 10Oct First U.S. carrier raid on Okinawa. 14Oct VAC directed to prepare plans for Iwo Jima operation. 20Oct U.S. Army troops land on Leyte in the Philippines. 21Oct Marine Carrier Groups, AirFMFPac, activated at MCAS, Santa Barbara, California. 23-25Oct Battle of Leyte Gulf. U.S. naval forces eliminate Japanese surface fleet as a major threat. 25Oct CinCPOA issues Joint Staff Study outlining plans for Okinawa operation. 28Oct CNO directs the formation of the Marine Air Support Division. 24Nov Saipan-based B-29s bomb Tokyo in the first attack on the Japanese capital by land-based planes. 25Nov CinCPOA issues operation plan for invasion of Iwo Jima; tentative date is set for 3Feb45. 15Dec U.S. Army troops invade Mindoro in the Philippines. 25Dec Leyte declared secure. 1945 2Jan U.S. Army landings on east and west coasts of Mindoro. 3Jan ComFifthFlt issues Opln 1-45 for Okinawa operation. 6Jan Tenth Army Tentative Opln 1-45 for ICEBERG issued. 9Jan Sixth Army lands in Lingayen Gulf area of Luzon. 15-16Jan TF 38 carrier aircraft raid Formosa, Hong Kong, Hainan, and Swatow. 24Jan Combined air-sea bombardment of Iwo Jima. 25Jan First support mission flown by Marine dive bombers in the Philippines. 29 Jan U.S. Army forces land on Luzon at Subic Bay. 16Feb Final operation plan for Okinawa issued by Tenth Army. 16-17Feb TF 38 aircraft raid Tokyo area. 17Feb Joint Expeditionary Force for Okinawa assembles and begins rehearsals. 19 Feb-16Mar VAC assaults and captures Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands. 1Mar B-29s and carrier-based planes begin preliminary air bombardments of Okinawa. 10 Mar U.S. Army troops land on Mindanao. 11Mar Gen Buckner places Tenth Army Opln 1-45 into effect by dispatch.
18-19Mar TF 58 strikes Kyushu, Kure, and Inland Sea areas. 19Mar USS Block Island, first Marine escort carrier commissioned, departs San Diego for war duty in the Pacific with MCVG-1 embarked. 21Mar Western Islands Attack Group carrying assault troops of 77th Infantry Division sorties from Leyte Gulf for the opening phase of ICEBERG. 23Mar Carrier strikes, intensive surface bombardment, underwater demolition, and minesweeping operations begin preinvasion preparations against Okinawa. 24Mar Preassault staging of ICEBERG force begins. 26-31Mar 77th Infantry Division assaults and captures Kerema Retto and Keise Shima. 26Mar TF 57 begins first of 10 attacks between this date and 20Apr against Sakashima Gunto. 27Mar Transport and covering forces of the Joint Expeditionary Force sortie from Leyte Gulf and Ulithi for ICEBERG.
Demonstration Group, carrying troops of 2d Marine Division, leaves Saipan.
1Apr Tenth Army, comprised of IIIAC and XXIV Corps makes unopposed landing on Okinawa; Yontan and Kadena airfields secured. 2Apr Forward elements of the 7th Infantry Division reach the eastern coast of Okinawa, severing the island. 3Apr 1st Marine Division troops reach the east coast. 5Apr Reconnaissance of the Eastern Islands begins. 6Apr XXIV Corps divisions first encounter strong enemy resistance on the southern front. 6-7Apr First of ten major Kamikaze attacks mounted on Allied shipping in waters off Okinawa. 7Apr TAF aircraft begin operations from Okinawa fields. TF 58 planes sink Yamato, Yahagi, and four Japanese destroyers in the Battle of the East China Sea. 8Apr Gen Mulcahy, commanding TAF, assumes control of aircraft ashore. 9-10Apr 3/105 of the 27th Infantry Division assaults and captures Tsugen Shima, the only defended island in the Eastern Islands group. 10Apr 27th Infantry Division (less 3/105) lands on Okinawa to reinforce XXIV Corps. 2d Marine Division returns to Saipan. 11Apr Heavy Kamikaze attacks mounted against TF 58. 12Apr President Roosevelt dies, is succeeded by Vice President Truman. 15-16Apr TF 58 aircraft raid Kyushu. 16Apr 77th Infantry Division invades Ie Shima. 18Apr Gen Buckner establishes his CP on Okinawa. 81st Infantry Division released as Area Reserve by CinCPOA. 19Apr XXIV Corps begins major assault against outer ring of Shuri defenses. 20Apr 6th Marine Division troops capture Motobu Peninsula. 22Apr Phase II of ICEBERG completed with end of all organized major resistance in northern Okinawa and Ie Shima. Phase I continues.
29Apr German and Italian troops in northern Italy surrender to Allied troops. 30Apr 1st Marine Division begins relief of 27th Infantry Division on right (west) of Tenth Army line.
77th Infantry Division relieves the 96th Infantry Division in XXIV Corps zone.
3-4May Attempted Thirty-second Army counterlanding on west coast of Okinawa blunted. 4May 27th Infantry Division relieves 6th Marine Division in northern Okinawa. 7May IIIAC takes over the western zone of the Tenth Army front in southern Okinawa.
Nazi Germany surrenders unconditionally.
8May First elements of the 6th Marine Div enter IIIAC lines. 11May Tenth Army launches coordinated attack across entire front. 12May Tori Shima occupied 13-14May Task Force 58 strikes launched against Kyushu. 17May Adm Hill relieves Adm Turner as control of all forces ashore passes to Gen Buckner, who assumes responsibility to ComFifthFlt for defense and development of captured positions. 20 May-4Jun Bulk of Japanese Thirty-second Army withdraws under cover of rain from the Shuri bastion to new positions in Kiyamu Peninsula. 21 May 7th Infantry Division recommitted on the east coast to encircle Shuri. 24 May Japanese airborne suicide group lands on Yontan airfield; all enemy destroyed. 24-25 May 6th Marine Division moves to outskirts of Naha. 7th Infantry Division advances on Yonabaru. 25 May JCS direct the invasion of Japan, Operation OLYMPIC, with a target date of 1Nov45. 26 May Enemy movement south of Shuri observed by spotter planes. 27 May Third Fleet relieves Fifth Fleet. Gen Buckner now directly responsible to CinCPOA for operations of the Tenth Army. 30 May 5th Marines captures Shuri Castle. 2Jun VAC reports by dispatch to Sixth Army for purposes of planning for OLYMPIC. 3-4Jun RCT-8 secures Iheya Shima. 4Jun 6th Marine Division assaults Oroku Peninsula. 9Jun RCT-8 secures Aguni Shima. 11-12Jun Organized resistance ends on Oroku Peninsula. 14Jun JCS order commanders in Pacific to prepare plans for immediate occupation of Japan. 18Jun Gen Buckner killed in action; Gen Geiger assumes command of Tenth Army. 21Jun Organized resistance ends on Okinawa. 22Jun Official flag-raising ceremony at Tenth Army headquarters marking capture of Okinawa. 23Jun Gen Stilwell assumes command of Tenth Army. 30Jun Completion of the mop-up of southern Okinawa. General Rockey relieves Gen Geiger as commander of IIIAC. FMFPac Reconnaissance Battalion secures Kume Shima.
1Jul Marine escort carriers support Allied landings on Balikpapan.
TF 51 dissolved by CinCPOA: Gen Stilwell assumes responsibility for defense and development of Okinawa Gunto.
3Jul Gen Geiger relieves Gen Smith as commander of FMFPac. 5Jul Philippines campaign declared ended. 10Jul TF 58 aircraft mount strike against Tokyo. 15Jul IIIAC detached from Tenth Army and placed under operational control of FMFPac. 16Jul Atomic bomb successfully tested at Los Alamos [sic: Alamogordo], New Mexico. 26Jul Allies issue Potsdam Declaration. 1Aug Heaviest B-29 raid in war on Japan. 4Aug 27th Infantry Division reaches Hedo Misaki, ending three and a half-month mopping up action in northern Okinawa. 6Aug Tinian-based B-29 drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 8Aug ComThirdFlt Opln 10-45 for the occupation of Japan is distributed. 9Aug Tinian-based B-29 drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
Russia invades Manchuria.
10Aug Japan sues for peace. 14Aug 4th Marines (Reinforced), comprising the Yokosuka Landing Force, departs Guam for Japan. 15Aug Hostilities against Japan officially suspended. 21Aug CinCPac issues warning order to IIIAC for occupation of North China. 27Aug Ships of the Third Fleet enter Sagami Wan. 28Aug Task Force 31 enters Tokyo Bay.
First advance units of occupation force land at Atsugi Airfield.
30Aug L-Day for the occupation of Yokosuka. Marines of 2/4 land on Futtsu Saki at 0558. General Clement accepts surrender of Yokosuka Naval Base.
Army airborne units land at Atsugi to occupy Yokohama area.
Gen MacArthur lands in Japan.
1Sep VAC headquarters departs Hawaiian Islands for occupation of Kyushu. 2Sep Japanese Empire formally surrenders to Allies in ceremonies on board USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. 6Sep Disbandment of Fleet Landing Force. Marine component returns to duty as ships' detachments. 7Sep Gen Stilwell accepts the surrender of the Japanese Ryukyus garrisons signifying the beginning of American political hegemony in Okinawa. 19Sep Led by Gen Worton, IIIAC advance party departs Guam for North China. 22Sep 5th Marine Division arrives and lands at Sasebo. 23Sep First elements of 2d Marine Division (2d and 6th Marines) land at Nagasaki.
6th Marine Division (less 4th Marines) begins loading operations at Guam for deployment to China.
24Sep Gen Krueger, commander of the Sixth Army, assumes command of all occupation forces ashore on Kyushu.
Gen Worton and his party arrive in Tientsin.
26Sep IIIAC, less the 6th Division, departs Okinawa for China. 29Sep VAC publishes the operation order for occupation of Fukuoka. 30Sep IIIAC, including the 1st Marine Division and attached units, arrives at Taku Bar and begin unloading for occupation duties.
Leading elements of Fukuoka Occupation Force under command of Gen Robinson arrive in Fukuoka.
1Oct 1/7 lands at Chinwangtao. 6Oct In Tientsin, Gen Rockey accepts the surrender of the 50,000 Japanese troops in the Tientsin, Tangku, and Chinwangtao areas.
First major armed clash between Marines and Chinese Communists in North China takes place on Tientsin-Peiping road.
1st Marine Aircraft Wing headquarters established at the French Arsenal near the airfield east of Tientsin.
11Oct 6th Marine Division begins landing at Tsingtao. 15Oct IIIAC Corps Shore Brigade disbanded and its duties taken over by 7th Service Regiment, FMFPac. 22Oct First group of Japanese repatriates leave Tientsin for home. 24Oct Fukuoka Occupation Force dissolved when it is relieved by 32d Infantry Division. 25Oct Gen Shepherd and LtGen Chen Pao-Tsang, CNA, acting for the Nationalist government, accept the formal surrender of the Japanese garrison in Tsingtao and on the Shantung Peninsula. 19Nov Repatriation runs begin from Tsingtao. 20Nov 4th Marines detached from administrative control of 6th Division and placed directly under FMFPac.
MAG-22 redeployed from Japan to the United States.
24Nov Control of former 5th Marine Division zone of responsibility in Japan passes to 2d Marine and 32d Infantry Divisions as the 5th prepares for redeployment home. 28Nov 4th Marine Division disbanded at Camp Pendleton. 5Dec First ships carrying 5th Division troops leave Japan. 24Dec Gen Shepherd relieved by Gen Howard as commander of the 6th Marine Division. 28Dec 3d Marine Division (less 1/3 in the Bonins and 2/21 on Truk) disbanded on Guam. 31Dec VAC relieved of all occupation duties. Eighth Army assumes command of all occupation troops in Japan.
3d Marine Aircraft Wing disbanded at Ewa, T.H.
1946 8Jan VAC departs Sasebo for San Diego. 21 Jan 2d Marine Division relieves 32d Infantry Division of occupation duties on Kyushu. 5Feb 5th Marine Division disbanded at Camp Pendleton. 11Feb 2d Marine Division reduced to peacetime strength when third battalion of each infantry regiment and last lettered battery of each artillery battalion relieved of occupation duties and sent home for disbandment. 14Feb IIIAC issues operation plan for the reduction of its forces to conform to new Marine Corps peacetime tables of organization.
15Feb VAC disbanded at San Diego. 11Mar IIIAC directs the formation of six liaison teams for assignment to Executive Headquarters to supervise the truce in China. 26 Mar 6th Marine Division disbanded at Tsingtao. 31 Mar 4th Marine Aircraft Wing disbanded at San Diego.
9th Marine Aircraft Wing disbanded at Cherry Point.
1Apr 3d Marine Brigade activated at Tsingtao. 15Apr 1st Marine Division completes redeployment in Hopeh. 17Apr Gen Howard relinquishes command of 3d Brigade to Gen Clement. 10Jun IIIAC Corps Headquarters and Corps Troops disbanded.
Gen Rockey becomes CG, 1st Marine Division (Reinforced) and Marine Forces, China, the latter a task force designation for the division and 1st Wing.
3d Marine Brigade disbanded at Tsingtao. Most of its organic units now comprise 4th Marines (Reinforced) or Marine Forces, Tsingtao, with Gen Clement commanding.
15Jun 2d Marine Division relieved of occupation duties in Japan by 24th Infantry Div. 24Jun 2d Marine Division headquarters departs Sasebo for its new home at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. 15Jul With departure of last repatriation ship from Tangku, more than 540,000 Japanese have been repatriated from North China under Marine supervision. 29Jul Chinese Communists ambush a Peiping-bound Marine supply convoy at Anping. 3Sep 4th Marines, less 3/4, embarks for Norfolk to become a component of the 2d Marine Division.
Marine Forces, Tsingtao, disbanded, and 3/4 (Reinforced) comes under operational control of Commander, Naval Facilities, Tsingtao.
18Sep Gen Howard relieves Gen Rockey as commander of 1st Marine Division. 30Sep Last relief of Marine rail guards by Nationalist troops takes place. 30Oct Chinese Communists stage raid on 1st Marine Division ammunition supply point at Hsin Ho. 16Dec Activation of FMFLant at Camp Lejeune, with the commander of the 2d Marine Division assigned additional duties as CG, FMFLant. 1947 5Jan 7th Marines embarks and sails from Chinwangtao for the United States, reporting to FMFPac for operational and administrative control. 18Jan 11th Marines, in company with the 1st Tank Battalion (-), sails from Chinwangtao for Guam. 5Apr Marine ammunition supply point at Hsin Ho struck again by Chinese Communists in even greater force. 1May FMFWesPac activated at Tsingtao with Gen Pfeiffer in command. AirFMFWesPac activated the same date with Col Hart commanding.
12May Marine activities in Hopeh reduced and center in Tientsin as last motor convoy carrying 5th Marines gear clears Peiping and the regiment sails from China for Guam. 20May 1st Marines depart Tientsin for Tsingtao. 20Jun 1st Marine Division headquarters and detached units depart China for San Diego, leaving behind the division rear echelon, which reports to FMFWesPac for operational control. 1Sep 1st Marine Division rear echelon departs China. 1949 23 Jan AirFMFWesPac ceases flight operations at Tsangkou Field, as last shore-based Marine planes fly out of China. 8Feb Major portion of FMFWesPac departs Tsingtao for United States. 26 May Last Marines leave China, as elements of Company C, 7th Marines, depart Tsingtao on board USS Manchester. --818--
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