Change No. 7 Joint Action of the Army and the Navy, 1935
J.B. No. 301 (Serial 741)-- Responsibility for Fixed Underwater Listening Posts. A.G. 334.3 (2-25-42)-- Joint Army and Navy Munitions Board. J.B. No. 319 (Serial 746)-- Joint Army and Navy Radio Procedure--Changes to. A.B. No. 501 (Case No. 146)-- Membership of Aeronautical Board.
THE JOINT BOARD,
WAR AND NAVY DEPARTMENTS,
Washington, March 31, 1942.
The following changes in Joint Action of the Army and the Navy 1935, have been approved by the Secretary of War and by the Acting Secretary of the Navy and should be made in all copies of this publication.
Add the following new pages:
Page Nos. Subject matter Il-Im Promulgation of Change No. 7.
Remove and destroy the pages listed below and substitute the reprinted pages containing changes as indicated:
Old page Nos. Changes on reprinted pages II-IIa C.J.A.7--List of effective pages (revised March 31, 1942). 13-14 Paragraph 19, subparagraph d(5) deleted and subparagraphs (6), (7), and (8) renumbered. 15-16 Paragraph 19, subparagraph g(1)(e) changed. 51-52 Paragraph 32, subparagraph h(4) deleted. 131-132a Paragraphs 130, 133 and 134 changed. 141-144 Paragraph 158, subparagraph c changed.
The office of The Adjutant General, War Department, and the Registered Publications Section, Navy Department, require no report of this change.
W. B. SMITH,
Brigadier General, United States Army,
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List of Effective Pages
(Revised March 31, 1942)
Subject matter Change in
Page Nos. Title page Original No number Navy letter of promulgation of November 15, 1935 (Navy copies only) " 0-00* Promulgation of Change No. 1, July 22, 1936 1*** I-Ia Promulgation of Change No. 2, November 30, 1938 2 Ib-Ic Promulgation of Change No. 3, June 28, 1940 3 Id-Ie Promulgation of Change No. 4, January 25, 1941 4 If-Ig Promulgation of Change No. 5, July 14, 1941 5 Ih-Ii Promulgation of Change No. 6, January 28, 1942 6 Ij-Ik Promulgation of Change No. 7, March 31, 1942 7 Il-Im List of effective pages 6 II-IIa Joint letter of promulgation of September 11, 1935 Original III-IV** Contents 2 V-VI Contents, Part I 2 VII Contents, Part I, continued Original VIII Chapter I " 1-2 Chapter I, continued 1 3-4** Chapter II 2 5-6 Chapter III 2 11 Chapter III, continued Original 12 Chapter III, continued 7 13-16 Chapter IV " 17 Chapter IV, continued 2 18 Chapter IV, continued Original 19-20** Contents, Part II " 21-22** Contents, Chapter V " 23-26 Chapter V 6 27-32 Chapter V, continued Original 33-37 Chapter V, continued 6 38-42 Chapter V, continued 2 43-44 Chapter V, continued Original 45 to 47 Chapter V, continued 2 48 Chapter V, continued Original 49-50 Chapter V, continued 7 51-52 Chapter V, continued Original 53-54 Chapter V, continued 6 55-57 Chapter V, continued Original 58-60 Chapter V, continued 6 61
* Should be so numbered in ink in Navy copies only.
** Original blank pages IV, 4, 16, 20, and 22 should be so numbered in ink.
*** Navy copies "2."
Subject matter Change in
Page Nos. Chapter V, continued Original 62-64 Chapter V, continued 6 65-67 Chapter V, continued 2 68 Contents, Chapter VI 2 69 Contents, Chapter VI, continued Original 70 to 72 Chapter VI " 73 to 76 Chapter VI, continued 2 77 to 80 Chapter VI, continued Original 81-82 Chapter VI, continued 2 83-84 Chapter VI, continued Original 85-86 Chapter VI, continued 2 87 Chapter VI, continued Original 88 to 90 Chapter VI, continued 2 91 Chapter VI, continued Original 92 to 97 Chapter VI, continued 2 98 Chapter VI, continued Original 99-100 Chapter VI, continued 2 101 Chapter VI, continued Original 102 Chapter VI, continued 2 103-104 Chapter VI, continued Original 105 Chapter VI, continued 2 106-107 Chapter VI, continued Original 108 to 110 Chapter VI, continued 6 111-112 Contents, Chapter VII Original 113-114** Chapter VII Original 115 to 126** Contents, Chapter VIII Original 127-128** Chapter VIII 6 129-130 Chapter VIII, continued 7 131-132b Chapter VIII, continued Original 133 Chapter VIII, continued 2 134 Chapter VIII, continued Original 135-136** Chapter IX 5 137-138 Chapter IX, continued 4 139-140d Chapter IX, continued 7 141-144a Chapter IX, continued 3 145-164 Chart of Organization for Coastal Frontier Defense Original No number Diagram No. I, Coastal Frontier. Joint Radio and Wire Communications 3 No number Diagram No. II, Joint Overseas Expedition--Landing Phase. Typical Communication Circuits for One Beach 3 No number
** Original blank pages 114, 126, 128 and 136 should be so numbered in ink.
Operations Requiring Coordination
- The deployment from the landing boats and the gaining of a foothold on shore.
- The organization of a beachhead.
- The organization and conduct of operations to extend the beachhead.
- The conduct of operations beyond the beachhead for the accomplishment of the mission.
- The normal Navy tasks in joint attacks directed from the sea against shore objectives are:
- Naval forces.
- To provide adequate reconnaissance.
- To provide the defense against enemy naval forces during landing operations.
- To provide, man, equip, and operate the small craft required for landing operations.
- To cover the landing by mine sweeping, gunfire, aircraft, and screening operations.
- To provide signal communications between ships and shore.
- To organize and operate the necessary sea lines of supply for forces on shore.
- Marine forces.--Marines organized as landing forces perform the same functions as above stated for the Army, whether operating with the Navy alone or in conjunction with the Army and Navy.
- Coastal frontier defense.
- Attacks against our coastal frontiers may be classified as follows:
- Major operations, i.e., those executed for the purpose of invasion; and
- Minor operations, i.e., raids against shipping or shore objectives.
- The general function of the Army in coastal frontier defense is to conduct military operations in direct defense of United States territory.
- The specific functions of the Army in coastal frontier defense are:
- To provide and operate the mobile land and air forces required for the direct defense of the coast.
- To provide, maintain, and operate essential harbor defenses.
- In carrying out these functions, the Army will provide and operate or maintain--
- Guns on land, both fixed and mobile, with necessary searchlights and fire-control installations.
- Aircraft operating in support of harbor defenses; in general coastal frontier defense; in support of or in lieu of naval forces.
- A communication and intelligence system to include an aircraft warning service, among the elements of the land defense, with provision for the prompt exchange of information or instructions with the Navy.
- Controlled mines and their appurtenances, including the vessels necessary for their installation and maintenance.
- Beach defense, together with vessels necessary for its installation, maintenance, and patrol.
- Fixed underwater obstructions in connection with controlled mine barrages.
- Additional mobile forces required in accordance with the situation.
- The general function of the Navy in coastal frontier defense is to conduct naval operations to gain and maintain command of vital sea areas and to protect the sea lanes vital to the United States, thereby contributing to the defense of the coastal frontiers.
- The specific functions of the Navy in coastal frontier defense are:
- To control and protect shipping in the coastal zones.
- To conduct naval operations directed toward the defeat of any enemy force in the vicinity of the coast.
- To support the Army in repelling attacks on coastal objectives.
- In carrying out these functions the Navy will:
- Provide and operate--
- A system of offshore scouting and patrol to give timely warning of an attack, and, in addition, forces to operate against enemy forces in the vicinity of the coast.
- A communication and intelligence system among the elements of the sea defense, with provisions for the prompt exchange of information or instructions with the Army.
- Contact mines, nets, and booms, including the vessels necessary for their installation and maintenance.
- Inshore patrols for the protection of mine fields and underwater obstructions other than beach defenses; for the control and protection of shipping in passage through defensive sea areas; for the control of shipping in defensive coastal areas, and for the prevention of enemy mining and submarine operations.
- Underwater listening posts for naval use.
- Through the Lighthouse Service, when turned over to the Navy, coastal lights, buoys, and aids to navigation, and to change them as necessary.
- An information system through the Coast Guard stations when turned over to the Navy, and through lighthouses and light vessels.
- Necessary mine-sweeping vessels.
- Provide and maintain such fixed underwater obstructions as are component parts of Navy barrages; including the vessels necessary for their installation and maintenance.
- Operate gates through nets.
- Conduct shipping through channels in mine fields or obstructions.
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[Return to Chapter III]
Coastal Frontier Defense
- Defensive sea areas.
- Since the object of establishing defensive sea areas is to control shipping, the proclaiming of such an area obligates the Navy to control shipping therein and puts the burden to enforce this control upon the naval forces. The number and size of defensive sea areas should be reduced to the minimum consistent with security, in order to minimize the burden upon the naval forces, and interference with shipping.
- Authority for the establishment of defensive sea areas in vested in the President of the United States by section 44 of the act entitled "An act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States, approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine", as amended by the act "Making appropriations for the naval service for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for other purposes", approved March 4, 1917.
- When war with a specific power appears probable, the Secretary of the Navy submits recommendations to the President as to the defensive sea areas to be proclaimed and the time when they shall be proclaimed. If and when the development of the war necessitates, he submits subsequent recommendations as to additional defensive sea areas to be proclaimed.
- The Secretary of the Navy is charged with the preparation, for the signature of the President, of the proclamation designating defensive sea areas, with their outer definite limits, and with the publication thereof. He is further charged with the preparation and publication of regulations pertaining thereto and with the enforcement of such regulations.
- Defense against landing attacks.
- Measures and operations demanded of the defense.
- Enemy landing operations in force must be opposed to the utmost. To this end the Army forces within the coastal frontier will be augmented by forces from the strategic or general reserve, the Army GHQ air force, and by other available Army forces. The naval local defense forces will be augmented by any other naval forces available. The successful frustration of the hostile landing operation will depend largely upon the timely concentration of the requisite forces at the locality against which the main attack is being directed. It is therefore of vital importance that everything be done to discover the focal point of this main attack at the earliest possible moment. For this reason the defense must initiate the following operations as early as possible:
- Location of the hostile force at sea, and maintenance of observation of this force.
- Interference with the hostile force as far offshore as practicable to prevent or delay its approach.
- Resistance in coastal zone waters and at the shore, taking advantage of the adverse situation in which the attacker is placed just prior to and during landing.
- In general, the enemy may be expected to attempt to make landings may be mere feints. The coastline should be carefully studied with a view to determine the places which the enemy is most likely to use for landings, principal or secondary.
- Steps in the joint organization and operations against landing attack.--Complete preparation for opposing an enemy landing in force requires the following steps
[Return to Chapter V]
Agencies for Effecting Coordination
of Chief of Naval Operations. The primary duties of the Joint Strategic Committee will be the study and preparation of joint basic war and joint operations plans.
- Joint Intelligence Committee.
- The Joint Intelligence Committee is a permanent agency of The Joint Board. Its status is coequal to that of the Joint Planning Committee. The membership of the Joint Intelligence Committee is detailed by the Military Intelligence Division, War Department General Staff, and the Naval Intelligence Division,Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, by the heads of these divisions, four being from one division and three from the other, as mutually agreed to by the two heads of divisions. The senior officer on the Committee is the Chairman. Of the above seven members, five are on full-time duty with the Committee, and one of these is the permanent Secretary. The senior Army officer and the senior Navy officer, who need not be on full-time duty with the Committee, are officers with experience and prior training in intelligence matters.
- The duties of the Joint Intelligence Committee are to prepare periodic detailed summaries of military and related intelligence for The Joint Board. In addition, it prepares such special information and intelligence studies as required by The Joint Board, or as may be indicated by the situation. While it maintains a file of reports, correspondence, etc., no intelligence files as such are kept, but the members are given full access to the reports and files of the Military Intelligence Division, and the Navy Intelligence Division. Joint Summaries of Information are principally factual. Doubtful information is so indicated. Joint Strategical Estimates of the Situation are reserved as a function of the Joint Planning Committee.
The Aeronautical Board
- The authority for the Aeronautical Board is contained in War Department General Orders No. 6, 1936, and Navy Department G.O. No. 81, 1936. The board consists, on the part of the Army, of the Commanding General;, Matériel Command, Army Air Forces; one member of the Operations Division, War Department General Staff, designated by the Chief of Staff; on the part of the Navy, of the Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, the Head of Plans Division of his office, and one member of the War Plans Division, office of Chief of Naval Operations. The War Plans Division members are not eligible for duty with The Joint Board or the Joint Planning Committee. The board is provided with a secretary
detailed from the permanent personnel of either the War Department or the Navy Department.
- The function of the Aeronautical Board is to secure a more complete measure of cooperation and coordination in the development of aviation of the Army and of the Navy. It will investigate, study, and report upon all questions affecting jointly the development of aviation of the Army and of the Navy which have been referred to it by the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, The Joint Board, the Chief of the Army Air Forces, or the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. In addition, it will also be charged with the duty or originating consideration of such subjects when in its judgment necessary and of recommending whatever it considers essential to establish sufficiency and efficiency of cooperation and coordination of effort between the Army and the Navy as to aviation.
- In the execution of the foregoing the board is governed by the following. It will hold regular monthly meetings and such extraordinary meetings as may be deemed advisable. It will prescribe its own procedure and will be assisted by working committees, the members of which will be appointed by the Aeronautical Board. All recommendations of the Aeronautical Board affecting joint Army and Navy policies or plans relative to the national defense will be referred to The Joint Board for consideration before submission to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy. Matters affecting the procurement of matériel in time of war to meet joint requirements will be submitted to the Army and Navy Munitions Board. All other matters will be submitted direct to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy.
Army and Navy Munitions Board
- The authority for the Army and Navy Munitions Board is contained in The Joint Board's letter J.B. No. 346 (Serial No. 181), of June 27, 1922, approved by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy June 29, 1922. The board consists of the Under Secretary of War, the Under Secretary of the Navy, and a civilian appointed by them to act as its chairman and chief executive officer.
The executive committee consists of the chairman ex officio; one officer of flag rank, to be selected by the Under Secretary of the Navy; and one general officer, to be selected by the Under Secretary of War. Each of these officers is to be on full-time duty with the board and assisted by an executive officer detailed by the War and Navy Department.
- The board is authorized and directed to--
- Assure the necessary coordination in the procurement war plans of the two services, and in all plans, studies, and appendices thereto intended to facilitate the Government's efforts in war to promote orderly mobilization of industry.
- Form and direct the activities of such joint committees as may be necessary to consider, investigate, and make recommendations concerning pertinent subjects falling within the purview of the board's responsibilities.
- Translate currently the joint requirements of the Army and Navy, as they may be changed, or affected by changes, from time to time; analyze, calculate,and reduce such joint requirements to terms of raw materials, productive capacity and equipment, and plan in cooperation with the appropriate civilian agencies to meet these requirements.
- Ascertain and foresee the existence and probable extent of shortages and bottlenecks in all fields affecting procurement and production of military items, and, in cooperation with the appropriate civilian agencies, formulate and recommend measures to met and overcome all such threatened difficulties.
- Keep informed on, follow closely at every point, and wherever appropriate, participate in the actions, proceedings, and plans of the various civilian defense agencies with whose activities it is concerned, with a view to keeping the military services informed and to advocating the interests of the Army and Navy at all levels throughout these agencies.
- Furnish the senior representatives of the Army and Navy on the important civilian or governmental agencies with such information as will permit the evaluation of the plans and programs under consideration as to their effect upon the program of the military services.
- Perform such other functions and duties related to the foregoing as may be assigned to it from time to time by the Chairman of the War Production Board.
- Approval of action taken by the Munitions Board is not required, except that any plans prepared by it that affect joint war plans and joint Army and Navy policy relative to the national
[Return to Chapter VIII]
Doctrines and Guides Governing Communication (Signal) Effectiveness in Joint Operations of the Army and the Navy
Paragraphs Subsection I. General 156-158 II. Coastal Frontier Defense 159-162 Joint channels and means of inter-communication 159 Aircraft communication principles 160 Aircraft warning service 161 Preparation and distribution of communication (signal) plans and instructions 162 III. Joint Overseas Expedition 163-168 Introduction 163 General 164 General principles 165 Aircraft communication principles and aircraft warning service 166 Joint communication (signal) training 167 Special equipment 168 IV. Communication Security 169-171 General 169 Grouping of Army and Navy units into categories for classified communications 170 General instructions 171 V. Joint Communication (Signal) Plan 172 General 172 VI. Miscellaneous 173 Other joint communication requirements 173
- Effective signal communication in joint operations of the Army and Navy requires--
- The interconnection of the appropriate elements of the Army and the Navy by the appropriate means of signal communications.
- Joint communication (signal) training.
- The preparation and proper distribution of important items of information and instructions governing signal communication.
- Appropriate provisions for communication security.
- Adequate provision for cryptographing.
- The information presented hereinafter should serve as a guide, to indicate--
- The elements that are to be interconnected during joint operations.
- The distribution that should normally be given important items of information and instructions governing signal communication.
- The cryptographic systems to be employed in joint operations.
- The essentials of a Joint Communication (Signal) Plan.
- Miscellaneous considerations.--Details for communication between the Army and the Navy shall be made by the senior officers of the two services in the area concerned. The following items are here presented for the guidance of all concerned:
- Liaison officers.--The importance of detailing qualified liaison officers for joint operations is indicated in chapter V, section V, paragraph 42i(15) and in chapter VI, section II, paragraph 51.
- Means and methods of communication.--All suitable means of communication are to be considered available for joint use. When a choice is available, the most reliable means should be selected, with due consideration for speed and security. Attention is particularly invited to the advantages of effecting simultaneous delivery of messages to numerous addressees by radio broadcasting (F-method) without obtaining a receipt, or by teletype in case addressees are all on a teletype net. Scheduled F-method radio transmissions should usually be on an especially prescribed frequency and should be regularly copied by most addressees. Such transmissions should be relayed to those addressees who either are not able to copy, or are not required to copy them. However, F-method transmissions may be made at any time on the same frequency as that usually employed for the 2-way R-method (i.e., in which receipts are obtained for each message transmitted).
- Precedence*.--Messages are divided into precedence groups to show the relative order in which they shall be transmitted and acted upon. In the absence of specific instructions to the contrary, messages of the same precedence, whether originating in the Army or the Navy, will be handled in the order of filing for transmission, or of receipt for relaying.
This order of precedence groups is as follows:
- The URGENT (O) designation is reserved for--
- Initial enemy contact and initial amplifying reports;
- Subsequent contact reports and other messages, sent during actual or imminent combat (real or simulated), which may materially affect our plans or course of action and must therefore be brought to the attention of the addressee at the earliest possible moment. An URGENT message is urgent to all addressees. Messages designated URGENT will be transmitted immediately upon receipt and ahead of all traffic not so designated,even to the extent of breaking transmissions
*NOTE:--"Precedence" as herein used is the same as "Classification for Order of Transmission" formerly used.
thereof already in progress. A primary example of this type of message is a so-called Army Flash message which is employed to report the approach of hostile aircraft.
- The OPERATIONAL PRIORITY (OP) designation is reserved for important messages pertaining directly to operations, except ordinary movement reports, which cannot be classified as URGENT, but which nevertheless must be delivered to the addressee as expeditiously as possible in order to be acted upon properly. This precedence shall be given only to operational traffic. Messages designated OPERATIONAL PRIORITY will be transmitted ahead of all other messages awaiting transmission except those designated URGENT, but completion of the transmission of a short PRIORITY message already in progress may be permitted. In joint procedure, all OPERATIONAL PRIORITY messages, except those sent by the Executive (IX) Method*, shall be so indicated by the use of prosine "OP," whereas the form of the message alone may indicate OPERATIONAL PRIORITY precedence in communications within the Army or within the Navy (Coast Guard). An OPERATIONAL PRIORITY message is given the same precedence to all addressees, whereas messages of lower precedence may have different precedence for different addressees.
- The PRIORITY (P) designation is reserved for messages which cannot be classified as URGENT or OPERATIONAL PRIORITY, but which nevertheless are pressing and require the addressee's immediate attention upon receipt, and which must therefore be delivered to the addressee as expeditiously as traffic of higher precedence will permit. This is the highest precedence that can be given to administrative traffic. Messages designated PRIORITY will be transmitted before any ROUTINE or DEFERRED messages awaiting transmission, but transmission of a short ROUTINE or DEFERRED message will not usually be interrupted to send a PRIORITY message.
- The ROUTINE (R) designation is reserved for messages requiring prompt delivery to the addressee but no special precedence. These messages will be transmitted in the order received or in such order as will clear the traffic most expeditiously, with due regard for traffic of higher precedence. Messages designated ROUTINE usually will be transmitted before any DEFERRED messages awaiting transmission, but transmission of a short DEFERRED message will not ordinarily be interrupted to send a ROUTINE message.
- The DEFERRED (D) designation is reserved for messages requiring no special precedence and whose delivery to the addressee may be delayed until the beginning of office hours following the day on
*NOTE.--Executive (IX) Method messages were formerly given URGENT precedence.
which filed. This will sometimes necessitate considering DEFERRED messages as ROUTINE messages, and transmitting them accordingly, in order to effect delivery before the time indicated.
- Address and signature.--While all official messages will be sent by authority of the commanding officer, no signature will ordinarily be transmitted. Messages intended to an addressee on board a ship or airplane, or within a command on shore, will be routed by use of the appropriate call sign of the ship, airplane, or shore command. Delivery to any specific addressee within the ship, airplane or shore command is a function of the command to which delivered. If call signs are assigned for joint use to particular commanders, as well as to particular ships, airplanes and shore commands, such commander call signs may also be employed to indicate routing, addressees and originators.
- Use of clear or cryptographic language.--The general rules governing the use of clear and cryptographic language are set forth in subsection IV of this chapter, wherein communication security is discussed.
- Operating instructions and procedure.--Operating instructions are special instructions for transmitting, receiving, and when required, for relaying messages. These instructions are set forth in a separate restricted pamphlet entitled, "Joint Army and Navy Radio Procedure."
- The time of origin is the time at which the message is released or authenticated by the originator. If this time does not appear on the message, it will be the time when the message is filed for transmission.
- The time of origin in joint communications is expressed in the 24-hour clock system and transmitted as a group of four figures, the first two digits representing the hours from midnight and the last two the minutes past the hour.
Examples: 6:00 A.M. is 0600, and 7:43 P.M. is 1943.
- For communication within the Army, the 12-hour clock system is used.
Examples: 6:00 A.M. is 600 A, and 7:43 P.M. is 743 P.
- The date is expressed for joint communication purposes by two figures preceding the time of origin, indicating the
day of the month. If the date number is less than ten, it is always preceded by zero. For example, the first day of the month is 01, and the tenth day is 10. "071626" means date was 7th day of month, and time of origin was 1626.
- The month and year may be added to the date and time of origin group when necessary for reference purposes in the text of messages. For example: "Your 071626 DEC 1938" means "Referring to your message, with time of origin 1626 on the 7th day of December 1938 * * *".
[Return to Chapter IX]
Table of Contents Change No. 6 * Change No. 8