Section Page I. Classification of Marine Corps matériel 201 II. Administrative plans 202 III. Embarkation 205 IV. Transport loading 211 V. System of supply 221 VI. Military police 226 VII. Engineers 226 VIII. Medical service 230
Classification of Marine Corps Matériel
Par. 901. Equipment and supplies 201 902. Grouping of equipment and supplies 201 903. Explanation of groupings 201 904. Issue of equipment 202 905. Issue of supplies 202
- Equipment and supplies.--
- Marine Corps expeditionary matériel is classified and divided into groups for the purpose of facilitating plans and orders relative to the equipment and supply or organizations and the movement of matériel, particularly its loading and stowage aboard ship and its debarkation and issue ashore.
- Matériel is divided into two general classifications, as follows:
- Equipment, which includes all articles prescribed for initial issue to individual and organizations.
- Supplies, which includes all articles required for maintenance of organizations.
- Grouping of equipment and supplies.--Equipment and supplies are divided into groups, as follows:
Group 1. Individual equipment. 2. Baggage. 3. Office equipment. 4. Organization combat equipment. 5. Supplementary equipment. 6. Mess equipment 7. Camp equipment. 8. Transportation. 9. Special equipment.
Group 10. Ammunition. 11. Automatic supplies. 12. Replacements. 13. Post exchange supplies.
- Explanation of groupings.--
GROUP 1. Individual equipment.--This includes that equipment needed in field operations and combat which is issued to the individual officers and men, and is normally carried on their persons. The weight of a marine with his individual combat equipment averages 224 pounds, or one-tenth of a long ton. No hold space is required for this group.
GROUP 2. Baggage.--This includes trunk lockers, sea bags, etc. Provision should be made for stowage of this group in troop compartments or other suitable space where it will be available during the voyage.
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GROUP 3. Office equipment.--This includes organization records, stationery, field desks, typewriters, etc. This equipment will be needed during the voyage and should be stowed in space assigned as organization offices.
GROUP 4. Organization combat equipment.--This includes equipment essential in combat but not issued to individuals, such as tanks, howitzers, machine guns, hand-drawn carts, signal and medical equipment. This equipment must be so loaded as to be available to accompany troops ashore.
GROUP 5. Supplementary equipment.--This includes miscellaneous company, battery, or squadron property such as cleaning material, spare parts for weapons, and other items which, while not absolutely essential in combat, may be needed early in active operations.
GROUP 6. Missing equipment.--This includes equipment required to operate a mess in the field, such as ranges, water cans, etc. This equipment will be needed shortly after a landing is effected. It may be loaded on organization vehicles prior to embarkation.
GROUP 7. Camp equipment.--This includes tentage and other articles required for the establishment of a camp. As this equipment will not be needed until the situation on shore has become somewhat stabilized, it may be stowed below other matériel.
GROUP 8. Transportation.--This includes motor vehicles, such as trucks, tractors, ambulances, etc. Some of these vehicles, such as artillery tractors, may be required in combat. Special consideration must be given to the stowage of this group.
GROUP 9. Special equipment.--This group includes matériel, not included in standard equipment, but determined as essential to the contemplated operation such as barbed wire, construction materials, etc. The articles to be carried, the amount of each, and priority of loading must be decided in planning each operation.
GROUP 10. Ammunition.--This group includes all types of ammunition, including chemicals, pyrotechnics, and demolition explosives. A part of this ammunition must be available for issue to troops before landing; the remainder must be available for landing as required.
GROUP 11.--Automatic supplies.--This includes supplies such as subsistence, kerosene, gasoline, and oils which are consumed at a fairly uniform daily rate in any type of operation. This group should be stowed so that at least 2 days' supply will be available for issue to troops prior to landing; from 3 to 5 days should be available for landing immediately following the troops, and the remainder thereafter as required.
GROUP 12. Replacements.--This includes replacements for articles of initial issue. Replacements should not be required for several days after landing.
GROUP 13. Post exchange supplies.--This includes articles intended for sale by the post exchange. They should be stowed so that essential articles may be supplied daily.
- Issue of equipment.--In order to maintain the mobility of units it is desirable to issue to organizations (companies, batteries, and squadrons), prior to embarkation, only that equipment which is essential in combat and field operations. In general, this essential equipment consists of the items listed in groups 1 to 6, inclusive, and group 8. The equipment which is not issued to organizations is carried by designated quartermasters and kept available for issue to organizations when required.
- Issue of supplies.--
- The amount of supplies is expressed in units of fire for ammunition, and number of days, preferably in multiples of 30 for other supplies. One unit of fire is estimated as sufficient for 1 day's average fighting.
- The bulk of the supplies are carried by quartermasters of regimental and higher units and are issued to organizations as required. Limited amounts of ammunition, rations, and other essential supplies may be issued to organizations prior to embarkation.
Par. 906. General 203 907. Basic decisions 203 908. Characteristics of the base 203 909. Strength and composition of the landing force 203 910. Personnel replacements 203 911. Matériel of the landing force 203 912. Supplies carried in the initial movement 204 913. Special naval personnel and matériel 205
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- Administrative plans for an overseas operation must be prepared in detail prior to embarkation. Inadequate administrative measures and a consequent breakdown of the supply system may result in the failure of the operation regardless of tactical success. Problems involved in the planning and execution of administrative measures must be worked out jointly by all echelons of the forces involved. In minor operations, or where serious enemy opposition at a beach is not expected, the administrative steps outlined in this chapter may be appropriately modified.
- Administrative plans must be based upon the probable tactical requirements of the landing operations contemplated. All plans, however, must be susceptible to modification due to changes in the situation which may occur prior to the actual landing. It is important, therefore, that the administrative plans permit a force landing in any one of a number of localities in the theater of operations.
- Estimates of supply requirements must be liberal, particularly when contemplated operations are to take place at considerable distances from supply bases. The estimates must consider possible enemy interference en route, and the loss or detachment of one or more ships with their cargoes.
- Administrative plans must take into account the probability of adverse weather conditions after the initial landing is effected. An adequate reserve of supplies must be established on shore without delay, and provision made for maintaining this supply in any condition of weather.
- Administrative plans must provide for shipment of supplies by later convoys in time to maintain supplies in the theater of operations at adequate levels.
- Basic decisions.--Basic decisions relative to administrative plans must be made as early as possible in order that all agencies may have time to complete details and provide for the procurement and assembly of ships, personnel, boats, supplies, and matériel. Basic decisions should cover the following:
Characteristics of the base, if one is to be established.
Strength and composition of the landing force.
Matériel of the landing force.
Supplies to be taken in the initial movement.
Additional naval personnel and material to be provided.
Characteristics of the base.--If a base is to be established its characteristics must be determined in advance in order that the proper equipment and material may be available to construct it. Strength and composition of the landing force.--
- The composition of the combat elements of the landing force is determined from tactical requirements. The composition of the service elements such as medical, transport, engineers, and military police should meet the administrative requirements of the contemplated operation. The organization prescribed in Marine Corps Organization Tables should be modified as necessary to meet these conditions.
- Civilian labor.--In order to reduce the number of service troops to be transported, plans should be made for utilizing civilian labor which may be available in the theater of operations.
Personnel replacements.--The number of personnel replacements to be provided for the landing force will depend upon the type of operation and estimated casualties from sickness and battle. These replacements should be available to the force when needed in order that veteran organizations may be maintained at full strength. Past experience has demonstrated the advantage of maintaining existing units at effective strength over the system of raising or employing new units. It is, therefore, desirable that replacements equal to the estimated casualties for a period of 30 days after the first landing be included in the initial movement, and that later replacements be available as they are needed. Since casualties in a landing operation are likely to be high initially, estimates or replacements to accompany the force should be liberal. Matériel of the landing force.--
- Standard equipment for units of the Fleet Marine Force is prescribed by Marine Corps Equipment and Supply tables. This matériel is designed primarily for the type of operations contemplated in this manual, but certain decisions relative thereto are essential for any particular operation or for any particular theater. Among others, the following items must be considered:
- Motor transport.--The system of supply of units of the Fleet Marine Force operating ashore is based upon the use of light motorized vehicles. Animal transportation is confined to what may be obtained locally. The amount and type of motor transportation needed will vary,
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depending largely on the nature of the terrain and the depth of advance contemplated. Estimates may indicate the advisability of an increase, decrease, or change of type from that specified in equipment tables. It should be noted, however, that a decision to decrease the motor transportation materially will preclude the adoption of an alternate plan in which such transportation is essential. In most operations, tractors and trailers can be used advantageously in clearing flying fields and moving matériel on or near the beaches, thus permitting a reduction in the size of working parties.
- Special equipment.--
- This group is important in determining cargo requirements as it includes such bulky cargo as engineer and construction material, material for organization of the ground, and other material that may be required for special purposes. The items to be carried and the amounts of each must be decided according to the estimated needs in any particular operation.
- The amount of construction material taken on the initial movement should ordinarily be limited. Tentage, which is a part of the standard equipment of marine units, is available and can be used for sheltering personnel and matériel. When the situation becomes stabilized or a base is established, temporary buildings for hospitals, storehouses, mess halls, etc., may be advisable. Construction materials for these purposes may be shipped on later convoys as a part of the base requirements.
- Ammunition.--Decision must be made as to the types and amounts of ammunition and explosives to be taken. The transportation of high explosives presents a stowage problem which may require alteration of transports or provision of ammunition ships.
- Rations.--Attention must be given to the procurement of suitable reserve rations in containers convenient for carrying on the individual. Unless there is time for manufacture of specially designed reserve rations, the components will have to be confined to articles which are put up commercially in small cans or packages which can be procured in the necessary quantities.
- Method of transporting airplanes.--Due to their weight and bulk, the transportation of aircraft of the landing force must receive special consideration. If planes cannot be flown to the landing area they may be carried as follows:
Set up on carriers (landplanes).
Set up on transports or other vessels (seaplanes).
Partially set up on transports.
It is most desirable that catapults be installed on train vessels to as great an extent as practicable, and all train vessels, transports, and cargo ships be loaded with the maximum number of set-up aircraft consistent with deck cargo requirements for boats and other special matériel. The method of transportation will materially affect the shipping requirements of the landing force, and the requirements in lighters and other landing facilities. (See ch. VI, Aviation.)
- Gasoline and oil.--The requirements of aviation units in gasoline are so large that it may be necessary to transport the bulk of the supply in tankers or cargo vessels. Gasoline and oil needed initially for motor transportation should be made available on the transports carrying the vehicles. An adequate supply of drums should be provided for landing gasoline carried in bulk.
- Supplies carried in the initial movement.--
- Decision must be made as to the length of time for which supplies will be carried in the initial movement. This is governed largely by the following factors:
Availability of stocks of supplies.
Amount of cargo space in the ships available for the initial movement.
Availability of future shipping.
Desirability of limiting the size of the initial convoy.
Distance of the theater of operations from supply bases.
Danger of interruption of supply by enemy activities.
Resources in theater of operations.
- The decision as to supplies should cover--
The amount to be carried for subsistence of crews and troops en route, to be provided by the Navy.
The amount to be carried by the landing force for use on shore.
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- Adequate provision should be made for the sale to troops of the necessary articles from ships' stores, ships' service stores, and post exchanges, both en route and ashore, or for the issue of such articles without charge.
- Special naval personnel and matériel.--
- The large number of small craft to be operated, the beach party personnel to be provided, the additional communications and gunnery personnel required on shore, and the need of rapidly unloading supplies from ships necessitate the provision of commissioned and enlisted personnel in addition to that of the normal ships' complements. This personnel should be composed of qualified naval ranks and ratings in numbers suitable to the tasks to be performed. Provision should be made for their early assembly, organization, and training.
- Medical personnel, both commissioned and enlisted, in addition to the regular medical complements, should be provided for transports in sufficient numbers to take care of the wounded for whom there may be no space available in hospital ships or facilities ashore. Provision should also be made for the assignment of medical personnel to ambulance boats and other small craft for the evacuation of casualties during the landing and subsequent operations on shore.
- Matériel.--Decision must be reached as to the naval matériel, in addition to normal equipment, which must be provided. The following should be considered:
Ammunition for ships' guns, aviation, boat guns.
Chemical ammunition and supplies.
Communication matériel for boats, beach parties, transports, control vessels, and for fire control and liaison parties ashore.
Boats, boat equipment, armament, matériel for repair and upkeep, gasoline and oil, and special boats for heavy matériel.
Special gear for debarkation of troops and matériel from transport into boats.
Wharves and special equipment for landing matériel ashore.
Construction materials and equipment for initial requirements of a base, if a base is to be established.
Medical matériel for ambulance boats, and transports to be used as auxiliary hospital ships.
Ships for distilling water, portable distilling plants, water barges, pumps, and other matériel for delivery of water ashore.
Par. 914. Embarkation plans 205 915. Organization of the transport group 205 916. Organization of the landing force for embarkation 206 917. Sequence of planning 206 918. Determination of shipping requirements 206 919. Allotment of transports 207 920. Embarkation groups and transport divisions 207 921. Assignment of troops and matériel to transports 209 922. Embarkation tables 210
- Embarkation plans.--An embarkation plan includes (1) the allotment of transports to embark the landing force, (2) the determination of the troops and matériel to be embarked on each transport, and (3) the schedules of embarkation, showing time, place, and other details of loading each vessel.
- Organization of the transport group.--
- The transports, or other noncombatant vessels, upon which troops and matériel of the landing force are embarked, constitute the transport group. Where certain elements of the landing force, such as base defense artillery, and other base defense units, will not accompany the initial movement, two or more transport groups may be organized.
- The transport division is a subdivision of the transport group, and consists of two or more vessels.
- When two or more transport divisions are to operate together on an independent mission, they may be organized into a transport squadron.
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- Organization of the landing force for embarkation.--The subdivision of the landing force for embarkation will consist of (1) the organization of embarkation groups to be embarked upon transport divisions, and (2) the designation of troops and matériel to be embarked upon each ship.
- Sequence of planning.--Plans for embarkation are best developed in the following sequence:
Determination of shipping requirements.
Allotment of transports.
Organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions.
Assignment of troops and matériel to each transport.
Determination of shipping requirements.--
- The basic decisions outlined in the preceding section have been approved, data relative to personnel may be obtained from Marine Corps Organization Tables. Marine Corps Tonnage Tables give the necessary data from which the detailed cargo requirements may be computed.
- Force personnel and tonnage table.--This table is prepared by the landing force and submitted to the appropriate naval commander. It shows the number of officers and men, the amount and type of matériel for each organization of the force, and for the force as a whole. It shows the amount of any matériel requiring special consideration in loading such as high
Force Personnel and Tonnage Table
Figure 1.--Suggested form for force personnel and tonnage table.
Personnel Matériel Officers Enlisted Total Hold cargo Troop space cargo (cubic feet) Deck cargo Total cargo General cargo and vehicles (cubic feet) High explosives (cubic feet) Inflammables (cubic feet) Uncrated planes, etc. (cubic feet) Cubic feet Long tons Column No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Division Special Troops 1st Marines 5th Marines 7th Marines 11 Marines (Arty) Division Service Troops 1st Mar. Air. Wing Airplanes Force Supplies Total Footnotes:
It is assumed that, prior to the preparation of this table, the basic decisions outlined in sec. II of this chapter have been made, particularly the number of days of supplies and the number of units of fire to be carried in the initial movement, and the method of transporting airplanes. Based upon these decisions, data necessary for computing cargo requirements for each organization or contained in Marine Corps Tonnage Tables.
In the table, airplanes, crated, are considered as "General cargo" (column 5); airplanes to be carried on deck, as "Deck cargo" (column 9); any large vehicles or other matériel (no inflammables) which must be stowed on deck are considered as "deck cargo" (column 9).
Tonnage figures under "Total cargo, long tons" (column 11), represent actual weight of matériel, and do not include weight of personnel.
Footnotes should contain information necessary to clarify or supplement the table, such as: List and description of airplanes and other matériel requiring special consideration, amount of gasoline included under "Inflammables" (column 8), etc.
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explosives, inflammable matériel, and aircraft. A suggested form for a force personnel and tonnage table is shown in figure 1.
- Naval requirements.--
- Similar data will be needed showing the personnel and cargo requirements for naval personnel and matériel specially provided for the operation, including subsistence stores for troops while aboard ship.
- The stowage of boats for the landing force and their allocation to vessels presents a problem of vital importance. A list of boats, showing types, dimensions, weights, etc., should be included in the data furnished.
- Allotment of transport.--
- The troop and cargo requirements as shown in the force personnel and tonnage table, plus the requirements for naval personnel and matériel, is the basis for the allotment of transports.
- In the determination of the troop and cargo capacity of a transport, consideration should be given to the necessity of avoiding undue crowding, particularly on long voyages and under adverse weather conditions. Troops must be in good physical condition when the landing takes place. Proper ventilation of troop spaces is necessary. Space is required for drills, instruction, and exercise enroute; for troops and staff officers; for care and cleaning of weapons and other combat equipment; as well as clear deck space for gun crews in defense of the ship.
- After determining the total troop and cargo capacity of each ship in accordance with the above considerations an additional safety factor of 10 percent should be added to the troop and cargo requirements in order to permit latitude in the assignment of troops and matériel and to assure the maintenance of the integrity of organizations.
- The landing force will require, as soon as it can be procured, complete information concerning each of the transports allocated, including the rated troop and cargo capacity, blueprints of the vessel and each hold, plans for conversion, speed, draft, capacity of booms, and other characteristics affecting embarkation. An example of the data required is shown in figure 2.
- The following special ships may be required:
Special boat carriers to supplement the boat capacities of other ships in transporting the requisite number of landing boats and lighters.
Hospital ships, with capacity based upon casualty estimates.
Ships for distilling water, as necessary.
Ammunition ships for high-explosive ammunition of the landing force which is beyond the capacity of the various transports, and additional ammunition for ships' guns required in support of the landing.
Tankers or cargo ships for transporting gasoline. The requirements for gasoline, particularly by aviation, are usually beyond the deck capacity of the transports.
- Embarkation groups and transport divisions.--
- Effective control of all the details of the embarkation, movement overseas, and debarkation, particularly when the landing beaches are separated by considerable distances, requires that the transport group be subdivided into appropriate task organizations, designated as transport divisions.
- A parallel subdivision of the landing force into task organizations is also required. The task organization of the landing force, consisting of the troops and matériel embarked upon the vessels of a transport division, is termed an embarkation group.
- The organization of the embarkation groups and the transport divisions upon which they will be embarked are interdependent and governed largely by the following considerations:
- The organization of the landing force into embarkation groups is determined primarily by tactical requirements. This organization must provide for the accomplishment of the various tasks required under the preferred and alternate plans, and should permit a modification of these plans or the substitution of a new plan. Each embarkation group, insofar as practicable, should be so constituted as to permit this detachment on an independent mission involving combat on shore, and should carry supplies for at least 30 days. Troops and matériel should be so distributed among the embarkation groups that the detachment of any particular group will not deprive the remainder of the force of an unduly large percentage of any one arm, service, or type of matériel.
- Each embarkation group is preferably based upon an infantry brigade or regiment to which is attached a proportionate part of the supporting arms and services, such as artillery, engineers, and medical units. A part of the aircraft, tanks, and other force troops may also be included. The normal chain of command of infantry units is interrupted as little as possible. Artillery and other auxiliary troops which operate on shore under their own commanders are,
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Figure 2.--Required transport data.
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for embarkation, subdivided and attached to infantry organizations. Subdivision of such troops should avoid splitting the smallest unit which has the equipment to operate independently.
- The characteristics of available transports will vary to some extent in the facilities for loading and stowing heavy matériel. This may be a determining factor in the selection of vessels upon which certain units will be embarked.
- The allocation of units to embarkation groups should permit of economical loading. For example, the distribution of base defense artillery and aircraft among a large number of vessels results in the most economical loading of this type of matériel.
- The transports selected to embark each group should be suitable for operating together as a transport divisions. The number of vessels in each transport division should be such as to permit effective control of the various operations involved. Divisions of three to five ships is the most suitable organization.
- Where practicable the embarkation should provide for independent action on the part of one or more vessels comprising the transport divisions. For example, a small reinforced brigade embarked upon a transport division of four ships, may embark each regiment, reinforced, upon two ships, and thus be prepared to execute two independent operations.
- It may be desirable to embark reserve units, reserve supplies, or a part of base defense units upon separate ships in order to permit these ships to be kept out of the landing area until they are needed. Separate transport divisions may be organized for this purpose.
- Each embarkation group must be of the proper size to use to full advantage the troop and cargo capacity of the transport division. Lost space in one division will result in unnecessary crowding in another. It is usually possible to meet this requirement without sacrificing tactical considerations because there remains, after the preliminary assignment of troops to embarkation groups, a pool of unassigned force troops and supplies. These troops and supplies can be assigned as necessary to utilize the space available to each group. In this connection, it should be noted that a number of vessels have certain 'tween-deck compartments which may be utilized for either troops or cargo. This affords a desirable degree of flexibility in working out the detailed assignments.
- If desirable, a part of force special troops may be organized into a separate embarkation group.
- Hospital ships accompanying the expedition may be utilized for transporting some of the medical units of the landing force. This will result in economy in transport space and will provide greater safety for such units. Provision should be made for landing such units at the proper time.
- The organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions should be worked out jointly between representatives of the landing force and the naval commanders concerned. Since the factors governing embarkation are to some extent conflicting, compromises will usually be necessary.
- Each transport division is assigned a number such as "Transport Division No. 1." It should be provided with suitable command personnel and communication facilities.
- Embarkation groups are designated by a number followed by the name of the major troop organization, as "Embarkation Group No. 1 (1st Marines, reinforced)." The appropriate troop commander in the group is responsible that troops and matériel are embarked in accordance with the approved plan. He will be embarked on the flagship of the transport division.
- Figure 3 is a suggested form showing the detailed organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions, together with the personnel and cargo requirements of each embarkation group.
- Assignment of troops and matériel to transports.--Troops and matériel are assigned to individual ships in accordance with the following principles:
The embarkation must permit debarkation and operations on shore in accordance with the tactical plans.
Integrity of tactical units, such as battalions of infantry and batteries of artillery, should be maintained.
It is desirable that each ship carry a proportionate part of all arms and services. It should carry necessary supplies for a period of at least 30 days for all troops embarked.
Facilities of each ship for handling and stowing heavy matériel assigned must be adequate.
Troop and cargo capacity of each ship should be fully utilized.
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Organization of Embarkation Groups and transport Divisions
Figure 3.--Suggested form for showing organization of embarkation groups and transport divisions.
Personnel Matériel Officers Enlisted Total Hold cargo Troop space cargo (cubic feet) Deck cargo Total cargo General cargo and vehicles (cubic feet) High explosives (cubic feet) Inflam-
mables (cubic feet)
Uncrated planes, etc. (cubic feet) Cubic feet Long tons Column No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Embarkation Group No. 1 (1st Marines, reinforced) Colonel D. E.F. _____, U.S.M.C. Transport Division No. 1, Captain A.B.C. _____, U.S.N. Transports: S.S. President Smith, S.S. Lake James, S.S. Ruth Baker 1st Marines 1st Bn, 11th Marine Arty Hq and Ser Btry, 11th Mar Arty Co A, 1st Engr Bn Co A, 1st Med Bn 1st Plat, MT Co, Serv Bn 1st Guard Co (less Dets) Hq Co, 1st Mar Div Hq Sq, 1-M, Mar Aircraft Ob Sq, 1-M, Mar Aircraft Airplanes (18 VO) Force supplies Total Embarkation Group No. 2 (2d Marines, reinforced) Colonel J.K.L. _____, U.S.M.C. Transport Division No. 2, Captain G.H.I. _____, U.S.N. Transports: S.S. -----, S.S. -----, S.S. -----. 5th Marines etc., etc. Footnotes:
The footnotes contained in force personnel and tonnage table (fig. 1 are equally applicable to this table. Force supplies are allotted to embarkation groups in accordance with cargo capacity available.
- Embarkation tables.--When troops and matériel have been assigned to each transport the information is published in the form of an embarkation table, as an annex to the embarkation orders of the force or lower units. A sample embarkation table is shown in figure 4.
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Par. 923. Responsibility 211 924. Methods of loading 211 925. Commanding officer of troops 213 926. Transport quartermaster 213 927. Marine Corps consolidated tonnage table 213 928. Navy Consolidated tonnage table 215 929. Transport loading plans 215 930. Hold stowage plans 217 931. Loading 221
- The Marine Corps is responsible for the procurement of all matériel for the Fleet Marine Force and for the assembly of this matériel at the port of embarkation, properly placed on piers, cars, or lighters to facilitate loading in accordance with the loading plans, and for the protection of this matériel until loaded. The Marine Corps will cooperate with the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery and the Bureau of Aeronautics in the procurement and assembly of medical and aviation matériel for units of the Fleet Marine Force.
- The Navy is responsible for the procurement and assembly of special naval matériel to accompany the expedition, and for the provision of special equipment and labor needed in the loading. Experienced stevedores and longshoremen may be used advantageously in securing efficient stowage of cargo.
- Efficient organization of the activities of the port of embarkation is most essential. Matériel of every description will arrive in large quantities in a relatively short time. This matériel must be received, segregated, and stored so as to prevent congestion and to permit the delivery of the matériel to the various transports in accordance with their loading plans. An officer who is familiar with the matériel and the administrative plans should be detailed in charge as early as possible, and should be provided with adequate assistants and facilities.
- The loading of each transport must be in accordance with the approved tactical and logistical plans, and the matériel must be so stowed as to be available to the landing force at the time and in the sequence it will be needed. Responsibility for this stowage rests with the transport commander.
- Methods of loading.--
- Commercial loading.--This method of loading utilizes ship space to maximum efficiency. It applies in movements between established and well-secured ports. Troops moved by this method are not available for tactical employment against hostile forces until after they have landed and the necessary equipment and supplies have been issued.
- Unit loading.--This method gives primary consideration to the readiness of troops and matériel for combat immediately upon landing, rather than economical utilization of ship space. The readiness for combat depends upon the degree to which organizations are unit loaded as follows:
- Combat unit loading, in which certain units selected because of their probable employment to meet tactical situations immediately upon landing, are completely loaded in a single transport with at least their essential combat equipment, transportation, and supplies available for immediate debarkation with the troops.
- Organizational unit loading, in which organization, with their equipment and supplies, are loaded in the same transport, but not loaded so as to allow debarkation of troops and their equipment simultaneously. As to ship space, this method is more economical that combat unit loading. It permits debarkation of complete units available for tactical employment as soon as the troops and essential matériel have been assembled on shore. Like combat unit loading, this method permits diversion, en route, by complete shiploads from the destination originally intended.
- Convoy unit loading, in which the troops with their equipment and supplies are loaded in transports of the same convoy, but not necessarily in the same vessel. This method may be used to fill in space in transports carrying combat unit loaded organization. Troops which are convoy unit loaded are available for tactical employment only when landed at established beach heads, and after the lapse of time necessary to assemble them on land with their equipment and supplies.
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Figure 4.--Suggested form for embarkation table.
Personnel Matériel Officers Enlisted Total Hold cargo Troop space cargo (cubic feet) Deck cargo Total cargo General cargo and vehicles (cubic feet) High explosives (cubic feet) Inflam-
mables (cubic feet)
Uncrated planes, etc. (cubic feet) Cubic feet Long tons Column No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 S.S. President Smith, Capt. M.N.P. _____, U.S.N., Lt. Col. R.S.T. _____, U.S.M.C., commander of troops. Hq Co, 1st Marines 1st Bn, 1st Marines 1st Bn, 11th Marines (less Btrys B and C) Hq Co, 1st Mar Div 1st Plat, Co A, 1st Engr Bn Det, 1st Med BN Det, 1st MT Co 1st Div, Obs Sq 1-M, Marine Aircraft Airplanes (6 VO) QM, 1st Marines (matériel) Post exchange supplies Force supplies Total S.S. President Smith S.S. Lake Clare, Capt. U.V.W. _____, U.S.N. Lt. Col. X.Y.Z. _____, U.S.M.C., commander of troops Etc., etc. Footnotes:
The footnotes to force personnel and tonnage table (fig. 1) are applicable to this table. In addition to the decisions noted therein, the following decisions are necessary: First, groups of equipment and amount of supplies to be issued to organizations prior to embarkation; second, equipment and supplies to be carried by regimental and force headquarters. For example, the regimental quartermaster might be directed to carry certain groups of equipment, 30 day's rations, and other supplies for all units embarked.
Force supplies to be carried by the embarkation group should be the same as shown in fig. 3. In the table (fig. 3), all classes of equipment and supplies for each organization were included in the cargo figures for the organization. In this table (fig. 4), the items carried by the regimental quartermaster and post exchange officer are listed separately and cargo figures for organizations reduced accordingly.
Tonnage figures under "Total cargo, long tons" (column 11) represent the actual weight of matériel only. The weight of an officer or man with his individual equipment is assumed to average 1/10 of a long ton. This weight should be added to the total cargo tonnage when it is desired to determine that the weight carrying capacity of a ship is not exceeded.
|--21--||Change to FTP-167|
- Necessity for combat unit loading.--The nature of operations contemplated by this publication are such that it is essential that most of the organizations of the Fleet Marine Force be combat unit loaded. This does not necessarily mean uneconomical loading. If the loading is carefully planned, it will be found in actual practice that, for Marine Corps matériel, combat until loading will be practically as economical as organizational or convoy unit loading. This is possible because--
- The distribution of organization combat equipment, such as field guns, tractors, trailers, etc., among the various ships permits the loading of such matériel in 'tween-deck spaces and compartments which are particularly suitable for this type of equipment, thus enabling cargo space to be used to full advantage.
- Supplies in excess of the immediate needs of the troops may be distributed in the holds of the whole transport group to take full advantage of cargo space.
- Commanding officer of troops.--
- The senior commander of the organizations embarked on each transport becomes the "commanding officer of troops." This officer will make the necessary arrangements with the transport commander relative to the embarkation, including assignment of troop space, space for organization officers, messing, and other administrative details.
- The commanding officer of troops will make the necessary arrangements with the transport commander relative to the loading and stowage of matériel. The details of this work may be delegated to the transport quartermaster.
- Transport quartermaster.--
- An officer will be detailed as transport quartermaster for each transport carrying organizations or matériel of the landing force. The transport quartermaster should be detailed as soon as possible after the allocation of vessels has been decided. he should be given opportunity for frequent conferences with the ship's officers, and to familiarize himself with the arrangement and facilities of the transport.
- The duties of the transport quartermaster are--
To act as liaison officer between the transport commander and appropriate troop commanders.
To furnish the ship with all necessary information relative to troops and matériel, including a consolidate tonnage table (fig. 5).
To assist in the preparation and execution of the loading and stowage plans.
To arrange for the delivery of matériel to the ship in the order required by the loading and stowage plans.
To keep complete records of matériel loaded and its disposition.
To assist in the preparation and execution of the debarkation plan for the personnel of rear echelons and services, and equipment and supplies not landed with combat troops.
- Unless permanently assigned to the ship, the transport quartermaster is under the immediate command of the commanding officer of troops. Prior to embarkation, however, and after troops are debarked at destination, the transport quartermaster may work under the direct supervision of force headquarters, in which case he will have the status of an additional staff officer of the force. The relief of the transport quartermaster from other duties will usually be necessary, particularly when the transport is not in the immediate vicinity of the mobilization point. He may be detailed from one of the organizations to be embarked on the transport, or an additional officer may be appointed. The latter is preferable in large operations.
- Assistants to the transport quartermaster will be detailed as necessary. These should include an assistant transport quartermaster and at least one noncommissioned officer for each hatch and, if available, an additional noncommissioned officer for each hold.
- The transport quartermaster should not be made an accountable officer for matériel loaded in the transport. Accountability for such matériel should remain with appropriate organization quartermasters.
- Marine Corps consolidated tonnage table.--
- A consolidated tonnage table will be prepared giving detailed information relative to the organizations and matériel of the landing force to be embarked aboard each transport. A sample consolidated tonnage table is shown in figure 5.
- Classification of cargo.--In order to facilitate the preparation of loading plans, cargo is divided into seven classes, according to the nature of stowage required, as follows:
- Vehicles.--These include all wheeled vehicles, such as Cole carts, tractors, trucks,
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|Item No.||Hold cargo||Troop space cargo (cubic feet)||Deck cargo||Total cargo|
|Vehicles||General cargo (cubic feet)||High explo-
sives (cubic feet)
|Total hold cargo (cubic feet)||Inflam-
mables (cubic feet)
|Uncrated planes, etc.|
|Square feet||Cubic feet||Square feet||Cubic feet||Cubic feet||Long tons|
|1||Column No. 2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10||11||12||13|
|1||Hq Co., 1st Mar|
|2||Hq Co., 1st Mar Div|
|3||1st Bn, 1st Mar|
|4||Hq and Ser Btry, 1st Bn (Arty)|
|5||Btry A, 11th Mar Arty|
|6||1st Plat, Co A, 1st Engr Bn|
|7||Det, 1st Med Bn|
|8||Det, 1st MT Co|
|9||1st Div, Obs Sq 1-M Mar Air|
|10||Airplanes (6 VO)|
|11||Group 7, camp equipment|
|12||Group 9, special equipment|
|13||Group 10, ammunition|
|14||Group 11, automatic supplies:|
|16||Gas and oil|
|Misc. automatic supplies|
|17||Post Exchange Officer|
|Group 13, Post exchange supplies|
|Group 10, ammunition|
|19||Group 11, automatic supplies:|
|21||Gas and oil|
|22||Misc. automatic supplies|
|Group 12, Repl. supplies|
The footnotes contained in figs. 1 and 4 apply.
In the preparation of this table, it was assumed that organizations carry certain groups of their equipment and supplies for a limited period; and that the quartermaster, 1st Marines, carries the remaining equipment and supplies for an additional period for all organizations embarked.
Vehicles, airplanes, and very heavy matériel should be listed on supplementary sheets. For data on vehicles and airplanes, see "Logistic Data, U.S. Marine Corps." Dimensions, weights, etc., of vehicles, airplanes and other heavy matériel not contained in this pamphlet should be ascertained and shown on the supplementary sheet.
This table is compiled from the data contained in Organization Tonnage Tables of each unit embarked, which should be referred to for further details. It may be advisable to furnish smooth copies of the Organization Tonnage Table with the consolidated tonnage table.
|--214--||Change to FTP-167|
guns mounted on wheels, etc. Vehicles require a definite amount of deck space regardless of the cubic capacity of the hold.
- General cargo.--This includes boxes, bales, crates, barrels, and bundles generally known in commercial shipping as package freight. This type of cargo is susceptible of loading in any available hold according to the priority desired.
- Perishables.--This consists of fresh meat, fruit, vegetables, and other perishable components of the ration.
- High explosives.--This includes artillery ammunition, grenades, airplane bombs, demolition explosives, some groups of chemical ammunition, etc., requiring stowage in a magazine or other suitable compartment.
- Troop space cargo.--This includes baggage of individuals and office equipment of organizations. No hold space is usually required for this equipment as it should be stowed in troop sleeping compartments and offices.
- Inflammables.--This includes gasoline, oil, kerosene, some groups of chemical ammunition, and pyrotechnics. On transports, this class of cargo is normally stowed on weather decks.
- Airplanes.--This includes airplanes, crated and uncrated, requiring special consideration in loading and stowage.
- Tonnage data.--The necessary data for the compilation of the consolidated tonnage table, and instructions for the preparation thereof, are contained in Marine Corps Tonnage Tables.
- Broken stowage.--
- Broken stowage is lost space between items of cargo, around stanchions, against bulkheads, and between the cargo and deck above.
- The figures given in all Marine Corps Tonnage Tables include allowances for broken stowage as show below:
- For vehicles and uncrated planes 50 percent has been added to the actual volume and 25 percent to the actual area of deck space necessary for the articles.
- For all other cargo 20 percent has been added to the actual volume of the articles.
- These percentages are based upon the best available data from naval and commercial sources. If suitable spaces are utilized for the various classes of cargo and the stowage is carefully planned and executed, the cargo should stow in the space assigned in the tables. It should be noted, however, that for vehicles and planes particularly, the percentage of broken stowage will vary between wide limits, depending upon the shape and dimensions of the available cargo space and the character of the matériels to be loaded therein. In practice, therefore, the figures given in the consolidated tonnage tables should be used for making preliminary estimates of shipping requirements and a tentative allotment of matériels to stowage spaces. The figures should be checked by detailed stowage plans as shown in paragraph 930, below.
- Navy consolidated tonnage table.--A consolidated tonnage table should be prepared for each ship, showing all special Navy matériel to be loaded. It is desirable that this table be prepared in the same form and with the same classification of cargo as is used in the Marine Corps consolidated tonnage table, with a probable addition of a column for "Perishables."
- Transport loading plans.--
- Based on the consolidated tonnage tables a loading plan is prepared for each transport showing what matériel will be loaded in each hold, 'tween-deck compartment, magazine, and other space on the transport available for cargo, including cargo to be carried as a deck load. Loading plans are prepared under the direction of the transport commander. The transport quartermaster, or other responsible officer of the landing force, will assist in the preparation of these plans, or prepare tentative plans for approval of the transport commander. Figure 6 shows a convenient form for preparing loading plans.
- Tactical and administrative factors.--
- All equipment and supplies should be allocated to cargo spaces so as to permit debarkation in the order required.
- When practicable, the matériel belonging to each organization should be kept together and loaded in a part of the ship convenient to the organization.
- In order that lowering of fighting tanks may not delay debarkation, it is desirable that they be stowed in positions where they will be readily available.
- Force supplies are allocated to holds to utilize the cargo space to best advantage.
- Classes of cargo.--The various classes of cargo must be assigned space suitable to the nature of the cargo.
- Distribution of weight.--Loading and stowage plans must provide for proper distribution of weight longitudinally, laterally, and vertically. Ballast tanks may be utilized to compensate for unequal distribution of weight.
|--215--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
|Data on cargo space||Data on matériel to be loaded|
|Hold, Compt., etc.||Capacity||Height clear of girder||Item No||Organization||Type of matériel||Amount|
|Cubic feet||Square feet||Cubic feet||Square feet||Long tons|
|1||2||3||4||5||Column No. 6||7||8||9||10|
|Magazine B-6||xx||xx||xx||5||Btry a, 11th Mar Arty||H.E. ammunition||xx||xx|
|9||Obs Sq, 1-M, aircraft||do.||xx||xx|
|Total magazine B-6||xx||xx|
|Compt. No. 1, 3d deck||xx||xx||xx||3||1st Bn, 1st Mar||Org. Eq. and supplies||xx||xx||xx|
|1||Hq Co, 1st Mar||Vehicles||xx||xx||xx|
|14||QM, 1st Mar||Rations||xx||xx|
|Total Compt. No. 1, 3d deck||xx||xx||xx|
|Hold No. 1||xx||xx||xx||11||QM, 1st Marines||Camp equipment||xx||xx|
|Total hold No. 1||xx||xx|
|Main deck, aft||xx||10||Obs S1 1-M, aircraft||3 VO airplanes||xx||xx||xx|
|9||do.||Gasoline in drums||xx||xx||xx|
|Total main deck, aft||xx||xx||xx|
|Total deck cargo||xx||xx||xx|
Footnotes: This table is compiled from data contained in the consolidated
tonnage table (fig. 5), supplemented as necessary by Organization Tonnage Tables
for units to be embarked. Due provision must be made for special naval matériel
which must also be loaded.
|--216--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
- Stowage factors.--
- Proper distribution of weight is based on the stowage factor; that is, the number of cubic feet per ton for the various types of matériel to be loaded. The stowage factor for any article or group of articles can be obtained from the Marine Corps Tonnage Tables by dividing the volume in cubic feet by the weight in tons.
- A partial table of the stowage factors of Marine Corps matériel, including allowances for broken stowage, is as follows:
75-mm guns 326 75-mm pack howitzers 291 155-mm gun 195 Tractors, No. 25 145 Trailers, 3-ton, empty 408 Trailers, 3-ton, loaded 142 Trucks, 2-ton, empty 462 Trucks, 2-ton, loaded 299 Camp equipment 159 Small-arms ammunition 36 Artillery ammunition 43 Rations 68
- It will be seen from the above table that, contrary to the usual belief, guns, tractors, and trailers have comparatively large stowage factors and consequently can be loaded at high levels on the ship; that is, in 'tween-deck compartments or on deck. This is not only economical in space but it is desirable from a tactical standpoint, as much of this matériel will be needed early in the operation.
- Ammunition and rations have relatively low stowage factors requiring that the bulk of these supplies be stowed at low levels. Some of these supplies, however, must be available to accompany troops ashore, and provision should be made for stowing a certain amount of ammunition and rations 'tween decks, or in other readily accessible space.
- Sequence.--In the preparation of the loading plan it will be found convenient to allocate cargo to cargo space in the following sequence:
- High explosives, inflammables, and perishables, for which special stowage space must be provided.
- Troop space cargo, if not loaded in troop compartments.
- Heavy, bulky items, such as 6-inch guns, machine ship trucks, etc.
- Other vehicles; square feet of available deck space must not be exceeded.
- Remaining organization equipment and supplies.
- Quartermaster matériel; the bulk of this is general cargo, and space is assigned according to desired priority.
- Verification of loading plan.--As a final verification, the loading plan and the consolidated tonnage tables should be compared to see that each group of articles is accounted for and that the totals of tonnage and volume agree.
- Hold stowage plans.--
- Plans.--After the loading plan for the transport has been completed, a stowage plan is prepared for each hold, magazine, and 'tween-deck compartment used for cargo. The necessary data is taken from the consolidated tonnage tables supplemented by detailed information contained in the tonnage tables for the organizations to be embarked. These plans will indicate in detail how the items of cargo will be stowed in the space available, and should include--
- Matériel may be stowed as follows:
Highest priority under the hatches and immediately accessible thereto, power priority outward therefrom;
By layers with highest priority on top;
In groups separated by vertical planes radiating from the hatch; or
Combinations of the above.
- It is desirable to begin stowage in the wings and complete near the hatches, and the order of loading as shown in the stowage table should so provide.
|--217--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
- "Logistic Data, U.S. Marine Corps" contains complete data relative to dimensions and weight of Marine Corps vehicles, guns on wheels, and uncrated planes. It contains a photograph of each vehicle or article, and a diagram showing the deck space required in stowage. Where vehicles can be nested, the diagram shows space required for nested vehicles.
|--218--||Change 2 to FTP-167|
Figure 8-a.--Stowage plan diagram.
|--219--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
- In preparing a stowage plan for stowing vehicles or planes a diagram of the hold or deck is drawn to scale, showing hatch opening, stanchions, and obstructions. The vehicle patterns can be cut out from tracings of the diagrams given in the pamphlet. These patterns, representing the vehicles to be stowed, can be moved about to secure the most economical stowage consistent with safety and other considerations.
- To prevent shifting at sea with the roll of the ship, vehicles are loaded with the axles athwart ship, and are properly wheel chocked or secured to stanchions or ringbolts.
Stowage Plan Legend, Compt. No. 1 3d Deck
Figure 8-b.--Suggested stowage plan legend.
No. Matériel Organization Remarks 1 Cross-country car Hq CO, 1st Marines Footnote B. 2 do Hq Co, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 3 Tractor do Do. 4 do Co D, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 5 do do Do. 6 do Co C, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 7 do Co B, 21st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 8 do Co A, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 9 Trailer Co D, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 10 do do Do. 11 do Hq Co, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 12 do do Do. 13 do Co B, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 14 do Co D, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 15 do do Do. 16 do Co A, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 17 Two (2) bicycles Hq CO, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 18 Supplementary equipment 1st Bn, 1st Marines Footnote C. 19 SA ammunition do Do. 20 Rations QM, 1st Marines Do. 21 do 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 22 Trailer Co A, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Footnote B. 23 do Co C, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 24 do Co B, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 25 do Co D, 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 26 29 Cole carts and 1 reel 1st Bn, 1st Marines Do. 27 AT gun do Do. 28 Motorcycle with side car do Do. Footnotes:
(A) Number indicates the order in which loaded, and provides for unloading generally in reverse order. This number is shown in circle on stowage plan diagram, fig. 8-a.
(B) Chocked and secured in place.
(C) Dunnaged and fenced in place.
- It is usually impracticable to stow vehicles over or under other matériel without shoring up. Stowage in 'tween-deck compartments is most economical. Where vehicles must be stowed in holds, much space will be lost unless new decks are constructed to permit stowage in several layers. Such construction is relatively simple in holds having shaft alleys.
|--220--||Change 2 to FTP-167|
- Care should be exercised to see that vehicles can actually be lowered or moved into the assigned space, due consideration being given to the location of the hold opening, turning radius of the vehicle, and stanchions, hatch combings, and other obstructions.
- General cargo.--Stowage plans for holds in which general cargo will be stowed need not be so detailed.
- Sample stowage plan.--Figures 8-a and 8-b show a sample stowage plan of a 'tween-deck compartment in which both vehicles and general cargo are stowed.
- Delivery of matériel.--The stowage plans show the order in which matériel will be loaded in each hold. These plans, together with the order of loading the various holds, determine the priority, the place, and the approximate time matériel should be delivered alongside.
- Laying out holds.--Prior to receipt of the matériel, holds in which vehicles or planes are to be stowed should be laid out with chalk, showing the exact space to be occupied by each vehicle or plane. A similar deck marking may be desirable to indicate space assigned to other classes of cargo. The spaces should be numbered serially in the order in which the matériel is to be loaded, as indicated by the stowage plans for the hold. This will not only provide for orderly and speedy loading when the matériel arrives, but is desirable as a check on the stowage plans.
- Identifying matériel.--Organization equipment will bear an identifying insignia indicating the company, battery, or squadron to which each article belongs. As a further means of identification, each vehicle should be marked in chalk with the number of the space it is to occupy, and the hold number. If time permits, it is desirable to mark other matériel with its priority and hold number as indicated on the stowage plans.
- Shifting of cargo.--
- Precautions are necessary to prevent shifting of cargo with consequent damage to ship or matériel. This danger is always present when there is any empty space within the hold or between and around articles. Much of the expeditionary matériel, such as gunsights, is very fragile and easily damaged.
- The precautions against shifting include the following measures:
If possible, leave no space into which cargo may shift.
If there is space left, the cargo must be thoroughly shored or secured so that it will not move under any circumstances.
If the cargo will settle, some provision must be made to secure it after it has settled.
- Dunnage is material used to prevent cargo from shifting and chafing and to fill in broken stowage. Lumber and cordwood are the usual materials used for this purpose. The percentage of dunnage to the total cargo varies, but 10 percent is a fair average. Dunnage should, as far as practicable, be confined to materials which will be useful after arrival at destination.
- Modifying loading and stowage plans.--In order that loading and stowage plans may furnish an accurate record of where each item of cargo is stowed, these plans are modified to show all changes made during the actual loading.
System of Supply
Par. 932. System of supply on shore 221 933. Supply echelons 222 934. Supply echelons on vessels 222 935. Debarkation of supplies 222 936. Supply dumps 222 937. Landing battalion supplies 222 938. Landing regimental quartermaster supplies 223 939. Landing force supplies 223 940. Post exchange supplies 223 941. Captured and salvaged matériel 223 942. Water 223
- System of supply on shore.--The landing force is responsible for the establishment and maintenance of its system of supply on shore. The principles of supply of ordinary land warfare must be modified to meet the peculiar conditions existing in a landing operation. Motor transportation will be very limited, particularly in the early phases of the operation; supplies are delivered by boat requiring rehandling at the beach, often under difficult conditions; and the point of delivery cannot be advanced inland to follow troop movements.
|--221--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
- Supply echelons.--
- Supplies are echeloned in depth. The amount and kind of supplies maintained in each echelon must be sufficient for all needs of the troops until the next echelon is made available. In a force approximating a division, the supply echelons are--
Battalion supplies, which are in the custody of companies or battalion quartermasters.
Regimental quartermaster supplies, which are in the custody of quartermasters of regiments or corresponding special units.
Force supplies, which are the reserve supplies in the custody of the force.
- In forces larger than a division, divisional supplies will constitute an additional echelon.
- If the battalion is acting independently, it is furnished with additional supplies by higher echelons and supply personnel as appropriate.
- Supply echelons on vessels.--The total amount of supplies carried by the landing force are echeloned as follows:
- Battalion supplies.--
- Rations and ammunition for 1 or 2 days, stowed so as to be available for issue to individuals prior to landing. It will prevent loss and wastage if these supplies are issued to troops just before debarkation.
- Additional rations, ammunition, and other automatic supplies sufficient for a period of from 3 to 5 days for all troops in the battalion. These supplies must be segregated prior to loading and stowed so that they are immediately available to follow troops ashore. It is desirable that they be issued to battalions prior to debarkation. If this is not practicable they may be landed under supervision of the regiment and issued to organizations ashore.
- Regimental quartermaster supplies, sufficient for a designated period, usually 25 days or more, loaded so as to be available for debarkation early in the operation. These supplies are loaded on the various ships carrying the regiment.
- Force supplies, usually 30 to 90 days as determined. These can be loaded at lower levels in the ships and in the most economical manner. Force supplies are preferably well distributed among the various ships in the convoy.
- The proportion of the total supplies to be carried on each vessel will vary with the situation. Normally, in addition to the naval stores to be used aboard, it is advisable to load on each vessel at least 30 days' supplies for the personnel of the landing force embarked.
- Debarkation of supplies.--
- Except for small amounts landed with troops, supplies are landed by second and succeeding trips of boats. Careful planning is required to insure the most efficient use of boats and the proper priority in movement of supplies to the beach. Transports must be prepared to modify priority schedules should conditions ashore so require.
- As soon as it is safe to do so. Transports should move to positions close to the beach in order to expedite the movement of supplies to shore.
- The landing schedule and other orders will show in general terms priorities of landing of troops and matériel. These instructions should be amplified on each transport and compiled in a priority table as show in figure 9. The table should include all matériel and rear echelon personnel not landed in accordance with debarkation schedules.
- All boats carrying supplies only should be loaded to capacity. The transport quartermaster must adjust the priority table as necessary. For example, space available in boats carrying vehicles is used for rations, ammunition, or other general cargo which may have later priority than the vehicles.
- Supply dumps.--
- Supply dumps of various classes, such as water, rations, ammunition, signal, medical, and engineer, are established near the beach, and supplies arriving by boat are moved directly to these dumps. The locations are tentatively selected prior to the landing, and finally determined after reconnaissance by supply personnel landing ahead of the supplies. Locations finally selected must be approved by the shore party commander. Primary considerations affecting selection of locations are convenience to boat landings, cover from enemy observation and fire, traffic routes inland, and facilities for handling supplies. The locations selected should not be such as to create concentrated targets for aerial attacks or lead to congestion of traffic.
- The necessary service troops, transportation, and matériel for moving supplies from small craft to the beach, and from beach to supply dumps, and for organizing dumps, should be landed with or prior to the landing of the matériel. Inadequate provision for this need will cause confusion at the beach and may disrupt the supply service.
- Landing battalion supplies.--
- Supplies carried on or with troops.--
- The amount of supplies carried by the individual on landing must be limited so that the mobility and aggressiveness
|--222--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
of the troops will be maintained. Loads on individuals comprising the leading troop units particularly will be reduced to a bare minimum.
- Boats of the second and succeeding waves should carry additional water, ammunition, and hard rations in order that troops may have on the beach, including what is carried on the man, essential combat supplies for a period of from 2 to 3 days. Supplies not carried by the individual, or on organization vehicles, are unloaded on the beach and transferred to dumps. This work is performed by beach party and shore party personnel in order that troops will not be delayed at the beach.
- When combat near the beach is anticipated, men should be equipped with combat packs only. The remainder of the packs (or blanket rolls) should be left aboard ship and furnished to organizations when conditions permit.
- Supplies immediately following troops.--The remainder of the battalion supplies are landed as soon as practicable, and not later than 24 hours after the initial landing. These supplies are usually landed on the same beaches upon which the troops are landed; however, they may be landed at other beaches when the lateral movement of troops or beach conditions make it advisable.
- The supply sections of companies and battalions land with these supplies, assist in handling and segregating them into battalion dumps, and initiate the battalion supply system. If battalion trains or other vehicles are not available, supplies are issued to companies and batteries direct from the dumps and handled by carrying parties. Where a deep advance is contemplated, battalion trains should be landed early, prepared to move supplies and company kitchens to the vicinity of the companies.
- Battalion dumps must be sited without delay. Locations should, as far as practicable, be suitable for later use by the regiment.
- Landing regimental quartermaster supplies.--
- Regimental quartermaster supplies of all types are landed in accordance with priority schedules and the development of the situation. The supplies are landed on beaches selected because of favorable landing conditions, shelter from enemy fire, and convenience in movement of supplies inland.
- The regiment may take over the battalion dumps and continue to use these locations as regimental dumps, or establish dumps in new locations. The regiment will have more time than the battalion for deliberate selection of locations and will require storage space for a larger quantity of matériel. Battalion dumps should be taken over by the regiment as soon as practicable in order that battalion supply personnel may devote their full attention to the movement of supplies from dumps to organizations.
- Landing force supplies.--
- Force supplies.--Force supplies constitute the reserve echelon of all classes of supplies accompanying the force. The amounts of supplies in lower echelons determine the time limit within which force supplies must be landed and made available. Shipping considerations will make it desirable to clear the ships as soon as conditions permit.
- Force depots.--The locations where force supplies in large quantities are landed and stored are termed force depots. Such depots must have ample facilities for landing, sorting, storing, and distributing supplies. Danger from air attack will require that supplies be segregated in groups.
- Location of force depots.--The locations selected for the landing of force supplies may be on the original landing beaches, at some other more sheltered part of the coast, or at a base after it has been secured. The force may take over some or all of the regimental dumps, thus permitting regiments to establish their supply systems inland. The large amounts of supply in the force echelon render sheltered waters and adequate docking facilities most desirable.
- Force depots at supporting bases.--Where a supporting base is established prior to the conduct of a landing operation, it will be advantageous to establish a force depot at the supporting base. If such a base is conveniently located with respect to the landing area, the distribution of supplies may be effected by transshipment in small craft.
- Post exchange supplies.--Post exchange supplies, because of their favorable influence on health and morale, should be made available whenever practicable. It is highly desirable that they be distributed regularly along with automatic supplies.
- Captured and salvaged matériel.--The importance of such matériel increases with the distance of the theater of operations from home bases. The collection, repair, and use of such matériel will result in saving of time and cargo space.
- Importance.--An adequate and constant supply of water is of paramount importance. While men can, in an emergency, carry on for a limited time without rations and
|--223--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
Priority Table for Landing Matériel and Rear Echelon Personnel
From S.S. "President Smith"
Figure 9.--Suggested form for priority table for landing of matériel and rear echelon personnel.
Organization Matériel Where stowed Personnel Total boat spaces Remarks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 Btry A, 11th Mar Arty 1 unit of fire xx xx xx 2 do 3 tractors and 3 trailers, C Tn xx xx xx 3 Hq and Serv Btry, 11th Mar Arty 2 tractors and 4 trailers, C Tn xx xx xx 4 1st Bn, 1st Mar 2 tractors and 4 trailers, C Tn Compt. No. 1, 3d deck xx xx 5 Det 1st, Ed Bn 2 ambulances xx xx xx 6 1st Plat, Co A, 1st Engr Bn Engineer matériel xx xx xx 7 QM, 1st Mar 5 days' water, all units xx xx xx Personnel from Hq CO., 1st Mar. 8 do 5 days' automatic supplies for all units Hold No. 1 xx xx Do. 9 Btry A, 11th Mar Arty 3 tractors and 6 trailers, C Tn xx xx xx 10 1st Bn, 1st Mar 2 units of fire xx xx xx 11 Btry A, 11th Mar Arty 1 unit of fire xx xx xx 12 Etc., etc.
|--224--||Change 1 to FTP-167|
other supplies, an interruption of the water supply even for a short period will probably result in a break-down of the operation.
- Responsibility.--The Navy is responsible for the procurement of water and its delivery at the beach until a supply from land sources can be made available. The landing force is responsible for the reception, storage, and distribution of this water ashore, and for the location and development of water from land sources as rapidly as possible.
- Knowledge of conditions with respect to water supply in localities where operations are contemplated is a basic item of military intelligence and should be included in any study of the locality. The situation relative to water may have an important bearing on the plan of operation and the scheme of maneuver.
- Plans must be carefully drawn so that the necessary personnel and matériel may be procured and properly loaded. All plans and estimates relative to water must include an ample factor of safety to provide against enemy interference, leakage, evaporation, loss due to imperfect water distribution, and other emergencies.
- Requirements.--The amount of water required will vary materially with the climate and the training of the troops. Men in good physical condition, accustomed by training to water abstinence and to regulations relative to the use and distribution of water, can do for a short period with a minimum of from 1 to 2 gallons daily. Over more extended periods the requirements are considerably larger.
- Supply of water afloat.--A considerable amount of water may be made available from the distilling system of the transports and other ships of the convoy, and some additional water may be carried as cargo. If these sources are not sufficient, ships for distilling water of water tankers will be required.
- Landing a water supply.--
- Every man should land with one or more full canteens. Each boat of the second and subsequent waves should carry water in water cans, breakers, or other containers to build up a reserve of water ashore.
- As soon as the situation permits, water in bulk should be transported to the beach in suitable containers or water barges. Under favorable harbor conditions water may be pumped directly from water barges into tanks ashore. The forward compartment of motor launches can be rigged with a tarpaulin to provide a tank for transporting water in bulk.
- Stowage tanks ashore.--
- Prior to the time that the situation becomes stabilized, the most practicable tank is the standard canvas water storage basin as issued. When additional tanks are required they may be constructed of tarpaulin or sailcloth. The tarpaulin or sailcloth should have three thorough coatings of tar. Either type of basin must be set into a strong wooden frame, with floor boards raised 6 inches or more from the ground to prevent rot and facilitate transfer of water to containers. Tanks should be covered with canvas as a protection from dust, evaporation, and reflection of light to airplanes. This type of tank possesses many advantages over other types, principally because of relative light weight and ease of transportation.
- Tanks constructed of other material, such as wood or galvanized iron, may be carried in sections to be assembled after landing. Such tanks have a greater application to stabilized situations.
- A necessary part of the equipment of stowage tanks is an ample supply of hose or pipes with pumps for the transfer of water to smaller containers.
- Distribution ashore.--Plans should provide for adequate distribution on shore. In the early phase of the operation, the usual method of transporting and distributing water will be in standard 5-gallon liquid containers by hand from boats to organizations. This method should be supplemented by vehicles, water carts or trucks, as soon as they can be made available.
- Development of water supply ashore.--
- If water in sufficient quantity is available ashore in surface streams, lakes, or wells, the problem will be simplified; otherwise it may be necessary to sink wells. If conditions permit the use of tube wells, a water supply can be developed in a minimum of time. Preliminary intelligence studies should determine whether it is practicable to sink wells, and indicate the type required.
- The collection and stowage of rain water may be feasible. Watersheds may be constructed of galvanized iron, wood, or canvas, with leads to stowage tanks.
- When the above-mentioned sources cannot be sufficiently developed, it may be necessary to resort to distillation of salt water. When such a need is indicated, portable distilling apparatus should be provided.
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- Water purification.--All water found ashore should be considered as unfit for drinking without purification unless proved otherwise by medical test. Chlorination of water should be standard practice. Water purification units will normally be included in the equipment of the landing force.
Par. 943. Duties 226 944. Prisoners of war 226 945. Stragglers 226 946. Civilian population 226 947. Traffic 226
- Duties.--Military police should be provided in numbers adequate for the following duties: Control of traffic; guarding of dumps and depots; apprehension of stragglers; collection, evacuation, and custody of prisoners of war; and control of enemy civilians when necessary. Detachments of military police should form part of shore party complements. Conditions may require that military police be reinforced by troops from other units, or their duties allocated to other troops.
- Prisoners of war.--
- Estimates.--The probable number of prisoners of war which must be cared for should be estimated in plans for the operations.
- Evacuation.--Prisoners are evacuated from front lines under escort of walking wounded or other available personnel, via headquarters of units, to collecting points. They are retained in the collecting points until evacuated to designated ships or prisoner of war inclosures.
- Collecting points.--Collecting points for prisoners of war are located initially in the vicinity of the beach. Locations are tentatively selected prior to landing and finally determined after reconnaissance ashore. Such locations must not interfere with other activities and must be approved by the shore party commander. New collecting points are established inland as required by the progress of the attack. Collecting point personnel will record and report pertinent data relative to all prisoners passing through the collecting points.
- Inclosures.--Inclosures for the safekeeping of prisoners of war over extended periods may be required.
- Work.--Prisoners of war are assigned to such work as they are capable of performing, consistent with international law.
- Stragglers.--Provision must be made for the collection of stragglers. Collecting points are established initially in the vicinity of the beach and new stations established inland as the attack progresses. Stragglers should be returned to their organizations as soon as practicable.
- Civilian population.--Should there be a considerable civilian population in the theater of operations it may be necessary, as the operation progresses, to arrange for their control or evacuation. Arrangements may have to be made for their shelter, rationing, and transportation. In the case of enemy nationals, close supervision of their activities will be necessary.
- The smooth and orderly flow of traffic on the beaches and inland is essential. The greatest difficulty may be anticipated on or near the beach, where every precaution must be taken to avoid congestion. Stragglers, prisoners, and wounded should be kept clear of the beach.
- Traffic signs.--Units and administrative agencies should be equipped, prior to landing, with canvas signs bearing the name of the unit or agency and a direction arrow. These signs should be set up at the beach and along the routes of advance inland. Military police erect signs not otherwise provided for.
Par. 948. Engineer plans 227 949. Landing engineer units 227 950. Engineer duties 227 951. Maps and charts 227 952. Wharves and landing facilities 228 953. Roads and trails 230 954. Boat channels 230
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- Engineer plans.--
- Engineering work discussed in this section, except temporary landing facilities, is generally that which is necessary to support the seizure of the land objectives, and therefore comes under the responsibility of the landing force engineers. They are assisted when necessary by personnel of the Corps of Civil Engineers of the Navy attached to the various beach or shore parties. Construction of base facilities such as wharves, docks, storehouses, improved roads, etc., is the responsibility of the naval civil engineers.
- Prior to embarkation, the landing force engineer should have all available information relative to the area in which the landing operations will be conducted. This will include beaches, landing facilities, road nets, bridges, water supply, local facilities for procuring construction material, possible landing fields, etc. Based upon this information and the plan of operations, the specific tasks which will probably be assigned the engineers may be determined, and estimates drawn to the personnel and matériel required.
- Detailed plans for the various landings will usually indicate the need for engineers at many or all of the landing beaches, requiring the distribution of engineers and engineer matériel among the ships of the convoy. This will necessitate the attachment of engineer units to subdivisions of the force, and a large part of the engineering work may be planned and executed under commanders of subordinate units.
- Landing engineer units.--A detachment of engineers will usually be included in each shore party and landed with the first boat groups. The size and composition of these detachments will depend upon the work contemplated at the beach concerned. Upon landing an early reconnaissance and estimate of engineer work required should be initiated. The time of the landing of succeeding elements will be determined by the nature and importance of the tasks to be accomplished. An early priority for landing engineer personnel and matériel will usually be necessary. Debarkation and priority schedules, covering the landing of engineer personnel and matériel, should be subject to modification as a result of the reconnaissance and developments ashore.
- Engineer duties.--
- The duties assigned to the engineers include the following:
Compilation, reproduction, and distribution of maps.
Assistance to the beach party in the removal of underwater obstructions at the beach, construction and maintenance of improvised landings and temporary wharves, and in the landing of heavy matériel.
Repair, construction, and maintenance of traffic routes from the water's edge to combat units and, if necessary, assistance in the movement of heavy vehicles.
Construction, shelter, and camouflage of important rear-area establishments (see par. 911c (2)).
Construction and maintenance of facilities for the reception, stowage, and purification of water, the development of water supply ashore, and the organization and maintenance of water distributing points.
Construction of landing fields for aviation.
Furnishing technical assistance, and provision and distribution of tools and matériel for the construction of defensive positions, artillery positions, and command and observation posts.
Demolition of enemy obstacles on shore, and roads and bridges which might be of assistance to the enemy.
Repair, maintenance, and temporary operation of existing railways and, if necessary, other public utilities.
The execution of engineering work of a special character.
- Landing force engineer units are prepared to be used as infantry in combat.
- Civilian laborers and prisoners of war, as available and required, are used on engineering projects.
- Maps and charts.--
- Topographic maps, as accurate and complete as the existing data permit, should be made available prior to embarkation for all units engaged in the operation. Suitable maps, however, will rarely be available and it will usually be necessary to compile new maps. Hydrographic charts may be used to furnish the outline of the coast and certain information relative to the interior. Additional sources of information are sailing directions, existing maps, airplane photographs, sketches, and intelligence reports. If time is not available for the preparation of new maps, hydrographic charts, on the desired scale and on suitable paper, should be reproduced in sufficient quantities.
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- Topographic maps should include sufficient sea area so that both the position of the firing ships and shore targets can be plotted thereon.
- Topographic maps should, if practicable, conform to uniform standard scales. Maps on the approximate scales indicated below are most useful for the purposes shown:
1:20,000 (approximately 3 inches equals 1 mile): Fire control and detailed operations.
1:62,500 (approximately 1 inch equals 1 mile): Tactical map for general use in field operations.
1:500,000 (approximately 1 inch equals 87 miles): Strategical and air-navigation map.
Special large-scale maps of 1:10,000 and 1:5,000, when required.
- Reproduction of topographic maps should provide for a wide distribution, including all naval units of the attack force. Additional maps, overprints, and overlays should be provided as necessary for use as annexes to plans and orders so that they may be prepared in a form which is more concise and readily understood.
- Hydrographic charts.--As a rule, hydrographic charts are not suitable for use as fire control and operations maps because of the small scale and inadequate data relative to land areas. It is highly desirable, provided the importance of the operation so warrants, to have new large-scale hydrographic charts of the landing area published and issued to units concerned. Prior to publication of such charts, topographic data should be added, particularly the location of important landmarks, which could be used as aiming and orientation points. When such procedure is not practicable, existing hydrographic charts should be completed on each ship to show essential topographic features on the coast and in the interior.
- Uniform grid system--All maps, hydrographic charts, mosaics, and vertical aerial photographs should be provided with a uniform grid system based upon a common point of origin. The system of numbering the grids and designating points thereby should be simple and understood by all echelons of the attack force. The grid system should cover all land and water areas involved in the operation. In connection with the establishment of a grid system on a chart or map not already gridded, see CSP 734. It is usually inadvisable to superimpose a new system in addition to the grids on a map that has any standard system. It is preferable to superimpose the standard navy grid system over the one existing on the map, making both systems coincide, and extend the standard Navy system to cover the whole desired area.
- Information obtained after embarkation.--Information not available prior to embarkation may be obtained later by aerial and surface reconnaissance, and possibly other sources. Essential information must be disseminated throughout the command and, depending upon the time and facilities available, the following methods may be used:
- All data obtained from sketches, interpretation of aerial photographs, and other sources may be used in compiling new maps of all or part of the landing area. These new maps may be reproduced and issued to replace or supplement maps previously issued.
- Data noted in (1) above, which supplements existing maps, may be distributed as overlays or in other form, in order that all units may make necessary additions and corrections on maps and charts in their possession.
- Aerial mosaics may be prepared and issued. Such mosaics are usually confined to small areas of particular importance.
- Aerial photographs, particularly obliques of the landing beaches and enemy defensive positions, are very valuable and should be secured and distributed whenever possible. Sufficient points should be identified and marked on the prints to permit ready orientation and location of topographic features.
- Panoramic sketches and photographs made by submarines and surface craft may be very valuable and should be reproduced and issued as necessary, with land features adequately identified.
- Responsibility.--While the compilation, reproduction, and distribution of maps and overlays is a function of the engineers, aerial photography and the preparation and reproduction of prints and mosaics is a function of aviation. The necessity for such activities while aboard ship en route to the landing area must be anticipated and plans made accordingly.
- Wharves and landing facilities.--
- Necessity.--The matériel of the Fleet Marine Force needed in the early phases of an operation can be landed on an open beach from special Navy landing craft. Prompt measures should be taken, however, to provide wharves and landing facilities at selected beaches to facilitate the landing of all types of matériel, particularly
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very heavy articles, and to permit the use of boats and lighters not capable of running close to shore.
- Responsibility.--The construction of wharves and other facilities for landing matériel is a responsibility of the naval civil engineer detail of the beach party. Engineer units of the landing force may be assigned as necessary to assist in these projects.
- Locations.--The general location of wharves will be governed by the logistical and tactical requirements; the exact location will be governed by technical considerations. The most important factors determining choice of location are the nature of the beach, cover from observation and fire, and accessibility to sea and land traffic routes.
- Standard equipment.--Speed in construction of wharves and efficient utilization of personnel and matériel will best be attained by the use of standard equipment. Such equipment should be rugged, capable of being broken down into parts readily stowable aboard ship, and of being quickly assembled. Each part should be light enough to be carried in or towed by standard Navy boats. The wharf should be sectional and susceptible to extension or replacement of damaged sections. It should be suitable for erection on any type bottom, rugged enough to carry the weight intended, and to withstand the beating of the surf.
- The type of work undertaken prior to the time the situation stabilizes will ordinarily be limited to projects of a temporary or emergency character. The wharf should, as far as possible, be designed to permit--
Direct loading with minimum lift from boats and lighters to trailers or other vehicles.
A number of boats and lighters to be tied up alongside and unloaded simultaneously.
Movement of vehicles on and off the wharf without delay and traffic congestion.
- Various types of wharves may be considered, of which the following are most important:
- Metal trestle wharves.--Metal sectional-trestle wharves have the characteristics noted in subparagraph d, above. The parts are of tubular steel or lighter metal. The trestle consists of a vertically adjustable transom supported by two standards. The standards have steel shoes, adaptable to any angle or character of footing. This type of construction has many advantages.
- Pontoons.--This type also has the characteristics noted in subparagraph d. The advantages are the light weight of material and speed of construction. The lack of stability, ruggedness, and weight-carrying capacity are disadvantages.
- Raft wharves.--Such construction requires a large amount of very heavy material with relatively small and decreasing buoyancy. If material is available locally, this type offers possibilities.
- Barrel wharves.--The buoyancy is supplied by barrels or drums, secured by timber and lashings. Barrels or drums which may become available can be utilized for this purpose.
- Sandbags.--The empty bags are light and require relatively little stowage space. They can be filled on shore but the process requires considerable time and labor. They may be used to best advantage when the amount of construction is limited and for strengthening other types of wharves. When vehicles are to run over sandbags, a plank or corduroy road must be provided.
Figure 10.--Temporary crib dock.
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- Other types.--Various other types of construction are possible, depending upon the situation and material available. Small craft filled with stone or other heavy material may be sunk off the beach. Material obtained ashore may be used for stone jetties, piles, or crib work.
- Lifting gear and ramps.--The wharf should be provided with adequate equipment and rigging for lifting heavy matériel from boats and lighters, and suitable ramps for running matériel ashore.
- Roads and trails.--
- The movement of traffic through heavy sand on the beach, particularly heavy vehicles and supplies in large quantities, will usually require some type of road surfacing on the beach early in the operation. Material for this purpose, such as planks or heavy wire netting, may be landed, or material such as hard soil or corduroy may be obtained on shore.
- Reconnaissance of routes inland should be initiated as early as practicable so that the details of the supply system on shore can be perfected and put into execution. Vehicles equipped for emergency road work should be made available for use in improving the road net. The most immediate need will be trails for the tractors of artillery and combat trains. Thorough reconnaissance by personnel familiar with the weight, power, and general characteristics of the vehicles, and trained in the selection and laying out of suitable trails, will result in a great saving in time, labor, and material.
- Boat channels.--
- A clear channel for boats can frequently be obtained with a small amount of blasting without drilling or diving. Explosive charges placed on top or at the side of obstructions will frequently be very effective. This work can usually be done from small boats.
- Channel marking.--It may be necessary to mark boat channels and obstructions to navigation. This work may follow immediately the landing of the first boat group in order that other boats and barges may approach the beach with safety.
Par. 955. Medical plans 230 956. The attack force medical officer 230 957. Estimates of casualties 231 958. Estimates of hospitalization 231 959. Hospitalization afloat 231 960. Classification and sorting of casualties 231 961. Shore to ship evacuation 231 962. Medical personnel attached to the battalion 232 963. Battalion aid station 232 964. Regimental aid station 232 965. Collecting stations 232 966. Ambulance service 233 967. Hospitalization ashore 233 968. Illustrations; some methods employed to expedite shore to ship evacuation 233
- Medical plans.--
- The medical plans must provide for the evacuation and hospitalization of sick and battle casualties, including captured enemy casualties. In addition to the personnel and matériel of medical units attached to the landing force and for normal fleet requirements, the medical plan should provide for the following:
Additional hospital ships.
Conversion of certain transports for care of slightly wounded and sick.
Medical personnel and equipment for ambulance boats for evacuation from shore to ship.
Medical personnel and equipment for beach parties.
Provision for retention of convalescents who are to be returned to duty.
Evacuation of permanently disabled to home ports.
- As indicated in paragraph 920c (10) of this chapter, some of the medical units attached to the landing force, or base hospitals, may be embarked on hospital ships for the movement overseas.
- The attack force medical officer.--
- The attack force medical officer serves on the staff of the attack force commander. He will be responsible for the preparation of detailed plans for hospitalization afloat and for the evacuation of casualties from shore to hospital or
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evacuation ships, and their further transfer as appropriate. He will coordinate the activities of the medical units of beach parties and vessels of the attack force with those of the landing force.
- In order that he may supervise the assembly of medical personnel and matériel, and make recommendations regarding the preparation of additional hospital and evacuation ships, the attack force medical officer should be selected at an early date and should be provided with adequate assistants.
- During the period of preparation he should consult with the transport group commander, and assign his senior assistant to serve on the latter's staff during the movement overseas and the landing operations.
- Estimates of casualties.--An estimate of casualties for the operation as a whole and for each beach must be made in advance, and plans made accordingly. Based on experience at Gallipoli, battle casualties at the various beaches offering resistance may vary from a minimum of 10 percent of troops landed over a period of 3 days to a maximum of 15 percent for the first day. In estimating probable casualties consideration should be given to the amount and effectiveness of covering fire, terrain, cover available, enemy resistance anticipated, objectives, climate, weather, season of the year, and sanitary conditions ashore.
- Estimates of hospitalization.--World War [I] experience, which cannot be accepted as conclusive for a particular landing operation, indicates that of all battle casualties, 30 percent were permanently lost as a military asset; 37 percent returned to duty in from 30 to 90 days; and 33 percent returned to duty in from 2 to 30 days, averaging 14 days. One-third of all wounds were serious. It is estimated that the probable battle casualties in a landing operation will occur in the ratio of 1 killed to 4 wounded.
- Hospitalization afloat.--
- In an offensive operation, hospitalization afloat must be adequate for all casualties requiring hospital treatment until hospitals are established ashore. Hospital ships entitled to immunities provided by the Geneva Conventions should be available for the seriously wounded, and, as far as practicable, for all other wounded requiring hospitalization. Certain transports should be equipped as auxiliary hospital ships and should be provided with medical personnel and medical facilities to supplement the hospital ships.
- In order to avoid long trips in small boats, a relatively larger number of hospital ships and transports provided with hospital facilities will be needed if the landing beaches are separated by wide intervals. Each transport division conducting a more or less detached or isolated landing should include the ships necessary for the hospitalization of all classes of casualties.
- Classification and sorting of casualties.--
- In order to make the best use ashore and afloat of the available medical facilities, and to expedite evacuation and treatment, casualties are classified as follows:
- According to treatment required:
Desperately wounded (usually nonevacuable).
Seriously wounded (stretcher cases).
Slightly wounded (walking or sitting cases).
- According to method of transporting:
- Classification, tagging, and sorting of casualties begin at the battalion aid station and continues as necessary in rear establishments. Sorting ashore, however desirable, should not delay shore to ship evacuation when boats are available.
- Shore to ship evacuation.--
- Medical units assigned to the landing force are responsible for evacuation to the beach and the care of casualties until boat transportation can be provided. Casualties ready for evacuation will be assembled at an evacuation station, which should be located with due regard to suitable boat landings, cover from enemy fire, location of the aid or collecting station, and natural drift of the wounded. One or more evacuation stations may be designated for each beach.
- The medical detail of the beach party is responsible for the loading of casualties into boats. The beachmaster directs the movement of boats carrying casualties in accordance with the attack force medical plan.
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- Specially designed ambulance boats, or other boats converted for exclusive use as ambulance boats, should be identified as provided by the Geneva Conventions. They should at no time be used for the transportation of combat personnel and matériel. They may be utilized to transport medical personnel and matériel from ship to shore as well as for the evacuation of the wounded.
- Certain designated landing boats may be used as improvised ambulance boats after landing combat elements. They should be provided with medical personnel and equipment from hospital ships, transports, or other vessels, for the emergency treatment of casualties en route. Such boats will not fly the Red Cross flag.
- The attack force medical plan should designate the ships to which each class of casualty should be evacuated. Insofar as practicable, wounded will be sorted and loaded into ambulance boats accordingly and the boats dispatched directly to the designated ships.
- If the number of boats available is so limited that support and reserve battalions have to land in the second or later trips of the boats, the use of landing boats for the evacuation of casualties may necessarily be delayed until after the landing of such battalions. In this event, it is advisable to provide for the evacuation of the slightly wounded to any transport by boats returning for a second load. The concentration of these casualties on the ships designated for them may be undertaken later. While the landing of combat troops and matériel must have first consideration, it is highly desirable to have ambulance boats for the evacuation of the seriously wounded direct to hospital ships.
- Some methods employed to facilitate and expedite the evacuation of casualties from shore to ship are illustrated in paragraph 968.
- Medical personnel attached to the battalion.--
- Equipment.--The equipment of the battalion medical detachment consists of the first-aid equipment carried on the person; chests or packs containing instruments, medicines and dressings; and a limited amount of camp equipment. Equipment not carried on the person should be so packed that it can be carried either on a hand cart, trailer, or by hand.
- Company aid men.--The battalion medical detachment will usually be divided for combat into an aid station group and company aid men. Just prior to debarkation, three company aid men are normally assigned to each assault company. Upon landing, the aid men will attend such wounded as they can reach along the beach, and direct walking cases to the evacuation station. Thereafter, following their respective companies, they will apply first aid to casualties, direct those able to walk to the rear, mark the location of casualties unable to walk, and, insofar as possible, place them in groups under shelter from fire along the axis of advance of the battalion aid station. The only equipment carried by the aid men will be that carried on the person.
- Battalion aid station.--
- The remainder of the battalion medical detachment plus such other personnel as may be assigned as litter bearers constitutes the aid station and is organized into litter squads and the aid station group. Its duties are: Evacuation of casualties in its sector from the front line to the aid station; rendering first aid or supplementing that already given; and sorting, tagging, and recording of casualties. Wounded able to walk are directed to the beach or the nearest collecting station; others are evacuated thereto by litter bearers from the rear.
- The aid station personnel, with their equipment and necessary supplies, will usually land with the last units of the battalion. Initially, the battalion aid station may be established on or near the beach. Should the advance of the battalion inland be rapid, it will be advisable to delay establishing the aid station until the battalion is held up, otherwise contact may be lost.
- Sites for stations should provide proximity to the largest number of wounded and to the line of drift of wounded, good routes forward and to the rear, cover, and water.
- Regimental aid stations.--The regimental medical section will set up an aid station in the rear area of the regimental zone of action. This installation is not a second echelon in the chain of evacuation; it will serve as such only when units of the medical battalion are delayed in assuming this task. It serves the personnel of regimental headquarters and other rear area elements. Like battalion aid station, it is organized for the handling of battle casualties and evacuates them to collecting stations or to beach medical establishments.
- Collecting stations.--
- Duties.--Collecting stations evacuate casualties from the battalion aid stations and from the field; sort, tag, and give emergency treatment to casualties; and forward medical supplies to the aid stations. Wounded, who cannot walk, are evacuated by litter until ambulances are available. No operations are performed except as immediately necessary to save life.
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- Time of landing.--Collection station personnel must land early in the operation in order to relieve the battalion aid stations and permit them to follow the battalions inland. The division of the personnel into small groups, each with appropriate equipment for landing at several beaches, may be necessary.
- Sites.--Collecting stations should be established initially near the beach and, after evacuating casualties in that vicinity or upon arrival of hospital units, should move forward to follow the progress of the attack. Initial sites are selected by the collecting station commander. General considerations governing sites are similar to those for aid stations; however, provision should be made to accommodate their larger size and greater amount of traffic. The immediate vicinity of targets likely to draw fire should be avoided.
- Ambulance service.--Ambulance service should be provided for whenever the situation permits the effective use of motor transportation for the evacuation of casualties in advance of the collecting stations and between the collecting stations and the beach. Ambulances should be landed as soon as the advance has progressed sufficiently to provide a reasonable area for their employment.
- Hospitalization ashore.--
- Hospital stations.--
- Hospitals established ashore during the early phases of the operation will afford treatment, rest, and shelter for wounded pending evacuation to ships. Surgical treatment is confined to what is immediately necessary, to save life and to prepare patients for further evacuation. Facilities should be sufficient for the care of about 30 percent of the estimated casualties to provide for delays in shore-to-ship evacuation, and the care of nonevacuables.
- Hospital stations are landed and established ashore when the number of wounded and other conditions so justify and there is reasonable protection against enemy fire.
- The site of the establishment should be initially near the beach, protected as much as possible from enemy fire, and with good communications with the collecting stations and the beach. An ample supply of good water is essential. Existing buildings, household conveniences, straw, wood, etc., if available, can be used to advantage. It is advisable to locate hospital stations well away from other important military establishments.
- Base hospitals.--Base hospitals with complete facilities are established when necessary by the commander attack force or the commander base force, as appropriate. They will be located either in the landing area or elsewhere within the theater of operations. The medical personnel of the Fleet Marine Force is not adequate to establish or operate a base hospital.
- Identification.--The buildings and areas used exclusively for the care of the wounded should be plainly marked with the Geneva Cross.
- Illustrations.--Some methods employed to facilitate and expedite the evacuation of casualties from shore to ship are shown in the following illustrations:
Figure 11.--Army litter. Navy standard bunk straps used to secure patient.
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Figure 12.--Navy standard 50-foot motor launch with thwarts in place carrying 24 litters and ambulatory cases.
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Figure 13.--Litter Hoist. Weight with floor boards 400 pounds. Capacity 10 litters or 14 ambulatory cases. Can be readily constructed by ship's force.
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Figure 14.--Loaded litter hoist being transferred from boat to main deck by ship's crane. Note heavy line bent on hoist to prevent swinging. The 10-litter cases can be loaded and transferred to main deck in 6 to 7 minutes.
Figure 15.--Litter hoist broken down and secured in three compact bundles for stowage. All parts marked to facilitate assembling.
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Figure 16.--Litter conveyor, consisting of wooden runways held parallel by strap-iron spreaders and secured to hatch coaming by strap-iron hooks. Litter cases can be quickly and safely passed down conveyor and delivered to a nearby sick bay in a minimum of time.
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[B L A N K]
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