Policies to Govern Joint Action of the Army and the Navy
The text below is the 1935 revision. Paragraphs which have been amended by subsequent changes are noted by "[‡]". Clicking on this link will take you to the first change. If there are subsequent changes, the changed paragraph will be linked to the next change, allowing one to follow the evolution of the doctrine.
Subject Page Chapter I--Policy Governing the Respective Functions of the Army and of the Navy 1 Purpose of statement of policy 1 2 Constitutional basis 1 3 Common mission of Army and Navy 1 4 General functions of the Army and the Navy 1 5 General functions of the Army 2 6 General functions of the Navy 3 Chapter II--The Principles Governing Coordination of Operations of the Army and of the Navy 7 Coordination--General considerations 5 8 Paramount interest 6 9 Coordination by the exercise of unity of command 6 10 Coordination by the exercise of limited unity of command 7 11 Joint basic war plans, joint operation plans, and joint operation orders to state method of coordination 8 12 Coordination of air operations 8 13 Coordination in coast frontier defense 8 14 Coordination in joint overseas expeditions 9 15 Coordination in special situations 9
Subject Page Chapter III--Operations Requiring Coordination 16 Types 11 17 Tasks of Army and Navy forces in joint operations 11 18 Joint overseas expeditions 11 19 Coastal frontier defense 13 Chapter IV--Functions of Army and Navy Air Components 20 General functions 17 21 Primary functions 17 22 Secondary functions 18 23 Provisions to minimize duplication 18
Policy Governing the Respective Functions of the Army and of the Navy
- Purpose of statement of policy.--The purpose of this statement of policy is to distinguish between the functions of the Army and the Navy in such a manner as to establish an authoritative and adequate basis for development, planning, procurement, and training of each service; and for their guidance in joint operations.
- Constitutional basis.
- The Army and Navy are maintained to secure the objectives stated in the Preamble to the Constitution:
* * * to insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare * * *
They are required by the national need for political and territorial security; for the support of our national policies; and for the assurance of the supply of materials vital to the existence of the Nation.
- The Army and the Navy together constitute the Nation's military power of which, under the Constitution, the President is the Commander in Chief; therefore their acts derive authority from the direction of the president, either expressed or implied, and are directed to a common end.
- Common mission of Army and Navy.--Conjointly and in cooperation, to defend the territory of the United States against all enemies, foreign or domestic; to protect and promote the interests and policies of the United States in peace and in war.
- General functions of the Army and the Navy.
- Top accomplish the above mission, the Army performs functions that normally pertain to land operations, the Navy performs functions that normally pertain to sea operations. The air forces of the Army are an integral part of the land forces. The air forces of the
Navy are an integral part of the sea forces. The Marine Corps i likewise an integral part of the sea forces. Land and sea operations each include air operations connected and coordinated therewith. The President has the poser to make exceptions to any general allocation of functions; and, in some cases, due to the nature of the forces available, the functions of one service may be performed temporarily by the other service; but sea operations by the Army are proper only when immediately auxiliary to or in support of normal Army functions, and, similarly, land operations by the Navy are proper only when immediately auxiliary to or in support of normal Navy functions.
- The Army and the Navy have joint responsibilities in joint operations. In such operations, it is the duty of the commander of the service which is not invested with the primary responsibility for the conduct of an operation, to render every possibly assistance to the commander of the service which is invested with such primary responsibility, to the end that ultimate success will rest with our arms. The spirit of this paragraph should also govern in the preparation of war plans.
- In order that the most effective cooperation may be attained, the following general principles will govern:
- Neither service will attempt to restrict in any way the means and weapons used by the other service in carrying out its functions.
- Neither service will attempt to restrict in any way the area of operations of the other service in carrying out its functions.
- Each service will lend the utmost assistance possible to the other service in carrying out its functions.
- General functions of the Army.
- General functions of the Army in peace and war.
- To provide for and to prepare the land forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war to include provisions for the expansion of the peace components of the land forces to meet the needs of war.
- To defend the continental United States and its overseas possessions, to include the defense of all permanent naval bases.
- To support the national policies of the United States and to furnish land forces for the occupation of foreign territory in protection of the interests of the United States.
- To protect the United States from internal disorder or insurrection.
- Additional general functions of the Army in war.
- To conduct effective military operations.
- To conduct operations in support of the Navy for the establishment and defense of naval bases.
- To provide such forces as may be necessary for joint overseas expeditions.
- General functions of the Navy.[‡]
- General functions of the Navy in peace and war.
- To provide for and to prepare the sea forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war to include provisions for the expansion of the peace components of the sea forces to meet the needs of war.
- To guard the continental and overseas possessions of the United States.
- To support the national policies and commerce of the United States.
- To assist the Army in the suppression of internal disorder or insurrection.
- Additional general functions of the Navy in war.
- To conduct effective naval operations.
- To gain and maintain command of vital sea areas and to protect the sea lanes vital to the United States.
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