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Excerpts from current articles of interest to naval personnel


Mosaic of Hell

Europe was prepared to outlive defeat and betrayal, nazis and quislings. It was not prepared for its ultimate ordeal, how to survive liberation. For liberated Europe is fed, clothed and sheltered worse even than under German occupation.

Europe's want seems universal and bottomless. It has a thousand faces; it is as petty as lack of matches, as humiliating as lack of soap, as heartbreaking as a child's cry for bread. Even in regions where food is relatively ample, as in Normandy, the people are destitute. The American Quakers, again at war with suffering, made a meticulous survey of Normandy five months after invasion. Their conclusions add up to a mosaic of petty hell.

Abundance of food. No pots or stoves. All remaining trucks and cars demobilized for utter lack of fuel and tires. No window glass. No shoes or blankets. Hundreds of thousands of people without a change of underwear . . .

What happened to France in 1944 happened, or is going to happen,, to all of Europe. When governments of liberation step into territory that has for years been exposed to German social engineering, three gigantic booby traps are set to explode under their feet: production collapses, distribution collapses, currency collapses.

The result of this threefold collapse is the black market. However, not even the black market can perform miracles: it cannot sell goods that have not been produced, and it cannot, sell to people who lack purchasing, power. And in all liberated Europe, industrial production is paralyzed, unemployment is at an all-time high . . .

Yet France is faring better than Belgium. The Belgian people are undernourished, in dire need of animal proteins. Their splendid textile factories are locked up, lacking imports of raw materials, though Europe needs clothing perhaps even more urgently than food . . .

The people in the Netherlands are close to utter starvation. Last February the official daily ration in Amsterdam had dropped to 320 calories a day. And the land itself has been partly corroded. Where sea water has flooded cultivated land, years of sweat will have to undo what the salt did to the earth in a few weeks.

But in the Balkans and in Poland man has hurt man more cruelly than the sea could ever hurt the land. These had been the areas of least industrial contribution to the Nazi war machine, and they had been treated accordingly. Here the Germans just took and took-grain for their stockades, women for their brothels . . .

To make European rehabilitation a success, three things must be available: supplies, shipping and, above all, an American rehabilitation policy . . . (This policy) has to apply the fundamental law of battle - to concentrate superior strength in selected crucial spots. The superior American forces are tools, raw materials and technological efficiency. The crucial spots have already been selected . . .

The United States did not accept the lack of materials and shipping as apology for not winning the war. Both shortages were licked in grand style, simply because the war had to be won. If the United States realizes the urgency of the job, shortages will be licked again, simply because the rehabilitation of Europe is just as important to this country as the libation of Europe. - From "EUROPE: From Freedom to Want," condensed from Fortune, in Reader's Digest for July.

Auto Heaven

On the day when the President announces the end of the war emergency, the Federal Government, in cooperation with the states, will swing into action upon a vast construction program which will give the American people the finest network of express highways, other than main highways, and secondary and feeder roads which the world has ever seen.

These national interstate roads, which will take from 10 to 20 years to complete, will also save thousands of lives annually through the elimination of traffic hazards.

The $3,000,000,000 which is to be spent during the first three years, however, will pay for only a portion of the gigantic project to build a National System of Interstate Highways, modernize many miles of federal-laid highways not on the system, and build a connected system of farm-to-market roads. An over-all expenditure of $10,000,000,000 or more will be needed to complete the Interstate System, and this expenditure will provide not fewer thin 6,247,000 jobs of one year's duration each.

These jobs probably will be required to relieve unemployment during our transition from war to peace, but they will not be needed any more urgently than the new highway system itself.

To achieve this, about 40,000 miles of express highways will be built under the National Interstate plan. These roads, designed for traffic needs 20 years from now, will form direct links between our larger cities and industrial centers.


Rural sections of the highways will vary in width from 2 lanes to 6 lanes, depending upon the volume of traffic anticipated, but in most instances both roadways and right-of-ways will be broader than at present.

Standards recommended to the states provide that there be no hot-dog stands fronting immediately on the main highways, and no filling stations. Such facilities will be located only at selected points were access roads can lead to them.

Twenty-five years ago 30 miles an hour was regarded as sheer recklessness on most highways. Today the average driver hits an average speed of 47 miles per hour when he gets on a good road. The roads which are about to be built will be designed for speeds of 75 miles per hour.

For the generations of Americans coming back from this war, however, and for their sons and daughters, the National Interstate Highway System should prove a motoring paradise. - From "40,000 Miles of Auto Heaven," by Maj. Gen. Philip B. Fleming, Administrator, Federal Works Agency, in American Magazine for August.

A New Jap Shortage

In the breakdown of the total score of 316 Jap planes put out of action [in a two-day strike against Formosa], there were figures which appeared to be highly significant.

On January 3, while destroying, probably destroying and damaging 204 planes on the ground, our fighters had shot down only 27 in the air. On the fourth, while attacking 82 on the ground, our fighters had shot down just three.

Here was dramatic evidence of a phenomenon which our fliers had first noticed over Luzon in December. In the next strikes, the evidence piled up.

On January 6 we began a two-day strike against Luzon . . . Again, not a single Jap plane came within many miles of the task force . . . Again the score in terms of airpower showed that interesting disproportion. It was not particularly marked on the first day, when our fighters encountered 14 planes in the air, as against 47 on the ground. But on the second day, for 160 strafed, our fighters shot down in the air a lonely four Jap planes.

It was the same on the ninth, when we struck Formosa again, and along the Ryukyus as far as Okinawa and le-Jima. The bombers sank or damaged some 50 ships and 60 small craft that day, and the fighters caught 103 planes on the ground. And yet from Formosa to Okinawa our squadrons met so little opposition that at the day's end, the score of Jap planes

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shot down had reached a grand total of five.

This was the phenomen which our fliers had first noticed in Decembera growing reluctance on the part of the Jap air forces to meet carrier planes in combat. Now reluctance had become refusal. The Japs were hiding from us . . .

The phenomenon certainly gave the lie to all our past experience, which had shown the Japs to be almost hysterically agressive fighters. It could be explained partly by the shock effect of any carrier strike, partly by the constant cap, partly by Japan's evertightening shortage of aviation gasoline. But still the explanation needed one more fact to make it complete. The Japs were suffering another shortage. Pilots . . .

Not for a long time had our fliers met opponents as full of courageous guile as the Jap fliers of the early months of the war. Now, it seemed, we were killing off pilots faster than Jap training centers could replace them . . .

In early January, with the scanty pilot material at hand, the Japs almost certainly were figuring that to lose a plane on the ground was a far better bargain than to lose both a plane and a pilot in the air. For us, at the time, it all added up to the fact that the same little men who display the amazing fanaticism of the Kamikaze were running for cover now whenever carrier planes appeared overhead. - From "So We Hit Them in the Belly," by Vice Admiral John Sidney McCain, USN, in The Saturday Evening Post for 21 July.


Foreign Service

Our Ally, China

China is on the way to a unity, a strength and an efficiency that will make her an aggressive and dependable ally. A hard, toilsome way, still thick with obstacles, but the climb is steady. In the final decisive stages of the war, when we will need a continental force to close with the enemy, I have the deep conviction that Chinese armies can be counted on for valuable contribution to the common effort.

These predictions have firmer base than hope or optimism. Today . . . the Chinese army is in process of reorganization, a new merit system is putting competent officials in key places, and the ancient supply service is being overhauled. Thanks to Donald Nelson and other American experts, China has a War Production Board, and order is being brought out of a well-night incredible chaos . . .

Progress is bound to be slow-heartbreakingly slow in all likelihood-and there is the chance that conditions may get worse before they get better. You don't change a country over from medievalism in a few years, and war-torn years at that. China started from miles behind scratch and, in spite of advances, is still behind scratch. But the people have the spirit, and their leadership has the will . . .

The Chinese Navy, at the time of (Jap) invasion, consisted of six cruisers that were little more than training ships, and some 50 gunboats without firepower. Some 250 fighter planes, mostly old models, and a handful of trainers made up the air force. The army, while numbering around 2,000,000, lacked officer personnel schooled in modern combat, and was critically weak in heavy artillery and mechanized equipment.

Aside from being inadequately armed, the troops were poorly clothed and half fed. Wearing only thin cotton uniforms in better weather, soldiers tramped through snow in bare feet. Under an antiquated system of supply, the regular rice ration was supposed to be supplemented from money supplied to division commanders . . . Often supplies were miles removed from troop concentrations and there were only human carriers . . . To this day I marvel that the Chinese managed to do as well as they did. - From "Don't Count China Out," by Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer as told to George Creel, in Collier's for 7 July.

Home-Buyer, Beware

In the next few years many unwary home-buyers, including many returning veterans, are going to endanger their financial futures. Houses bought in haste will provide unhappy places in which to repent at leisure; so the wary buyer will move slowly . . . He will consider not only the present needs of his family but its probable future needs. He will appraise the special dangers of buying in the present hectic market. He will make his final decision only after he has considered all the possible alternatives by which his housing problem can be met.

No one doubts that we will have a building boom after the war. The question is, what kind of housing will be built? Unless a sizable portion of the new construction is in houses and apartments for rent, we may get a large crop of disillusioned homeowners patching up shoddily built dream homes that cost a good deal more than they were worth. Operative builders quick to cash in on the shortage will throw together houses in pretty subdivisions, spotted with model homes, spick and span in their white paint, fresh shrubs, and furnishings lent by the local department store. With no attractive place to rent, families will find the temptation to buy almost irresistible. Under such conditions home-hunting families might best shelter wherever and however they can - in whatever niche or cranny they can stuff themselves into - until the situation eases and good housing becomes available . . .

Buying a house is the largest single purchase most men ever make. If the man who can safely buy is sold an honest home by honest methods, the tradition of home ownership will perhaps fulfill its promises. But if too many families are hoodwinked by overselling we may someday look back upon the nineteen forties as those fabulous days when men were fools enough to buy their own homes. - From "Don't Get Stuck With a House," by John P. Dean, in Harper's for July.

"Disabled" Drivers?

One of the first questions asked by the 12,500 veterans of this war who have lost arms or legs is: "Will I be able to drive a car again?"

Last week . . . in cars equipped with simple supplemental controls designed by the War Engineering Board of the Society of Automotive Engineers, amputees from the Percy Jones General Hospital, Battle Creek, Mich., raced, reversed, stopped, and parked expertly enough to pass the most rigid license inspection.

Started in July 1944 . . . the project involved a study of all driving aids developed in recent years in America and abroad, as well as the invention of new gadgets to fit all makes of cars, old and new models. Many can be installed without interfering with normal operation of the car.

Among the driving aids are:

Preparation for driving is speeded up by practical muscular training . . . Because of this workout, the handicapped man is said to be in better physical condition than the average civilian driver and, with some practice, he can handle a car just as skillfully. - From "Driving for the Disabled," in Newsweek for 9 July.

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This column is open to unofficial communications from within the Naval Service on matters of general interest. However, it is not intended to conflict in any way with Navy Regulations regarding the forwarding of official mail through channels, nor is it to substitute for the policy of obtaining information from local commands in all possible instances. Communications which violate these provisions may be returned via official channels. Do not send postage or return envelopes; no private reply will be made.


SIR: Recently my parents received a letter which offered for sale a set of photographs which was supposed to contain pictures of the ship on which I am serving as well as photographs of an overseas base where I previously had duty. Naturally, they were eager to get these souvenirs.

The package came COD and cost $12.50. When they opened it, they found it contained useless pictures of natives and familiar scenes overseas, plus a photograph of a ship similar to the one on which I am serving.

I am writing to you so that you may call this fraud to the attention of others who may receive similar offers. -B.R.J., S1c, USNR.

Recent investigation by the Post Office Department has disclosed that numerous civilians and servicemen in the States have been requested by letter to buy at prices ranging front $2.50 to $15.00 sets of photographs similar to those which you describe. Personnel are advised to caution their family and friends not to accept COD packages of this type before they have had an opportunity to investigate whether the offer is on the level or a fraud. - ED.


SIR : As a thoroughly initiated and full-fledged Shellback who holds no truck with miserable polywogs, mud-creatures, worms and land-lubbers, I protest to the answer you gave to H. J. V. in your June 1945 issue, saying that he was eligible for a Neptune Certificate for merely crossing the Equator when wartime operating conditions made it impossible to hold an initiation.

As one of King Neptune's legal representatives and emissaries I shall see to it that steps are taken to correct the idea that such slimy ilk as mentioned above receive Shellback Certificates without showing the King of the Deep all proper respect and humility. And furthermore, those who are responsible for such indiscriminate awarding of the Shellback Certificate will find their backsides on the tender side the next time they venture into the Imperial Domain, be they admirals, captains, chief boatswain's mates or seamen second class.

I got my initiation while serving aboard the USS Milwaukee, and I really got initiated! Do not risk the king's displeasure. He's a haaaaaarrrrd man!- J. E. D., PhM1c, USNR.

We stick to our guns, in the face of danger. - ED.


SIR: Can a BM1c who is serving in lighter-than-air be changed to AR1c without his knowledge or consent? If so, what steps may be taken to return to BM1c and be transferred to general service? All rates up to and including BM2c were made in general service. - R. B., AR1c, USNR.

COs are authorized by Enclosure of BuPers Circ. Ltr. 297-44 (NDB, July-Dec., 44-1145) to effect changes of certain ratings to fill vacancies in allowance without reference to BuPers. Change of various ratings to airship rigger is included in foregoing authority. To be restored to a rating formerly held, request must be submitted to BuPers, via official channels. The same procedure applies to requests for change of duty. - ED.


SIR: In your June 1945 "Fantail Forum," p. 80, Charles W. O'Neill, AMM3c, says he's all for the life of a yeoman, when asked what rating he'd strike for if he had it to do over again.

Well, judging from the yeomen on this ship, he's way off the deep end. Our yeomen work day and night and still don't get their work finished. If O'Neill ever worked on monthly reports that a yeoman has to do, he'd want his AMM rating back again.

As for liberty, plenty of times ours have had to give up their liberty to get out some special work. And they've missed chow at times, getting out leave papers in a rush, so fellows wouldn't have to wait. Yes, yeomen do get to sit down, but they sit on their fanny day in and day out pounding a typewriter, which gets tiresome after awhile, just as standing up does. And as for knowing the inside dope, the rest of this crew usually knows what's going on far ahead of the yeoman.

Take it from me, the "soft life" of a yeoman isn't all that O'Neill has cracked it up to be. - R. A. S., SK3c.


SIR: When I return from the Philippines, I would like to bring home some pets, including several fowls, a parrot and a monkey. Is there much red tape involved? - C. J. G., S1c.

Because of the serious risk to public health, it is almost impossible to import any animals or birds (particularly parrots and monkeys) from overseas. To import them would require strict compliance with a host of necessary but troublesome regulations issued by the United States Public Health Service, Navy Department, and Departments of Agriculture and Interior. Likewise the countries from which the animals or birds are exported have complicated health and customs rules that must be observed. These, combined with the fact that for all practical purposes it is impossible to obtain permission to transport them on Navy ships or planes, makes their importation more trouble than they could possibly be worth. In addition, Pacific Fleet Notice 26N-44, dated 31 Aug. 1944 sets up a quarantine against the importation of animals and plants into the Territory of Hawaii from all Pacific islands including Australia and New Zealand. Our friendly advice is: leave the birds and beasts overseas. You and your country will be better off if you do. - ED.


SIR: (1) Are the CPO rating badges with silver or white eagle and specialty mark, which are now being worn on gray uniforms, official? (2) Should the acorn on the Medical Corps gray shoulder boards be white? - D. K., Lt., USNR.

(1) No. (2) Yes. - ED.


SIR: Now that I have completed low pressure technician training, a division of aviation medicine, am I eligible to wear the winged red cross pharmacist mate insignia.? - K. H. P., PhM3c., USNR.

No such insignia has been authorized. - ED.


SIR: Recently several transient CPOs quartered at a Navy receiving station overseas were denied admission to the CPO club. When they asked why they were not welcome, they were told that it was a "private" club for CPOs in the respective units only.

I am under the impression that being a CPO is all that is needed to gain admission to any CPO club on any naval base or station. Can you give us any information? - M. R. E., CMM.

All CPO clubs on Navy property were declared an integral part of the Navy by SecNav ltr. of 23 April 1945 (NDB, 30 April, 45-405). Consequently, "private" clubs on Navy property no longer exist. However, management and operation policies are left to the discretion of the CO of the station, who decides to whom the facilities of the club can be extended. - ED.


SIR: Your article in the May 1945 issue, p. 72, which reported the eligibility rules for the Philippine Commonwealth ribbons, has created the false impression that those of us who participated in assault landings which did not require 30 days in the area -other than those on Leyte between 17-20 Oct. 1944 - are not eligible for the liberation ribbon, even though we saw enemy action. Please clarify. - W. C., Lt. (jg), USN.

As stated in ALL HANDS, those who participated in any engagement against the enemy during the campaign are eligible for the liberation ribbon, which would make you eligible. To recapitulate, service personnel who meet any one of the following requirements are eligible for the Philippine Liberation ribbon:

  1. If they participated in the initial landing operations on Leyte and adjoining islands from 17-20 Oct. 1944, which is defined as meaning if they landed on Leyte or adjoining islands, were on a ship in Philippine waters, or were crew members of an airplane which flew over Philippine territory.
  2. If they participated in any engagement against the enemy in the Philippine liberation campaign. This is defined to mean actually having been under enemy fare or air attack. No specific number of days need be spent in the area to fulfill this requirement.
  3. If they serve in the Philippine Islands or on ships in the Philippine area for 30 days or more from 17 Oct. 1944 to a termination date yet to be announced.

Those who meet one of the above requirements are eligible for the ribbon; those meeting two, get the ribbon and one bronze star; those qualifying under all three, earn the ribbon and two bronze stars. - ED.


SIR: Since I entered the V-12 program my enlistment in the regular Navy has expired. I was a MoMM1c before I entered V-12. If I choose to reenlist in the regular Navy while I am still in V-12, am I entitled to shipping-over pay? - F. W. V. W., AS, USN.

Yes, but you would be discharged and reenlisted as an AS, not as MoMM1c, and you would receive a reenlistment allowance of $25 for each year you had served, not $50 for each year which you would receive were you discharged and reenlisted as a MoMM2c. - ED.


SIR: Are bronze arrowheads authorized for wear on area campaign ribbons by naval personnel who participated in the first wave of an amphibious assault? E. C. MCG, Lt. (jg), USNR.

War Department Circ. Ltr. No. 465 of 9, Dec. 1944 authorized ¼ inch bronze arrowheads to be worn on theatre service ribbons, in addition to the bronze operation star, by members of the Army who: (1) make a parachute jump into enemy held territory as part of an organized unit assigned a tactical mission, (2) make a glider landing in enemy held territory as part of an organized unit assigned a tactical mission or (3) participate in lite assault waves of an amphibious landing on enemy held territory.

They are not, however authorized for naval personnel, since it is held that the special insignia authorized for personnel assigned to paratroop and amphlbious duties adequately recognize these special services and that the adoption of a bronze arrowhead would be a duplicate of the operation and engagement stars which have been established as a distinct memorial to important engagements. - ED.


SIR: Will we be obligated to serve additional time in the Navy when we are transferred from V-12 to NROTC? - K. B., AS.

No. Reserves will be required to serve for the duration and six months; regulars are in for the period of their enlistment, which is automatically extended for the duration and six months if the enlistment expires before that time. Reenlistment periods would, however, have to be served. - ED.

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SIR: Has a special rating badge been authorized for PtrV? If not, I would like to suggest that men of this rating be permitted to wear the old aviation carpenter's mate specialty mark. - B. P. W.. CPtrV.

No special insignia has been authorized for Ptrv, nor is likely to be. Men of this rating wear the crossed-hatchets (without wings) specialty mark. - ED.


Sir: What is the proper procedure for hoisting and the proper position of the church pennant when the ensign is at half mast? - W. W. W., Lt. Comdr., (ChC)usN.

The church pennant is hoisted to a point just above the half-masted ensign. - ED.


SIR: Is there any regulation which specifies that the collar pin-on device for the rank of Navy captain is to be worn with the eagles facing toward or away from the tie? - R. F. K., CY, USNR.

Yes; Article H-6(b)(5) of Enclosure (B) of BuPers Circ. Ltr. 153-43 (NDB, cum. ed., 1943, 43-1327) states that the eagle's head is to face toward the front. - ED.


SIR: My unit was stationed on San Nicolas Island (in the Pacific, off the coast of southern California) from November 1944 to February 1945. Am I entitled to 20% additional base pay as sea duty or foreign service pay for that period? - D. A. M., CY, USNR.

No. San Nicolas Island is part of the State of California and duty there is not considered either as sea or foreign service duty. - ED.


SIR: What insignia should be worn on the garrison cap by chief warrant officers? - T. S. H., ChPayClk, USNR.

The commissioned officers' miniature cap device on the left side and the corps device, in silver, on the right side. - ED.


SIR: (1) Is there any truth to the belief that a man who came into the service as a PO1c, for instance, may not be broken below his original rate? (2) May a man be demoted more than one grade at a time by sentence of summary court-martial? E.C.B., Lt., USNR.

(1) None whatever - (im)pure scuttlebutt! (2) Reduction in rating by SCM is one grade at a time. However, conviction by GCM can carry with it reduction in rating to AS. - ED.


SIR : Is there any truth to the scuttlebutt that men classified USN-I(SA) - special assignment - are soon to be discharged? -H. M. K., S1c, USN-I(SA).

No. - ED.


SIR : Does the Navy have any savings plan whereby a man may deposit money which will draw interest? -F.L.O., SC, USNR.

Yes; enlisted personnel in the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard may make savings deposits on approval of their CO with their disbursing officer, either by checkage of their pay account or in cash. Under Navy Regs, Art. 1781(4), the money draws 4% interest per annum when left on deposit for six months or longer. Deposits are limited to one per month per man and to sums not less than $5.00 and not fractional parts of a dollar.

Deposits made on the first day of the month either in cash or by pay-roll checkage are entered in the deposit record book as of that date, but a deposit made on any other day is entered as of the first of the following month. Deposit record books are retained by the disbursing officer carrying the pay account of the depositor. Withdrawals may be made on application. For details see BuSanda Manual, Art. 2166. - ED.


SIR: Why does duty with a CASU (Carrier Aircraft Service Unit) within the continental U.S. count as sea duty for officers while at the same time counting as shore duty for enlisted men? - C. W. D., Y2c, USNR.

It doesn't. For personnel permanently based with a continental CASU, such duty counts as shore duty for both officers and enlisted men for purposes of pay and rotation. It likewise counts as shore duty for promotional purposes for enlisted men, unless they are engaged in operations at sea for more than 50% of the days in a given period, provided that no day is counted during which the period of operations was less than four (4) hours. However, personnel assigned to flight duty would in most cases be aviation ratings, for whom no sea duty is required for advancement purposes. - ED.


SIR: Is it possible for an enlisted man of the Merchant Marine Reserve, Class M-1, who is now serving on active duty with the Navy, to be released for return to his merchant marine status? - C. M. M., Y3c, USNR.

No. - ED.


SIR: How did the late President Roosevelt cross the ocean when he attended "Big Three" conferences at (1) Casablanca, (2) Teheran, (3) Yalta? - J. P. Z., SAO3c.

(1) By presidential plane, a specially outfitted C-54, (2) The USS Iowa, (3) the USS Quincy. - ED.


SIR: Strangely enough, we are able to buy both right and left arm ABM rating badges. The plane handlers aboard this ship would like to know which is correct. - B. E. H., ABM(PH)3c.

All aviation ratings are worn on the left arm. - ED.


SIR: The miniature CPO garrison cap device is so small that it is often confused with an officer's insignia. Is it permissible to wear the regular-size insignia? - J. L. S., CMaM, USNR.

No; the miniature device was made mandatory by BuPers Circ. Ltr. 97-44 (NDB, Jan.-June, 44-383). - ED.


SIR: When the qualifications for Storekeeper D were issued my rate was changed to SK-KD2c. At that time I was in pay grade 3 and have now completed 18 months in the same pay grade. I have not been advanced since our ship's allowance list does not include a SKD1c, and knowing the size of an MTB unit, it would seem doubtful that we will ever rate one.

Since I have been in MTBs for over two years and am a graduate of SK school which qualifies me for SK duties, is there any way whereby the "D" may be deleted from my rating? - L. J. T., SKD2c, USNR.

Requests for such changes may be forwarded, via official channels, to BuPers for consideration. -ED.


SIR: Will regular and reserve enlisted men who now hold temporary ratings revert to their permanent rates in the postwar Navy? - K. E. W., MoMM1c.

Until such time as the size of the postwar Navy has been established by Congress, it is not possible to determine what adjustments in ratings will need to be made - ED.


SIR: Your letter on credit for time in V-12 (May 1945 issue, p. 39) says that time spent in the college training program does not count toward advancement in rating because trainees do not retain their ratings but become AS upon entering training. What about V-8 (Aviation Pilot Training Program) personnel who are returned to general service? - J. B., Y1c, USNR.

Time spent in V-8 counts toward advancement in rating because V-8 trainees retain their ratings throughout training, thereby meeting service requirements that specific periods be served in the next lower pay grade to be eligible for advancement. - ED.


SIR: How many Wave gunner's mates are there? - C. D. A., F1c.

None, as the GM rating is not open to Waves. However, there are 460 Waves in Sp(G) rate, who are assigned to teach aerial and ground gunnery. - ED.


SIR: Is there any procedure whereby a man may have his rate reduced at his own request? - P. J. L., SoM1c, USNR.

Yes, requests may be submitted to BuPers, via official channels, stating the reasons why a reduction in rating is desired. If the request is approved, the man is required to sign a statement on page 9 of his service record certifying that he voluntarily requested a reduction in rating. - ED.


SIR: Are enlisted men who are serving as officers under temporary commissions eligible for terminal leave? - T.W.K., Lt. (jg), USN.

No distinction is drawn between temporary and permanent officers. Both are eligible for terminal leave. For details see ALL HANDS, March 1945, pp 17 and 72. - ED.


SIR: I had more than a year of sea duty as Y3c but have had none since (that is, none while Y2c or Y1c). Is the more than a year as Y3c sufficient to meet the sea-duty requirements for CY? - D. F. S., Y1c.

No. Sea-duty requirements for promotion to CPO are at least six months sea-duty, either in pay grade 2 (PO1c) or in pay grade 3 (PO2c), or a combination of the foregoing which will total six months. -ED.


SIR: While in the Army I received a Good Conduct ribbon. May I wear it on my naval uniform? - I. W. L., S1c.

Yes. - ED.


SIR: After being recommended to BuPers for appointment as ensign, USNR, in December 1943, I was unable to accept because I was in a limited-duty status. I will appear before a board of medical survey in August and expect to be returned to "all the duties of my rating." What procedure must I go through to have this appointment re-issued? - E. H. A., ACMM, USN.

Your CO can submit a new recommendation for your appointment to BuPers if he so desires in accordance with Paragraph 18, Appendix "A" of BuPers Circ. Ltr. 126-45 (NDB, 15 May, 45-504); see ALL HANDS, June, 1945, pp. 72-73. - ED.

Limited space makes it impossible to print more than a small proportion of the letters received each month. Only those of widest interest, for which the answers are not readily available at ships and stations, can be selected. If your letter does not appear, it is suggested that you check through recent issues of ALL HANDS, since many letters must be eliminated because they have been answered by previous material in the Letters column or elsewhere.


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