Section Page I. General 161 II. Ship to shore movement 162 III. Communication between ship and shore 164 IV. Initiation of the shore communication system 169
Par. 701. Scope 161 702. Communications in landing operations 161 703. Communication officer of landing force 161 704. Personnel, additional 161 705. Equipment, additional 161 706. Utilization of signal agencies 162 707. Parallel systems 162 708. Reduction in traffic 162
- Scope.--This chapter deals only with those phases of naval communications which are directly involved in a landing operation and which differ from, or are in addition to, normal naval and military communication requirements.
- Communications in landing operations.--Landing operations present problems in communication which differ in many respects from those encountered in other types of fleet or field operations. The large number of task groups involved in a landing operation places a heavy burden on all communication agencies. The necessity of coordinating and linking communication systems afloat and ashore requires careful planning and consideration of the operation as a whole. Special training is required and additional personnel must be provided for certain activities not elsewhere encountered, such as, for example, the control of naval gunfire from the shore. The nature of the operation is such that great dependence must be placed on the communication system; adequate and efficient communications are prerequisite to success.
- Communication officer of landing force.--The communication officer of the landing force has the same status as the communication officer of any task group within the attack force. He should consult with the communication officer on the staff of the attack force commander in the preparation of the communication plan for the landing force. He should also be prepared to advise the communication officer on the staff of the attack force commander with regard to communication requirements not normally encountered in naval operations, but which should be included in the attack force communication plan.
- Personnel, additional.--The attack force communication plan must make provision for furnishing the additional communication personnel required. Additional radio operators and visual signalmen may be necessary, as follows:
On control vessels.
By boat group, boat division, and wave commanders.
By the beachmaster.
By fire control parties ashore.
- The attack force communication plan must make provision for the procurement and proper distribution of signal matériel not normally provided, for example:
Radio sets for boats, for vessels of control group, for beachmaster, or fire control parties ashore, and for transports.
Pyrotechnics for boats and for control vessels.
Designating flags or lights for control vessels.
Semaphore and guide flags for boats.
Blinker tubes for boats.
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Portable signal searchlights for the beaches.
Air-ground code and panels for fire control parties ashore.
Portable telephones with breast reel and wire for fire control parties ashore.
All signal matériel required for the operation should be distributed to the proper units prior to the arrival of the attack force in the landing area. Utilization of signal agencies.--All practicable communication systems and agencies must be installed and the utilization of no agency should be neglected. Intelligent management of the system and equalization of the traffic load between the various agencies will increase the efficiency of communications. The most rapid methods should be employed for transmitting dispatches of the highest priority. Parallel systems.--Communication plans should make provision for placing separate systems on parallel channels. Where two such separate systems are installed, the failure of one system will still leave the alternative system available. The above principle is fundamental, and can only be disregarded at the risk of a complete failure of communications. When within visual range, for example, visual methods should parallel radio and wire. Even though radio, wire, and visual communication has been established between adjacent beaches, it is desirable also to establish a messenger boat service. Reduction in traffic.--A reduction in communications of all kinds both before and during the landing operation is essential for the smooth execution of the operation and as a measure of security against enemy intelligence. This applies particularly to radio telegraph and telephone, as they are the most vulnerable to enemy intercept and goniometric activities. Well-planned, detailed operation and communication plans and orders will do much to obviate the necessity of later communications. In particular, an operation schedule, as prescribed in paragraph 227 will permit the various phases of the operation to be conducted with a minimum of communications.
Ship to Shore Movement
Par. 709. Requirements 162 710. Communication within the boat group 162 711. Communication between boat group, control vessels, and the attack force 163 712. Communication between control vessels and fire support groups 163 713. Communication between attack force commander and aircraft 163 714. Pyrotechnic signals 163
- Requirements.--During the ship to shore movement, in addition to the normal naval communication requirements between the task groups of the attack force, communication must be maintained between--
Boat group, wave, and boat division commanders.
Boat group and wave commanders, control vessels, and attack force commander.
Wave commanders and guide planes.
Control vessels and fire support groups.
Attack force commander and aircraft engaged on important reconnaissance missions.
Communication within the boat group.--
- Visual.--Communication between boat group, wave, and boat division commanders is normally direct by means of visual methods. Wave and boat group commanders should be provided with visual calls to enable them to communicate more readily with control vessels. Trained signal personnel should be provided for this purpose. It should not be necessary to assign visual calls to boats and boat divisions, as they will use boat formation signals (ch. IV, sec. VII).
- Boat formation signals.--These signals do not require a trained signalman for sending and receiving (ch. IV, sec. VII).
- Radio.--Portable radio equipment for use in boats during the movement from ship to shore should be limited to such installations as are indispensable. Placing a considerable number of radio sets in boats may result in a dispersion of trained radio personnel at a time when it is important to keep such personnel concentrated and available for other use. Two types of radio installations may be used in boats, as follows:
- Super-high-frequency telephony.--Radiotelephone equipment, operating on frequencies lying generally between 30 and 80 megacycles may be used. Such frequencies are, in general, effective when using low-power apparatus over distances up to 5 miles. Equipment of this kind is more suitable for communicating over water surfaces than over land. Land masses and intervening
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ships between stations tend to prevent reception. Radiotelephone equipment may be advantageously installed in the boats of each boat group and wave commander, and on control vessels.
- High-frequency telegraphy.--It is practicable to install in ships' boats portable field radio sets such as are used by the various units ashore. Suitable frequencies for this purpose are approximately 3 megacycles and higher. difficulties of installation are encountered with lower frequencies due to the greater length of antenna required.
- Messenger boats.--High-speed messenger boats, if available, will be very valuable, especially for intergroup communication.
- Communication between boat group, control vessels, and the attack force.--
- The methods normally used for communicating between the above-named elements are as follows:
- Two-way communication between boat group or wave commander and control vessel: Semaphore, blinker tube, radiotelegraph, super-high-frequency telephone, and messenger boat. Additional means from control vessel only: Searchlight, flag hoist, dipping of designating flag, blinking of identification lights, and blasts on whistle. (See pars. 431 and 432.)
- Between control vessels and the attack force commander: Radio, searchlight, and flag hoist. Communication between control vessels and the attack force commander should be direct, when possible.
- A heavy communication burden is thrown on the vessels of the control group during the ship to shore movement, particularly in the case of the flagship of the control group commander. The vessels of this group must maintain radio and visual communication with fire support groups, boat group commanders, with other vessels of the control group, and with the attack force commander. As destroyers or mine sweepers, which are particularly weak in communication facilities, will often be used for this duty, it will usually be necessary to provide them with additional equipment such as portable radio or portable super-high-frequency telephones. It is important that fire control be kept on a separate circuit from tactical communications. Communication by radio should be kept at a minimum, the maximum use being made of visual.
- Because of limitations of equipment and personnel on board the various ships, and in order fully to utilize the equipment on board all vessels, the attack force commander may charge certain ships, other than his flagship, with responsibility for maintaining contact with control vessels, and with the beaches.
- Communication between control vessels and fire support groups.--Communication between control vessels and designated fire support groups is by radio and visual. In order that fire control signals may be handled promptly, the control vessel should communicate direct with the fire support group rather than through the control group commander or attack force commander.
- Communication between attack force commander and aircraft.--The attack force commander will communicate directly by radio with aircraft engaged on important reconnaissance missions or on any mission concerning which the attack force commander desires immediate information.
- Pyrotechnic signals.--
- Lifting gunfire.--
- Although gunfire is placed on the beaches in accordance with a time schedule and is observed and verified from the firing ships and control vessels, it is necessary to have an emergency pyrotechnic signal meaning "Lift fire" that can be made by the leading wave. This signal would be used if the leading boats were about to run into the salvo pattern of the gunfire directed at the beach.
- The signal "Lift fire" is normally made when directed by the commander of the leading wave and should be immediately relayed to the firing ships and control vessels by succeeding waves of the same boat group.
- Exploiting success.--
- Units embarked in boats approaching the beach in the second and succeeding waves must have immediate notification of the success or failure of units that have preceded them. Such knowledge is necessary to enable succeeding waves to exploit a successful landing, and to avoid landing at localities that have proven disastrous to their predecessors. Intelligence of this nature is most readily and reliably conveyed by pyrotechnic signals and by beach flags or lights.
- Each rifle platoon in an assault battalion will, upon reaching the beach, fire the prescribed pyrotechnic signals indicating whether or not the landing has been successful. (See par. 726, following). The firing of the signal indicating the landing has not been successful will be controlled by an officer. In assault platoons, the pyrotechnic signals may be made by the support group, and as directed by company and battalion commanders.
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- In addition to the above, each rifle platoon, upon landing, should plant a flag in the ground at its landing place. Suitable lights may be used in lieu of flags or pyrotechnics at night.
Communication Between Ship and Shore
Par. 715. Normal radio channels 164 716. Shore party communications 164 717. Beachmaster 164 718. Channels of communication 164 719. Beachmaster's communication agencies 164 720. Beachmaster's radio 166 721. Beachmaster, visual 166 722. Beachmaster, messenger boat 166 723. Linking vessels 166 724. Fire control communications 166 725. Radio frequency allocations 167 726. Pyrotechnic code 169
- Normal radio channels.--
- During the early stages of a landing operation and until the necessity therefor ceases to exist, landing force unit commanders ashore will communicate direct by radio with their superior landing force commanders and rear echelons afloat. The latter will be provided with ship's radio equipment for this purpose, if available. Otherwise ships will provide adequate sheltered space in which portable radio equipment may be installed, together with necessary fixed antennas. Direct communication is also maintained between fire support ships and their fire control parties ashore.
- The beachmaster maintains radio communication with naval commanders afloat which may be used as an alternate channel by which landing force unit commanders can relay dispatches to units afloat in event of failure of their direct channels of communication. During the later stages of a landing operation, as the necessity for direct ship-shore landing force communications ceases to exist, the beach becomes the dividing line where dispatches from forward units are delivered to the naval communication system, and vice versa.
- Shore party communications.--
- In the chain of communications between ship and shore, except as noted in paragraph 715 above, the message center of the shore party is the agency on the beach which communicates directly with units of the landing force ashore. This message center communicates also with Marine units on adjacent beaches. For purposes of liaison and quick transmission of messages it should operate near the beachmaster.
- The installation of the shore party's message center and of all wire communication between agencies of the shore party will be established by the shore party. Where sufficient personnel and material cannot be assigned permanently to shore parties, communication personnel and material of the most available units may be utilized.
- Beachmaster.--Communicates by radio, visual, and messenger-boat systems with all commanders afloat, and with adjacent beaches through shore party message center. Also communicates direct with adjacent beach.
- Channels of communication.--
- Provision should be made for separate and distinct channels for handling the two general classes of dispatches that will be encountered. These two classes of dispatches relate to subject matter concerning:
Operations and administration.
- The communication system must be so flexible and adaptable that when necessary dispatches of either class may be routed expeditiously over channels normally devoted to the other. If the gunfire support channel becomes inoperative or congested, priority should be given over the other channel to dispatches relating to gunfire support.
- Beachmaster's communication agencies.--
- The communication agencies at the shore party message center available to the beachmaster are as follows:
Message Center and messengers.
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Figure 1.--Fire control communications.
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- In addition to the foregoing, the beachmaster will be connected with the shore party commander's message center by telephone. Through this telephone he may be connected with any organization on the telephone system of the landing force. He will also be connected by direct telephone line to the ships' fire-control parties. All wire communication of the beachmaster's agencies will be installed and maintained by the shore party.
- Beachmaster's radio.--
- The beachmaster should have one portable radio set. This radio set is for handling all traffic with the attack force commander, and with other naval vessels charged with maintaining contact with that particular beach.
- In the event the beachmaster's radio sets become inoperative, radio equipment of the landing force should be furnished the beachmaster, or a radio station of the landing force should be designated to forward traffic normally handled by the beachmaster until such time as his radio station becomes operative.
- Beachmaster, visual--At the shore party message center the beachmaster will have portable searchlights, semaphore flags, and blinker tubes. The advisability of erecting a signal mast for flag hoists should be considered but will not ordinarily be practicable in the early stages of an operation.
- Beachmaster, messenger boat.--Communication between the shore and the attack force commander, between the shore and linking vessels, and between adjacent beaches should be maintained by messenger boat operating under control of the beachmaster.
- Linking vessels.--When required, vessels of the control group are used for relaying messages between the shore and the attack force commander, and between the shore and the fire support vessels and other units afloat. Ships in a group of linking vessels, although communicating directly with their respective beaches, may have a single ship of the group handle all traffic with the attack force commander.
- Fire control communications.--
- Fire control communications include all interchange of information between firing ships and their gunnery observation aircraft and shore fire control parties. (See fig. 1.)
- Fire control parties--primary channel.--Fire control parties will communicate with firing ships by radio. Two sets of portable radio equipment will be provided. The radio will be installed in a sheltered spot in the vicinity of the command post of the unit being supported. Fire control data from the spotting detail of the fire control party will be transmitted by telephone to the fire control radio party. Ships' communication personnel will be responsible for installation of the fire control field radio and telephone line to spotting detail. When practicable, it is desirable that fire control radio communication be conducted on the same frequency as that assigned to gunnery observation aircraft.
- The fire control liaison officer at the command post of the senior troop commander ashore communicates with firing ships by means of the telephone connection between unit headquarters and the shore party message center. The dispatch is then relayed by radio or visual.
- Fire control parties may communicate information from their observation posts to observation planes by means of panels and the air-ground code.
- Gunnery observation planes.--
- Aircraft observing naval gunfire will communicate by radio direct with the firing ship in the same manner as when firing at naval targets. Each plane should have a copy of the air-ground code, which includes the field artillery fire control code.
- Aircraft on fire control missions for field artillery, or on other battle missions, will work direct with the units concerned. The principal difficulty will be experienced in making the first contact, but no simple solution has been found other than the usual methods used in purely land warfare.
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LANDING AND FIRE-CONTROL FREQUENCY ALLOCATION (Sample)
Figure 2.--Sample frequency allocation for the ship-to-shore movement and control of ships' fire.
Unit Call (illus-
Kilocycles (illustrative) 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4500 33000 35000 37000 39000 ATFORCOM (Argonne) C5Y x x CG, FMF, afloat (Argonne) M8W x x CG, FMF, ashore M8W x Oklahoma, Fire Sup Gr 1 NADN x Nevada, Fire Sup Gr 2 NADK x New York, Fire Sup Gr 3 NADT x Texas, Fire Sup Gr 4 NADV x Obs plane Oklahoma 13E x Obs plane Nevada 19F x Obs plane New York 23L x Obs plane Texas 27P x Control and linking ships: Barry NUQP x x Humphreys NUKX x x Sands NULQ x x Lawrence NUQQ x x Fire-control party A W1A x Fire-control party B W2B x Fire-control party C W3C x Fire-control party D W4D x Beachmaster A X1A x Beachmaster B X2B x Beachmaster C X3C x Beachmaster D X4D x Boat Gr Comdr A Y1A x Boat Gr Comdr B Y2B x Boat Gr Comdr C Y3C x Boat Gr Comdr D Y4D x Wave Comdr A Z1A x Wave Comdr B Z2B x Wave Comdr C Z3C x Wave Comdr D Z4D x Calls and frequencies indicated are merely illustrative.
It is assumed that the normal naval frequency plan provides for communication between the attack force commander and vessels of the control group.
- Radio frequency allocations.--
- Figure 2 is a sample table showing radio frequency assignments in a landing operation. It does not include frequency requirements for communication between task organizations of the attack force, nor does it include the frequency requirements for radio communication between elements of the landing force ashore. In figure 2, it is assumed that Fire Support Group 1 supports first a landing on beach A and then shifts fire to
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support a landing on beach C. While firing in support of beach A the Oklahoma works on 3000 kilocycles with its gunnery observation plane, control vessel for beach A (Barry) and, after the landing, with the fire control party and beach party on beach A. Later, when firing in support of beach C, the Oklahoma works on 3000 kilocycles with the corresponding units at beach C. Similarly, Fire Support Group 2 supports successively beaches B and D. Fire Support Groups 3 and 4 are engaged in counterbattery in enemy rear areas, requiring plane spot.
- The Navy communication plan should make adequate radio frequency allocations in accordance with current fleet frequency plans for use by the landing force ashore. The frequency requirements will depend on the size of the force and the nature of the operation. Figure 3 shows an example of the frequency requirements of a marine infantry division.
|1st Sp W. Bn||F5J||(see note 3)|
|1st Amph Bn||A2Y||(see note 3)|
|1st Scout Co||B1A||(see note 3)|
|1st Tank Co||B2B||X||A|
|3d Tank Co||C7D||X||A|
|1st Mar Air Wing||B6U||X||A||X||A|
|1st Mar Air Gp||B7L||X||A||X||A|
|2d Mar Air Gp||C3W||X||A||X||A|
|Inf Com Plane||F2T||(See note 4)|
|Inf Lia Plane||G7L||(See note 4)|
|Arty Plane||M3L||(See note 4)|
1. X -- Primary frequency; A -- Alternate frequency.
2. Calls and frequencies indicated are merely illustrative.
3. The Special Weapons Battalion, Amphibian Battalion, and Scout Company are assigned frequencies and work in radio net of unit supported or to which attached.
4. Command, liaison, and artillery planes use frequencies assigned to units with which working.
5. Channels for units equipped with ultra-portable radio sets are assigned in a manner similar to the above.
6. Frequencies and channels for subordinate battalion and company radio nets are assigned in a manner similar to the above.
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- Pyrotechnic code.--It is essential that pyrotechnic signals be restricted to the transmission of information of the highest priority. The following pyrotechnic code is given as an example of suitable signals to convey meanings for which provision must be made in the code:
"Landing successful" or "Reached objective"--white star parachute.
"Firing falling short" or "Lift fire"--red star cluster.
"Landing not successful"--red position light.
Position lights are burned on the ground, in a boat, or on a float. The other signals are projected into the air by a ground signal projector.
Initiation of the Shore Communication System
Par. 727. Platoons 169 728. Companies 169 729. Battalions 169 730. Beach party and shore party 171 731. Field artillery 171 732. Regiments 171 733. Adjacent beaches 171 734. Higher units 171
- Platoon commanders, upon landing, will leave one runner on the beach to report to the company commander. This runner must know the direction in which the platoon advanced when it left the beach, and must be prepared to give the company commander all pertinent information concerning the platoon.
- Each rifle platoon of assault battalions will, upon landing, plant a flag on the beach where it can be seen from seaward. The number of such flags in a row will show the number of platoons that have succeeded in landing on that beach. Screened lights, if available, may be similarly used at night.
- Companies.--Company commanders, upon landing, will leave two runners on the beach to report to the battalion commander. Such runners must know the direction of the advance of the company headquarters and must be prepared to give the battalion commander all pertinent information concerning the company. At night, or if advancing in brush, platoon and company headquarters will mark the route of their advance with tape to facilitate messenger communication with the beach. Messenger routes of battalions and larger units ordinarily follow wire lines.
- Command posts.--Battalion commanders will, upon landing, set up their command posts as soon as practicable. A staff officer and two runners will be left at the beachmaster's headquarters to report to the regimental commander as soon as he lands.
- Battalion wire circuits.--
- A wire circuit will be pushed forward following the progress of the attack. This circuit is provided to maintain communication between successive locations of the battalion command post, and the message centers of the beach and shore parties. An additional wire circuit should, if necessary, as when separated by an appreciable distance, be run from the battalion command post to the fire control party to enable the battalion commander to communicate with the fire control party without interfering with any fire control communications.
- A direct line will also be laid from the headquarters of the beachmaster to the successive locations of the naval fire control party. This is a task for the communication detail of the shore party. Where sufficient personnel and material cannot be provided permanently for shore parties, however, orders for the operation may assign this task initially to the battalion. If this circuit follows the battalion wire axis its maintenance will be facilitated.
- Forward message center.--Each battalion commander keeps his company commanders informed of the most forward location where messages may be delivered to the battalion communication system. This location forward of the command post is known as the forward message center. It is on the battalion axis of signal communication. A wire circuit is run to the forward message center as soon as possible. Pending the installation of the wire circuit, messages are delivered from the forward message center to the command post by runners placed at the forward message center for this purpose, or by ultra portable radio.
- Air-ground liaison.--Messages dropped from planes are normally received by units down to and including the battalion. In an emergency, or by prearrangement, messages may be dropped to any unit or detachment. The message dropping ground is used also for display of
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Figure 4.--Initial communication system on a beach.
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panels and is located in an open space so that panels can be seen by planes at wide angles from the vertical. The air-ground code prescribes the signal to be made by a plane as a call for the display of identification panels. By panel signals from the air-ground code a plane may be notified that the troops on the ground have a message to be picked up. The air-ground code is part of the prescribed equipment for Marine Corps organizations and it should also be furnished to all naval pilots taking part in a landing operation. It contains general and detailed instructions relative to air-ground communications.
- Shore party.--
- The communication detail of the shore party, upon landing, establishes radio, visual, and messenger boat communications with the vessels designated. It also establishes messenger boat communication with adjacent beaches, and radio and visual communication with such beaches where practicable.
- The communication detail of the shore party is also responsible for establishment and maintenance of communication between the shore party commander and the beachmaster whenever the distance between these two activities makes it necessary.
- Field artillery.--The establishment of field artillery communications after a landing does not differ from normal procedure at any other time, except that every effort should be made for adequate communication with the naval fire control party ashore. This may be accomplished by having the observation posts of the two gunfire agencies close together, or connected by a circuit laid by the field artillery.
- Regiments.--It is usually advisable for regiments to send a small detail of signal personnel and a limited amount of signal equipment with each shore party. These men will familiarize themselves with the battalion communication installations, and will make arrangements to take over, without interruption, the wire circuits connecting battalions and observation posts to the beach. When the regiment lands, this regimental communication detail with the shore party should revert to the regimental communications officer. The battalions should then be relieved of responsibility for communications to their rear.
- Adjacent beaches.--In addition to the messenger boats to adjacent beaches mentioned above, such beaches are interconnected by wire lines. Field wire, if in good condition, will operate satisfactorily for periods of a week or longer while submerged in water. Where the terrain and enemy activity prevent wire being laid overland, wire connecting adjacent beaches may be laid from boats. The responsibility for connecting adjacent beaches by wire should be placed on specific units. The regiment is ordinarily better able than the battalions to establish wire communication between beaches, and should normally be directed to make such installation.
- Higher units.--Units higher than the regiment should, prior to landing, send a detail of signal personnel ashore to become familiar with the communications already installed. This detail should make plans so that the higher unit can, upon landing, take over its normal duties in the communication system without delay.
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[B L A N K]
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