COMINCH P-013 RADAR BULLETIN NO. 6 (RADSIX) CIC MANUAL UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
3000. INFORMATION FLOW
Part III. INFORMATION FLOW
- Internal Sources.
- Interior information flow (sketch).
- Radar. Radar is the most obvious source of information, but it must not be forgotten that the functions of CIC must continue when the radars are out of action. All other sources of information should be used.
- Sonar. CIC must be alert to aid in the development of sonar contacts using information derived from other sources. Use of sonar in navigation, or work other than A.S.W. should not be overlooked.
- Radio direction finders and search receivers. When intelligently used, RDF bearings and search receiver indications are of great value, and may provide the only source of information when land masses affect radar coverage or targets are not within range of radar detection.
- Lookouts. Close coordination between lookouts and CIC is mandatory for recognition and confirmation of air and surface contacts. Lookouts should be used as a habitual and automatic source of information.
- Flag. The flag should so advise CIC of pertinent developments and plans that CIC may become thoroughly familiar with the objectives, methods of operation, and information desired by the flag.
- Control stations.
- Conn. It is the responsibility of Conn to inform CIC of maneuvering, tactical, and identification data; anticipated information should also be reported.
- Weapon Control Station. Close cooperation between CIC and control stations should be maintained. Those stations which have direct communication must inform CIC of the condition of readiness of the batteries, which targets are taken under fire and when targets are shifted, damaged or destroyed.
- Air Control. Close liaison should be maintained between air operations and CIC. Fly control and air plot will advise CIC of operations planned and tactical organizations of all flights.
- Operations orders. CIC should have a copy of pertinent orders.
- General intelligence. Monographs, bulletins, charts, and other publications prepared by ONI, air combat intelligence and various allied organizations should be utilized to the utmost.
- Operational intelligence. All dispatches, incoming and outgoing, containing operational intelligence must be immediately routed to CIC.
- Aerology. Complete and up-to-date aerological data should be furnished for interpretation and utilization with other information.
- Interior Communications. Sound-powered phones are the primary means of interior communication. Standard sound-powered telephone procedure should be lused with all sound-powered phones.
- Sound-powered telephone procedure. The following modified sound-powered procedure is recommended for use in reports from the radar operators to CIC:
- No initial call.
Interior Information Flow
- Label only relative bearings. If not labeled they will be considered true.
Example: "Many Bogies--Bearing zero seven two--range two three five double oh."
- MC circuits.--The MC circuits should be used to parallel sound-powered communications under the following conditions:
- When it is desired to call attention to initial contacts, important information, and emergencies.
- When it is desired that all hands at a station be informed of special conditions.
- When the captain or the flag desires to use them.
- The extensive use of MC circuits as a means of interior communication robs it of its value as an instrument to attract attention in emergencies, and to stress the importance of urgent information. In addition, the noise level in CIC is materially increased. Under certain conditions it not only tends to confuse, but is sometimes inaudible.
- Testing communications over the MC circuits is unnecessary and annoying to personnel. It should not be done unless a transmitting station fails to receive an acknowledgement and believes that communications are ruptured.
- Voice tubes.--The comments relative to the noise and confusion introduced by the MC circuits and to their inaudibility under certain conditions also applies to voice tubes. It should be, if possible, a strictly standby method of communication, with parallel sound-powered telephones as the primary means.
- External Sources of Information.
- Exterior information flow (diagram).
- Other ships.
- Flag. Information received from the flag should include tactical orders, navigation information, operational intelligence and radar control orders.
- Bridge. Information received from the bridges of other ships will consist largely of tactical and navigational information.
- CIC. Information received from CIC of other ships will be of two types:
- Tactical and navigational information consisting in large part of radar reports, and alerts against air, surface, and subsurface attack.
- Tactical information and orders pertaining to the launching, recovery, and control of aircraft and surface craft.
- Shore stations. Information obtained from shore stations will be of three principal types:
- Operational orders and intelligence reports.
- Tactical and navigational information, including radar reports.
- Tactical information and orders pertaining to the control of aircraft and surface craft.
- Aircraft. Information obtained from aircraft will be of three types.
- Combat air patrol. Tactical information arising largely from the interception of unidentified aircraft and investigation of unidentified surface craft.
- Patrol, search and attack planes. Information regarding air, surface, and subsurface contacts relating to these missions.
- Antisubmarine patrol. Information regarding air, surface, and subsurface contacts and relating to these missions.
Exterior Information Flow
- Exterior Communications.
- Radio silence.
- Conditions of radio silence are prescribed by the OTC. Use of all communication facilities will be in accordance with communication plans in effect.
- VHF radio channels are so essential for the efficient functioning of CIC that the benefits derived from their employment usually outweigh the loss of security. For this reason, radio silence on these frequencies is usually ordered only under extreme conditions. CIC OFFICER PERSONNEL SHOULD KNOW EXACTLY UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS AND BY WHOSE AUTHORITY RADIO SILENCE CAN BE BROKEN. Regardless of the condition of radio silence, all circuits should be set up for instant operation.
- Circuit discipline.
- Standard R/T procedure should be strictly adhered to. Avoid unnecessary transmissions. Make certain that each message sent is essential. A circuit saturated with traffic is useless.
- Clarity consistent with brevity is the yardstick for framing messages. Decide first what must be said, say it, and sign off the air. Intelligent use of "affirmative" and "negative" saves words and valuable time.
- All frequencies can and probably will be monitored by the enemy. Be alert for deception. Proper use of authenticators will help to defeat deception. Report instantly any attempted deception and be sure to evaluate it. Valuable information may be gained if a little time is spent in analysis.
- Radar duty ships.--Task force (group, unit) CIC ships, fighter direction ships, radar guard ships, intercept and jamming ships and radar pickets will be assigned by the OTC in accordance with USF 10. Radar reporting procedure will be in accordance with that publication.
- Radio channels used in CIC.--The following is quoted from USF 10.
- "The radar reporting channel is used to disseminate radar information, and to control the function of the radar guardships, radar pickets, radar intercept ships, radar jamming ships and as required the fighter direction ships.
The following are to be complied with on this channel in controlling the functions of the radar guardships, pickets, intercept and jamming ships and as necessary the fighter direction ships.
- Control and coordinate air and surface radar searches by all ships in the task force (group) (unit) to insure maximum effective coverage, and to provide for reliefs in event of casualties.
- Report to the task force (group) (unit) commander over this channel the initial air or surface contacts.
- Report to the task force (group) (unit) commander the determination of friendly character of air or surface contact by ship first determining that fact.
- Reports of unidentified surface contact are made in plain language or encoded as required by existing instructions.
- The estimated size of the contact shall be given in the initial report. In case of surface contact the best estimate of the number shall be given. In case of air contact the arbitrary designations one, few (2 to 10) or many (over 10) shall be used.
- The task force (group) (unit) commander thru the force (group) (unit) CIC ships shall indicate whether to report the nearest or the central ship in a group of surface contacts.
- Any ship in the force may be required to report an air or surface contact. The initial report shall include all available information: subsequent reports shall give the last plotted position of the contact; amplifying reports shall be made as new information becomes available.
- A radar guardship detecting a new air or surface contact while engaged in reporting another raid shall not, where possible, be required to report both at once. To promote over-all efficiency another guardship shall be directed to report the new contact by the coordinating ship."
- Radar telling net. Used for exchanging radar information of more than local interest between forces and/or land bases separated by distances too great to be covered by the radar reporting channel.
- The interfighter direction channel. Used for the dissemination of information concerning fighter direction and to control the functions of the fighter direction ships.
- For purposes of security and to abbreviate terminology used in disseminating fighter direction information the deck condition code is established. See article 6179, USF 10.
- The force CIC ships, as ordered by the task force commander, will control the functions of fighter direction ships over the interfighter direction channel. Transmissions will be concerned with the following operations:
- Stationing and relieving of CAP.
- The assignment of fighter direction ships to control the interception of designated raids.
- The allocation of CAP to fighter direction ships for the interception of designated raids.
- Reinforcement of CAP as required by the tactical situation.
- Reports concerning the flight deck condition and status of airborne aircraft from all carriers in the task group (unit) including returning air strikes.
- The expeditious transfer of control of interceptions between fighter direction ships when information fails for the controlling ship.
- The assignment of CAP to the control of radar picket ships acting as a fighter direction ship.
- Other nets and channels used in CIC. The task force maneuvering and primary warning net should be monitored by all CIC's in order that changes in course, speed and disposition, submarine contacts, commands from the OTC, and all information passing over this channel will [be] available immediately. Remote transmitting facilities are usually established in CIC. The OTC or task force (group, unit) CIC ship will utilize the task force maneuvering and primary warning net to alert the task force when enemy activity is encountered, and will use it to pass pertinent filtered combat information to all ships in the task force. They are responsible to pass via this net, pertinent information gathered from radar guardships, intercept and jamming ships, radar picket ships, or fighter direction ships.
A medium or high frequency channel should be used to pass information to ships or stations outside the range of VHF and as a standby for VHF and UHF.
- Assault channels (amphibious).
- There are a number of frequencies used in a landing operation. The three major circuits are designated as follows:
- Assault group frequency. Links the AGC with all attack group commanders and control vessels. Any word received from the individual ship, craft or
boat is relayed via the respective group commander over this circuit to the AGC.
- Landing craft control frequency. This frequency is used by group commanders and beachmasters in controlling the advance and beaching of landing ships and craft.
- Ship-to-shore frequency. This frequency is an Administrative Frequency between the control ship (AGC or RAGC) and the beach.
- Aircraft channels.
- Fighter net. The following information may be obtained from the fighter net.
- Air and surface contacts by combat air patrol.
- Weather reports.
- All reports necessary for fighter direction.
- Search and attack frequencies. The information which may be obtained from the search and attack frequencies is: (This circuit has been used as the stand-by fighter net.)
- Contact reports of air and surface units made by search planes.
- Reports from the air attack group.
- All reports necessary for the conduction of search and attack operations.
- Antisubmarine frequencies.
- Information will be obtained from aircraft regarding aircraft, surface units, and submarine units.
- Form of radar reports.--
- Part VI of USF 10 does not contain a radar reporting form. However, certain conditions relative to reporting contacts are set forth which should be strictly adhered to. A desirable radar reporting form is presented below and is in general conformance with existing communication instructions. The exact form to be used will be promulgated in instructions or operation orders issued by the fleet or force commanders.
- In making intership radar reports, identify air contacts as friendly or enemy or unidentified by use of the following vocabulary:
"Friendly"--for friendly air or surface contacts
"Bogey"--for unidentified air contacts
"Skunk"--for unidentified surface contacts
"Bandit"--for enemy air contacts
"Robber"--for enemy surface contacts.
- Initial report.
- Size of target--one, few (2 to 10), many (over 10). A more precise estimate can be made if feasible (Ex. 5 or 25).
- Identity of target--"Friendly," "Bogey," "Skunk," "Bandit," or "Robber."
- Bearing of target in degrees (true) from fleet center (OTC, guide, or designated ship) for surface targets. For air targets, use own position. When deployed around an island objective, bearings shall be converted to an established reference point.
- Distance in nautical miles from fleet center (OTC, guide or designated ship) for surface targets. Distance in nautical miles from own position for air targets. When deployed around an island objective, bearings shall be converted to an established reference point.
- Additional pertinent information, if any, may be included if no delay is involved; for example, approximate altitude.
- Local zone time for above data.
- Authenticator (as required by existing instructions).
- Originator's call.
- "Over" or "Out."
"FEW BOGIES--TWO SEVEN FOUR--FIFTY SIX--ANGELS SEVEN--THIS IS TIGER--OVER."
NOTE.--When more than one tactical group is operating on same channel, the reports of the guardships of one group are liable to confuse the ships of another group. Therefore, under these conditions the reports should start as in standard R/T procedure.
"HELLO MONARCH, THIS IS TIGER--FOUR SKUNKS--THREE ONE ONE--TWENTY ONE--OVER."
- Amplifying Report.
- Raid number or letter (letters indicate surface contact, numerals indicate air contact). Designation of raids should be according to USF 10.
- Size of target; one, few (2 to 10), many (over 10). A more precise indication of the size can be made if feasible.
- Identity of target: "Friendly," "Bogey," "Skunk," "Bandit," or "Robber." UNNECESSARY TO INCLUDE ONCE RAID HAS BEEN FIRMLY DESIGNATED EXCEPT TO INDICATE CHANGE OF IDENTITY.
- Bearing of target in degrees (true) from fleet center, (OTC, guide or designated ship) for surface targets. For air targets use own position. When deployed around an island objective, bearings shall be converted to an established reference point.
- Distance in nautical miles from fleet center (OTC, guide, or designated ship) for surface targets. Distance in nautical miles from own position for air targets. When deployed around an island objective, bearings shall be converted to an established reference point.
- Course of target in degrees (true).
- Speed of target (knots).
- Altitude of target in thousands of feet using decimal points for hundreds of feet (if approximate use "low," "high," "very high").
- Local zone time for above data.
- Additional pertinent information, if any.
- Authenticator (as required by existing instructions).
- Originator's call.
- "Over" or "Out."
"RAID FOUR--THIRTY BANDITS--ONE FOUR TWO--SIXTY FIVE--COURSE TWO FOUR TWO--SPEED THREE THIRTY--ANGELS TEN POINT TWO--TIME ZERO EIGHT TWENTY FOUR--APPEAR TO BE BREAKING UP--THIS IS KING--OUT."
NOTE.--When more than one tactical group is operating within normal VHF range, the reports of the guardships of one group are liable to confuse the ships of another group. Therefore, under these conditions the report should start as in standard R/T procedure.
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS TIGER--RAID BAKER TWO--FOUR SKUNKS--THREE ONE FOUR--FIFTEEN--COURSE TWO SEVEN TWO--SPEED THIRTY ONE--TIME TWENTY THREE THIRTY TWO--BELIEVE THEM TO BE CARGO VESSELS SIGHTED YESTERDAY BY WANABA PATROL--OUT."
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS TIGER--RAID BAKER TWO--THREE ONE TWO--FOUR--OUT."
- USF 10 states that it is the responsibility of the task force (group or unit) CIC ship to designate raids. Initial reports will therefore be without raid designations. USF 10 further states: "For designating raids, air or surface: When a raid splits, the components shall be designated as illustrated in the diagram in figure 1. Numbers are assigned to air raids and letters to surface raids. Splits from an air raid shall be assigned letter subdesignations and splits from a surface raid shall be assigned number subdesignations."
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS TIGER--MANY BOGIES--TWO FOUR SEVEN--SEVENTY FIVE--OVER."
Task Group CIC Ship:
"HELLO TEAM THIS IS MONARCH-BOGIES BEARING TWO FOUR SEVEN DESIGNATED RAID TWO--OUT."
- If identity of raid changes, Radar Guardships should report as follows:
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS TIGER--RAID FOUR--FRIENDLY--OVER."
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS MUZZLE--RAID ABLE--BELIEVED ROBBERS--OVER."
- Words "bearing" and "range" may be used if desired. Words "course," "speed," "angels," and "time" should always be used.
- Items should always be reported in sequence. Items not determined or not changing may be omitted. No indication of omission is necessary.
- Bearing and distance of surface target may be reported as from any ship in emergency providing location is reported.
"HELLO MONARCH THIS IS KING--ONE SKUNK--TWO SEVEN ZERO--TWO--FROM TIGER--OVER."
- Voice procedure.--The following forms prescribed in Annex "B" of CentCom TWO shall be used:
"Bearing 185°" shall be spoken "bearing one--eight--five," not one eighty-five.
"Distance 44 miles" shall be spoken "distance forty-four," not four four; with the distinction that for close in surface contacts 41/2 miles shall be spoken "four point five."
"Course 270° true shall be spoken "course two seven zero," not two seventy.
"Speed 180 knots" shall be spoken "speed one eighty" not one eight zero.
"Time 1140" shall be spoken as "time eleven-forty."
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