COMINCH P-013 RADAR BULLETIN NO. 6 (RADSIX) CIC MANUAL UNITED STATES FLEET
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF
4000. Procedures and Operations
Part IV. PROCEDURES AND OPERATIONS.
- Search and detection.
- Early detection of the enemy is such a vital factor in the success of any action that the need requires no elaboration. Early detection provides a means and a counter for the "surprise" element which, down through history, has so often proved decisive. With respect to radar search and detection, there are two governing factors: First, the search must be as extensive as possible, and must reach out to over the greatest area, contemplating maximum performance of detection equipment. Three hundred sixty degree search should be maintained at all times and should not be subjugated to tracking. Second, the limits of dependable search must be known in order that plans and decisions can be based on sound fact rather than on insecure premise.
- Adequate matériel performance is the first step towards attaining this high degree of search efficiency. The instruments should be adjusted and tuned to insure their operation at full effectiveness. To achieve this condition, daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly check-off lists, should be established. While Radar Maintenance Bulletins and Installation Plans have excellent maintenance information they do not replace an established routine which is designed to prevent and anticipate trouble before it has a chance of hindering operation.
- Familiarity with equipment is mandatory of all radar operators and CIC officers. This requires not only experience but also a good deal of theoretical knowledge. They should know the beam width, lobe characteristics, range and bearing accuracy, maximum and minimum dependable ranges, requirements for target discrimination of their own radar, and the capabilities and limitations of radar in general. RADONE A, "The Capabilities and Limitations of Shipborne Radar" has been prepared to inform personnel on these matters. Personnel concerned with interpreting information from radar should be thoroughly conversant with this publication. They should be able to tell whether or not their equipment is operating at optimum. The outside factors governing their performance must be known and appreciated, for instance, the probability of periscope detection; the proximity of land, and the existing atmospheric conditions. The CIC watch officer should know and consider such conditions and should at all times keep the command informed of the dependable limits of the searches.
- The alertness of the radar operators is a vital factor in insuring that the enemy will be detected in time to employ the full fighting power of the ships against him. The responsibility for the alertness of the operators rests upon the CIC watch officer. He should (1) rotate operators at least very half hour in order to relieve eye strain and fatigue, (2) imbue them with the spirit that theirs is a job of grave responsibility and that the safety of the entire ship may lie in their hands, (3) remedy conditions which cause
monotony by giving them different jobs to be accomplished during their Condition Watches.
- Supervision of the search must be intelligent and in accordance with the requirements of the OTC, the ship's responsibility, and the type doctrines. The CIC watch officer should interpret these and insure that each operator is made to understand his part in the search. The primary function of search must never be forgotten while tracking one or more targets.
- Positions of all ships in company should be kept on a polar plot. Radar operators should memorize this and be able at any time to identify, but name, any ship on the PPI scope. Any noticeable changes of position of any ship in company should be reported immediately and be closely tracked in order that its identity shall not be lost. Rough tracks of all ships in company should also be maintained at all times in order to facilitate immediate realization of the presence of new contacts.
- All new radar contacts, air or surface, should be reported and tracked as soon as located. This is necessary in order to prevent the loss of valuable time in getting an initial solution on targets and an early interception of air contacts.
- Visual. Much information may be gained and recognition may often be established by visual means. The lookouts should be informed of all contacts so that they may assist in recognition. Get confirmation from them whenever possible. They should be in the habit of advising CIC immediately of everything they see, not only for confirmation, but as a habitual source of information so that CIC will continue to function smoothly even if the radar breaks down.
- Sonar. Sound equipment is of prime importance in the detection and tracking of submarines. It is also a valuable aid in piloting.
- Radio direction finders and search receivers. It may well be that the first indication of the enemy is obtained by search receivers or radio direction finders. The primary means of detection of radio controlled glider bombs is the search receiver. Close coordination with these instruments must be maintained.
- Intelligence. (A bibliography of publications is in the appendix.) In order to keep abreast of current operations, fleet doctrine, and technical advancement in equipment, CIC should keep on hand a large amount of intelligence information. Proper organization of this material will facilitate its use. Such organization includes:
- Strategic charts on the bulkhead which display information concerning movement reports, contact and amplifying reports, the location of enemy bases and air fields, including notes on facilities, approximate air and submarine patrol areas.
- Tactical charts which assemble and display the information pertinent to a bombardment or amphibious operation, including fire support areas, landing beaches, gun emplacements, grid system in use, transport area, own and enemy mine fields and possible navigational landmarks for radar navigation.
- Extracted information from the technical and tactical publications placed in folders available for instantaneous use.
- Display. The following is a brief discussion of the various methods of display utilized by CIC.
- Plan position indicator: These are instantaneous displays; they show the situation NOW. The PPI carries to control stations a partial display of the radar picture by means other than words. It is a partial display because a PPI can be cut into one radar set at a time only. These displays have
proved of particular value to officers at control stations. The PPI has the disadvantage of showing only the present, a disadvantage which can be overcome in part by plotting on the scope, with pen or grease pencil, retaining a limited amount of the past. This saving of the picture also helps the intermittent observer by reorienting him when he returns to the scope. The PPI shows a relative motion picture. This must be fully appreciated at all times.
- Precision PPI (VF): The VF has several advantages in display. First, an accurate range and bearing can be obtained from the instrument. Second, any sector can be expanded for minute observation. In using the VF, personnel should keep in mind the small distortion inherent in the presentation of the "B" scope. The advantages of this type of presentation are that nearby targets are spread out on the "B" scope, and the coordinates are particularly easy to read.
- Projection PPI (VG, VG-1, VG-2): In the projection PPI, the image from a 3-inch PPI is optically expanded onto a horizontal plotting surface; it thus has the advantage of removing the necessity of relaying data from the radar to the plotter. Three plotting surfaces are supplied with each instrument. One is unmarked transparent glass, another is unmarked frosted glass, the third is frosted glass with polar coordinate markings. Tracing paper may be used with any of these types. Because of the long persistence of this type of PPI, it is impractical to switch radar inputs or change scale, unless several minutes of use can be sacrificed. Therefore, it will normally be used as either surface or air display. By plotting information from radars not connected at the moment with the VG, both air and surface contacts can be displayed on the VG surface. Due to the wide beam pattern of air search radars and long persistence of the projection PPI, this unit is not very satisfactory for use in interceptions. The projection PPI's do not in many respects serve as a PPI. They should be thought of more in terms of plotting facilities.
- Plotting: Neat, legible, accurate, and rapid plotting is essential to the display of information. The standard plotting symbols and plotting procedure set forth in RADFOUR and RADFIVE should be used on all plots.
- The teleplotter is a means of reproducing the displays in CIC at remote stations. The receiver unit of the teleplotter reproduces at one-half scale the plot at the transmitter.
- Radar Countermeasures.
Officers standing watch in CIC should be thoroughly acquainted with the basic fleet radar countermeasures doctrine as enunciated in USF 10.
In accordance with this doctrine, the term "radar countermeasures" (RCM) includes radar interception, radar jamming, and radar deception. RCM does not include communication countermeasures nor does is include antijamming (A/J) equipment or techniques.
Antijamming (A/J) is considered to be part of the equipment to which it is attached; hence, A/J equipment and techniques are covered in RADTHREE, The Radar Operator's Manual.
As stated in USF 10, "All radar countermeasures information shall be communicated promptly to CIC where it can be quickly evaluated and disseminated to the flag, commanding officers, and control stations over internal communication circuits, and to other ships and aircraft as necessary via external communication facilities."
The responsible CIC personnel should be fully cognizant of the capabilities and limitations of RCM and should so train and organize their team that the utmost use of all RCM information can be made.
All personnel in CIC should be thoroughly familiar with RADSEVEN, The Radar Countermeasures Manual, RADELEVEN, The Shipborne Radar Countermeasures Operator's Manual, and other periodic fleet publications on RCM.
Shore based training received by radar and CIC personnel before reporting to their ship can be divided into two general categories: basic, under the cognizance of BuPers, and team training under the fleet operational training commands.
CIC watch officers receive individual basic training in the tactical employment of radar and in combat information center organization and operation. Most of these officers receive, as a part of their basic training, instruction in the control of aircraft. All CIC watch officers will receive training in aircraft control within the near future. Upon completion of basic training, specialty designators "R", "X" or "N" are appended to the CIC watch officer's reserve officer classification, to denote the qualification attained by his basic training (as authorized by Cominch Conf Fleet Letter Serial 0663 of 7 March 1945).
Radar operators receive basic training which covers the general operational characteristics of all radar and radar countermeasures equipment. Following a relatively brief generalized training period, radarmen are trained specifically on the type of search radar equipment furnished the ship to which they are assigned. Upon graduation as seamen (RdM) a notation is made in the service jacket of each graduate regarding the specific type of equipment for which he has been trained. Such notations should be taken into consideration when assigning seamen (RdM) to duties aboard ship.
Following basic training, CIC watch officers and radarmen going to new construction are formed into CIC teams and are given operational or "team" training covering all types of problems which confront a CIC in an operating ship, before reporting to their ship. The purpose of such training is to mold the CIC team into as well an integrated unit as is possible preceding shakedown training.
Maintenance officers and enlisted personnel receive only basic training before reporting to their ship. Both the radio technicians and the radio specialist officers receive technical instruction in the maintenance of all Navy electronic gear. The training for officers and men differs only in the level at which each is pitched, and in both cases it is aimed at preparing the individual for technical maintenance duties rather than for watch standing, either deck or CIC. Since neither the radio specialist nor the radio technician is meant to be a watch stander, neither receive operational training with the CIC team.
Radio specialist officers are specifically designated by the letter "T" following their reserve officer classification in accordance with the Cominch Fleet Letter mentioned above.
Refresher training is available to operating ship personnel at navy yards, Fleet schools and also within the basic training program. Commanding officers should arrange for such training for their personnel by contacting fleet administrative officers, operational training command or type command representatives for specific information.
Experience at sea in combat areas is necessary for CIC personnel, including those who have completed a course of training at shore based schools. The suggestions below are given as a guide for the conduct of shipboard training:
- Intraship drills.
- Supervised plotting drills.
- Target indication drills.
- Casualty drills.
- Rotation of CIC watch duties.
- Operation of emergency equipment.
- Radar operating drills.
- Coordination with lookouts.
- Competitive operation.
- Slides and movies.
- Radio telephone procedure.
- Navy training course.
- Use of testing equipment.
- Effecting simple repairs and adjustments.
- Capabilities and limitations of radar.
- Capabilities and limitations of IFF.
- Elementary radar theory.
- Radar countermeasures.
- Miscellaneous reading. (Radio bulletins, records, instruction books, CIC bulletins and CIC magazine.)
- Task force radar and intercept drills.
- Fighter direction exercises.
- Attention is invited to current directives for shore training facilities.
- The type commanders have instituted a program for forward area training, which includes instruction in CIC operation. In addition, underway assistants are being trained who will travel from ship to ship, to assist the commanding officer in the solution of CIC problems.
- Maintenance of radar equipment
- A program of preventative maintenance is necessary to avoid failures of radar equipment at crucial moments. Systematic inspection should be made to insure that equipment remains at maximum efficiency all the time, including:
- Regular adjustment, cleaning, and lubrication of all radar equipment.
- Timely replacement of weakened or erratic components.
- Separate maintenance personnel should be included in the CIC organization. Part-time duties and dual responsibilities inevitably results in poor performance.
- The following procedure is recommended in order to obtain an efficient radar maintenance crew:
- Constant supervision by competent maintenance officers.
- Weed out personnel who are unfit or disinterested in this work.
- Require the regular use and study of instruction books, radar technical publications, and bulletins.
- Encourage initiative in maintenance work.
- Send maintenance personnel to established schools for training and refresher courses.
- Make full use of engineering service available at yards and bases.
- CIC and conn.--One of the major reasons for not obtaining the full advantage of CIC is the lack of understanding on the part of deck watch officers of the capabilities of radar and the information to be obtained from CIC. It is equally true that the CIC watch officers lack understanding of the requirements of the deck watch officers. To improve the existing situation it is imperative that CIC watch officers and deck watch officers be rotated in order to maintain this mutual understanding. Advantage should be taken of opportunities to conn the ship from CIC.
- Responsibility: It should be the responsibility of the CIC watch officer to keep the command informed at all times as to the tactical situation without inquiry from the bridge. Whenever a contact is made, even a doubtful one, command should be notified. The reliability of the contact should be established by tracking, by careful consideration of the technical factors, or by visual means.
- Station keeping: For normal station keeping requirements a PPI on the bridge will supply all necessary information. When this instrument is not available or when greater accuracy is required, the CIC should supply the desired data: ranges and bearings on guide and other ships, summarize existing conditions, and evaluated comment thereon. At no time should the search radar be monopolized for the use of station keeping to the detriment of its primary function of search. Appreciable changes in relative positions of own or other ships should be reported to command without waiting for inquiry.
- Maneuvering: For tactical maneuvering, CIC should be able to locate own ship with respect to others, friendly or hostile, and to predict future location of own or other ships by inspection of the plot. It should inform command of own ship's proper position in relation to own forces or most advantageous position with respect to enemy forces and then determine courses and speeds to reach these positions. It is here that the use of the maneuvering board, surface plot, status board, and strategical and tactical charts are of inestimable value. With its rapid, up-to-the-minute display, CIC has a complete picture of the tactical situation. This picture is presented to the captain, in whole or in part, as his needs require.
- Estimate of the situation: Information assembled and display in CIC presents a complete picture of the tactical situation which must be passed continually to command. The difficulty of transplanting a picture from CIC to the mind of the conning officer using words as a medium can be lessened by continual drills and by judicious use of tactical phraseology and auxiliary plots. Command should have on the bridge visual aids such as the PPI or remote plots which help in absorbing the situation that CIC is presenting.
The teleplotter will be an aid in disseminating information. There are four major aspects of the situation, the air status, surface status, subsurface status, and the radar status.
- Air status: CIC should advise command of size, altitude, and condition of friendly combat air patrol, of the efficiency of aircraft search. All information concerning the presence of hostile aircraft, its size, speed, course, altitude, probability of attack, and estimated time of arrival must reach command
immediately. When friendly aircraft are available for fighter direction by own ship or other ships, command must be kept advised of action taken, progress of interception and contact reports by intercepting fighters.
- Surface status: Beside navigational and maneuvering information CIC should endeavor to present information on identity, position, composition, course, speeds, disposition, and probably intention of all surface contacts.
- Subsurface status: CIC should keep command informed of all developments in sonar contacts and should be prepared to assist in the regaining of contact. This includes information from intelligence, other ships and aircraft, as well as own ship.
- Radar status: It should be he responsibility of CIC to inform all control stations of any special conditions or handicaps which are imposed upon the operation of the equipment itself. If landmasses interfere with the detection of aircraft or the land contours are such as to permit a ship to hide close to the shore line, it is important that the ship be fully informed. Radar failures must be reported to command, with an estimate of the time required for repairs. A report will be made when the equipment is in commission.
- Communications: Communications with other units is a definite portion of the ship-control problem. CIC can aid command in this matter by taking over routine control of the voice radio circuits particularly where they are complicated by codes and ciphers or by lengthy and detailed messages. Logs of voice radio circuits should be kept in CIC. This in no way is intended to relieve the communication service of its proper responsibilities.
To reduce excess noise, and the attendant confusion, it is highly desirable that an earphone watch be maintained on those circuits which are to be monitored in CIC.
- Responsibility: The CIC watch officer does not relieve the OOD or the navigator of the responsibilities assigned him by Navy Regulations. The CIC watch officer, however, may be assigned applicable responsibilities for the safe navigation of the ship under circumstances where the best available information is in CIC.
- Piloting: The intelligent use of various instruments in CIC is distinctly helpful in piloting. Radars supply ranges and bearings on navigational reference points. The DRT is of assistance, not only by use of the tracking table but also by the use of course component solver and the latitude and longitude computer. CIC should maintain its own navigational plot of the ship's positions from radar fixes combined with dead reckoning. A duplicate set of navigational charts should be kept in CIC if those of the navigator are not available at all times. These charts should be carefully studied in advance in order to ascertain which points will be most likely picked up by radar. Ships having sonar equipment should make full utilization of it as an aid in navigation. The rolling reverberation of shoal water should be differentiated from the sharper return of a steep reef. Presence of mine fields and approach of a torpedo can often be detected by sonar. The fathometer, to a limited extent, has similar uses in navigation. In obtaining
navigational fixes, the use of contour templates or the system of minimum ranges is distinctly helpful. Because the range from a search radar is more accurate than the bearing, the intersection of simultaneous range arcs should be used as a fix in preference to the intersection of bearing lines.
- Radar contour method of piloting:
- Navigation through the employment of radar ranges and bearings is subject to any one or all of the following errors.
- Uncertainty as to the point of land ranged on, except when clearly defined.
- Height of the terrain, producing ranges from a source behind the shoreline.
- Width of the radar beam, causing errors in target bearings.
- Gyro error.
- Any bearing error in radar alignment.
- Errors a through c are virtually eliminated and errors d and e are entirely eliminated through the employment of the radar contour method of piloting. This method consists essentially of constructing a land contour on a template on the basis of radar ranges, and fitting the constructed contour into the charted shore line contour. Experience has shown that good fixes can usually be obtained in less than a minute, which time compares very favorably with other methods. The accuracy of these fixes has been consistently superior to that of other methods.
- Preparation of the chart and templates.
At a convenient position on the chart, a radar range scale is marked off in yards to the scale of the chart. For navigational purposes 2,000 yards to the mile is satisfactory, although 2,027 yards to the mile is strictly correct. If used in conjunction with gunnery, the latter scale should be employed. The template itself should be made of transparent plastic about 16 by 20 inches. A hole is drilled in the center just large enough for a thumb tack to fit snugly. From this point radial lines are inscribed in either 5° or 10° steps for 220°.
- Method of use.
The center of the template is tacked to the zero point of the radar range scale inscribed on the chart. On "mark" the radar operator starts calling only ranges at 5° steps from one end to the other of the prearranged sector. These ranges are marked on the corresponding template bearings, or recorded and later transferred to the template. The plotted points then are joined to form the land contour, and this is fitted to the chart.
An example of the method: Radar operator informs CIC he can obtain ranges between 088° and 152° true. CIC watch officer marks the template from 090° to 150° and requests ranges in 5° steps. Radar operator transmits "A" scope ranges to the plotter starting at 090° and each 5° step until 150° is reached. As the antenna is momentarily steadied on each successive bearing, the assistant calls "mark" and the
radar operator reads the range to the closest hundred yards. If any steps of the sector are out of range, "no range" is called, in order to maintain the rapid continuity of ranges. The result is a reproduction of the PPI scope contour on the template to the scale of the chart, which can be fitted to the chart by observation, the center of the template marking the ship's position at the middle time of ranging. The template will not fit the exact beachline, as radar ranges are affected by the contour of the land. Approximate positions should be readily apparent when within 20 miles of the shore, with an error of only 200 yards when 8 miles off shore. Accuracy increases with sharper coastal indentation and larger scale charts. The air search radar cannot be used for the method.
- Use in shore bombardment.
In well charted areas this method will prove of value in conducting shore bombardments utilizing indirect fire, and also for navigating the ship to the initial firing point.
This method of navigating depends on knowledge of the contour of the coast being ranged upon. With inaccurate charts, such as are sometimes found in remote Pacific areas, the value of this method is limited.
- Navigation at sea: A close estimate of the ship's position is maintained at all times through the course component solver and the longitude and latitude computer. The DRT should be reset periodically to conform to fixes obtained by the navigator from celestial sights. The radar is of great value in making a landfall.
A section on piloting with the VF and VPR is in preparation and will be forwarded for inclusion in this section.
- CIC and the flag.
- CIC. The flag bears much the same relationship to the force as does the captain to a specific ship. Consequently the CIC of a flagship has the added responsibility of supplying the flag with all navigational, tactical, and maneuvering data as well as the air, surface, sub-surface, and radar status, evaluated and presented in terms of the whole force rather than in terms of the ship alone. The need for this broader conception frequently results in a Staff officer being stationed in CIC in a role similar to that of the ship's Evaluator to complement the regular flow of information to the remote plots. CIC should be organized so that information furnished to flag plot will be complete enough to obviate the necessity of flag personnel interrupting CIC's usual functions. To obtain the greatest benefit from CIC, it is necessary that flag plot furnish all pertinent information to CIC.
- CIC and aircraft control.
- The details of the control of aircraft are covered in RAD EIGHT, Aircraft Control Manual.
- The fighter direction doctrine is set forth in USF 10.
- The operation of CIC in connection with Aircraft Control may be divided into three classifications.
- The control and coordination of the information flow and the operations of other ships. This information will not only include positional and descriptive data, but also such tactical data as conditions of fighter readiness, conditions of flight decks, progress, completion and results
of interceptions. The operations referred to include the control of search radars, the control of the information flow, the assignment of raids for interception and the allotment of fighters and radio channels to this end.
- The exercise of fighter direction itself.
- The control of aircraft other than in fighter direction as in homing lost aircraft, directing own attack group to target, hunter killer control in A.S.W., investigation of long range surface contacts beyond visibility distance, and controlling own gunnery observation and spotting planes.
- Fundamentally fighter direction is the control of fighters on basis of radar or visual information to enable them to intercept hostile aircraft. It entails the destruction of hostile reconnaissance aircraft before they can sight your own forces and send in reports, and the dispersion and destruction of attacking aircraft before they can inflict damage.
- Friendly aircraft are controlled by means of voice radio by the fighter director officer (using standard R/T procedure and fighter director vocabulary). In order to perform his duties well, the F.D.O. must have all CIC information at his command. This information is primarily obtained from the air search and altitude determining radars. Other information such as weather and navigational data, intelligence and lookout reports, and information concerning the status of own aircraft including the amount of fuel, ammunition, and oxygen remaining, is essential to the fighter director's work. He must also be familiar with the characteristics and performance of planes, and the full details of the strategic and tactical situation.
- Not only carriers, but all ships equipped with a combat information center must be able to perform Fighter Direction duties and other aspects of aircraft control at any time, in the following cases:
- Control of shore based or carrier based fighters in defense of convoys and task forces.
- Control of shore or carrier based fighters in coordination with Army and Marine air warning units, particularly in initial stages of amphibious operations when their radar and communications are not yet fully established on the beach.
- Interception of snoopers from a picket position some distance from the main force before the enemy can spot his target.
- Control of fighters in event of casualties to carriers.
- Control of air strike group in torpedo, bombing, mining, and intruder strafing missions.
- Searches and patrols.
- Antisubmarine warfare, frequently involving cooperation with surface craft.
- Illumination of targets.
- Laying of smoke screens.
- Homing of lost planes and recovery of survivors.
- Controlling radar countermeasure planes.
- CIC and control of surface craft.--The fundamental requirements in the positioning or control of small craft by CIC are a determination of their relative and navigational positions, a knowledge of their limitations and abilities and their radar
characteristics. A communication procedure is promulgated prior to the operation. Examples of this type of control which may be encountered are:
- Acting as a guide for landing craft.
- Directing landing craft to specified beaches.
- Maintaining large convoys in order.
- Stationing control vessels or pickets boats in amphibious operations.
- Aiding small minelaying craft in laying minefields and plotting navigational position of field.
- Directing PT boats in a low visibility attack.
- Directing crash boats to their objectives.
- Directing small craft engaged in laying smoke screens.
- Directing other surface units in an ASW creeping attack.
- Boat wave tracking.--In an amphibious operation the waves of assault boats must be carefully tracked and all interested stations kept informed of their progress toward the beach. RAD 9, The Tactical Use of Radar in Small Vessels should be referred in connection with the control of landing craft. Boat wave tracking is a function of the CIC. It is possible to determine from a good plot:
- Course of boats in to beach or line of departure and whether or not their course will take them to the proper location.
- Speed of waves and whether or not they can make the line of departure or beach on time.
- Position of marker, control, or support vessels. (This latter function may be most important.)
- CIC and gun control.--The assistance rendered by CIC in the radar control of gunfire is particularly important. The capabilities and limitations of the equipment in use must be thoroughly understood in order to intelligently render this assistance. Personnel in the directors should be acquainted with the results obtained from CIC, the methods by which derived, and the channels by which disseminated. Correspondingly, CIC personnel should be familiar with the fire control and director systems.
There are several ways in which CIC can be of assistance in the control of radar gunfire.
- Designation of targets. The designation of targets is a perogative of Command. By target designation is meant the selection by Command of the target, within or approaching gun range, that is to be taken under fire by that particular ship. Another function, completely separate from target designation, is target indication.
- Target indication.
- By target indication is meant the indication to Command and gun control stations of the target available. When considering a task force (group) (unit) it is the indication to Command of the targets approaching the area of gun fire of the unit as a whole. Target indication includes all the information necessary for proper designation, including the presence, identity, location, size, number, course and speed and estimation of probable intention. In addition, CIC must include evaluated factors which are necessary in order that command has the adequate information for proper designation of a target.
- In order to perform its function of target indication, CIC must be thoroughly acquainted with the fire distribution doctrine. The relative importance of various types of targets must be recognized. When task force cruising instructions, or other directives contain a positive statement as to the range at which it is desired to open fire on specific targets, CIC can be instructed to inform command and gun control stations that the target is at that range.
- Initial reports from CIC should be followed with the statement that the director is matching up. Before a target approaches the range of gunfire, the information from the director radars should be made available to CIC in order that they may have all sources of information.
- It is the responsibility of CIC to inform command and gun control stations of friendly units which are in or approaching own ships line of fire.
- Target indication involves the transmission of range, bearing, and position angle (if applicable) to directors. Target indication is accomplished by several methods; the sound powered phone at present is the primary means. Other aids are remote plots, and watch pointer synchro system with inputs from radars, the precision PPI, or hand transmitters. The bearing and range tendency of the target should always be include in phone reports; i.e., "moving left," "moving right," "closing fast," or "opening slowly."
- In many ships, it is necessary to use relative bearings in designating azimuth. However, new equipment is being provided which will permit the designating personnel to use true bearing. The Mk 10 Bearing Indicator when provided in directors permits rapid conversion from true bearing to relative or vice versa. CIC personnel must know which system is in use aboard their own ship, and be guided accordingly.
- Rapid target indication in range is necessary in coaching fire control radars onto invisible targets. This is particularly true with air targets, and in cases where the target pip is small. To expedite getting the director in full radar control when there are two or more targets on the same bearing, immediate and accurate range indication is essential, as the pointer will be unable to match in elevation until the range operator has the pip in his notch. A continuous flow of range data, with minimum time lag, is necessary for rapid matching. The range tendency should also be reported; i.e., "target closing fast." If targets are close together in range amplifying remarks such as "nearest target," clarify the picture to the fire control radar operator.
- Target indication in elevation is a complex problem. Most CIC's have not been equipped with the means for determining elevation directly but by calibrating the air search radar for fade zones approximate altitude can be determined, from which position angle may be converted. If desired, position angles may be drawn on fade charts. The installation of SP/SM radars in larger combatant units provides CIC with the means for accurately determining elevation angle for fire control purposes. Reports from planes, ships, or shore units may often contain an estimate of altitude. In matching up to track air targets at close range, any approximation of position angle is of marked assistance.
- Target tracking. Fire control computers were designed to furnish rapid solutions on high speed targets. Speed and accuracy are lessened when the target's relative speed is low. In such situations, CIC can assist plot by furnishing an initial solution of target course and speed, and information of the targets maneuvering. CIC can detect a change in the targets course usually before it is apparent to plot. CIC and Gunnery Plot must cooperate closely in the solution of any problem.
- Radar spotting. Spotting with search radars has not been altogether successful, despite the success reported by some ships. However, CIC can furnish range spots on surface targets at medium ranges, and should be prepared to do so in event of failure to fire control radar.
In spotting for surface gunnery, the "B" scope of the VF with SG input can be used to advantage. Spotting for range can be accomplished by visual estimation (using electronic range lines or ink scales) or the moving spot can be utilized, and the difference in the ranges of the target and splash calculated from the range counter.
- Night air defense. A major problem of CIC has been defense against night air attacks. Cooperation between CIC, fire control radars and gunnery control stations is of the utmost importance. During night air attacks the responsibility of insuring that own ships are not fired on is in large measure placed in CIC.
- Specific procedures used aboard large vessels (BB, CB, CA, CL). The following set up is suggested for use during night air attacks:
Station the air defense officer in CIC (wearing 5JP) and provide him with two AA gunnery liaison officers "wearing 41JS and 42JS respectively). The air defense officer indicates targets and divides up the battery as appropriate. The gunnery liaison officers coach their respective directors on to the indicated targets.
If the main battery radar can pick up the torpedo planes, have the AA directors match the main battery director through sky plot. The "B" scope of the main battery radar is excellent for tracking low flying aircraft and distinguishing them from destroyers in the screen. Deflection spotting is possible, but difficult and may not be accurate. For this function, the radar search is sacrificed, therefore, the primary burden of spotting must remain with the gunnery organization.
- Target indication with the precision PPI.
The "B" scope of the VF, utilizing SG radar input, provides an accurate and quick means for indicating surface targets to directors and other control stations.
Against low flying planes, (position angle below 6°) within 20,000 yards, the VF with SG input is a fast and flexible means of putting directors on threatening targets.
Against high flying planes the VF with SC or SK input is used.
The speed of planes is too great to attempt tracking them on the "B" scope. Tracking of air targets is best accomplished on the VF PPI by centering the cursor on the target and centering the intensity modulated sector over the target.
Where the pip is too weak to be read through this brightened sector, the sector can be placed on the near or far side, of the pip, and 2,000 yards compensation made.
- PD panel.
PD panels are installed in CICs to provide flexibility in the selection of stations to which target indication data is to be transmitted, and in selecting the transmitting agent.
- AA coordination plan.
An AA coordination plan is used by various task groups. The purpose of this plan is to "assist in the detection of close in bogeys, shifting of contacts from search to fire control radars, and the early engagement of enemy planes by concentrated gunfire while guarding against further undetected attacks."
This plan varies from group to group, but in general provides for the following:
- Sector assignments for fire control radar search and for distribution of AA fire in event of multiple targets.
- A close-in radar search using fire control radars in assigned sectors.
- A voice radio circuit for the dissemination and exchange of AA gunnery information.
- An AA coordinator stationed in the flagship stationed in CIC.
A close liaison must be maintained between CIC and AA control stations of individual ships in order to utilize all available information.
- CIC and shore bombardment. In amphibious operations, it is the mission of certain Naval groups to replace the landing force artillery in supporting the assaulting troops by fire on shore targets. Current fleet doctrine and publications will be complied with in carrying out specific shore bombardment missions. During fire support missions, CIC must, as always, keep the Command advised of the entire situation at all times. CIC does not exercise control unless specifically authorized to do so.
- Gunfire against shore targets is the same as firing against a surface target with zero speed, except as noted below:
- The geographical position of the ship should be accurately and continuously fixed, since this determines the range and bearing to the target. In determining the ship's position by radar, the principles covered in Section 4212 are applicable.
- Radar Beacons. Radar beacons may be made available at designated points ashore where shore bombardment is to be carried out over flat terrain which is questionably mapped, charted, or photographed.
- A radar beacon, accurately located at a navigational point known to a ship, enables this ship to determine its own geographical location.
- If neither shore fire control party nor the ship knows their own geographical location, the target should be designated by a true bearing and range from the beacon. Bearing designation should be obtained from a magnetic compass by the shore fire control party.
- Radar beacons may be used with search or fire control radar. The bearing is very accurate. An initial correction in range should be applied. This inaccuracy is caused by the time delay in triggering the beacon.
- The elevation of the target above sea level should be taken into consideration.
- Reciprocal of the set of the current should be fed into the computer as the target course, and the drift as target speed.
- The pitometer log is inaccurate at low speeds, so own ship's speed fed to the computer should be carefully checked and set correctly by hand when at low speeds.
- During Call Fire, ship's gunfire is directed by the spotter for the shore fire control party. To prevent endangering own troops, ships should:
- Commence and close firing on order of shore control fire party.
- Apply exactly all spots received from spotter.
- Fixing the Ship's Position.
- A grid chart of the objective should be prepared on tracing cloth or other translucent material and placed on the DRT in CIC. The chart should display shore outlines, elevation, contours, target locations, navigational dangers, prominent landmarks, radar targets, position of other forces and the track the ship desires to follow. Scale should be 1,000 or 2,000 yards to the inch.
- CIC should determine the ship's position and keep an accurate track of the ship by the best available means--optical, radar or DRT fixes. This can be obtained by the following means:
- Radar bearing and range on a navigational object.
- Simultaneous bearings with a pelorus or other optical instrument.
- Combination of radar ranges and optical bearings.
- Several radar ranges on navigational objects.
- Contour method of radar bearings and ranges. (See section on navigation.)
- Use of virtual PPI reflectoscope. (VPR)
- If practical, the DRT should be reset to correspond to the actual position of the ship. This will usually be necessary after a change of course or speed. CIC should determine the set and drift of the current from the track, and furnish this information to command and gunnery control stations.
- The following procedure is recommended for prearranged indirect fires when a point of aim is available:
- Locate target on chart.
- Position the ship and keep a track of the ship on the chart.
- Recommend courses and speeds to conn the ship through the initial firing point steadied on the firing course and speed.
- Compensate for dead time by one of the following methods:
- Advance each fix the distance expected to be made good along the track during dead time and measure data from the advanced position; or
- Lay off from the target the distance expected to be made good during dead time on a bearing which is the reciprocal of own course, and measure all data from this point. (An arbitrary value should be chosen for dead time which will give the plotter sufficient time to plot the fix, compute data, and pass data to gunnery plot or guns.)
- Furnish gunnery control and plot with the initial computer set-up: (bearing, range and elevation to point of aim). The following method is recommended for furnishing this data:
- Give time "mark" when navigation data is taken by radar or optics.
- Pass data to CIC, record, and plot fix, labeling it with time.
- Compensate for dead time.
- Determine as required by gunnery plot the predicated bearing, range and elevation to target, for the advanced time.
- Pass data to gunnery plot.
- Give "mark" upon the expiration of dead time (at which time the data should be correct).
- Pass to gunnery plot following additional data:
- Set and drift of the current.
- Corrected ship's speed if pitometer is inaccurate.
- Spots (if available only in CIC).
- Check computer solution of bearing and range against the CIC's plotted solution throughout the firing.
- Do not let the bombardment interfere with effective radar search.
- The following procedure is recommended for prearranged indirect fires when an area is to be covered with no point of aim available:
- Locate target on chart.
- Select a centralized point of aim in the area to be covered.
- Draws in the desired firing course and select the commence-firing point and mark it on the track.
- From this point, mark off the ship's advance along the firing course at one minute intervals.
- From these points, draw lines to the selected point of aim and indicate the bearing and range.
- Recommend courses and speeds to conn the ship through the initial firing point steadied on the firing course and speed.
- Obtain from the gunnery department a table of arbitrary ranges and deflection spots to cover the target area with the allowed ammunition.
- Follow section 4273, (e), (f), (g), and (h).
- In direct control of gunfire, CIC's function is limited to assistance in locating the target.
- When gunnery control spots a target, CIC should check to insure that it is on the enemy side of the lines and report this to gunnery control. Normally permission should be obtained from the shore fire control party to take such targets under fire.
- CIC should give gunnery control and plot the elevation of the target if known.
- When targets are assigned by shore fire control party, CIC should inform gunnery control and plot of the range, bearing and elevation, and coach the director on.
- The following additional procedure is recommended for call fire by indirect control, if communications with the shore fire control party are controlled from CIC:
- Locate target assigned by shore fire control party on chart.
- Furnish gunnery control and plot with bearing, range and elevation of the target.
- Check computer solution against CIC's plotted solution.
- By using "time-of-flight" clock, inform shore fire control party of "salvo" and "splash."
- Relay spots received from shore fire control party to gunnery control and plot.
- Quickly plot spots received and recommend "cease firing" if it appears that next "salvo" might hit own troops.
- Keep an up-to-the-minute plot of our forward lines on the chart.
- When no rangekeeper is available, the following procedure is recommended:
- Choose an aiming point adjacent to the target which can be available to the guns or gun directors.
- Measure the effect of the aiming point from target in mils, instead of the bearing of the target.
- Pass range and deflection directly to the guns, or to a gunnery control station which add spots and other corrections.
- After opening fire, guns may be controlled entirely by spotting or CIC may take over the function of a rangekeeper by continuing to calculate the basic range and deflection for the addition of spots.
- The following general procedure is recommended for illumination:
- Plot the target to be illuminated.
- Furnish control and plot with range, bearing and elevation.
- Relay to control any orders and spots received from shore fire control party.
- The type doctrine and procedure for naval gunfire support in landing operations must be understood by all officer personnel connected in any way with the control of gunfire in such missions. During fire support missions, CIC must, as always, keep the commanding officer advised of the entire situation at all times.
- CIC and torpedo fire. On the smaller combatant ships the most potent weapon for use against surface targets is the torpedo. Under conditions of reduced visibility the CIC furnishes essential information for the control of torpedo fire. It will normally be advisable to withhold gunfire until the torpedoes have had time to cross the target's track. This will exploit the element of surprise. The problems arising in torpedo fire fall into two categories:
- The torpedo attack, which deals with positioning the attack units for torpedo fire.
- The torpedo control, which deals with directing a relatively slow-speed weapon of limited range (i.e., the torpedo), to intercept a surface target.
- Procedure for CIC and torpedo fire.
- Doctrine for conducting torpedo attack is contained in current tactical instructions and doctrines. CIC can assist command in the problem of torpedo attack as follows:
- CIC should inform command of the general tactical situation and recommend attack maneuvers best suited to the existing situation, and based on current doctrine.
- When command has designated the firing position, CIC should solve the approach course for the attack speed to be used.
- CIC should recommend the selection of targets according to effective fire distribution doctrine.
- CIC should advise command when own and enemy effective torpedo range zones are approached in terms of time and range.
- CIC should inform command when own ship is in line of fire of own forces and recommend possible maneuvers to avoid own force's line of fire.
- Prior to arrival at firing position, CIC should advise command of approximate base torpedo course and firing course to that command can alter course in order to unmask the torpedo batteries using minimum gyro angle.
- When making the attack, the relative movement problem should be set up on a maneuvering board so that the approach course can be corrected and base torpedo course can be quickly determined in case premature fire is required.
- Upon completion of fire, CIC should inform command of the best retirement course so as to avoid interference with other units, clear the area in the shortest time, and regain station in disposition.
- Doctrine for torpedo control is contained in current tactical instructions and doctrine. CIC can assist command and torpedo control as follows:
- CIC should advise command and torpedo control when approaching effective range zones for own torpedoes by use of the torpedo effective range device and the DRT, or by use of effective range tables. Command makes the final decision for a change in the speed setting of the torpedoes.
- CIC should inform command and torpedo control of size of target, if possible, in order to use correct depth setting.
- CIC is responsible for the determination of the course and speed of the target and the comparison of CIC's plotted solution with computer solution. CIC should keep command
and torpedo control informed of the latest and best estimate of course and speed.
- CIC should solve frequently the base torpedo course on a maneuvering board or DRT and check its solution with torpedo control. CIC's solution can be used in event of failure of torpedo director.
- CIC should transmit to torpedo control the necessary corrections and offsets when firing torpedoes with gyro angles.
- CIC should frequently advise command and torpedo control of bearing and range of the target. The bearing is most important if visual aim is impossible.
- CIC should be prepared to assume torpedo control and direct the laying of the tubes and the firing of the torpedoes in event of failure of torpedo director.
To best utilize the information available from all radars and to solve the numerous problems involved in torpedo fire, there should be close coordination between command, CIC, torpedo control, main battery control, and Plot. The following communication set-up is suggested as the best means of accomplishing the task.
- Communication between interested stations is provided by the JW and the JU sound powered circuits.
JW -- Evaluator's circuit:
Evaluator in CIC
Captain's talker at Conn
Torpedo officer at torpedo director
Control officer in main battery director
Computer range operator in plot
Gunnery plotting room officer
JU -- Torpedo control circuit:
Assistant evaluator in CIC
Selector switch operator at torpedo control
Tube trainers on torpedo tubes
Depth charge racks and throwers
Torpedo director trainers
- Information flow via JW circuit--evaluator's circuit
- From CIC
- General tactical situation.
- Recommended approach courses, attack maneuvers, and retirement.
- Target indication.
- Target's course and speed.
- Frequent reports on present bearing and range of target.
- The source from which torpedo director should obtain the bearing of the target.
- Report on own ship's approaching effective torpedo range zones and recommended torpedo speeds.
- From command:
- Target designation.
- Number of torpedoes to be fired and the side from which it is intended to fire.
- Advance information on maneuvers that own ship intends to make to uncover the torpedo battery.
- Order to change the speed and depth settings on torpedoes.
- "Standby"--when ship has steadied on firing course.
- Order to fire, "Fire when ready."
- From torpedo control:
- "Torpedoes ready"--this should be given as soon as the first complete director set-up is made and after each order to change speed, depth, or gyro settings is completed.
- "Base torpedo course" at intervals to enable the evaluator to make a general check during the approach, and compare CIC's solution obtained from assistant evaluator. After "Torpedoes away" base torpedo course is plotted on DRT.
- "Torpedoes away" when the first torpedo is fired so that CIC can clock time of torpedo run and figure when the main battery can open fire--the torpedoes having had a chance to cross the target's track. "Torpedoes away" may also be used as a standby order for the gun battery to open fire.
- From other stations:
- Determination by CIC whether gun battery director is tracking designated target with fire control radar. If so, fire control radar bearings of the target should be used by the torpedo director, with surface search radar bearings used to check possible errors.
- Computer's solution of target's course and speed for comparison with CIC's solution.
- Information flow via JU circuit--torpedo control circuit.
- From CIC:
- True bearing, course and speed of target to selector switch operator, who should repeat it aloud, so that the torpedo control officer may check the director trainer.
- Bearing indication to the bearing indicator on the torpedo director from the surface search radar, precision PPI, or the fire control radar, if gun and torpedo target are identical. If the surface search radar is used, the sweep should be stopped on the target, and the bearing read off continuously over the JU circuit at the order "Standby". The advent of the precision PPI and improved target designation system will obviate the undesirable necessity of stopping the surface search radar sweep.
- Any additional information torpedo control requests from CIC, such as correction for turning circle for large gyro angle offset. Torpedo control must be set up and ready to fire throughout the approach. Tube mounts should keep CIC and torpedo control informed continuously of gyro angle being used.
- Latitude correction.
- Transmission of target angles, target speed, torpedo speed and relative tube train to the torpedo mounts by the assistant evaluator, in order to control the firing in event of torpedo director casualties.
- From torpedo control:
- The laying and firing orders to the tubes.
- The interior communication arrangement described above gives the torpedo control officer all the information he needs to direct torpedo firing and leaves the JU circuit clear except for target bearings and tube orders. Since the firing orders go over the JU circuit, tube mount crews will not anticipate the command to fire.
- The assistant evaluator should have available the current tables on effective torpedo range, correction for turning circle offset, time of torpedo run, maneuvering board, angle solver, torpedo speed tables, and effective torpedo range solver. Although the angle solver may never be used in combat, ships should be proficient in its use in the event of a casualty to torpedo director.
- "Standby" should not be ordered more than 10 seconds before the order to "Fire when ready."
- Bearings read from radar bearing indicator at torpedo director are relative regardless of radar in use. Bearings transmitted over sound powered telephones are true and should be checked on outer (own ship's) course dial of director.
- It must be emphasized that visual bearings are better than radar bearings. If the target becomes visible, visual bearings should be used by the director trainer, who should frequently try his telescope to see if this is possible.
- CIC and antisubmarine warfare.
Close coordination should be maintained between CIC, command, and sonar in antisubmarine operations. CIC should be the source of much information in this type of attack, but the most important and useful function is that of aiding the command and sonar in regaining contact once the original contact has been lost. Other important functions of CIC in antisubmarine operations are:
- Determining course, speed, and maneuvers of the submarine.
- Acting as check on correct attack course and dropping time for depth charge attack.
- Controlling coordinated antisubmarine attacks.
- Controlling cooperating aircraft in antisubmarine attacks and patrols.
- Detecting submarines making surfaced attack.
- Launching, monitoring, and recovering effective sonobuoy pattern.
- Procedure upon sonar contact.
- On contact:
- Shift to 200 or 500 yards per inch scale and start DRT immediately. Plotting should be started without delay.
- Check to be certain that contact is not friendly ship or wake. Check navigational chart for reefs, wrecks, or other obstructions.
- During approach and attack:
- Track target informing command of course and speed.
- While the sonar equipment is the primary source of information for conning the attack, the DRT plot may frequently be the first to reveal a maneuver of the target. Inform the command of indicated maneuvers.
- In the event of range recorder casualty, be prepared to advise command from DRT plot of courses to steer and dropping time.
- Track submarine by using center bearings. If necessary use leading "cut-ons" or split right and left "cut-ons."
- Attempt to determine depth of submarine buy use of the fathometer when over submarine.
- Regaining contact:
- The use of the DRT is the best method of regaining sonar contact. Advise command of courses to steer to regain contact according to current doctrine and instructions.
- Recommend sonar search arcs (in true bearings). Use circles of possible submarine position for each minute to estimate these search arcs.
- Various types of retiring search planes can be controlled best from the DRT plot. Use current doctrine.
- Control other antisubmarine ships in the area for a coordinated search.
- Coordinated attacks:
- As assisting ship, send own sonar information to attacking ship.
- As attacking ship, apply assisting ship's sonar information to own plot.
- During creeping attack on a submarine known to be deep, the assisting ship's CIC controls the attacking ship.
- Radar detection of submarines.
- If radar contact is made, check for radar deception. Prepare to attack by ramming, torpedoes, gunfire, or ahead-thrown weapons as desired. A polar plot reveals instantly if ship is on a collision course, and small changes of course can be easily estimated.
- The speed of normal automatic rotation of antenna on the surface search radar is too great for dependable periscope detection. In waters where submarine attack is probable, the surface search radar antenna should be trained slowly by hand through 360° at short intervals. The degree of operator alertness required for periscope detection is greater than that required for any other type of search.
- Check with sonar gear all possible periscope pips when within sonar range and inform command and lookouts. Operators should be cautioned that periscope exposure will be intermittent, and that it is necessary to report even the briefest of pips.
- Coordination of radar and sonar.
- With radar detection of surfaced submarines possible up to 20,000 yards, coordination of CIC and sonar is vital.
- Report and commence plot on first contact. If contact disappears during approach, recommend search plan and sonar search arcs to make sonar search.
- During approach designate target bearing to gun control and torpedo directors.
- Aircraft cooperation.
- Aircraft may be employed in antisubmarine warfare in the following ways:
- Aircraft delivering attack on submarine under control of CIC.
- Both aircraft and surface craft delivering the attack under the control of the CIC.
- Aircraft carrying out planned antisubmarine searches and patrols under control of CIC.
- These attacks and searches will be made in accordance with appropriate, current doctrines.
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