The Tidal Area is on the south shore of Suisun Bay, immediately northwest of the town of Port Chicago, in Contra Costa County, approximately 35 miles northeast of San Francisco.
The Inland area is approximately three miles southwest of the Tidal Area and two miles northeast of the town of Concord, in Contra Costa County, approximately 32 miles northeast of San Francisco.
The station is served by the Southern Pacific, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and Sacramento & Northern railroads.
Inland Area (Approximately 6300 acres -- Navy owned)
3 piers, 1100; berthing space each, (6 berths), accommodating deep draught vessels (M.L.L.W. 30').
1 barge pier 250' long accommodating 4 lighters (M.L.L.W. 20')
Additional mooring facilities for 6 lighters (M.L.L.W. 20').
A total of 40 barricaded sidings accommodating a total of 298 cars as follows:
9 Inert Storage Buildings.
Returned Ammunition Segregation Facilities.
Battery Charging Building and Electric Shop.
Tidal Area Administration Building (teletypewrite and telephone switchboard -- Port Chicago 540).
Pump House for fire pumps.
Civilian Employment Office and Labor Board Branch.
Miscellaneous shops and auxiliary facilities.
U. S. Naval Barracks, including:
2 Commissary Buildings accommodating approximately 4,500 enlisted men.
2 Boiler Houses.
BOQ, accommodating 74 officers (mess facilities for 74).
Recreation Building, combined auditorium, movie theatre, and gymnasium, swimming pool. pool room, bowling alleys, exercise room, and Ships Service shops, soda fountain and store.
Laundry and Dry Cleaning Buildings.
Naval Barracks Administration Building.
Miscellaneous Shops and auxiliary facilities.
All buildings in the Tidal Area are of temporary construction except the Returned Ammunition Segregation facilities, Brig, Fire House, and Joiner Shop.
A federal war housing project for civilians accommodating 250 families is located in the town of Port Chicago (Knox Park).
93 gun ammunition magazines.
60 high explosive magazines.
10 fuse and detonator magazines.
6 black powder magazines.
2 smoke drum magazines.
1 Mk 8 depth charge test building.
10 inert storage buildings.
30 5-car high explosive barricades accommodating a total of 150 cars.
(11 additional 5-car barricades with rail and road access under construction at this writing.)
1 surveillance test building.
Principal station Administration Building (teletypewriter and telephone switchboard -- Concord 6461).
Marine Barracks quartering and messing 300 men, with self-contained recreation facilities.
Dispensary and Dental Clinic.
One combined ships building.
One locomotive storage building.
One paint shop.
One electric battery charging building.
One N.S.A. storehouse.
One Boiler House.
Miscellaneous auxiliary buildings and facilities.
All facilities in the Inland Area are of permanent construction except the depth charge test building, three wings of the dispensary, field office, and civilian lunchroom.
A limited number of officers' quarters are being provided -- exact number not yet determined.
There is a government housing project at Concord (Eniwetok Village) accommodating 216 families. This housing is reserved for Naval personnel, both officer and enlisted, preference being given to those with longest overseas service.
Within the two areas of the station and between same, there is a total of approximately 100 miles of Navy-owned railroad trackage, including three classification yards with a capacity of approximately 650 cars. Direct connection with the Southern pacific is available in he Tidal Area. Direct connection with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe (and the Sacramento and Northern via the ATSF) is available to the Inland Area. Approximately 45 miles of the above Navy-owned railroad was originally the Bay point - Clayton R.R., serving the town of Cowell. It was taken over and operated by the Navy as of 1 July 1945.
Both areas are served by either railroad by means of a Navy-owned overpass which bridges the Southern Pacific and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe main lines.
Interchange facilities for all three railroads are also available in the yards of the town of Port Chicago.
Interchange facilities between the Sacramento and Northern and Inland Area are also available just south of the town of Clyde.
An extensive system of roads services all facilities.
Shipments and deliveries may be effected by rail, truck, or water.
There is a joint Army-Navy flying field approximately two miles west of Concord, between the towns of Concord and Pacheco.
Regular commercial passenger bus service is available at Port Chicago, for San Francisco, Oakland and other cities in the Bay Area, as well as to the Navy Yard at Mare Island, Pittsburg, Antioch, Sacramento and other San Joaquin and Sacramento Valley points.
Establishment of the Naval Magazine, Port Chicago, was the outgrowth of a confidential report made by a board on "Terminal Facilities for Shipment of Explosives -- San Francisco Bay Area" A16-1/NTSI(24) (SG_ (1952-14-sm-ku of 9 Dec 1941 to Com12). Procurement of site was inaugurated and construction began in February 1942, under the cognizance of the Public Works Officer of the Twelfth Naval District and the Commanding Officer, Naval Ammunition Depot, Mare Island.
In the early stages there were considerable differences of opinion between the various interested parties as to the nature, extent and design of facilities required for the accomplishment of the purpose in mind.
Initial facilities provided included the following major structures:
A barge pier 250 ft. long accommodating four (4) lighters.
27 barricaded sidings accommodating a total of 203 cars, 10 of which contain 5 inset magazines each.
9 inert storage buildings.
Converted existing structures adapted for a combined Magazine Administration Building and BOQ; a Marine Barracks; a machine shop and combined fire pump house and electric shop.
4 Barracks buildings -- capacity 232 enlisted personnel each.
1 Commissary building.
1 Boiler house.
1 Combination Naval Barracks Administration Building, BOQ, Dispensary, and Ship's service store.
Miscellaneous auxiliary structures.
Initial facilities were completed so that operations could begin 30 November 1942.
The first cars of ammunition for transshipment arrived the first week in December and the first ship, the SS BREWER, moored at 1200, 8 Dec. 1942, to load approximately 3800 tons of anti-aircraft ammunition for Epic (Noumea, New Caledonia).
The actual loading operations began 9 December 1942, and the first ship was loaded and sailed at 1500, on 13 Dec. 1942.
All loading and handling operations were performed by Naval personnel (100% colored enlisted Ordnance battalions), supervised by officers and small group of trained civilian ordnancemen made available from Naval Ammunition Depot, Mare Island, California. Maintenance work and operation of locomotives and cranes was performed by civil service employees.
After the first two months of operations it became apparent that the loading platforms at the ships pier were too narrow for efficient and safe handling of ammunition. Consequently, in March 1943 the loading platform on the inboard berth was moved and joined to the outboard loading platform, thereby providing a 20 ft. loading platform with resulting increased efficiency and safety. To accomplish this, one railroad track on the ships pier was sacrificed and the inboard berth no longer was available for loading. However, during the 11-month period from 1 December 1942 to 31 October 1943, it was only necessary to load a total of 39 ships, or a total of approximately 115,000 tons and one berth was ample for the work load.
On 1 July 1943, cognizance of new construction at Port Chicago was transferred from the Public Works Officer, Twelfth Naval District to the Public Works Officer, Mare Island.
Anticipating an increase in tonnage to be loaded at Port Chicago in the future, recommendations were made in the spring of 1943 to construct a marginal wharf inboard of the first pier to accommodate an additional two vessels. However, no action was taken on this proposal until approximately November 1943, when the Commandant, Twelfth Naval District, visited Port Chicago.
As a result of this visit and apparent need of increased loading capacity at Port Chicago, construction of the marginal wharf was expedited. Meanwhile, as an expedient to get two berths in operation at pier #1 in the shortest possible time, it was concluded to widen both the inboard and outboard berths ten (10) feet each, thereby permitting 20 feet loading platforms at each berth and enabling two ships to load simultaneously.
Work on this widening was instituted shortly thereafter with loading operations continuing at one berth while the other was being widened. The widening of the berths was completed so that two ships could be simultaneously loaded for the first time on 10 May 1944. Also by that time work was well under way on the marginal wharf, together with 13 additional barricades to accommodate an additional 95 cars and five additional barracks buildings.
Early in 1944 the Inland Area project was contemplated as a permanent Magazine for stowage of ammunition and high explosives. By April a survey had been made and actual plans drawn. After consultation with representatives from BuOrd, a request was sent to BuDocks to acquire the land. This request was approved in June.
Expansion program at that time also included a combined Auditorium, Gymnasium, and Recreation Building, a BOQ to accommodate 74 officers, and construction of twenty (20) magazines in the Tidal Area, also barracks and messing facilities to accommodate the increased personnel required to load four ships simultaneously.
On 17 July 1944, the S.S. A. E. Bryan and the S.S. Quinault Victory were berthed at ship pier #1. The A. E. Bryan was almost completely loaded with ammunition, while the Quinault Victory had just berthed and was being rigged for loading.
At about 2200, two explosions, a few seconds apart, took place at the pier, causing complete destruction of both ships, the pier, all buildings and equipment on the pier, and a marginal wharf (pier #2), at that time under construction and approximately 80% completed. A U.S.C.G. fire barge moored at the pier was also destroyed. The explosion caused considerable damage to buildings on the station and in the vicinity.
A total of 319 people were killed and 255 injured. All fatalities, however, were confined to persons either on board the ships or on the pier.
Assistance was quickly rushed from nearby towns, the casualties were given first aid and removed to hospitals, and the majority of the remaining personnel evacuated to nearby stations.
For further details of the explosion see "War Diary, U.S. Naval Magazine, Port Chicago" dated 31 July 1944 and the report of the Court of Inquiry appointed by the Commandant of the Twelfth Naval District to investigate the facts surrounding the explosion.
As a result of visits by representatives of the Bureau of Ordnance shortly thereafter, plans for the future development and expansion of Port Chicago were outlined as follows:
Accomplishment of the foregoing expansion program was begun immediately thereafter, and proceeded with dispatch.
Following the explosion, the first berth at pier #2 was completed and became available 6 September 1944, the second berth at pier #2 6 October 1944, and berths #3 and #4, pier #3, 3 January 1945.
By 20 January 1945, construction of the Inland Area had progressed to the extent that the first group of 20 HE magazines and the first row of 15 gun ammunition magazines were available for use.
Berths #5 and #6, pier #4, were completed and available for use 1 April 1945. However, insufficient personnel was available for the simultaneous loading of six vessels until 1 June 1945. Also by 1 June 1945, most of the facilities in the Inland Area were completed and in use. As of 15 August 1945, the following facilities had not yet been completed or accepted:
As of 15 August 1945 a total of approximately 809,195 tons of ammunition and HE has been loaded in 178 deep draught vessels since the start of operations at this Magazine. Operating 6 berths with about 40% vacancy, tonnage was being loaded at the rate of 58,000 tons per month. Approximately 4000 tons a month was being handled at the barge pier. Approximately 2,754 railroad cars were being received monthly and approximately 35,000 tons per month was being handled in and out of magazines in the Inland Area.
For the past twelve months the vast majority of ships at Port Chicago have been loaded for selective discharge in contrast to the period prior to that time when most ships were block stowed. Ship loading at Port Chicago has been characterized by a great variety of types of ammunition handled. While other loading stations have loaded greater quantities of ammunition, it is doubted that other loading stations have been required to handle as many diversified types of ammunition as Port Chicago, or to load as many types of ammunition in one vessel. At times there have been as many as 175 items to a 7,000 ton load for selective discharge.
In compliance with BuOrd letter S78(A) dated 31 August 1944, a ship loading safety organization (Coast Guard) was established 17 February 1945 (Station Order NO. 10-45, dated 17 Feb. 1945), enclosure #2.
Estimated oversea loading rate at this station with 6 berths in operation is better than 100,000 tons a month. It is believed no difficulties will be encountered in loading at this rate, provided that arrival of ships can be regularly scheduled to efficiently utilize the available berthing capacity and that arrival of cargo can be controlled and coordinated with the scheduled loading period of the respective vessels.
As outlined in BuOrd letter N21-10/S78 pr 6D/10 May 1945, it is anticipated that full operation of the Inland Area at Port Chicago will largely eliminate the storage and issue of all serviceable types of ammunition, including high explosives, at Naval Ammunition Depot, Mare Island. Furthermore, with the restrictions imposed on transporting high explosive through the Navy Yard, Mare Island, and other points in the San Francisco Bay Area, Port Chicago has become the principal ammunition loading port and storage point for ammunition and high explosives on the Pacific Coast.
| :||1 January 1943||--||18|
|1 July 1943||--||27|
|1 January 1944||82||44|
|1 July 1944||82||71|
|1 January 1945||82||86|
|1 July 1945||168||152|
|15 August 1945||168||152|
|1 December 1942||402||525|
|1 June 1943||612||514|
|1 January 1944||2059||706|
|1 July 1944||2059||1431|
|1 January 1945||2646||2168|
|1 July 1945||2790||3667|
|15 August 1945||2790||3908|
|1 January 1943||--||59|
|1 July 1943||---||52|
|1 January 1944||---||70|
|1 July 1944||---||106|
|1 January 1945||---||95|
|1 July 1945||---||215|
|15 August 1945||---||215|
|1 January 1943||(no ceiling)||87|
|1 July 1943||"||107|
|1 January 1944||"||142|
|1 July 1944||"||231|
|1 January 1945||"||336|
|1 July 1945||"||609|
|15 August 1945||"||651|
|(e)||Coast Guard Officers|
|17 February 1945||14||---|
|21 February 1945||14||---|
|5 May 1945||14||12|
|1 July 1945||14||11|
|15 August 1945||14||14|
|(f)||Coast Guard Enlisted Men|
|17 February 1945||252||---|
|21 February 1945||252||81|
|1 July 1945||252||195|
|15 August 1945||252||254|
|(g)||Loading Figures by Years|
(Into Vessels for Overseas Shipment)
|9 December 1942--31 December 1943||142,261 tons|
|1 January 1944--31 December 1944||220,316 tons|
|1 January 1945--10 August 1945||346,618 tons|
In the early days of shiploading operations the morale of men and officers at this base was extremely low. Some of the contributing factors were:
Furthermore, at the outset, due to lack of sufficient properly indoctrinated officers, there was a certain amount of friction between the officers assigned to the Magazine and those assigned to the Naval Barracks. These two groups were quartered and messed some distance apart. Also the officer responsible for Magazine activities was junior to the Commanding Officer of the Naval Barracks. This unfortunate condition led to an overlapping and misunderstanding of various responsibilities, with a definite lack of integration between the two groups.
This situation was considerably improved when the combined BOQ was completed in July 1944. The necessary intermingling in these quarters, the additions to the recreational facilities, and the addition of a large group of new officers all tended toward an improvement in morale.
After the explosion on 17 July 1944, due to the razing of the barracks buildings, several divisions of men were sent to Camp Shoemaker for billeting. Because the Port Chicago facilities were totally destroyed, and in an effort to continue the shipping of ammunition, these men were later sent to Mare Island to load ship. On 9 August 1944 when first ordered to the docks for this work, there was a concerted refusal of duty on the part of 3 colored divisions. The Commandant of the Twelfth Naval District personally addressed this entire group on the following day after which 206 men returned to duty, while 50 continued their refusal. The 206 men who returned to duty were given Summary Courts Martial for refusal to obey orders, while the 50 who continued their refusal were tried by General Court Martial on the charge of mutiny. All men involved in this occurrence were Negroes.
As the shiploading operations progressed, the need for better trained personnel to handle explosives became apparent, and steps were taken to establish a training department. The primary need among the enlisted personnel was for experienced winchmen and hatch tenders; therefore, in October 1943 the building of a training rig was started. The structure represented two small holds of a ship with Liberty-ship-type booms and rigging. By February 1944 the structure was equipped with steam winches for one hold, and training of station personnel began. In September 1944 a more elaborate and comprehensive training program was established, and an electric winch was installed at the second hold. The program for officers included lectures on different types of ordnance, proper handling and stowage of ammunition, and safety precautions. The training of enlisted men included a series of films on ammunition handling and identification, practical work in winch driving and hatch tending, electric lift truck operation, and ship rigging. Lectures were also given on safety precautions. In addition to training men assigned to the Magazine, these facilities were also used for the training of men from ships berthed at Port Chicago for loading. In May 1945 ComWesSeaFron began to send men to be trained as winchmen and hatch tenders for W.S.A. ammunition ships. In the same month ammunition handling units of 100 men each began to arrive for six week training periods. Practical training in ammunition handling was given at this Magazine while checkers were sent to NAD MI for instruction. Approximately 200 winchmen and hatch tenders were trained for W.S.A. ammunition ships and about 500 ammunition handlers in units during the period from May to August 1945. In April 1945 a special training program was inaugurated for the teaching of reading and writing to about two hundred illiterates.
To enable the responsible officials of the future to take advantage of the successes of the current war and avoid its mistakes, the following are considered the most significant lessons learned at this station:
* Subsequently established as a separate command.
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Compiled and formatted by Patrick Clancey