Change No. 6 Joint Action of the Army and the Navy, 1935
J.B. No. 301 (Serial 689)-- Reorganization of the Joint Planning Committee. J.B. No. 301 (Serial 671)-- Augmentation of the Joint Planning Committee. J.B. No. 302 (Serial 700)-- Changes in the Southern Boundaries of the Fifth Naval District and the North Atlantic Coastal Frontier. J.B. No. 301 (Serial 702)-- Change in Membership of The Joint Board. J.B. No. 329 (Serial 710)-- Coordination of Intelligence and Establishment of a Central Information Group as an Agency of The Joint Board. J.B. No. 353 (Serial 721)-- Redefinition of Term "Defensive Sea Area" and Adoption of New Term "Maritime Control Area." J.B. No. 350 (Serial 722)-- Revision of Section III, Chapter VIII, Joint Action of the Army and the Navy-Composition of Aeronautical Board. J.B. No. 319 (Serial 732)-- Revision of Paragraph 109, Joint Action of the Army and the Navy.
THE JOINT BOARD,
WAR AND NAVY DEPARTMENTS,
Washington, January 28, 1942.
Add the following new pages:
Page Nos. Subject matter Ij-Ik Promulgation of Change No. 6.
Remove and destroy the pages listed below and substitute the reprinted pages containing changes as indicated:
Old page Nos. Changes on reprinted pages II-IIa C.J.A.G.--List of effective pages (revised January 28, 1942). 27-28 Revised. 29-30 Paragraph 26, subparagraphs m and n changed and subparagraphs m1/2 added. 31-32 Paragraph 26, subparagraph r changed. 37-38 Paragraph 30, last sentence changed. 39-40 Paragraph 31, subparagraphs d and e changed. 41-42 Paragraph 32, subparagraphs a(2) and c(3)(a) changed. 51-52 Paragraph 32, subparagraph i changed. 55-56 Paragraph 34, subparagraph a changed. 57-58 Paragraph 34, subparagraph c(3)(a) changed; paragraph 35, subparagraph a changed. 61-62 Paragraph 39 changed. 65-66 Paragraph 42, subparagraphs h (first sentence) and i(2) and (4) changed. 67-68 Paragraph 42, subparagraph i(12) changed. 111-112 Paragraph 109 changed. 129-130 Paragraphs 126, 127, 128, and 129 changed. 131-132 Paragraph 130, second sentence changed; paragraph 131, second sentence changed.
The office of The Adjutant General, War Department, and the Registered Publications Section, Navy Department, require no report of this change.
WILLIAM P. SCOBEY,
United States Army, Secretary.
List of Effective Pages
(Revised January 28, 1942)
Subject matter Change in
Page Nos. Title page Original No number Navy letter of promulgation of November 15, 1935 (Navy copies only) " 0-00* Promulgation of Change No. 1, July 22, 1936 1*** I-Ia Promulgation of Change No. 2, November 30, 1938 2 Ib-Ic Promulgation of Change No. 3, June 28, 1940 3 Id-Ie Promulgation of Change No. 4, January 25, 1941 4 If-Ig Promulgation of Change No. 5, July 14, 1941 5 Ih-Ii Promulgation of Change No. 6, January 28 1942 6 Ij-Ik List of effective pages 6 II-IIa Joint letter of promulgation of September 11, 1935 Original III-IV** Contents 2 V-VI Contents, Part I 2 VII Contents, Part I, continued Original VIII Chapter I " 1-2 Chapter I, continued 1 3-4** Chapter II 2 5-6 Chapter III 2 II Chapter III, continued Original 12 to 16** Chapter IV " 17 Chapter IV, continued 2 18 Chapter IV, continued Original 19-20** Contents, Part II " 21-22** Contents, Chapter V " 23-26 Chapter V 6 27-32 Chapter V, continued Original 33-37 Chapter V, continued 6 38-42 Chapter V, continued 2 43-44 Chapter V, continued Original 45 to 47 Chapter V, continued 2 48 Chapter V, continued Original 49-50 Chapter V, continued 6 51-52 Chapter V, continued Original 53-54 Chapter V, continued 6 55-57 Chapter V, continued Original 58-60 Chapter V, continued 6 61
* Should be so numbered in ink in Navy copies only.
** Original blank pages IV, 4, 16, 20, and 22 should be so numbered in ink.
*** Navy copies "2."
Subject matter Change in
Page Nos. Chapter V, continued Original 62-64 Chapter V, continued 6 65-67 Chapter V, continued 2 68 Contents, Chapter VI 2 69 Contents, Chapter VI, continued Original 70 to 72 Chapter VI " 73 to 76 Chapter VI, continued 2 77 to 80 Chapter VI, continued Original 81-82 Chapter VI, continued 2 83-84 Chapter VI, continued Original 85-86 Chapter VI, continued 2 87 Chapter VI, continued Original 88 to 90 Chapter VI, continued 2 91 Chapter VI, continued Original 92 to 97 Chapter VI, continued 2 98 Chapter VI, continued Original 99-100 Chapter VI, continued 2 101 Chapter VI, continued Original 102 Chapter VI, continued 2 103-104 Chapter VI, continued Original 105 Chapter VI, continued 2 106-107 Chapter VI, continued Original 108 to 110 Chapter VI, continued 6 111-112 Contents, Chapter VII Original 113-114** Chapter VII Original 115 to 126** Contents, Chapter VIII Original 127-128** Chapter VIII 5 129-132b Chapter VIII, continued Original 133 Chapter VIII, continued 2 134 Chapter VIII, continued Original 135-136** Chapter IX 5 137-138 Chapter IX, continued 4 139-140d Chapter IX, continued 3 141-142 Chapter IX, continued 5 143-144 Chapter IX, continued 3 145-164 Chart of Organization for Coastal Frontier Defense Original No number Diagram No. I, Coastal Frontier. Joint Radio and Wire Communications 3 No number Diagram No. II, Joint Overseas Expedition--Landing Phase. Typical Communication Circuits for One Beach 3 No number
** Original blank pages 114, 126, 128 and 136 should be so numbered in ink.
Coastal Frontier Defense
Introduction and Definitions
- Purpose of publication.--The purpose of this publication is to present the principles and measures necessary for the effective joint organization and conduct of operations in coastal frontier defense and the method of planning involved and the responsibilities of the two services in connection therewith, in order to insure the most effective cooperation and coordination between Army and Navy forces participating therein. (See ch. II and par. 19, Joint Action of the Army and the Navy.)
- Purpose of coastal frontier defense.
- The purpose of a joint organization and measures for coastal frontier defense is to provide more effectively for our national defense.
- Specifically, the measures and operations in coastal frontier defense are for the purpose of:
- Protecting shipping in the coastal zones;
- Protecting our military and civil installations and facilities;
- Preventing invasion of United States territory from overseas;
- Insuring the security of those portions of our coastal frontiers which are vital to military, industrial, and commercial operations.
- Definitions.--In order to provide a common basis of understanding between the Army and the Navy in the employment of forces in coastal frontier defense, the following definitions of terms employed are hereby established.
- A coastal frontier is a geographic division of our coastal
area established for organization and command purposes, in order to insure the effective coordination of Army and Navy forces employed in coastal frontier defense. The coastal frontier of a group of islands shall completely surround such group or shall include that part of the group which can be organized for defense and command purposes. Within each coastal frontier an Army officer and a naval officer will exercise command over all Army forces and Navy forces, respectively, assigned for the defense of these divisions. Coastal frontiers are subdivided for command purposes into sectors and subsectors.
- Coastal frontier defense is the organization of the forces and matériel of the Army and the Navy assigned to provide security for the coastal frontiers of continental United States and its overseas possessions.
- The naval district is a military and administrative command ashore established for the purpose of decentralizing the Navy Department's functions with respect to the control of shipping in the coastal zones and the shore activities outside the Navy Department proper, and for the further purpose of centralizing under one command within the district and the waters thereof:
- For military coordination, all naval activities; and
- For administrative coordination, all naval activities with specific exceptions.
The primary purpose in view is to provide for naval mobilization and logistic support of the Fleet and to utilize the district naval forces in the joint organization to provide security for the coast and for shipping in the coastal zones. The limits of the naval districts are laid down in the Navy Regulations. These limits extend to seaward so as to include the coastwise sea lanes. Each naval district is commanded by a designated commandant who is the direct representative of the Navy Department, including its bureaus and offices, in all matters affecting district activity.
- Naval local defense forces consist of naval forces, including Coast Guard and Lighthouse Service, afloat and ashore, attached to a naval district and under the command of the commandant of the district. These forces are not a part of the Fleet.
- A naval base is a center from which men-of-war can operate and be maintained.
- An army is a military organization or unit composed of a headquarters, a body of auxiliary troops and trains called army troops, and two or more corps temporarily assigned, the number of corps depending upon the nature of the service required. To these may be added a special assignment of GHQ aviation, GHQ reserve artillery, cavalry divisions, and other troops varying in number and composition according to the task assigned. As thus constituted, an army has both territorial and tactical functions. It is the largest
self-contained military unit and may act independently or may form part of a group of armies or other higher organization.
- A corps area is a territorial and administrative command within the continental area of the United States, established for purposes of administration, training, and tactical control during peace time and for the conduct of mobilization and other functions of the zone of the interior in war.
- A coast artillery district is a military command within a certain corps area which contains harbor defenses. I it established for the purpose of decentralizing the corps area commander's functions of discipline, instruction, and routine training of the coast artillery troops within the corps area. When frontier commands sectors, and subsectors come into active existence, coast artillery districts as such cease to exist and all coast artillery troops, including the district staff, located within the frontier, sector, or subsector automatically become part of the frontier, sector, or subsector command as the case may be. The coast artillery district commander automatically becomes a coastal frontier or sector commander, as prescribed in section IV of this chapter and/or in specific war plans. As frontier commander, he is responsible to the army commander as long as the latter retains tactical responsibility within the area. Upon departure of the army commander, the frontier commander is responsible directly to the commanding general of the field forces.
- A sector is one of the subdivisions of a coastal frontier command.
- A subsector is one of the subdivisions of a sector command.
- Coastwise sea lanes are the water areas adjacent to the seacoast that include all the usually traveled routes of coastwise shipping.
- The coastal zone is the whole area of the navigable waters adjacent to the seacoast and extends seaward to cover the coastwise sea lanes and focal points of shipping approaching the coast.
- A defensive sea area is a portion of a coastal zone set apart and placed under the control of the Secretary of the Navy by Executive Order. Defensive sea areas are established in and about the approaches to and the waters of important ports, harbors, bays or sounds. They include such of the interior reaches of these harbors or bays as the security measures set forth below require. They do not extend to seaward beyond United States territorial waters. The authority for their establishment is contained in Federal Statues (USC Title 18, Sec. 96). Pursuant to joint agreement their establishment fixes within their limits the authority and responsibility in the Secretary of the Navy:
- For the control of shipping, its protection, especially from sabotage, from our own mine fields, from obstructions and from the danger of being considered hostile:
- For the safeguarding of defense installations bordering on waters of the areas; and
- For providing any other measures of a security nature needed within the specified areas.
- 1/2 A maritime control area is generally similar to a defensive sea area in purpose and form except that its outer limits, to obtain greater security, extend to seaward beyond the limits of United States territorial waters. Authority for their establishment derives from the Law of Nations, international conventions and custom, as well as from the Constitution of the United States. They are set forth in proclamations by the President. Only the outer limits of a maritime control area are given, as the inner limits are a national and not an international matter. A maritime control area maybe proclaimed to seaward of a defensive sea area. Normally, maritime control areas will be required only off ports whose category of defense is "D" or "E." In order that the control of defensive sea areas and maritime control areas may come within the capacity of the available naval forces their number and size should be kept at a minimum.
- A defensive coastal area is a part of a coastal zone and of the land and water area adjacent to and inshore of the coast line within which defense operations will involve both Army and Navy forces, and in consequence require effective coordination. A defensive coastal area pertaining to a fortified harbor includes the outer harbor area, the harbor channel area, and the inner harbor area; its outer limits, which are specified in each case by joint plans, are the outer limits of the ranges of the shore defense batteries. When a defensive sea area or maritime control area and a defensive coastal area which lies between its outer limits and the inner limits of the harbor channel area, shall be considered superimposed upon a like portion of the defensive sea area or maritime control area without in any way detracting from the Army's responsibility for the direct defense of the coast. Defense activities in that portion of a defensive sea or maritime control area not included within a defensive coastal area, are essentially naval in character but are of immediate interest to the Army as by such means are disclosed the presence and indicated objectives of enemy forces.
- The outer harbor area is the water area which extends to seaward from the outer exits of the entrance channels to a fortified harbor and lies within the range of the harbor defense batteries.
- The harbor channel area is the water area which lies between the outer harbor area and the inner harbor area, and which comprises all the entrance channels to the harbor.
- The inner harbor area is the entire water area of a fortified harbor inside the inner entrance of all the entrance channels to the harbor.
- An inshore patrol is a part of the naval local defense forces operating generally within a defensive coastal area and controlling shipping within a defensive sea area or maritime control area.
- An offshore patrol is a part of the naval local defense forces operating and patrolling the coastal zone outside of those areas assigned to the inshore patrol.
- An escort force is a part of the naval local defense forces charged with the duty of protecting convoys within a naval district waters,
- A coastal force is a naval force which may be organized to operate within the coastal zone to meet a special situation in which naval local defense forces are inadequate to carry out the Navy's functions in coastal frontier defense.
- A harbor defenseis an administrative and tactical Army command, comprising the armament and accessories, including antiaircraft armament, controlled mines and supporting aircraft, with the personnel for manning, provided for the defense of a harbor or other water area. Harbor defenses exist to provide on the outbreak of war an effective seaward defense of important strategic points, such as large centers of population, important commercial centers, navy yards, coaling or fueling stations, locks and dames; to deny the enemy entrance to or occupation of a harbor or other waters which might serve as a base for land or naval operations, or both; and to keep the enemy at such distance from the entrance to a waterway that our naval forces may debouch therefrom and take up a battle formation with the lest hostile interference.
- A beach defense is that part of the Army ground organization for defense against landing attacks which is located at or near the beach for resistance at the water's edge. It consists of a series of organized tactical localities in rear of those sections of the shore line where landings are likely to be made, and includes barbed-wire entanglements and other obstacles below and above the water line. Beach defense may be organized both within and outside of defensive coastal areas.
- Army outpost or covering forces are mobile Army forces allotted to subsectors, sectors or frontiers, to provide security against raiding operations, and to cover the points of landing in a direct attack prior to the assembly of Army reserves, or additional forces.
- Army reserves are mobile Army forces drawn from any available source and held in readiness to be sent to any part of the frontier or frontiers that may be threatened by an enemy attack.
- An aircraft warning service is a communication and intelligence service which forms part of the communication and intelligence service of the frontier defense. Its purpose is to warn centers of population, industrial plants, public utilities, and military and naval establishments of the approach of hostile aircraft, and to alert Air Corps units and antiaircraft artillery units. It consists essentially of observers, of information centers for plotting the courses and distributing information of approaching hostile planes, and of the necessary communications.
Possible Enemy Operations
- Major operations.
- When control of vital sea areas cannot be maintained due to our inferiority in naval power, destruction of our Fleet, or to its absence in distant waters, serious attacks against our coastal frontiers are possible and may be expected against strategically important areas when the enemy possesses the requisite force and marine transportation. These attacks may be of major proportions and may have as their object any one or more of the following:
- The securing of a beachhead as a point of departure for an invasion;
- The securing of an area for use in conjunction with other military operations or in connection with the destruction
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- Local reconnaissance, either--
- To determine the practicability of taking advantage of surprise and an unprepared state of defense, in order to secure an area before the defending forces are ready;
- As part of an attempted landing; or
- In force against a fortified area to determine its state of preparedness, or to clear the way for a major attack.
- Seizure of land bases for air fields preliminary to further operations.
- Bombardment by gunfire and by aircraft for the neutralization of land artillery and for the destruction of important shore objectives.
- Minor attacks, possibly involving small landings, against outlying elements of the defense.
- Mine sweeping, countermining, and attempts to destroy nets or other obstacles.
- Torpedo fire into harbors.
- Blocking action against harbor entrances.
- Penetration by naval vessels into a harbor or water area.
- Major landing operations supported by rapid-fire guns on ships and by aviation.
- Seizure of harbor facilities for debarkation of heavy equipment and for the establishment of a base.
- The parts played by the different types of naval craft in the above operations include:
- By surface craft.--Information and reconnaissance; seizure or destruction of shipping; combat with naval vessels; mining or countermining;l minesweeping; launching air operations; blockade; closing harbors or channels; clearing underwater obstacles; attacking nets; cutting cables; torpedo attacks on ships outside or inside harbors; laying a smoke screens; gun bombardment; making feints; forcing a passage; and making and covering landings either for demolition purposes or for minor raids or raids in force.
- By submarines--Attacks on combatant vessels; information and reconnaissance; blockade, raids on nets or other obstacles; cutting cables; mining; minor bombardments; making feints; and minor landings.
- By aircraft.--Information and reconnaissance; attacking ships and shore objectives with machine-gun fire and/or high-explosive bombs; destroying obstacles; landing observers or spies; gaining superiority in the air; spotting gunfire; and laying smoke screens.
Categories of Defense and Requirements and Means to be Provided
- Degree of preparation.--The degree of preparation in coastal frontier defense and the frontier defense measures to be taken, including the strength of the forces to be provided, depend upon the enemy and the character of the enemy operations to which coastal frontiers may be subjected in the early stages of a war. For the purpose of indicating the extent of the frontier defense measures to be taken under specific situations, categories of defense are established as listed below. Decisions as to the "category of defense" required for each coastal frontier are included in all joint basic war plans except those for wars of a minor nature. These decisions constitute a directive to the Army and Navy commanders of the joint organization for coastal frontier defense as to the extent of the frontier defense measures to be taken. They likewise constitute a directive to the War and Navy Departments as to the allocation of the means required for this defense. Defensive sea areas and maritime control areas will be proclaimed in time of actual or impending war as necessitated by the nature of the war and the probable enemy.
- Categories of defense.
- Category A.--Coastal frontiers that probably will be free from attack, but for which a nominal defense must be provided for political reasons. Under this category,l only a sufficient part of the gunfire elements of harbor defenses will be manned in the strength required to create a show of preparedness. The strength required will be that
considered necessary to repel small naval raids. A nominal offshore patrol will be maintained.
- Category B.--Coastal frontiers that may be subject to minor attacks. Under this category, the harbor defenses will be provided with one manning relief, and a part of the obstacles will be prepared but not put in place. Certain defensive sea areas may be established and a limited offshore patrol may be instituted, with a limited control of shipping entering and leaving harbors.
- Category C.--Coastal frontiers that in all probability will be subject to minor attack. Under this category, the coastal defense area should be provided, in general, with the means of defense, both Army and Navy, required to meet the following enemy naval operations: those incident to controlling the sea; those against shipping; and minor attacks against land areas. The harbor defenses should be fully manned and air support arranged. Long range air reconnaissance will be provided, if practicable. If sufficient forces are available, outposts will be established outside of harbor defenses along the sensitive areas of the shore line. The inner mine barrages will, in general, be established; a full inshore patrol and complete control of shipping will, as a rule, be instituted; and certain outer mine barrages and defensive sea areas may be established, and a limited offshore patrol instituted.
- Category D.--Coastal frontiers that may be subject to major attack. Under this category, the coastal defense areas should, in general, be provided with the means of defense, both Army and Navy, required to meet enemy naval operations preliminary to joint operations. All available means of defense will generally find application, and a stronger outpost and a more extensive patrol, inshore and offshore, than for Category C, will be required. Under this category certain defensive sea areas will be established. In addition, an antiaircraft gun and machine-gun defense of important areas outside of harbor defenses should be organized; general reserves should be strategically located so as to facilitate prompt reinforcement of the frontiers; and plans should be developed for the defense of specific areas likely to become theaters of operations. Long range air reconnaissance will be provided and plans made for use of the GHQ air force.
- Category E.--Coastal frontiers that in all probability will be subject to major attack. Under this category, in addition to the measures required for Category D, there will be required generally the concentration of the troops necessary to defend the area against a serious attack in force, together with additional naval forces to provide intensive inshore and offshore patrols. Defense sea areas and maritime control areas will be established. Air defense will be provided as in Category D. All or a part of the GHQ air force may be ordered to the threatened area to operate either under direct control of Army GHQ or under that of the Army commander of the theater of operations or frontier.
- Category F.--Possessions beyond the continental limits of the United States which may be subject to either minor or major attack for the purpose of occupation, but which cannot be provided with adequate defense forces. Under this category, the employment of existing local forces and local facilities will be confined principally to the demolition of those things it is desirable to prevent falling into the hands of the enemy.
- Where Categories D and E are applicable initially, local defense plans should provide for the initial employment of such forces of the Army and the Navy as may be required in addition to those forces which are ordinarily available for the initial defense of the coastal frontier in question, and which can be diverted from the mobilization and concentration of the Army forces, from the United States Fleet, and from other naval forces, during the period of mobilization and concentration, without materially interfering with or seriously delaying the operations to be undertaken in the principal theater of operations.
- Under all categories of defense, the Army coastal frontier or Army sector commander is responsible for the antiaircraft defense within the corps area and naval district extending inland from the frontier or sector, such antiaircraft defense to include an aircraft warning service. Cases involving the antiaircraft defense of Army GHQ airdromes and those where one corps area borders on two coastal frontiers, will be specifically covered in appropriate Army strategical plans.
- Requirements and means to be provided.
- General requirements.
- The proximity of important cities and industrial areas to certain of our seacoast and lake frontiers and the consequent vulnerability of these places to attack, as well as the importance to the Nation of our shipping and its related industries, and the fact that our coastal bases are the mainsprings of naval action, make the protection of these frontiers in time of war a highly important part of the national defense.
- Positive security, to include harbor defenses, has been provided for certain areas, the fixed armament of which has been or is being installed during peace time. Depending upon the liability of these areas to attack, and upon the character of such attack, defensive coastal areas have been designated and defensive sea areas and maritime control areas should be designated in order to ensure the security of these important areas and the security of the shipping within their waters.
- In other respects, a minimum land and sea defense should be contemplated for our whole coastal frontier on the outbreak of war, and should involve the employment of only such parts of the means of defense as are required under the situation. In some situations, involving only minor enemy operations, it may be necessary to organize the beach defense for certain localities. Other situations involving more serious enemy attacks will require that the means of defense be successively augmented.
- Defensive operations required.--From a study of possible enemy operations, it appears that the defense of our coastal frontiers should take into consideration the following:
- The observation of the coastal frontier and the sea beyond as far as circumstances permit or seem to demand.
- The protection of shipping in waters adjacent to the seacoast.
- The attack on enemy vessels in waters adjacent to the seacoast.
- The resistance to enemy approach to the seacoast.
- The protection of the seacoast, and especially strategic harbors, against raids.
- The defeat of enemy landing attacks on the seacoast, including the provision of defensive installations on shore and in the waters adjacent thereto.
- The initiation of counteroffensive operations to eject a landed enemy.
- Means available.--Under the above conception of defensive operations that may be required to coastal frontier defense, the means that may be made available in time of war include--
- The Fleet, the employment of which, in accordance with the strategic situation, may keep the enemy away from our coastal frontiers.
- Naval local defense forces, which control the water areas within a naval district, conduct naval operations against enemy forces in the naval district waters, and cooperate with and support the Army in repelling attacks on coastal objectives.
- The Army forces.
- Mobile forces, including air forces, to provide the covering or outpost forces for the initial coastal frontier defense organization and likewise the additional forces necessary to defeat landing attacks and air attacks and to carry out the Army functions.
- Harbor defense forces for maintenance and operation of essential harbor defenses designed to prevent ingress into areas, including the air space thereof covered by these defenses.
- Relation of the Fleet to coastal frontier defense.-The strategic freedom of action of the Fleet must be assured. This requires that coastal frontier defense be so effectively conducted as to remove any anxiety of the Fleet in regard to the security of its bases. In the case of hostile major overseas movements directed against our coasts, the Fleet, if present and free to act, will be a powerful factor for ensuring the security of its bases and our coasts, and, if it engages the enemy, should be supported by all the land-based aircraft available.
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- [»] General.--The Army is responsible for the development, installation, and operation of the equipment of fixed listening posts, of the listening equipment required for defense vessels under its control, and for the immediate transmission of information received by these posts to the Navy units of the defense.
- Defensive sea areas.
- Since the object of establishing defensive sea areas and maritime control areas is to control shipping, the proclaiming of such an area obligates the Navy to control shipping therein and puts the burden to enforce this control upon the naval forces. The number and size of defensive sea areas should be reduced to the minimum consistent with security, in order to minimize the burden upon the naval forces, and interference with shipping. (See par. 26m, 26m1/2.)
- When war with a specific power appears probable, the Secretary of the Navy will submit recommendations to the President as to the defensive sea areas and maritime control areas to be established and the time when they shall be established. If and when the development of the war necessitates, he submits subsequent recommendations as to additional areas to be proclaimed.
- The Secretary of the Navy is charged with the preparation, for the signature of the President, of the executive orders and proclamations designating defensive sea areas and maritime control areas, and with the publication thereof. He is further charged with the preparation and publication of regulations pertaining thereto and with the enforcement of such regulations.
- Copies of the local regulations for the guidance of the armed forces issued in time of war by the commandants of naval districts for the defensive sea areas and maritime control areas within their districts will be furnished to harbor defense commanders and other Army authorities concerned.
- Defense against landing attacks.
- Measures and operations demanded of the defense.
- Enemy landing operations in force must be opposed to the utmost. To this end the Army forces within the coastal frontier will be augmented by forces from the strategic or general reserve, the Army GHQ air force, and by other available Army forces. The naval local defense forces will be augmented by any other naval forces available. The successful frustration of the hostile landing operation will depend largely upon the timely concentration of the requisite forces at the locality against which the main attack is being directed. It is therefore of vital importance that everything be done to discover the focal point of this main attack at the earliest possible moment. For this reason the defense must initiate the following operations as early as possible:
- Location of the hostile force at sea, and maintenance of observation of this force.
- Interference with the hostile force as far offshore as practicable to prevent or delay its approach.
- Resistance in coastal zone waters and at the shore, taking advantage of the adverse situation in which the attacker is placed just prior to and during landing.
- In general, the enemy may be expected to attempt to make landings may be mere feints. The coastline should be carefully studied with a view to determine the places which the enemy is most likely to use for landings, principal or secondary.
- Steps in the joint organization and operations against landing attack.--Complete preparation for opposing an enemy landing in force requires the following steps
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- Antisubmarine nets.--Antisubmarine nets may be used to close the inner harbor area to submarines.
- Booms.--Booms are used for blocking water areas against the entrance of surface craft.They find application primarily to arrest the movement of ships running at high speed into areas that cannot otherwise be blocked; they may be used in lieu of antisubmarine nets in shallow entrances which submarines cannot enter submerged.
- Mines.--Mines are of two types: Controlled and contact. The former are provided and installed by the Army; the latter by the Navy. Mines, both controlled and contact, employed in any one defensive coastal area constitute the mine barrier for that area. The barrier may consist of two barrages--an inner, or essentially controlled mine barrage which is an integral part of the fixed defenses of most of our important harbors, and an outer barrage of contact mines.
Organization and Command
- Joint organization and command.--Coastal divisions with geographic coterminous boundaries within which an Army officer and a naval officer will exercise command over the Army forces and the Navy forces, respectively, assigned for the defense of these divisions, have been established in order to provide a joint organization and to ensure the effective coordination of Army and Navy forces employed in coastal frontier defense. These coastal divisions comprise coastal frontiers, sectors, and subsectors. The joint organization, together with the commanders responsible for the execution of security measures on and after M-day and the necessary peace-time planning therefor, are as stated below. (See map attached showing coastal frontiers, sectors, subsectors, and defensive coastal areas.)
- North Atlantic coastal frontier.
Northern.--Northern boundary of the United States.
Southern*.--Southern and western boundary of Onslow Country, North carolina; thence the line Raleigh, North Caroline; Durham, North Carolina; thence to a point on the Virginia-North Carolina boundary south of Danville, Virginia; thence west along the Virginia-North Caroline boundary, all inclusive.
* Change in the location of southern boundary of North Atlantic coastal frontier should be made on the chart "Joint Organization for Coastal Frontier Defense."
Army.--To be designated in specific war plans. The Commanding General, First Army, is responsible for security measures on M-day and for peace-time planning therefor.
Navy.--The commandants of the First, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Naval Districts will command the naval forces assigned to their respective districts. They will arrange for the joint tactical employment in cooperation with the Army, in case of emergency, of the naval forces assigned to their districts.
- Sectors.--The North Atlantic coastal frontier is divided into the following defense sectors:
- New England sector.
Northern.--Northern boundary of the United States.
Southern.--Nantucket Shoals Lightship, exclusive; Block Island, inclusive; Rhode Island-Connecticut boundary.
Army.--First Coast Artillery district commander.
Navy.--Commandant, First Naval District. This sector is subdivided into the Portland, Boston, and Newport subsectors, with boundaries as follows:
- Between the Portland and the Boston subsectors: Northern boundary of Massachusetts.
- Between the Boston and the newport subsectors: Pollock Rip Slue Lightship, Monomoy Light, Bishop and Clerks' Light, Cotuit Bay, Bourne, Taunton, northern boundary of Rhode Island, all to Boston subsector.
- New York sector.
Northern.--Nantucket Shoals Lightship, inclusive; Block Island, exclusive; Rhode Island-Connecticut boundary.
Southern.--Point Pleasant, Bordentown, both exclusive; Trenton, inclusive.
Army.--Second Coast Artillery district commander.
Navy.--Commandant, Third Naval District.
- This sector is subdivided into the Long Island and New Jersey subsectors with boundary as follows:
Between subsectors: The Sandy Hook Peninsula and lower New York Bay to the Long Island subsector.
- Delaware-Chesapeake sector.
Northern.--Point Pleasant, Bordentown, both inclusive; Trenton, exclusive.
Southern.--Diamond Shoal Lightship, Hatteras Inlet, inclusive; southern and western boundary of Dare County (N.C.); Albemarle Sound, Chowan River; Virginia-North Carolina boundary to the west, all inclusive. This sector will be subdivided into the Delaware and the Chesapeake subsectors, with the boundary as Winter Quarter Shoal Lightship (to Delaware subsector), southern and western boundary of Delaware.
Army.--Third Coast Artillery district commander.
Navy.--The commandants of the Fourth and Fifth Naval Districts will command the naval forces assigned to their respective districts. They will arrange for the joint tactical employment in cooperation with the Army, in case of emergency, of the naval forces assigned to their districts.
- Southern coastal frontier.
Northern*.--Southern and western boundary of Onslow Country, North Carolina; thence the line Raleigh, North Carolina; Durham, North Carolina; thence to a point on the Virginia-North Caroline boundary south of Danville, Virginia; thence west along the Virginia-North Caroline boundary, all exclusive..
Southern.--The Rio Grande.
* Change in the location of northern boundary of Southern coastal frontier should be made on the chart "Joint Organization for Coastal Frontier Defense."
Army.--Fourth Coast Artillery district commander. The Commanding General, Third Army, is responsible for coordination of security measures on M-day and of supervision of peace-time planning therefor.
Navy.--The commandants of the Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Naval Districts will command the naval forces assigned to their respective districts. They will arrange for the joint tactical employment in cooperation with the Army, in case of emergency, of the naval forces assigned to their districts.
- Sectors.--This frontier will be subdivided into defense sectors of Carolina, Florida, and Gulf, corresponding territorially to the Sixth, Seventh, and Eight Naval Districts, respectively.
- Pacific coastal frontier.
Northern.--Northern boundary of Washington except that Alaska is part of the Pacific coastal frontier.
Southern.--Southern boundary of the United States.
Army.--Ninth Coast Artillery district commander. The Commanding General, Fourth Army, is responsible for coordination of security measures on M-day and of supervision of peace-time planning therefor.
Navy.--The commandants of the Eleventh, Twelfth, and Thirteenth Naval Districts will command the naval forces assigned to their respective districts within the limits of the Pacific coastal frontier. They will arrange for the joint tactical employment in cooperation with the Army, in case of emergency, of naval forces assigned to their districts.
- Sectors.--This frontier will be subdivided into the southern California, northern California, and northwestern sectors, with boundaries based on those of the present naval districts as follows:
- Boundary between the southern California and northern California sectors, Santa Maria River.
- Boundary between the northern California and the northwestern sectors, northern boundary of California.
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Honolulu and Pearl Harbors
- Defensive sea areas and maritime control areas.
- From a naval viewpoint, and depending upon the specific emergency, defensive sea areas and maritime control areas may be important in the approaches to the following water areas:
Long Island Sound
New York Bay
Waters surrounding the
- Under the joint organization prescribed herein, commandants of naval districts concerned will study the relationship of defensive sea areas and maritime control areas to the defensive coastal areas that may be needed and, in the event that additional defensive sea areas and maritime control areas will, in their opinion, be required to meet any specific situation, they will include such additional areas in their plans.
- Means to facilitate joint planning.
- In order to facilitate joint planning, a planning representative will be designated for the Army commander and for the Navy commander
of each coastal division. The planning and development chain of command in both the Army and the Navy will follow the same lines as for combat. In selecting such planning representatives, officers will be selected who are located conveniently to the area to be defended and whose headquarters have the personnel and other facilities necessary for planning.
- In addition to the above, the local Army and Navy commanders of coastal areas whose headquarters are in the same vicinity will appoint from among their immediately available officer personnel not more than three officers from each service to constitute a local joint planning committee.In cases where superior headquarters are widely separated, more than one joint planning committee may be organized.
- Collaboration in joint planning.
- In the preparation of such joint coastal frontier defense plans as may be required under a joint basic war plan, the following commanders will collaborate:
Army Navy (1) North Atlantic coastal frontier. Commanding General, First Army, with Commandant, Third Naval District. (2) Southern coastal frontier. Commanding General, Third Army, or an officer designated by him, with Commandant, Sixth Naval District. (3) Pacific coastal frontier. Commanding General, Fourth Army, or an officer designated by him, with Commandant, Twelfth Naval District (4) Great Lakes coastal frontier. Commanding General, Second Army, with Commandant, Ninth Naval District
- The sector defense plans of the New England sector and of the Delaware-Chesapeake sector will be forwarded by the commandants of the First and Fifth Naval Districts, respectively, to the commandant of the Third Naval District and will be formulated to support the North Atlantic coastal frontier defense plans.
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- The sequence to be followed in the preparation of joint defense plans is as follows:
- Joint coastal frontier plan.
- Joint sector plan.
- Joint subsector plan or joint defensive coastal area plan.
Generally, the lowest sequence of plans required for the Navy will be that pertaining to a naval district, whether the naval district is a sector or subsector.
- The plan of higher sequence will contain the directives for the plan of next lower sequence. The lower sequence plan will be formulated to support the plan of next higher sequence.
- Army and Navy operating defense plans will obtain their directives from the joint plan they are required to support. They will provide the means and organizations and will insure the Army's and/or Navy's effective operation thereunder.
- Joint coastal frontier and joint sector defense plans will cover the category of defense, the delimitation of areas (including subsector, maritime control, defense sea and coastal areas included therein), assignment of missions, allocation of Army forces, to include supporting troops, the air and ground antiaircraft defense measures to be instituted, the designation of areas of responsibility, paramount interest and method of command, the details of joint communications and intelligence services to include the censorship and supervision of cables and wire lines in accordance with approved policy, and an aircraft warning service. These plans or their supporting projects will also make provision for the Army airdrome areas and installations necessary in connection therewith and the communication and supply arrangements for the effective operation in war of the Army air organization assigned. In addition, the plans of each Army coastal frontier commander will contemplate and provide for the possibility of the operation of the entire GHQ air force within the limits of his command by including in such plans logistic provisions for the entire GHQ air force, should it so operate; civilian installations and establishments will be utilized to the fullest extent practicable. Where facilities do not exist, all work possible under current appropriations should be done to prepare them so that M-day operation will be possible.
- Joint plans of the lowest sequence, such as joint subsector or joint defensive coastal area plans, should contain, either in the plans proper, in appendices or annexes thereto, or in supporting plans or projects--so much of the following as is appropriate:
- The relationship of the defensive coastal area to the subsector organization and/or of the subsector to the sector organization.
- The category of defense and such delimitation of the area as may be necessary for the coordination of the Army and the Navy forces operating in the area, to include areas of responsibility.
- The assignment of missions and allocation of Army forces, to include supporting troops or additional forces required for later defense steps.
- The relationship of the area to such defensive sea areas and maritime control areas as have to been designated for the vicinity, with special reference to methods of keeping the Army informed of movements of all vessels in the coastal zone and the composition, mission, and methods of operation of the offshore patrol.
- Such general plan of the forts, batteries, searchlights, underwater listening posts, air installations, and areas of gunfire and illumination as may be necessary to define the areas of Army responsibility for defense and naval assistance to the Army in this defense, including areas available to the enemy from which he can deliver bombardment fire without effective interference from the land armament.
- Definite assignment to the Navy of responsibility and tasks for offensive action in such areas as are covered by the fire of the land armament.
- General plan of the part of the underwater defense to be prepared or installed, including the character of the mine barrages, nets, booms, built-in obstructions, and other obstacles, their location, priority of installation, definite responsibility of the Army and the Navy for their provision, estimate of time of installation, definite indication of free passages through mines and openings in nets, navigation range installations required and responsibility for their establishment.
Decisions as to which service and what commander in this service shall determine when these elements shall be placed.
- Allocation to the Army and the Navy of locally procurable means, particularly vessels and material required for the installation and maintenance of the underwater defense, together with an estimate of the availability of such means, the nature of the alteration required, and the probable cost and time involved.
- Composition, mission, and method of operation of the inshore patrol, with particular reference to method of protection of underwater defense elements and identification of elements of the patrol with land elements of the defense at night and in thick weather, including a definite decision as to the conditions under which doubtful vessels should be fired upon by the armament of fortification.
- The air, the ground antiaircraft, and the close-in defense measures; the measures for defense against landing attacks to be instituted on M-day and for the later defense steps to be instituted as the war progresses.
- The details of joint communication and intelligence services and an aircraft warning service. These details for the joint communication and intelligence services to include the location of headquarters of the several commanders, communication nets of both services, with the additional means, both military and commercial, required and the frequencies allotted to Army and Navy radio nets, responsibilities of Army and Navy commanders as to communication, censorship, and supervision of cables and wire lines as prescribed by higher commanders.
- General method of operation of the inshore patrol in sweeping and mining operations and in conducting and controlling maritime traffic, including designation and location of entrances and exits to defensive sea areas and maritime control areas and of guard ships and methods of control of shipping within the harbor.
- Composition, mission, and method of employment of other naval local defense task groups, in sufficient detail to indicate the character and degree of cooperation required of Army and Navy air units.
- Definite establishment of factors controlling the passing of paramount interest from the Navy to the Army in the coastal zone adjacent to the area.
- Detail of at least one liaison officer by name from each service to represent his commander at the headquarters of the other service and such other liaison officers as may be decided upon jointly.
- A highly important part in each joint defense plan and project, and in the supporting defense plans and projects developed therefrom, is a definite statement of the time of accomplishment of the individual items under the plans and projects. For plans, these statements of times should be for the means and forces actually available and a consideration of the condition of the means and state of training of the forces. For projects, these statements of times should consider both the time of procurement and the time of installation or training after procurement.
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Joint Overseas Expeditions
- Naval support.
- The operations of the Navy forces during a withdrawal of the Army forces from the shore are similar to those during a landing operation, the phases occurring in reverse order.
- In addition to providing the sea transportation and the small boats to reembark the Army forces, including crews to man the boats, the Navy will be prepared to furnish gunfire and air support during the withdrawal. The Navy will, as in the case of the initial stages of the landing operation, provide for signal communications between ship and shore until the last unit is evacuated.
- In accordance with paragraph 54a(8), the commander in chief, or the commander of the service in which paramount interest is initially vested, is required to provide joint plans for communication between forces. While the particular situation and the designated directive will greatly influence the preparation of specific instructions, the following general directive should apply to all such plans, in order that advance preparations, including training, may be accomplished and any obstacles to the successful culmination of the plans may be avoided.
- The joint communication plan and the communication plans of subordinate commanders of both the Army and the Navy shall cover the following phases:
- Movement overseas.
- Operations subsequent to landing.
- All communication plans shall include:
- Frequency plans.
- Provisions for communication security.
- Provisions for radio intelligence.
- Designation of procedure to be followed.
- Requirement that portable radio sets and other communication material be tested prior to embarkation.
- Communications between ship and shore.
- Efficient signal communications between ship and shore are of primary importance. It is the duty of the Navy to establish and maintain, through the beachmaster, necessary signal communications facilities for both Navy and Army requirements. Provision should be made to enable communication net ashore and the naval communication system via the beachmaster's headquarters. The Army prolongs its axis of signal communications inland as the attack progresses.In this connection see paragraph 94c.
- During the early stages of a landing operation it may be advisable, in order to reduce the delay in the transmission of information to a minimum, for Army unit commanders ashore to communicate direct by radio with their superior landing force commanders afloat. Portable radio transmitters may be placed in operation on one or more ships for this purpose, or, if available, one of the ship's radio transmitters may be assigned to work with Army units ashore.
- When an Army task force commander is the commander of the landing force, his headquarters should be provided with suitable direct communications with the commander of the naval air support.
- General.--In drawing up communications plans reference should be made to paragraphs 63b; 77o; 82a; 93a; 94c; 98c; 101a,b,c,d, and g; 104; 107b; 108; and 109.
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Agencies for Effecting Coordination
Sanction of Joint Agencies
- The existing joint agencies for coordination between the Army and the Navy have no legislative nor executive basis for existence. These agencies exist as a result of agreement between the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments. The recommendations of these joint agencies are advisory only and become effective upon approval by both Secretaries, and in some cases upon further approval by the President.
Section II--The Joint Board
- The authority for The Joint Board is contained in War Department General Orders No. 6, 1942, and Navy Department G.O. No. 158,1941. The board consists, on the party of the Army, of the Chief of Staff, the Deputy Chief of Staff, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Air, and the Assistant Chief of Staff, War Plans Division, War Department General Staff; and on the part of the Navy, of the Chief of Naval Operations, the Assistant Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, and the Director, War Plans Division, Office of Naval Operations.
- Any matter which, to either the War or the Navy Department, seems to call for consideration as to cooperation between the two services may be referred by that department to The Joint Board. The Joint Board may also originate consideration of such subjects as in its judgment are necessary; and is responsible for recommending to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy jointly whatever it considers essential to establish sufficiency and efficiency of cooperation and coordination of effort between the Army and the
Navy. Proceedings and reports of the board are confidential. Each department receives a copy of the report of the board.
- [»] Joint Planning Committee.
- The authority for the joint planning committee is contained in War Department General Orders No. 6,1 942, and in Navy Department G.O. No. 158, 1941. The Joint Planning Committee is a permanent agency of The Joint Board for the detailed investigation, study, and development of policies, projects, and plans relative to the national defense and involving joint action of the Army and the Navy. The Committee may also originate consideration of such subjects as, in its judgment, are necessary. It reports and submits recommendations to The Joint Board. The members are authorized to consult freely on all matters of defense and military policy in which the Army and the Navy are jointly concerned, and to consider this joint work as among their most important duties. Its procedures is informal; its reports and recommendations are confidential; its report and recommendations go to The Joint Board.
- The Joint Planning Committee is composed of the Assistant Chief of Staff, War Plans Division, War Department General Staff, and the Director, War Plans Division, Office of Naval Operations, Navy Department, as permanent members, plus temporary members as indicated in subparagraphs below:
- In cases involving procurement and the allocation of industry, one officer from the office of the Under Secretary of War, to be designated by the Under Secretary of War, and one officer from the office of the Chief of Naval Operations, to be designated by the Chief of Naval Operations.
- Subjects assigned to the Joint Planning Committee, other than joint war or joint operating plans, will be reassigned to working committees composed of one or more members of each, War Plans Division, War Department General Staff, and War Plans Division, office of Chief of Naval Operations. Working committees will be advised and assisted by other available Army and Navy officers having special knowledge of the subjects, or by a formally appointed Committee of Experts, as deemed appropriate. Each Committee of Experts shall be composed of such officers of the Army and the Navy as may be designated by the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chief of Naval Operations, respectively.
- Joint war and joint operating plans assigned to the Joint Planning Committee, or initiated by that Committee, will be reassigned by the Army and Navy members to a permanent Joint Strategic Committee. This Committee will be composed of at least three members from each, the War Plans Division, War Department general Staff, and War Plans Division, Office
of Chief of Naval Operations. The primary duties of the Joint Strategic Committee will be the study and preparation of joint basic war and joint operations plans.
- Joint Intelligence Committee.
- The Joint Intelligence Committee is a permanent agency of The Joint Board. Its status is coequal to that of the Joint Planning Committee. The membership of the Joint Intelligence Committee is detailed by the Military Intelligence Division, War Department General Staff, and the Naval Intelligence Division,Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, by the heads of these divisions, four being from one division and three from the other, as mutually agreed to by the two heads of divisions. The senior officer on the Committee is the Chairman. Of the above seven members, five are on full-time duty with the Committee, and one of these is the permanent Secretary. The senior Army officer and the senior Navy officer, who need not be on full-time duty with the Committee, are officers with experience and prior training in intelligence matters.
- The duties of the Joint Intelligence Committee are to prepare periodic detailed summaries of military and related intelligence for The Joint Board. In addition, it prepares such special information and intelligence studies as required by The Joint Board, or as may be indicated by the situation. While it maintains a file of reports, correspondence, etc., no intelligence files as such are kept, but the members are given full access to the reports and files of the Military Intelligence Division, and the Navy Intelligence Division. Joint Summaries of Information are principally factual. Doubtful information is so indicated. Joint Strategical Estimates of the Situation are reserved as a function of the Joint Planning Committee.
The Aeronautical Board
- [»] The authority for the Aeronautical Board is contained in War Department G.O. No. 2, 1927., as amended by G.O. No. 5, 1932, and Navy Department G.O. No. 227, 1932. The board consists, on the part of the Army, of the Chief of Army Air Forces, the Chief of the Air Corps, and one member of the War Plans Division, War Department General Staff; on the part of the Navy, of the Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, the Head of Plans Division of his office, and one member of the War Plans Division, office of Chief of Naval Operations. The War Plans Division members are not eligible for duty with The Joint Board or the Joint Planning Committee. The board is provided with a secretary
detailed from the permanent personnel of either the War Department or the Navy Department.
- The function of the Aeronautical Board is to secure a more complete measure of cooperation and coordination in the development of aviation of the Army and of the Navy. It will investigate, study, and report upon all questions affecting jointly the development of aviation of the Army and of the Navy which have been referred to it by the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, The Joint Board, the Chief of the Army Air Forces, or the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. In addition, it will also be charged with the duty or originating consideration of such subjects when in its judgment necessary and of recommending whatever it considers essential to establish sufficiency and efficiency of cooperation and coordination of effort between the Army and the Navy as to aviation.
- In the execution of the foregoing the board is governed by the following. It will hold regular monthly meetings and such extraordinary meetings as may be deemed advisable. It will prescribe its own procedure and will be assisted by working committees, the members of which will be appointed by the Aeronautical Board. All recommendations of the Aeronautical Board affecting joint Army and Navy policies or plans relative to the national defense will be referred to The Joint Board for consideration before submission to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy. Matters affecting the procurement of matériel in time of war to meet joint requirements will be submitted to the Army and Navy Munitions Board. All other matters will be submitted direct to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy.
Army and Navy Munitions Board
- The authority for the Army and Navy Munitions Board is contained in The Joint Board's letter J.B. No. 346 (Serial No. 181), of June 27, 1922, approved by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy June 29, 1922. The board consists of The Assistant Secretary of War and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, assisted by an executive committee composed of officers on duty in the War and Navy Departments, as follows:
Three officers of the Army and three officers of the Navy to be selected by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, respectively.
- The board is authorized and directed to--
- Assure the necessary coordination in the procurement war plans of the two services, and in all plans, studies, and appendices thereto intended to facilitate the Government's efforts in war to promote orderly mobilization of industry.
- Form and direct the activities of such joint committees as may be necessary to consider, investigate, and make recommendations concerning pertinent subjects falling within the purview of the board's responsibilities.
- Translate currently the joint requirements of the Army and Navy, as they may be changed, or affected by changes, from time to time; analyze, calculate,and reduce such joint requirements to terms of raw materials, productive capacity and equipment, and plan in cooperation with the appropriate civilian agencies to meet these requirements.
- Ascertain and foresee the existence and probable extent of shortages and bottlenecks in all fields affecting procurement and production of military items, and, in cooperation with the appropriate civilian agencies, formulate and recommend measures to met and overcome all such threatened difficulties.
- Keep informed on, follow closely at every point, and wherever appropriate, participate in the actions, proceedings, and plans of the various civilian defense agencies with whose activities it is concerned, with a view to keeping the military services informed and to advocating the interests of the Army and Navy at all levels throughout these agencies.
- Furnish the senior representatives of the Army and Navy on the important civilian or governmental agencies with such information as will permit the evaluation of the plans and programs under consideration as to their effect upon the program of the military services.
- Perform such other functions and duties related to the foregoing as may be assigned to it from time to time by the Chairman of the War Production Board.
- Approval of action taken by the Munitions Board is not required, except that any plans prepared by it that affect joint war plans and joint Army and Navy policy relative to the national
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Table of Contents Change No. 5 * Change No. 7