Chapter V. GENERAL INFORMATION
Section 1. PAY AND SUBSISTENCE
Instructions on Subsistence and Payment of Personnel Serving on Board Commercial Vessels
- Officers ordered to duty on board commercial vessels will be required to pay for any subsistence furnished them. They will not be reimbursed by the Government for the cost of their subsistence on board such vessels. Should the subsistence charge appear to be unreasonably high, the Armed Guard officer should present the facts to the port director and request that representation be made to the owners or agents. If satisfactory action is not taken forthwith, The Armed Guard officer will have to pay the subsistence in any event, but should forward to the Bureau of Naval Personnel a complete statement of the circumstances, length of time on board, and representations made to the master, owners, or agents.
- Enlisted men on duty on commercial vessels will be subsisted thereon. Bills for reimbursement for subsistence should be submitted by the master or other authorized representative of the owners to the War Shipping Administration or the Maritime Commission when the vessel is operating under a bare boat or time charter with either of these activities, and to the Navy Department (Disbursing Division, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts) only when the vessel is not operating under such a charter. Armed Guard disbursing officers receiving bills for subsistence will return them to the originators with the information that these bills should be forwarded to the War Shipping Administration, Maritime Commission, or the Navy Department as appropriate. Dealers' bills submitted to the Navy Department for payment will be in duplicate and will be itemized to show names and ratings of the men subsisted (inclusive dates), the rate at which subsistence is charged and the total amount. A certificate of the officer or petty officer in charge of the detail, or of the individual, stating that the subsistence was received is required.
- Suggested form of invoice for reimbursement for subsistence of enlisted personnel on merchant ships as Armed Guards or as communication groups when invoice is prepared on board ship for submission to the Navy Department.
To: Disbursing Division, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Navy Department, Washington, D. C.
(name of steamship company or ship) Dr.
_______________________________________________________________________________________ Subsistence of Armed Guards on S.S. ___________________________________ during _________________
(name of ship)
Name Rate From To Days Unit Ext. ________________________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ________________________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ I certify that the above bill is correct and just, that payment therefore has not been received. ______________________________________ (Name of ship or steamship company) ______________________________________ (Signature) (Title) I certify that the above subsistence was received. ______________________________________ (Signature) (Title)
Instructions: Submit original and one copy of invoice. The original must be signed by an official of the company with his title, i.e., captain, purser, comptroller, auditor, cashier, etc. The certificate that subsistence was received must be signed by the officer or petty officer in charge of the Armed Guard.
Note -- When the invoice is not prepared aboard ship, the certificate that subsistence was received will be a separate certificate showing the names and ratings of the men subsisted and the number of meals furnished of the inclusive dates of period during which subsistence was received. This certificate must be signed by the officer or petty officer in charge of the detail and accompany the invoice.
5102. Pay and allowances in general.
- When Armed Guard units, communication groups, and other naval personnel are ordered to duty of indefinite duration on board commercial vessels, the disbursing officer carrying their pay accounts will prepare a transfer of pay account (S.
and A. Form 4) for transfer to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer. If the commanding officer so directs, the transfer of pay account will be delivered to the individual concerned for further delivery to an Armed Guard disbursing officer. Prior to transfer, each officer and enlisted man will be advised to draw from the funds available in his account an amount sufficient to provide for his needs until he is paid again, and he will be encouraged to register allotments for support of dependents and payment of insurance premiums. Enlisted men will be afforded an opportunity to make application for family allowances.
- Naval personnel on duty of indefinite duration on board commercial vessels will be paid on the basis of a U. S. Navy partial pay card (S. and A. Form 2), which is intended to provide for payments in amounts sufficient to provide personal expense money. The pay accounts of such personnel will be carried only at an Armed Guard center (Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf).
- Blank partial pay cards are furnished by the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts on the request of disbursing officers authorized to issue such cards, and will be afforded safekeeping in the manner prescribed for U. S. Treasury checks. Each individual to whom a partial pay card is issued will be advised by the issuing officer that the card will be handled in the same manner as a check or currency.
5103. Issue of partial pay cards.
- By Armed Guard disbursing officers -- If practicable the transfer of pay account (S. and A. Form 4) prepared in accordance with paragraph 5102 (a) will be delivered to an Armed Guard disbursing officer who will issue a partial pay card. Memorandum transfer of pay account issued under Authority of Article 1804, N. R., will not be used for this purpose except in cases of urgent military necessity.
- By other disbursing officers specifically authorized.
- In General -- Other Navy disbursing officers may be authorized to issue partial pay cards for and in the name of an Armed Guard disbursing officer. The cards will be issued only to individuals whose accounts are being transferred to or are being carried by an Armed Guard disbursing officer. The name of the Armed Guard center to which the account is being
transferred or at which the account is being carried (not the activity of the issuing officer) will be shown on the face of the card in order that all payments will be invoiced to the proper office.
- Original issue -- Authorized disbursing officers may issue partial pay cards to individuals ordered from a vessel or activity not in the vicinity of an Armed Guard center to duty of indefinite duration on board a commercial vessel. The pay account of the individual will be taken up, the individual will be paid money due him to date, and a partial pay card will be issued. The disbursing officer will prepare a transfer of pay account with an endorsement thereon showing the serial number and date of issue of the partial pay card, and will forward the transfer of pay account with a copy of the individual's orders and the partial pay card index card to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer.
- Renewal -- Authorized disbursing officers also may issue a partial pay card to an individual whose old partial pay card (1) shows a net pay per month in excess of that to which he is entitled because of registration of allotment, court martial sentence to loss of pay, or other deduction from pay, (2) has only two remaining spaces for recording payments, or (3) will expire before the individual can have the card renewed at another port. The same gross pay and allowances per month (subpar. (c) (5)) will be shown on the new card unless specific authorization for a change has been received from the Armed Guard disbursing officer carrying the pay account. No attempt should be made to renew partial pay cards unless the new partial pay card will be in the possession of the individual before the ship leaves port. The disbursing officer will pay the individual the amount due on the old partial pay card, cancel the old card with a notation "Cancelled -- superseded by partial pay card, Serial No. _____", and determine if the individual wishes to register any additional allotments, stop an allotment, of file a family allowance application. The original and all copies of such forms will be forwarded to the Armed Guard disbursing officer with the old partial pay card and the new partial pay card index card.
- Replacement of lost partial pay cards.
- In the event of the routine loss of a partial pay card, authorized disbursing officers may issue a new card only after written or dispatch information and authority have been obtained from the Armed Guard disbursing officer carrying the individual's pay account. An affidavit will be obtained from the individual and will include a statement of the circumstances surrounding the loss, the dates and amounts of payments recorded on the lost card or received subsequent to the loss of the card (including the name and location of the person making the payments), and a statement that the old partial pay card, if subsequently found, will not be used to obtain additional payments but will be mailed immediately to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer. The date of issue shown on the new card will be the date that the affidavit is submitted and not the date of loss of the old card. The partial pay card index and the affidavit of the individual will be forwarded to the Armed Guard disbursing officer. Any money due an individual between the date of last payment and the date the new card was issued will not be paid to the individual or credited on the new partial pay card.
- For procedure in the event of casualty resulting in the loss of a partial pay card, see paragraph 5, article 2150-3, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts Memo.
- The Armed Guard disbursing officer will advise all disbursing officers authorized to issue partial pay cards of all partial pay cards reported lost, showing the date and serial number of the card and the name of the individual to whom issued.
- Extension -- If a partial pay card has expired but the spaces provided for entries of payments have not been filled, officers authorized to issue partial pay cards , instead of issuing a new card, may extend the expiration date for a period not exceeding 90 days. The new "Void" date followed by the signature and station of the disbursing officer making the changes will be entered on the face of the card. A report of each such change will be made immediately to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer. Other disbursing officers may extend partial pay cards in the same manner after authority has been
received from the Armed Guard disbursing officer carrying the individual's pay account.
- For disbursing officers authorized to issue partial pay cards, see paragraph 5107.
- Entries to be made on partial pay cards when issued.
- Name, rank or rating, file or service number, signature, and right index fingerprint of the individual;
- Pay number, when issued by an Armed Guard disbursing officer (Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf);
- Address of the Armed Guard center where the account is carried or will be carried;
- A partial pay card issued by other than an Armed Guard center to replace one in use will show a notation of the total amount paid on the old card below the address of the Armed Guard center, in the following form: "Total paid and charged on prior PPC No. _______ $__________";
- Gross pay and allowances per month (base pay plus permanent additions thereto, including rental and subsistence allowances and money allowances for quarters for dependents, but excluding sea and foreign service duty credits);
- Deductions from gross pay (total of allotments, family allowance checkage, court martial checkage, and in the case of officers monthly amount required to liquidate any previous advance pay (i.e., one-sixth of the advance, etc.));
- Net pay per month (subpar. (5) minus subpar. (6)). (Neither a balance due nor a balance overpaid will be entered. Any authorized overpayment will adjust itself automatically. After an account has been closed for transfer to the Armed Guard disbursing officer, payment of any amount which remained due can be made only by that officer);
- Date of issue and date card becomes void, specifically 1 year from date of issue (e.g., if issued 15 October 1943, void date will be 14 October 1944);
- Amount of any unauthorized overpayment on the first line of the "amount" column (this will be treated in all respects as money issued); and
- Signature of the issuing disbursing officer.
- Partial pay card index card -- Issues and cancellations of partial pay cards will be recorded in a ledger, showing (1) serial number, (2) name of individual, (3) rank or rating,
and (4) date of issue or cancellation. Upon issue of a partial pay card, a 3- by 5-inch index card (standard stock item, ruled and unruled) will be prepared as follows and forwarded to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer:
(Name in full, surname first)
(Rank or rating)
(File or service number)
(Date of issue)
(Signature of holder of card)
Gross pay and allowances $____________ Allotments, H. F., etc. $____________ Advance pay (1/6 per mo.) ____________ ____________ Net pay per month $____________ Unauthorized overpayment
charged in "Amount"
$____________ (Right index fingerprint) Issued by _________________________________________________________________
(Name, signature, and activity of disbursing officer)
For Armed Guard center __________________________________________________________________
(Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf)
5104. Procedure for making payments on partial pay cards.
- In general.
- Any Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard disbursing officer or special disbursing agent is authorized to make payment for an individual who presents a properly executed partial pay card and who satisfactorily establishes his identity as the person to whom it was issued. U. S. Navy identification card -- photo (Form BNP 546) and regular metal identification tag are the authorized mediums for this purpose. Disbursing officers inland and at stations remote from commercial shipping should require evidence that holders of partial pay cards are on authorized leave before making payments on the basis of the partial pay cards. Payments also may be made by masters of vessels or, when necessary, by Army finance officers or State Department representatives outside the continental limits of the United States.
- The officer or petty officer in charge of an Armed Guard Unit will be responsible for reporting absence over leave (and
return), transfers, deaths, misconduct status, etc., and will forward immediately to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer any required payroll vouchers. When practicable such vouchers will be forwarded via a Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard disbursing officer making payments to the Unit. When an individual returns to duty on board the vessel after an authorized absence, the officer or petty officer in charge will place an appropriate entry in the money column of the partial pay card, the amount being computed as one-thirtieth of gross pay and allowances per month multiplied by the number of days absent.
- The officer or petty officer in charge will assist paying officers in preparing pay receipts and letters of advice (S. and A. Form 16). Immediately upon return to a United States port, he will forward to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer the copies of letters of advice and public vouchers furnished him by the paying officers.
- By Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard disbursing officers, and special disbursing agents.
- Pay due. -- The amount of pay due will be determined as follows: (1) compute elapsed time in months and fractional months from date following date of issuance of card to current date, (2) multiply by net pay per month, and (3) deduct the sum of all previous payments. (Example: Net pay per month $16, card issued 11/5/43, paid $10 on 12/20/43, current date 1/20/44; time elapsed, 2 15/30 months times $16 equals $40; less total previous payments of $10 equals $30 due). If an individual's card shows that he was overpaid a certain sum on the date the card was issued to him such overpayment must be deducted from any pay due in the same manner as a payment.
- Letter of advice (S. and A. Form 16). -- A letter of advice will be prepared in quintuplicate covering payments made to individuals whose accounts are being carried by the same Armed Guard disbursing officer. A letter of advice will not include payment to any individual whose account is not being carried by the Armed Guard disbursing officer to whom the letter of advice is addressed; separate letters of advice will be employed. Partial pay card serial numbers will be shown on each letter of advice but names will be listed in pay number order.
- Pay Receipts. -- If it is practicable for the individual to cash a U. S. Treasury check locally, payments will be made by check; otherwise payments will be made by cash, the payer obtaining a receipt therefore. Pay receipt (S. and A. Form 57), if available, will be used for obtaining the receipt for cash placed in the space provided on the face of the pay receipt.
- Entry on partial pay card. -- Partial pay cards will be endorsed to show date and amount paid, ship or station, and signature of paying officer.
- Public voucher. -- Public voucher for purchases, and services other than personal (Standard Form 1034) (original and seven copies) will be prepared in the manner prescribed in art. 2160-2 (c), S. and A. Manual, except that a letter of advice (S. and A. Form 16) will be used in lieu of a money list. Public vouchers will show separate totals for officers, for crew, for cash, and for check payments. A public voucher may cover more than one letter of advice but will cover only those showing payments to individuals carried by the same Armed Guard disbursing officer.
- Distribution of public vouchers, letters of advice, and copies thereof.
- To the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer (by air mail if practicable):
Original letter of advice.
One copy of the public voucher.
- To the Navy Department, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Field Branch, Cleveland, Ohio (Master Accounts Division), by registered mail:
Two certified copies of the letter of advice.
Two certified copies of the public voucher.
Pay receipts (Stamped "Paid" with the date of payment and the name, symbol number, and activity of the disbursing officer making the payment).
- To the officer or petty officer in charge of the Armed Guard Unit:
One copy of the letter of advice.
One copy of the public voucher.
- Filed by the disbursing officer for forwarding to the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Accounts and Reports Division)
In the usual manner (see arts. 2178-10 and 2179-8, S. and A. Manual): Two copies of the public voucher.
- Filed by the disbursing officer for forwarding with his official returns:
Original public voucher.
One certified copy of letter of advice.
- Retained by the disbursing officer: One copy of the public voucher.
- By master of the vessel.
- If it is not practicable for a Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard disbursing officer to make payments and if 30 days have elapsed since the date of last payment, personnel of Armed Guard Units may be paid by the master of the vessel or other authorized representative of the steamship company when such procedure is satisfactory to the steamship company concerned. Armed Guard disbursing officers should ensure that masters are informed of the appropriate procedures and provided with the necessary forms.
- Cash payments will be made as outlined in subpars. (b), (1), (2), (3), and (4). Immediately after making payments the master or other authorized representative will forward the original and one copy of the letter of advice to the Armed Guard disbursing officer carrying the accounts of the personnel paid and one copy to his company. One copy of the letter of advice will be delivered to the officer or petty officer in charge of the unit and one copy will be retained.
- The master or other authorized representative of the steamship company will claim reimbursement from the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer on an invoice submitted in duplicate , accompanied by the pay receipts and one copy of letter of advice (if available, the copy of the letter of advice acknowledged by the Armed Guard disbursing officer).
- Suggested form of invoice for reimbursement for payments made to Armed Guard Units. See paragraph 5108.
- By Army finance officers and State Department representatives.
- In cases of urgent necessity only, and when a Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard disbursing officer is not available, Army finance officers and State Department representatives outside the continental limits of the United States may be called
upon to make necessary payments to Armed Guard personnel. The provisions of subpars. (b) (1), (3), and (4) will be followed, and reimbursement will be effected by the Navy Department upon presentation by the War or State Department of a voucher for adjustment between appropriation and/or funds (Standard Form 1080).
- When payment is made to the individual, the Army finance officer or State Department representative will forward to the Navy Department, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Field Branch, Cleveland, Ohio, (Master Accounts Division), one copy of the pay voucher and a list of the personnel paid, indicating the amount paid to each and the Armed Guard disbursing officer carrying the pay accounts. Upon receipt of the pay voucher and list, the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Master Accounts Division) will prepare and forward to the appropriate Armed Guard disbursing officer the original and two copies of a list of personnel paid and amounts to be charged on the pay roll. The Armed Guard disbursing officer will certify on the original that charges have been made or requests for checkage originated for individuals on the list whose accounts are carried by another Armed Guard disbursing officer, and immediately return the original to the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Master Accounts Division), retaining two copies as pay roll vouchers.
5105. Clothing and small stores. -- Unless otherwise directed, Armed Guard personnel to whom partial pay cards have been issued and who require articles of clothing and small stores will procure such articles for cash. When clothing and small stores are lost in a marine disaster, issues in kind will be made by any supply officer on the basis of an approved claim as prescribed in art. 1431-11, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts Manual.
5106. Transfer of Armed Guard personnel to a naval activity. -- When an individual is released from duty on a commercial vessel and transferred to a Navy vessel or station for duty, he will deliver the partial pay card (and, if an officer, a certified copy of his orders) to his new disbursing officer, who will transmit the card (and copy of orders) to the Armed Guard disbursing officer with request that the account be closed and that the transfer of pay account be forwarded via air mail to such ship or station.
5107. Disbursing officers authorized to issue partial pay cards (S. and A. Form 2):
ARMED GUARD DISBURSING OFFICERS Armed Guard Center (Atlantic) South Brooklyn, New York. Armed Guard Center (Gulf) Naval Station, New Orleans (Algiers), La. Armed Guard Center (Pacific) Treasure island, San Francisco, Calif.
SPECIALLY AUTHORIZED DISBURSING OFFICERS
Adelaide, Australia, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Alexandria, Egypt, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Balboa, C. Z., Disbursing Officer, Fifteenth Naval District. Baltimore, Md., Disbursing Officer, Fifth Naval District, Baltimore Area. Belfast, Northern Ireland, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Bombay, India, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Brisbane, Australia, Disbursing Officer, Naval Supply Depot. Cardiff, Wales, Disbursing Officer, United States Navy Port Liaison Office. Colombo, Ceylon, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Durban, South Africa, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Gibraltar, Disbursing Officer, United States Naval Liaison Office, American Consulate. Gourock, Scotland, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Disbursing Officer, Naval Station, Naval Operating Base. Iceland, Disbursing Officer, Naval Operating Base. Karachi, India, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Liverpool, England, Supply and Disbursing Officer, United States Navy Port Liaison Office. London, England, Disbursing Officer, Office of the Naval Attaché. Londonderry, Northern Ireland, Disbursing Officer, Naval Operating Base. Los Angeles, Calif., Disbursing Officer, Naval Training School, 850 Lilac Terrace. Melbourne, Australia, Disbursing Officer, Naval Supply Depot. Newport News, Va., Disbursing Officer, Receiving Station.
Norfolk, Va., Disbursing Officer, Inshore Patrol, Naval Operating Base. Oran, Algeria, Disbursing Officer, Receiving Station. Pacific Fleet Service Force, c/o Fleet Post Office, San Francisco, Ca., Disbursing Officer. Pearl Harbor, T. H., Supply and Disbursing Officer, Fourteenth Naval District Small Craft, Aiea, Oahu. Philadelphia, Pa., Disbursing Officer, Receiving Station. Port Said, Egypt, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Recife, Brazil, Disbursing Officer, Naval Operating Facility. San Diego, Calif., Disbursing Officer, Receiving Station, Destroyer Base. San Pedro, Calif., Disbursing Officer, Naval Supply Depot. Seattle, Wash., Disbursing Officer, Thirteenth Naval District. Shelton, Norfolk, Va., Disbursing Officer, Armed Guard School. Suez, Egypt, United States Naval Liaison Officer. Sydney, Australia, Disbursing Officer, Receiving Barracks. Townsville, Australia, Disbursing Officer, Naval Activities. Trinidad, British West Indies, Disbursing Officer, United States Naval Operating Base.
5108. Suggested form of invoice for reimbursement of steamship companies for payments made to Armed Guards.
To: Armed Guard Center
(Name of steamship company or ship) Dr.
____________________________________________________________________________________________ Payments to Armed Guard crew, S. S. _____________________________________ on
(Name of ship)
Card N. Name in full Rate Amount ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________
I certify that the above bill is correct and just; that payment therefore has not been received.
(Name of ship or steamship company)
Instructions. -- Submit original and one copy of invoice. Original to be signed and title indicated, i. e., comptroller, cashier, manager, etc.
The pay receipts should accompany invoice to substantiate it. If available a copy of the letter of advice should accompany the invoice.
5109. When the officer or petty officer in charge of an Armed Guard crew incurs expenses incident to the performance of official duty while assigned to a specific commercial vessel, reimbursement may be made by the disbursing officer of any Armed Guard center or school upon sundry expense account (S. and A. Form 326). The individual concerned must certify that such expenses were incurred in the performance of official duty, that government facilities were not available and, if taxi fares are included, that transportation by common carrier was not available. The sundry expense account then must be approved by the commanding officer of an Armed Guard center or school, or by a port director.
5110. Reimbursable items include telephone calls, telegrams, radiograms, cables, car fares or taxi fares (when common carrier not available), water taxi fares, drayage and similar items if such expenses are incurred in performance of official duties and Government facilities are not available. Receipts for expenditures shall be obtained where practicable and submitted with the sundry expense account. Since the nature of official messages originated by Armed Guard personnel is confidential, copies of telegrams, radiograms, and cables will not be furnished. However, a receipt will be obtained from the sending agency showing the date, place, destination and number of words. Insofar as consistent with security, the date, place, and nature of expenditure will be shown on the sundry expense account.
5111. Officers and petty officers in charge of Armed Guard crews should be furnished written authority to send collect telegrams to the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Armed Guard centers, and port directors.
5112. Reimbursement for personal property lost in a marine disaster, etc. -- An individual in the naval service may be reimbursed in the manner prescribed in art. 1431-11, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts Manual, for the loss, destruction, or
damage of his personal property due to operations of war, marine disaster, etc. Reimbursement may be claimed in accordance with the following:
Reimbursement in cash:Uniforms.
Cuff links, service and dress; studs; watches. Not every accident results in total loss of a watch. Repairs will be made, if possible, and the claimant will be reimbursed for the cost of the repairs. In such case, the claim will be supported by a voucher for repairs. If watch is damaged beyond repair the claim will be supported by a statement to that effect from a reliable source.Miscellaneous:
Binoculars (line officers only), professional books, eyeglasses, slide rules, suitcases, trunks, toilet articles, jackknife, fountain pen.
Reimbursement in kind:Articles of clothing and small stores within the limit of regulation full bag as prescribed in uniform regulations.
Reimbursement in cash:Toilet articles including one razor, eyeglasses, Blue Jacket Manual, and watches (under same conditions as for officers).
Uniforms and uniform equipment (if not items of clothing and small stores) of chief petty officers, stewards, and cooks.
Notice to All Armed Guard Personnel
5113. It is requested that officers and petty officers in charge of Armed Guard crews, instruct their men that in the event of shipwreck or any other marine disaster involving the loss of clothing, the claims for reimbursement thereof should be filled out upon return to the Armed Guard center.
5114. Experience has shown that claims filed for Armed Guard personnel at other stations have frequently been incomplete or incorrectly filled out with resulting hardships for Armed Guard personnel involved.
Section 2. ADVANCEMENT IN RATING -- Enlisted Personnel
5201. Advancement to petty officer third-class and petty officer second-class ratings.
- Providing the requirements prescribed in current instructions as to conduct, proficiency and service in rating, and training courses are fulfilled, commanding officers of Armed Guard centers are authorized, upon recommendation of commanding officers of Armed Guard crews, to effect advancements to petty officer third-class and petty officer second-class ratings. These advancements shall be provisional and subject to confirmation by examinations conducted at the Armed Guard center concerned, except as provided for in paragraph 5202. If, after examination, a man so advanced is found qualified, the provisional nature of the advancement shall be removed. In the event such a man is found not qualified, he should be reduced in rating by the commanding officer of the Armed Guard center.
- No petty officer third class shall be advanced to petty officer second class until the examination required by the foregoing has successfully been completed, thereby removing the provisional nature of the advancement.
5202. Voyages of protracted duration.
- In order that undue delay in confirming advancements may be avoided where voyages are of protracted duration or where men are serving in Armed Guard pools abroad for prolonged periods, the examination required by paragraph 5201 above may be held at an Armed Guard center other than the one where the man's records are maintained or at any other naval activity within or beyond the continental limits of the United States, provided that such activity has available a competent examining board.
- The report of examinations so held shall be forwarded directly by the examining activity to the Armed Guard center concerned where the advancement or the reduction in rating shall be effected as of the date of receipt.
5203. Advancement to petty officer first class and chief petty officer ratings. -- Normally, it is not expected that the higher ratings will be found in Armed Guard crews. Examinations for petty officers first class and above shall be held and advancements effected there under only at Armed Guard centers in accordance with current Bureau of Naval Personnel instructions.
5204. Instruction classes at Armed Guard centers. -- It is expected that every opportunity will be provided Armed Guard personnel, prior to be examined under paragraph 5201 above, to receive instruction at Armed Guard centers in the duties of the ratings for which they are candidates for advancement.
5205. Reductions in rating. -- Nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the reduction in rating of any man by commanding officers of Armed Guard centers upon the recommendation of commanding officers of Armed Guard crews, in accordance with the provisions of Article D-5113 (3) of BuPers Manual, Part "D".
5206. For further information concerning advancement in rating of enlisted personnel, Armed Guard officers should apply to the nearest Armed Guard center or port director's office for the latest pertinent instructions as issued by the Bureau of Naval Personnel.
Section 3. MAIL AND CENSORSHIP REGULATIONS -- OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE
- It is of utmost importance that all mail emanating from Armed Guard units conform to the classification regulations set forth in Navy Regulations, Article 75 1/2, which is hereby quoted in part:
- Any matter of such nature that special precautions should be taken to insure that information concerning it shall be permanently or temporarily limited in circulation shall be classified as secret, confidential, or restricted. The term 'classified matter' shall be used in the naval service as a generic term comprising secret, confidential, and restricted categories to distinguish between matter which requires special provisions for safeguarding, and matter which either needs no safeguarding or whose safeguarding can be well entrusted entirely to
the discretion of the various custodians and which is normally referred to as non-classified matter.
- The three categories of classified matter are defined as follows:
Secret matter is matter of such a nature that its disclosure might endanger the national security, or cause serious injury to the interests or prestige of the Nation or any Government activity thereof.
Confidential matter is matter of such a nature that its disclosure, while not endangering the national security, would be prejudicial to the interests or prestige of the Nation or any Government activity thereof.
Restricted matter is matter of such a nature that its disclosure should be limited for reasons of administrative privacy; or, is matter not classified as confidential because the benefits to be gained by lower classification outweigh the value of the additional security obtainable from the higher classification.
- The originator of matter shall be responsible for its proper initial classification, and shall provide a means of identification of this assigned classification by subsequent custodians.
- Each person who may receive custody of any matter shall be responsible for its safeguarding in accordance with the assigned classification. If the custodian believes the assigned classification is not sufficiently restrictive, he shall safeguard the matter in accordance with the higher classification he deems proper. If the custodian or other competent authority believes reclassification in a more restrictive category is of sufficient importance, either the subject shall be referred back to the originator for proper classification or be referred to the Chief of Naval Operations with recommendation as to its proper classification.
- The originator of classified matter, his superiors in the chain of command, chief of a cognizant bureau, and the Chief of Naval Operations, may reclassify matter in a less restrictive category when the necessity for the original classification no longer exists. When classified matter has been reclassified in a less restrictive category, all custodians
or addresses will be informed by the authority reclassifying same. In the case of registered publications issued by the Registered Publication Section, the Chief of Naval Operations will notify custodians of the reclassification. * * *
- The responsibility for the maintenance of the inviolability of secret matter rests upon each person having knowledge or custody thereof no matter how obtained. Any person having knowledge or suspicion that secret matter has been compromised shall immediately and fully report the facts to the Chief of Naval Operations via his commanding officer. * * *
- Information as to existence, nature, or whereabouts of secret matter shall, except as specifically authorized by the Chief of Naval Operations, be disclosed to only those persons in the Naval Establishment whose official duties shall require such knowledge. Confidential matter may be disclosed to officers of the Navy whose duties render it advisable that they have such information and to other persons in the Naval Establishment in accordance with special instructions issued by the originator and other competent authority, or in the absence of special instructions, as determined by the local administrative head charged with custody of the subject matter. * * *
5302. When mailing confidential classified correspondence the sender will use double envelopes, the outside envelope giving the address of the receiver, the inner envelope marked with the word "Confidential" with no identification as to its contents. Confidential correspondence must be sent "registered mail". Secret matter cannot be sent by mail, unless authority is granted to send it by registered U. S. mail. Restricted matter may be sent via regular mail.
5303. All official correspondence must be forwarded through official channels.
5304. Ships' locations are confidential and all references to same must be classified and treated accordingly. The ship's name must never appear on the outside envelope of any correspondence unless same is mailed in an Army or Navy post office. After
arrival, the route taken remains secret. The name of the ship and the name of the Armed Guard center shall appear on the letterhead of all official correspondence.
5305. The Armed Guard Commander will be responsible for the mail of his men. All Navy mail emanating from his vessel will be collected by the Armed Guard officer and mailed at the nearest naval activity. Naval personnel are prohibited by law from sending mail from civilian post offices.
- All personnel under your command should be instructed that their mail address is:
Full name, rating, or rank,
S. S. (name of ship),
c/o Fleet Post Office.
(New York, N. Y., New Orleans, La., or San Francisco, Calif., as the case may be.)
- When ship's names are duplicated the name of the owner or operator will be included in parentheses following the name; for example:
John Joseph Doe, S2/c,
S. S. GEORGE WASHINGTON,
(Eastern S. S. Co.),
c/o Fleet Post Office,
New York, N. Y.
- Armed Guard personnel attached to Armed Guard centers for duty or further assignment shall use the following mail address:
Full name, rating, or rank,
c/o Armed Guard Center,
(Brooklyn, N. Y., New Orleans, La., or San Francisco, Calif., as the case may be.)
5307. No other addresses shall be used. The foregoing addresses may be used by the Armed Guard personnel as return addresses on the outside cover of their mail. The Chief of Naval
operations is charged with the responsibility of forwarding the Armed Guard mail as well as that of the personnel of the merchant vessel to which they are assigned.
5308. Personal correspondence originated by members of an Armed Guard crew shall not be posted in any mail until it has been properly censored and stamped. International mails shall not be used for personal correspondence. When in any port, domestic or foreign, Armed Guard personal mail shall be censored and tuned over with appropriate postage, to the nearest Fleet Post Office, American Naval Representative, Army Post Office, or other American Government agency, in the order named depending upon which representative is available.
5309. Additional mail routing instructions desired by you regarding the forwarding of your mail from one port to another should be referred to the nearest senior American representative. Mail routing instructions shall not be issued unless the vessel is unexpectedly diverted from her normally scheduled route. In such cases the Chief of Naval Operations should be informed by secret dispatch.
5310. Fleet Post Offices at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco will forward Armed Guard mail to domestic and foreign ports for delivery. Armed Guard commanders will obtain mail in foreign ports by applying to the Fleet Post Office, U. S. Naval Observer, or other U. S. Navy representative, U. S. Army post office, or the American Consulate, in the order named. Armed Guard commanders shall notify the appropriate Fleet Post Office of personnel changes to facilitate the prompt forwarding of mail to the addressee.
5311. While in company with a convoy, the convoy commander is responsible to advise the Navy Department of any diversion from the normal route of the convoy.
Censorship of Personal Communications
5312. It is the responsibility of the Armed Guard commander to censor all personal communications (mail and telegrams) from Armed Guard personnel and to inform the Armed Guard concerning Navy Censorship Regulations. The Armed Guard officer is to affix the censoring stamp to his own personal correspondence, and is in honor bound to comply with all
censorship regulations. The Armed Guard officer shall not censor the mail of the merchant crew as this is not his responsibility.
5313. A censoring stamp, stamp pad and Navy Censorship Regulations will be provided by the Armed Guard centers. The censorship stamp should not be used on merchant crew mail.
5314. A facsimile of a censorship stamp, together with initials and name of censor and name of vessel, shall be given to the commanding officer, Armed Guard center, for forwarding to the Office of Vice Chief of Naval Operations, Division of Naval Intelligence.
5315. All outgoing personal mail will be delivered unsealed to the Armed Guard commander for censoring. After censoring, affixing censor's stamp and sealing, the mail will be delivered to the nearest naval activity for mailing. Naval personnel are prohibited from posting mail at civilian post offices.
5316. Incoming communications mailed or carried outside official Navy mail channels are intercepted by National Censorship or Customs and referred to the Navy Department.
5317. Cable Communications. -- At many points Expeditionary Force Message Service (EFM) is available to Armed Guard personnel. This service provides an inexpensive means of communication for service personnel. The sender may select any three of approved texts, see Op 20-M-13 Serial 3456620 Navy Bulletin 15 November 1943. When the vessel in to remain in port for a definite period of time, Armed Guard personnel may receive replies to EFM's from friends and relatives in continental U. S. Inquiries should be made of local naval authorities as to the availability of these services. Local authorities will supply coded address which will be used by correspondents in replying to Naval Armed Guard personnel. The cost of the EFM messages is about 60 cents plus tax.
5318. In the absence of a coded address (see above) the only other method of addressing messages to Armed Guard personnel is in care of their respective Armed Guard center at Brooklyn, New Orleans, or San Francisco. If the addressee is not located at the Armed Guard center at the time of receipt of the message, it will either be held until his arrival or forwarded by mail.
5319. Messages sent using the ship name and mail address will be forwarded by mail by the Fleet Post Office or held until the addressee returns to the United States.
5320. Messages concerning death in the immediate family may be addressed to the proper Armed Guard center, as in paragraph 5318 above, or care of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, D. C. Every effort will be made to effect delivery by the most expeditious means available.
5321. Domestic messages may be sent by Armed Guard personnel, providing they are submitted to the Armed Guard commander for censoring. The Armed Guard commander shall affix censor's stamp. The censored message may be delivered to the telegraph company by the sender.
5322. International messages may be sent by Armed Guard personnel from outside the United States providing the message is censored by the Armed Guard commander. The indicator, "USNAV", to indicate sender is naval personnel, must appear in the preamble. The point of origin of the message must not appear in the preamble and no reference to the location of the sender may appear in the text.
5323. Security of information requires that none of the following topics be permitted in any personal communication:
- Under no circumstances shall open or hidden references be made in private correspondence, conversation, or communication of any nature whatever, to any of the following:
- The location, identity, movement, prospective movement, armament, or defensive installations of any merchant ship, aircraft, naval vessel, or naval or military force.
- The defensive or offensive forces, weapons, installations, or plans of the United States, or of her allies.
- The production, movement, or supply of munitions, or the location or progress of war industry in any form.
- The routine or employment of any naval or military unit of the United States or her allies.
- The effect of enemy operations, or casualties to personnel or material suffered by the United States, or her allies.
- The criticism of equipment, appearance, physical condition, or morale of the collective or individual armed guard forces of the United States or her allies.
- Matter, the knowledge or dissemination of which might benefit enemy military, economic, or financial interests.
- No photographs or films of naval or military nature, or picture postcards that might disclose the location of the ship or the route taken may be sent through the mail.
- Discussion of naval information such as fire control apparatus, guns, target practice, radio apparatus, etc. is prohibited.
Section 4. COMMUNICATIONS
5401. The Master of the ship is responsible for the conduct of communications aboard his ship. In some cases the Armed Guard officer is also the communications liaison officer. In such cases, the Armed Guard officer will attend convoy communication conferences in order to obtain such communication and radio instructions and other pertinent information as may be issued for the particular voyage, providing the communication conference does not prevent his attending the convoy conference. All communication publications received by the Master, unless specifically stated otherwise, shall be made available to the Armed Guard officer for his information.
5402. Communication Liaison groups are under the command of the Armed Guard officer when there is no communication liaison officer assigned to the vessel. It is well for the Armed Guard officer to regard his communication personnel and his gunnery personnel as constituting separate divisions, and govern his treatment of them accordingly. He should use his initiative in devising a drill program for these men during the time they are not actually standing watch or sleeping, especially while in port.
5403. When the number of men assigned to the communication unit is limited, it will not be practicable to maintain a continuous signal watch. It is recommended that signalmen maintain continuous watch during daylight hours. At night, when visual communications should be kept to a minimum, one of the signalmen should sleep on or near the bridge so that he can be awakened immediately in the event that it is necessary for him to send or receive a message. The signalmen and radiomen should be quartered as near the bridge as possible and
it is the Armed Guard officer's responsibility to see that proper quartering arrangements are made.
5404. Navy radiomen and signalmen are subject to shifting from vessel to vessel, due to shortages in personnel. As a general rule, they report to the vessel at a different time and under separate orders from those of the gun crew. Be sure to notify the port director if the authorized Navy radiomen and/or signalmen have not reported aboard and the sailing date is imminent.
5405. Communications personnel should not be assigned duty other than communications under normal circumstances. However, it is well to have such personnel trained for gunnery duty in case of emergencies. When in port, communications personnel should not be assigned gunnery duties.
5406. Should any member of the communications unit become unfit for further duty, arrangements should be made for transfer and replacement upon contact with the naval authorities at the next port of call with notification to the Chief of Naval Operations, the Bureau of Naval Personnel and the Armed Guard center concerned.
5407. The Commanding Officer of the Naval Armed Guard shall assume military command over all naval communication liaison personnel permanently assigned to transports which are required to carry a Communications Liaison Group.
Section 5. CARE OF THE WOUNDED
Instructions for the Care of Wounded During Battle
5501. The care of the wounded during battle has as its objects:
- To maintain the ship at the highest possible peak of fighting efficiency.
- By returning slightly wounded to fighting stations as soon as possible.
- By removing wounded from sites of action so as to not impair morale of men continuing to fight.
- By proper treatment to hasten period of recovery.
- To save life.
- To relieve pain and suffering.
5502. In order to accomplish these objects efficiently, it is essential that each officer and man know:
- The elements of first aid and how to apply such knowledge.
- The location of first aid materials nearest his battle station.
5503. During battle with all personnel at their battle stations, it is impossible for a medical officer or hospital corpsman to be immediately available to treat each wounded person even if a medical officer is on board. Therefore, if personnel are to receive the care necessary to accomplish the above objectives, it is essential that every member of the ship's company be acquainted in the elements of first aid and how to put them into effect, on themselves if necessary.
5504. Generally speaking, it will be impossible during battle to transport injured to special locations for treatment, but instead, any aid to be given will have to be brought to the injured person. Later during a lull in the battle the injured should be transported to the dressing station.
Who Should Receive First Aid
5505. Under any and all circumstances the ship must continue to fight. No one should leave important duties to give first aid, but must wait for the moment when his services can be spared.
Order of Treatment
- Measures absolutely necessary for the preservation of life. For example: putting a tourniquet on the stump of a thigh with the leg blown off.
- Measures to restore slightly wounded to such condition that they can return to their stations.
- Treatment to more seriously wounded.
- Relieve pain with morphine.
Material for Giving First Aid
5507. (Chart of medical equipment in first aid box.)
STOCK No. S2-510
CASE, FIRST-AID (ARMED GUARD) -- MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. NAVY
Also for LCI (L) Without Medical Representative on Board
Stock Number Item title Unit Quantity Remarks and medical compend reference pages* 1-495 Morphine solution, 1/2 grain in syrete (habit forming narcotic). 5 in package 4 Clean site, inject under skin of arm or leg; to relieve pain in severe injury (or burns). 1-550 Ointment, mercurous chloride, mild, compound tube. 50 in box 1 Prophylactic tube -- Use before and after exposure; urinate and wash parts immediately (75). 1-560 Ointment, yellow mercuric oxide, 1 percent 1-dram tube 5 For styes and inflammation of eye and lids; apply to margin of lids with cotton swab (10) (67). 1-585 Petrolatum, white 1-pound can 1 Vaseline -- for sunburn, skin chap, massaging chilblains; body lice (11) (64). 1-745 Sodium bicarbonate 1-pound container 1 Baking soda -- for headache; burns, sore throat; indigestion (59) (54)(10) (17) (22) (34). 1-880 Spirit of ammonia, aromatic 1/4-pound bottle 1 Stimulant; 1/2 teaspoon in water by mouth; for fainting, collapse, give inhalations (14) (10) (42) 1-975 Acid, acetysalicylic, 0.324 gram 100 in bottle 2 Aspirin -- For headache; colds, sore throat; grip; fever (7) (44) (45) (65). 1-985 Alkaline and aromatic tablets do 1 Dissolve 2 tablets in 1/2 glass warm water for use as a gargle or nasal douche (7) (45) (49). 1-1015 Extract of cascara sagada tablets, 0.259 gram do 1 Mild laxative; 1 or 2 tablets at bedtime (54) (7) (53) (56). 1-1040 Opium and glycyrrhiza, compound, tablets. 1,000 in bottle 1 Brown mixture: dissolve 1 tablet in mouth every 2 hours for cough, bronchitis (68) (53) (7) (45). 1-1061 Quinine sulfate, 0.234 gram 100 in bottle 1 For malaria: 3 tablets 3 times a day. 1-1185 Tincture of iodine, mild, 10 cc applicator vial (poison; antidote: starch or flour in water). 2 in package 3 Apply to wounds with vial applicator or cotton swab stick; instructions (10) (15) (36). 2-015 Applicator, wood 25 in bundle 1 For cotton swabs to apply argyrol to throat; iodine to wounds; remove specks from eye. 2-085 Bandage, gauze, 1-inch Dozen 1 For applying small dressings or finger splints; avoid over-tightening (8) (15) (20).
* Medical Compend 1942.
CASE, FIRST-AID (ARMED GUARD) -- MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. NAVY
CONTENTS -- Continued
Stock Number Item title Unit Quantity Remarks and medical compend reference pages* 2-090 Bandage, gauze, 2-inch do 2 For applying medium-sized dressings and splints to arms, legs, hands, feet (see above). 2-095 Bandage, gauze, 3-inch do 1 For applying large-sized dressings and splints; and dressings to body (see above). 2-130 Bandage, triangular, compressed 1 2 For use in arm sling, tourniquet, or to retain dressings in place (27). 2-135 Bath, eye 1 1 Use with boric acid, sodium bicarbonate or salt solutions; sterilize (boil) before use (9) (46). 2-200 Case, pins, scissors, and dressing forceps 1 1 For applying surgical dressings; sterilize instruments before use (9) (10) (16). 2-350 Cotton, absorbent, compressed 1-ounce package 6 For swabs; in dressings (do not apply direct to wound); padding splints; for ears (9) (24) 2-390 Dressing, battle, large 1 6 For large wounds. Caution: Do not touch inside surface of dressing (16) (21). 2-395 Dressing, battle, small 1 18 For small wounds. Caution: do not touch inside surface of dressing (16) (21). 2-400 Dressing, head, adjustable, compressed. 1 4 Cap with tying tails; for retaining head wound dressing in place (25). 2-435 Gauze, plain, compressed 1-ounce package 18 Sterile gauze for dressing wounds after treating in accordance with instructions (10) (20). 2-540 Medicine glass 1 1 For measuring doses of medicine, or for use in dissolving tablets (10). 2-835 Plaster, adhesive, 2 inches by 5 yards Spool 2 For use in securing dressings and for covering small abrasions (8). 2-865 Shade, eye, single 1 2 For retaining eye dressings in place in treating eye injuries or inflammation (73). 2-900 Spectacles, smoked glass 1 3 For protection against strong light and to rest inflamed eyes. 2-930 Splint, basswood for, 18 by 3 1/4 inches 12 in set 1 For splinting fractured (broken) bones to mould (shape) wood splints soak in hot water (23) (26) (29). 2-1265 Syringe, p. pipette 1 2 For venereal disease prophylaxis. 2-1300 Thermometer, clinical 1 1 For taking temperatures; wash (don't boil) before and after use. Normal 98.6 (11). 2-1304 Tourniquet, braided line, Spanish windlass type. 1 1 Tie square knot loosely, between wound and heart, insert stick, turn tightly enough to arrest hemorrhage (11) (18) (19). 2-1315 Tongue depressors, wood 25 in bundle 1 For examining throat; splinting fingers; to spread tannic acid jelly or ointment. 3-865 Suitcase, hard fiber, 24 by 12 by 8 inches. 1 1 Guard contents well for emergency use; check and replenish ashore before sailing.
* Medical Compend 1942.
CASE, FIRST-AID (ARMED GUARD) -- MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. NAVY
CONTENTS -- Continued
Stock Number Item title Unit Quantity Remarks and medical compend reference pages* 7-150 Pencil, indelible 1 1 To fill out diagnosis tags and keep record of sick and injured personnel. 11-825 Dental analgesic, local (toothache drops, NF). 1-ounce bottle 1 To relieve toothache; see instructions (68) (9). 13-190 Suture, surgical gut, boilable No. 2, threaded in needle. Tube 6 For tying of bleeding arteries or veins and for sewing wounds (10) (16) (19). 13-200 Tag, diagnosis 20 in package 1 Fill out as completely as possible and tag each sick or wounded man before transfer. S1-030 Alcohol 200 cc. bottle 1 To sterilize instruments; stimulant. S1-2370 Detergent, emulsion 1-pint bottle 1 For removal of fuel oil, tar, mastics, etc. (See directions on bottle.) S1-3362 Ointment, boric acid 4-ounce tube 6 Apply over burned or scalded areas of body; apply gauze dressing; bandage. S1-3813 Sulfanilamide, powdered (for topical application) 5-gram packet. 25 in package 2 Sprinkle freely in open wounds after controlling hemorrhage and before dressing (10) (15) (25). S1-4010 APC tablets 100 in bottle 1 For headache, neuralgia, fever; with aspirin and quinine for colds (8) (51). S1-4030 Azochloramid tablets do 1 Antiseptic; wet dressings; cleaning wounds. NOT FOR EYES, EARS, NOSE OR THROAT (8). S1-4310 Silver protein, mild, 0.299 gram do 1 When required for eyes fill 1-ounce bottle with distilled water and dissolve 10 tablets in to make 10 percent solution (71) (76). S1-4311 Silver protein, strong, 0.150 gram do 1 For venereal disease prophylaxis and treatment; dissolve 1 tablet in 2 ounces (60 cc) of water and using syringe, inject about 1/8 ounce into penis, hold for 5 minutes and release. S1-4315 Sodium bicarbonate, 10 grain tablets do 2 Dissolve 1 or 2 in mouth to relieve sour stomach; indigestion (heartburn) (8). S1-4381 Sulfathiazole, 0.5 gram do 2 See Instruction Sheet on Treatment of Gonorrhea. S3-400 Forceps, hemostatic, straight, 5-inch (Jones). 1 1 For clamping bleeding arteries, veins; for use as a needle holder (in forceps case) (9). S4-466 Pencil, dermatographic (skin marking). 1 1 To mark on patients skin, time tourniquet applied, time and dose of morphine, etc.
* Medical Compend 1942.
CASE, FIRST-AID (ARMED GUARD) -- MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. NAVY
CONTENTS -- Continued
Stock Number Item title Unit Quantity Remarks and medical compend reference pages* S6-692 Litter, canvas, complete 1 1 For transportation of wounded (see instructions). S15-420 Medical Compend (1942) 1 1 First aid instruction book; should be studied by all personnel. Keep in this case. S16-2001 Sex Hygiene 1 15 S16-2010 Prevent venereal disease 1 15 S16-2020 Venereal prophylaxis instructions 1 1 NL-1 Boric acid solution, 4 percent 200-cc bottle 1 For bathing inflamed eyes; use with eye cup (67).
* Medical Compend 1942.
5508. Bleeding -- Serious bleeding from an arm or leg can cause death in a very short time if not promptly controlled.
5509. The first available tools for stopping serious bleeding are the hands, either of the person injured or of someone nearby whose services can be utilized. This is done by pressing the arm or groin at the sites indicated on the drawing (Fig.1). By this method bleeding can be stopped while a tourniquet is being secured.
Remember: A man with his leg shot off can bleed to death in the 60 seconds it takes to secure a tourniquet.
5510. However, such measures are necessary only in cases with spurting bright red blood, which comes from the larger arteries and is seen only in about one in a hundred wounds.
5511. In cases with a steady moderate flow of darker blood, which comes from the veins, a dressing firmly bandaged over the wound will stop bleeding better than anything else.
Remember: A tourniquet often does more harm than good -- use it only in cases with spurting bright red blood, applied above the wound tight enough to stop bleeding. Loosen the tourniquet every 15 minutes, but do not remove it. Do not tighten again if the bleeding has stopped.
5512. Dressings -- All wounds in which the skin has been broken should be covered by a properly applied dressing, to protect the wound and keep out infection. By keeping out infection a life may be saved or time required to heal shortened by many weeks.
5513. Small wounds, scratches or cuts should first be painted with iodine before applying a dressing.
5514. With deeper wounds, where there has been damage to skin and muscle, do not apply iodine. In these wounds dust on sulfanilamide powder and apply sterile bandage.
5515. Use the best sized battle dressing available to fit the size of wound.
5516. While unwrapping and applying the dressing do not touch your fingers or anything else to the side of the dressing that will be next to the wound. This is extremely important.
5517. Bind the battle dressing firmly in place with its own bandage.
5518. Chest wounds -- Any wound which penetrate through the chest and allows air to enter the chest may cause collapse of the lung and possible death.
5519. To prevent this, large chest wounds should be made airtight as soon as possible. Dust into wound sulfanilamide powder and if practicable entirely cover wound with adhesive tape and a large battle dressing tightly applied. Give morphine.
5520. Shock -- In every severe injury the body always suffers a certain amount of shock, which is often more serious than the wound which caused the condition, and may cause death.
The injured person is pale, feels cold and damp, and has a fast weak pulse when he is in a state of shock.
For an injured person in shock, treatment consists of:
- Keep in lying down position with feet elevated and head low except when there is an injury to the head. With a head injury the head should be elevated.
- Keep warm with blankets or by any other available method.
Caution: Don't give men morphine who are in condition to return to their battle stations.
5521. Directions for giving morphine.
- Remove the transparent shield from end of syrette.
- Holding wire by the loop, push wire through the needle into the syrette, thus breaking the seal. Withdraw the wire.
- Stick the needle under the skin of the arm or shoulder, at an angle of 45 degrees and squeeze syrette until tube is flat.
- Withdraw the needle and through the syrette away.
- Enter on diagnostic tag the fact that the man was given an injection of morphine and tie tag securely to the injured man. Record approximate time of injection.
- Primary Objectives:
- To relieve pain.
- To protect the burned area, which is an open wound, from further contamination.
- Pain should be relieved by adequate doses of morphine. Pain resulting from an extensive burn can ordinarily be relieved by a dose of 1/2 grain of morphine.
- Burned Area:
- Remove rings from fingers of burned hands. Irrespective
of location, apply boric acid ointment over the burned surface, or, if this is not available, use vaseline. Then bandage snugly.
5523. Fractures -- The purpose of first-aid treatment of broken bones is to render them incapable of being moved. The jagged ends of the bone must be kept stationary to prevent further damage to other tissues while the injured man is being moved.
5524. The first, and one of the main principles in treating broken bones, is that the bone shall be splinted where the accident occurs, before any transportation is done. The wooden splints should extend beyond the neighboring joints.
5525. During battle this will have to be modified by conditions at the place where the injury occurs. If a man with a broken leg must be moved to get him out of the road, less harm will be done by dragging him than by attempting to carry him.
5526. A man with a broken arm or collar bone should have a sling applied to the arm on the injured side and suspended from the neck. A fractured bone of the thigh should be held stationary by an outside splint reaching from the armpit to the foot and an inside splint from the crotch to the foot.
5527. Aid to breathing may be necessary in cases of immersion, electric shock, concussion shock, or overcome by smoke.
5528. Following immersion:
- Lay on belly with head on folded arm, face to one side. Wipe water and mucus out of mouth and pull tongue forward. Remove artificial teeth, if present. See figure 2.
- Spread legs and kneel astride thigh on side to which head is facing (so as to be able to observe face).
- Place palms of hands on lower ribs. Let your weight go forward on hands, with elbows held stiff for count of one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three. Then drop backward and release pressure for count one thousand one, one thousand two.
- Repeating this procedure will compress and release the chest 12 times per minute. Continue for at least two hours before giving up hope.
5529. Gas decontamination -- Men who are stationed on weather decks may be possibly sprayed with "gas" such as "Mustard" or "Lewisite". Those who are wearing masks and protective clothing will not suffer from the effects of the gas. Men who have had liquid spray fall on their skin or ordinary clothing will require decontamination.
5530. All personnel must stay at their battle stations until word is passed to decontaminate. Then those men who have been sprayed, and are not wearing protective clothing, get to windward of sprayed area, remove all clothing and throw it over the side, then walk naked to the Decontamination Station.
5531. This consists essentially of wiping off the "gas" with a chemical followed by a hot bath with plenty of soap. After the bath, the man leaves the decontamination station, puts on clean clothing and returns to his duties.
5532. The problems of malaria control varies with each malarious area of the world. Basically, the difference is dependent upon the habits of the predominant vector, the social and economic status of the local population, and the presence of combat conditions.
5533. In general, all malaria control measures can be grouped into two categories, those applicable to (A) the individual, and (B) the environment. With few exceptions, the medical officer will be faced with the immediate problem of caring for troops in combat or in temporary camps. Under these conditions, chief reliance must be placed in those measures applicable to the individual man, and in the thoroughness with which "malaria discipline" is maintained. Later, as the military situation stabilizes and gains are consolidated, measures which have to do with corrections of environmental factors and reduction of the mosquito population can be undertaken.
Methods of Control Applicable to the Individual
5534. Protection from mosquitoes:
- Insect repellents should be liberally used. Satisfactory repellents are now available.
- Kill adult mosquitoes in quarters night and early morning by spraying with insecticide or by swatting. The new Pyrethrum-Freon-Insecticide Spray has many advantages over the standard navy spray: One pound of this aerosol is equal to three gallons of the liquid spray; It is non-toxic and non-inflammable; it requires no equipment other than the container; it remains suspended in the air 10 to 20 times longer and penetrates into protected places. Pyrethrum sprays have a repellent action which lasts for some time after use.
- Bed nets (20 mesh bobbinet) should be available and instructions given for their proper use. Inspection should be made at night to see that men are covered and the nets checked periodically to see that they are in good repair.
- Avoid night exposure whenever possible. Since the malaria mosquito is a "night biter", activity in the open after dusk and until sunrise should be restricted in areas where these mosquitoes are present. Men should not be permitted to swim or take showers in the open during the evening. Liberty should be terminated before dark. Motion pictures should be shown only in mosquito-free areas.
- Wear protective clothing, in addition to using repellent. After sundown, shirt sleeves should be rolled down, collars buttoned, and trousers rolled down and folded under socks. Sentries on duty after dusk and others whose work requires similar night exposure should be provided with head nets and gloves.
- Screening -- Galleys, mess halls, recreation rooms, movie theaters, and latrines should be screened as soon as possible and the condition of screening checked frequently to see that it is in good repair.
- Spraying -- Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying should be routine, not only in military buildings, but also in neighboring native dwellings whenever possible. This produces immediate results when dealing with species which remain in habitation during the day. The recently fed mosquitoes, potentially infected, are sluggish and easily killed.
- Suggested suppressive treatment with Atabrine. -- 0.05 gram daily, 0.1 gram on Sundays, total per week 0.4 gram; or, 0.1 gram daily, none on Sundays; total per week, 0.6 gram.
5535. For more rapid protection, as when administration is delayed until after exposure, give 0.1 gram twice daily for 5 days followed by one of the above schedules. It is the opinion that suppressive treatment in the case of Armed Guard Personnel should never be undertaken unless exposure in a malarious area is to be more than three weeks.
5536. Medical check-up -- Arrangements should be made upon return to U. S. ports for such dental work and medical care as necessary so men will be in physical condition for the next voyage.
It is the Armed Guard commander's responsibility to see this is carried out.
Replacements should be requested in time to have a full crew when sailing.
5537. During drills, the Armed Guard officer should simulate actual battle casualties. Wounded men should be removed, replaced by other members of the gun crew, and preliminary First Aid given.
5538. Care of Armed Guard First Aid supplies and containers -- It is essential that all First Aid supplies and containers be maintained at full allowance; therefore, the contents should be checked against the allowance list and requests submitted to the Port Director or Naval authority for necessary replenishments. All First Aid supplies, especially narcotics, should be stowed in a safe place to prevent loss, theft or misuse while in ports where enemy action is improbable. Armed Guard Commanders are responsible for safeguarding First Aid supplies and equipment.
5539. The attention of Armed Guard officers is directed to the book entitled Ship's Medicine Chest and First Aid at Sea, which is carried on all merchant vessels, in the Master's custody. Armed Guard officers should refer to this book with reference to tropical diseases and their treatment, such as dengue (breakbone fever), which is prevalent in India. The Master's permission should be obtained before consulting this book, and it should be returned to the Master immediately upon obtaining the information desired. This book does not contain instructions for battle first aid, but only treatments for ordinary injuries and illnesses.
Section 6. NOTES ON ABANDONING SHIP
5601. Preparations for the possibility of abandoning ship should be much more thorough than during peacetime. Forethought may save your crew's lives and your own. Work out the "Abandon Ship Station Bill" and hold frequent drills. The Armed Guard should be distributed as equally as possible among all the lifeboats when assigning abandon ship stations. All personnel except those on watch must attend abandon ship drills.
5602. Instructions contained in booklets entitled Wartime Safety Measures for Merchant Marine Regulations and Recommendation Educational Series No. 2, January 1943 and Manual for Lifeboatmen and Able Seamen should be passed to all members of the Armed Guard for their information and guidance when necessary to abandon ship. The booklets may be obtained from the Bureau of Marine inspection, U. S. Coast Guard in all principal ports.
5603. Life jackets should always be carried ready for instant use and should be worn during watches and during action.
5604. Men should be instructed to leave the collar or top straps on their life jackets untied, and to hold their arms down close to the body, and to jump into the water feet first. If the collar or top straps are tied the upward force of hitting the water forces the jacket up, and the straps under the chin are pushed upward with enough force to render a man unconscious. By holding their arms down close to the body the force will be taken under the arms. A preferable method is, of course, to ease into the water by line or ladder at a point nearest the lifeboat or raft.
5605. Steel helmets must be removed when jumping overboard. If the chin strap is secured, the upward force on contact with the water is sufficient to break the neck or cause serious injury to personnel.
5606. Armed Guards should make certain that life preserver lights and whistles are attached to their life jackets and in good operating condition at all times. The gear is provided for abandon ship purposes to attract attention when in the water. Armed Guards should carry their jackknives with them at all
times while at sea in order to clear away lines quickly in an emergency.
5607. A large number of drownings during severe weather have occurred because men on life rafts and in the water have been so chilled from immersion and exposure as to be unable to grasp and hold on to lifelines thrown to them by rescue vessels. It is urged that each man make up a short length of 21-thread manila line into one end of which is spliced a 4-inch galvanized snap hook, to be knotted around the life jacket.
5608. In abandoning ship, consideration should be given to the fact that when a ship rolls over there is much rigging that will project into the area adjacent to the ship in which boats or men in jackets may be floating.
5609. It has been recommended at least two steel drums partly filled with potable drinking water be carried in chocks on the boat deck so as to float free in case the vessel sinks. The drums should be painted with white stripes for identification when afloat. A suitable spanner wrench should be attached to each drum to remove the filler plug. In case of loss of the vessel, the supply of drinking water for the boats and rafts may be replenished as necessary before leaving the scene of the disaster.
5610. Tragic confusion aboard a torpedoed ship has frequently been caused by lack of foresight and planning. Undue haste in abandoning ship has already been cited as the cause for unnecessary loss of life. In one case, seven of the ship's crew "were reported lost, believed drowned when they jumped overboard," after a submarine began shelling. The ship was not fatally damaged, and made port under her own power. In another case, after a tanker had been torpedoed amidships, no attempt was made by the master to communicate with the 26 men aft and in the engine room, although the telephone remained in perfect working order and the catwalks were by no means impassable. No alarm was sounded and no orders given. Although the master abandoned ship, all the men aft remained, repaired the auxiliary steering gear, and got the tanker under way toward shore in 30 minutes.
5611. In 3 tanker sinkings a heavy loss of life occurred when lifeboats which had already gotten clear of the burning ship "drifted" back into the flames. The words "drifted back" occur
in the Survivor Reports of each of these sinkings, and in each case the weather was stated to be calm with sea smooth. The apparently needless loss of life in these three sinkings alone, numbered 40, including one master. It is difficult to understand how these unfortunate incidents could have occurred if the boats consumed in the fire had been properly equipped with oars and rowlocks. Ship masters are urged to assure themselves of the proper state of readiness of lifeboats at all times.
5612. In a recent instance of the torpedoing of a tanker off the Middle Atlantic coast, a large number of lives were lost due to the ignition of oil on the water when a life ring with attached calcium-carbide water-light was thrown from the deck of the sinking vessel. On April 18, 1942, the Department of Commerce issued a regulation requiring the removal of calcium carbide water-lights from life-saving equipment on tankers and the substitution therefore of electrical equipment.
5613. In a recent sinking of a tanker the engines were not shut down after the first torpedo struck, although the entire engine room staff, including the engineer on watch, escaped in a lifeboat. As a result of the neglect to stop the engines the tanker "spewed burning oil" over a large area, burning alive the master and eight men who were attempting to get free in a boat launched forward of the flames. The need for clam, collected action on the part of the engine room staff was tragically apparent in this instance. The ship's engines should be immediately shut down or reversed after torpedoing and the vessel brought to a full stop if abandonment is to be carried out. This will limit the spread of burning oil to a minimum and facilitate normal launching of boats and rafts.
5614. Oil has many dangerous characteristics. First, the vapors from this oil (so-called) are very poisonous and will cause death of inhaled to any extent. Second, heavy oil (so-called) forms a thick coating on the surface of the water and has a tendency to engulf the swimmer. Both types of oil are very injurious to the eyes and will cause death if swallowed in any great quantity.
The following suggestions have been deduced from accounts given by survivors of recent torpedoed ships and are to be carefully noted by all hands:
- Always abandon ship as far forward of the torpedo hit as possible.
- Know the direction of the wind before abandoning ship and go to windward when possible, however, abandon ship from the opposite side of the torpedo hit if possible.
- Get into a boat without entering oil-covered water if possible.
- Because of danger if injury, avoid floating wreckage when abandoning ship.
- Always jump feet first. Do not dive.
- Breast stroke or side stroke are the best to use while swimming through oil slick.
- Keep your head high and mouth closed while swimming through oil slick.
- Try to swim under water as much as possible while making way through fire or heavy oil slick.
- Relax and conserve energy with the idea always present in mind of staying afloat.
- Proceed in an easy, slow manner to the nearest boat, raft, or floating object and cling to this until rescued.
5615. Life saving (your own) -- If you can swim, practice this:
Wearing white or blue trousers and with two 12-inch lengths of white line in your pocket, jump into a deep swimming pool, and while remaining afloat:
- Remove shoes.
- Remove trousers.
- Tightly tie bottom of trouser legs with the white line.
- While treading water, bring trousers in back of you, swing over your head, holding them by the top, trap air in legs and you have a pair of water wings.
- Repeat when air is lost.
- Don't have holes in your trousers when you learn this trick.
5616. Adequate fire protection is dependent upon prevention, equipment readiness, and extinguishing technique. Fire prevention requires that inflammable materials should not be scattered about. Oil, grease, polish, etc., should be limited to the amount required for the job on hand. Waste saturated with oil or grease should be destroyed immediately after use. Equipment
readiness requires flushing of the fire main to remove obstructions such as marine growth, operating of plugs and valves to ensure easy operation and seating and operating of pumps to insure sufficient pressure. Fire hose should be kept connected to the plugs. Foam equipment should be inspected to guard against deterioration and caking of power and against corrosion of parts. Fog nozzles, which produce fine particles of water, are very effective in compartments and in fighting oil and gasoline fires. The screen of fog produced at the nozzle protects the fire fighter and enables him to approach the flame within effective range.
5617. SOS transmittal -- Radio operators have sometimes failed to include latitude and longitude in getting out an SOS. When questioned, they have stated that they were not informed as to the ship's position.
5618. Every master is urged to consider this point carefully. If the radio operator is given a written list of expected positions of the ship for each two hours while in dangerous waters, it will insure assistance getting to the vessel with the least possible delay.
5619. Radio antennas are frequently housed while working cargo, and there is an occasional delay in getting them rigged after the ship is under way. It is directed that radio antennae be always hoisted and checked before leaving port.
5620. In several instances, which have come to attention, torpedoed ships have been abandoned by officers and crew, while in relatively shallow water. Anchors were not let go. This resulted in the total loss of the vessels, which drifted off-shore into deep water and could not be located later for salvaging. Whenever depth and time permit, the anchor should be let go prior to abandonment. Such precaution may permit vessels to be located and salvage operations attempted.
5621. Damage control -- it is desirable to lay down certain simple precautions and damage-control measures which should be taken by masters and crews of all merchant ships. These precautionary measures may permit keeping a torpedoes ship afloat until she can be beached and later salvaged.
Recommended precautions are:
- Keep alley doors closed.
- Keep other watertight doors, hatches, and ports closed and dogged down when not in use.
- Keep al drains closed except when in use.
- Keep gaskets free of paint and in good condition.
- Keep all bulkheads watertight, sealing up holes as necessary, noting particularly possible leaks where electric leads pierce bulkheads.
5622. There is an erroneous impression in some quarters that it is good practice to leave hatches and doors open or partially dogged in order to "vent" explosive gases resulting from torpedoes or bombs. Actual experience shows that such practice is bad and that it has resulted in extending damage and causing progressive flooding. The instantaneous damage due to an explosion cannot be diminished by comparatively small vent openings. On the contrary, experience has shown that properly dogged doors and hatches have tended to confine the damage and restrict flooding. All air ports and dead light covers should be closed and dogged during action.
Section 7. ARMED GUARD TRAINING FACILITIES
5701. Antiaircraft gunnery refresher courses and instruction facilities are available for use by Naval Armed Guard Units, D. E. M. S. Units, and U. S. and Allied merchant seamen at the following activities:
- Naval Training School (Receiving Station), South Boston, Mass.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Price's Neck, R. I.
- U. S. Naval Armed Guard Gunnery School, South Ferry Terminal Building, New York, N. Y.
- Armed Guard Center, South Brooklyn, N. Y.
- Mobile Units No. 1 and No. 2, New York, N. Y.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Lido Beach, N. Y.
- Armed Guard School, Shelton, Va.
- Antiaircraft Training and Test Center, Dam Neck, Va.
- Armed Guard School, Gulfport, Miss.
- Armed Guard Center, New Orleans, La.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Shell Beach, La.
- Armed Guard School, San Diego, Calif.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Pacific Beach, Calif.
- Instruction Center, Receiving Station, San Pedro, Calif.
- Armed Guard Center, Treasure island, San Francisco, Calif.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Point Montara, Calif.
- Armed Guard Training Center, Seattle, Wash.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Pacific Beach, Wash.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, N. O. B., Bermuda, B. W. I.
- Antiaircraft Training Center, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
5702. Armed Guard officers shall make arrangements with the port directors for the attendance of Armed Guard personnel while in the above-mentioned ports for antiaircraft gunnery refresher instruction.
5703. While extensive gunnery training is given to Armed Guards in the various schools, it is essential that the Armed Guard officer continue the training aboard ship. The training given at sea should be in the nature of refresher courses, including surface and antiaircraft gunnery drills, with special emphasis on AA pointing and tracking drills. At no time should the Armed Guard officer allow his men to become inefficient in the various gunnery drills.
Section 8. BASIS FOR ASSIGNMENT OF ARMED GUARDS TO SHIPS
5801. The Navy provides Armed Guard crews on the following basis: Armed Guard Officer -- One armed guard officer on all vessels carrying an Armed Guard consisting of six or more men, or armed with 3-inch or larger guns.
Gun Crews 5"/38 DP gun 1 P. O. (gun captain) 1 gunners mate (maintenance man) and 4 enlisted men. Total 6 men. 5"/50 or 5"/51 SP gun 1 P. O. (gun captain) and 4 enlisted men. Total 5 men. 4"/50 SP gun 1 P. O. (gun captain) and 3 enlisted men. Total 4 men. 3"/50 or 3"/23, either DP or SP gun 1 P. O. (gun captain) and 3 enlisted men. Total 4 men. 6 pounder 1 P. O. (gun captain) and 3 enlisted men. Total 4 men. 20 mm. AA gun* 1 man.* .50 cal. machine gun 1 man. .30 cal. machine guns (these guns are to be manned by the ships officers). None.
* On cargo and tank ships, one additional man will be furnished for each 20 mm. gun making a total of 2 men, provided these additional men do not increase the number of gunners over a total of 24, for example:
Ship armed with: 1-4"/50 gun 4 men 1-3"/50 gun 4 men 8-20 mm. guns 8 men Add't for 20 mm. 8 men -------------- Total 24 men Ship armed with: 1-5"/51 gun 5 men 1-3"/50 gun 4 men 8-20 mm. guns 8 men Add't for 20 mm. 7 men -------------- Total 24 men Ship armed with: 1-5"/38 gun 6 men 1-3"/50 gun 4 men 8-20 mm. guns 8 men Add't for 20 mm. 6 men -------------- Total 24 men
5802. The Maritime Commission provides standard crew quarters on new construction EC-2 cargo and tank ships for one officer, Twenty-four (24) gunners and three (3) men in the communications group, total twenty-eight (28) persons.
5803. The Navy Department has requested the War Shipping Administration and vessel owners or operators to instruct the Masters of merchant vessels to detail merchant seamen to complete the gun crews on the following basis:
For each -
5"/38 gun 5 men 5"/50 or 5"/51 gun 5 men 4"/50 gun 3 men 3"/50 gun 3 men 3"/23 gun 2 men 6 Pdr. gun 2 men 20 mm. gun 2 men .50 cal. M. G. 1 man
and also to detail sufficient additional men to pass ammunition from the magazines to the gun.
5804. Troop transports are provided with a minimum of 2 Navy Armed Guard officers. Enlisted men are provided for each gun on the basis stated in paragraph 5801 with the exception that two men will be provided for each 20 mm gun. Troop transports are also provided with a Navy Communications Group.
5805. The Masters of troop transports are requested to detail men from their crew to complete each gun crew on the basis set forth in paragraph 5803, and also to pass ammunition.
Section 9. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
5901. Handling barrage balloons on merchant ships. Barrage balloons and kites are provided to armed merchant vessels to provide against air attack in certain designated areas. This equipment must be ready and available for instant use at all times; therefore, the Armed Guard officer is responsible for the maintenance and temporary repairs to balloons while at sea. The services of not to exceed 50 percent of the Armed Guard personnel may be utilized to assist the merchant crew in inflating, flying off, and rigging in the balloons. Gun watches must be maintained during this operation.
The Master will be accountable for the balloon equipment and its operation, including the flying off of balloons when required by the convoy commodore or where necessary for the protection of the vessel when traveling independently.
Masters are authorized to contact local U. S. Naval and British D. E. M. S. activities in foreign ports for the purpose of refilling hydrogen gas bottles and servicing balloons and flying gear. The Master is authorized to permit the removal of balloons from the vessel for servicing or repair upon proper receipt. In some cases lack of time or other reasons may require that serviced balloons be substituted for balloons originally installed. The exchange of U. S. and equivalent type British balloons is authorized.
Upon return to a U. S. port, the Armed Guard officer should report to the Port Director the condition of barrage balloon equipment. The Port Director in turn should advise the War Shipping Administration of the Maritime Commission representative of necessary replacements and repairs.
Provisions shall be made to reserve open deck space for handling the balloon. This space should be at least 40 by 21 feet and so located that the balloon can be readily transferred to and from the masthead. This section of the deck must be free from sharp objects which can puncture or cut the ground cloth or balloon during inflation, topping up, or deflation.
This area shall be thoroughly cleaned and the ground cloth spread, swept, and wet down in preparation for inflating or deflating the balloon.
Whenever the control of the balloon is transferred from the masthead to the deck a fire hose shall be led out and water under pressure provided for emergency use. During this time no smoking, open fires or lights, or manipulation of electric switches and motors will be permitted in the balloon-handling area. Open fires to windward are to be avoided.
- Unpack the balloon and spread it out on wet ground cloth. Determine that there are no air pockets in the balloon. If there is air in the balloon it should be carefully worked out through the inflation appendix before hydrogen is introduced. Secure the handling line to deck fitting allowing enough slack for the balloon when inflated. The handling lines shall be long enough to steady the balloon till it clears the ship's rigging.
- Connect the manifold tubes to the cylinders and secure the collector to the appendix. The inflation connection shall be gas-tight and so arranged that there will be no strain on the appendix during inflation. Hydrogen shall be introduced slowly to prevent a high velocity gas stream impinging on the fabric. Continue the inflation until the elastic cords on the bottom of the balloon have stretched to the same length as the measuring cord which is attached to the middle of the balloon. The correct length is shown by a seizing.
- Fit the fins. Do not tighten the forward straps; the pressure of the fins must be taken by their tail fittings.
- Before removing the filling tube the appendix is carefully flattened and folded and held firmly closed to prevent escape of hydrogen. The tube is then removed and the appendix carefully flattened and folded lengthwise on itself several times. It is then wrapped with several turns of linen blocking cord, doubled back with a sharp fold and several more turns of cord should effectively seal the appendix against leakage.
Topping Up the Balloon
When the balloon becomes flabby, and the elastic cords are not under sufficient tension to keep enough pressure in the balloon it is necessary to add hydrogen until the elastic cords are again stretched to the same length as the measuring cord.
Return the balloon to the handling area for the addition of the proper amount of hydrogen.
During the topping-up operation it is imperative that every precaution be taken to avoid static sparks around the balloon fabric. It shall be thoroughly wet down and grounded to the deck. The inflation tube shall also be grounded and the connection to the appendix shall be absolutely tight. The hydrogen flow shall be started very slowly. After the proper amount of hydrogen has been added the filling tube is to be removed and the appendix carefully tied off.
Deflating the Balloon
- All safety precautions for "Inflation" must be observed.
- Remove the fins before beginning deflation.
- Before deflating any balloon, the ground cloths and surfaces of the balloon around the appendix shall be wetted liberally. A wet blanket or other large wet cloth shall be held over the appendix while it is being opened.
- In the event a balloon is torn, enlarge the appendix. If the balloon is torn in more than one place the gas shall be expelled as rapidly as possible.
- During the deflation period the appendix shall point upward and to the leeward, and a positive pressure shall be maintained in the balloon by gradually rolling the balloon from bow to stern. After all hydrogen has been expelled, the balloon shall be unrolled, thoroughly dried, packed, and returned to its valise.
- Never expose balloons to excessive heat.
(It is recommended that balloons be exchanged at each port for balloons which have been inspected and repaired.)
Safety Precautions for Handling Hydrogen Cylinders and Filing Barrage Balloons Aboard Merchant Vessels
- Never use a lifting magnet nor a sling (rope or chain) when handling cylinders. A crane may be used when a safe cradle or platform is provided to hold the cylinders.
- Never drop cylinders nor permit them to strike each other violently.
- Never use cylinders for rollers, supports, or for any purpose other than to carry gas.
- Be careful to protect cylinders from any object that will produce a cut or other abrasion in the surface of the metal. The cylinder should be protected from flying bomb or shell fragments.
- Means shall be provided for firmly securing the cylinders in a sheltered location, on the deck near the balloon handling area.
- Cylinders may be stored in the open but in such cases shall be protected against accumulation of ice or snow. In summer, cylinders stored in the open shall be screened against direct continuous rays of the sun.
- Do not store compressed gas cylinders where they will be subject to a temperature above 125° F.
- Never store cylinders near highly flammable substances such as oil, gasoline, waste, etc.
- Store all cylinders containing combustible gases in a well ventilated place.
- Do not store reserve stocks of cylinders containing combustible gases with cylinders containing oxygen. They shall be grouped separately.
- Never use an open flame to detect combustible gas leaks. Use soapy water. During freezing weather linseed oil may be used.
- Keep sparks and flames away from cylinders.
- Never tamper with the safety devices in valves or cylinders.
- Never attempt to repair or alter cylinder or valves.
- Where caps are provided for valve protection, such caps shall be kept on cylinders except when cylinders are in use.
- After removing the valve cap, slightly open the valve an instant to clear opening of particles of dust or dirt.
- Open cylinder valves slowly and always stand behind the cylinder, pointing the valve away from you.
- Never use wrenches or tools except those provided or approved by the manufacturer of the gas.
- Avoid use of a wrench on valves equipped with hand wheels.
- Never hammer the valve wheel in attempting to open or close the valve.
- All hydrogen cylinder valves have left-hand tube coupling threads.
- All valve thread protectors should be sealed with wire or other seal, which necessitates breaking before discharge, thus indicating whether cylinder is empty or full.
- Connections to piping shall always be kept tight to prevent leakage. Where hose is used it shall be kept in good condition.
- Regulators, pressure gages, hose, and other appliances provided for use with a particular gas must not be used on cylinders containing different gases.
- When cylinders are not in use, keep valves tightly closed.
- See that cylinder valve protective caps and outlet caps are replaced before shipping.
For further information concerning the operation of barrage balloons, consult Bureau of Aeronautics publication Shipboard Barrage Balloon Operating Manual, Short Title: NAVAER 01-1Z-1.
Merchant Tank Ships, Oiling at Sea
5902. Certain armed merchant tank ships have been equipped to carry out fueling at sea operations. In order to expedite the fueling of escorts and other vessels, the services of not over half of the Navy Armed Guard are authorized to assist the Merchant crew with the oiling at sea operation.
The broadside gun watches must be fully maintained throughout the fueling operation to defend the ship against submarine attack which is always imminent.
Handling War Cargo at Advanced Bases
5903. In exceptional cases it may be advisable to utilize the services of part of the Armed Guard and communications personnel to assist in the discharge of essential war cargo at advanced bases where other sufficient personnel is not readily available. The Armed Guard commander shall be guided by the instructions from the senior naval officer present when the services of the Armed Guard are so required in the interest of expediting the war effort. The Navy personnel should not be assigned to work in the cargo holds; they should be kept on deck so as to be readily available to man antiaircraft and surface guns in case of attack. the broadside gun lookout watches must be fully maintained at all times in an open roadstead or harbor where submarine or surface attack is possible.
Limpet Type Mines
5904. It is the practice of enemy agents to attach small mines to the bilge keels or to the bottom plating and underwater appendages of merchant vessels while in port, particularly in Mediterranean and Red Sea and West African ports. The Armed Guard sentries should be instructed to report any disturbances such as air bubbles in the water ad also the presence of swimmers or men in rubber inflation suits or diving suits as their presence near the ship may indicate the placement of limpet mines under the ship. This class of mine may be exploded by movement of the ship, tidal currents or by delayed action firing apparatus. Their purpose is to damage the hull sufficiently to sink the ship. The local port authorities should be advised without delay in order to take action to protect the ship with the view of removing such mines as may be attached to the vessel.
Arrangements Aboard Ship
5905. The Armed Guard crew's quarters should, when practicable, be so located that crews of 3"/50, 4", or 5" guns may be accommodated near their gun stations. On ships which will mount such a gun forward space for the men should be provided in the forecastle, if possible. If this is impracticable, such
as on tankers, or there is no forecastle, they should be located in the forward part of the amidships house. Similarly, the men for the after gun should be berthed on a deck above the water line, as high as possible, to permit ready access to the guns. Armed Guards are not to be quartered in the lower decks or holds. The Armed Guard crew quarters on transports should be located so that the gunners will not have to pass through crowded troop quarters to get to the guns when the general alarm is sounded. This necessitates location of the Armed Guard crew quarters in the upper decks and houses on troop transports. Quarters for a communication detail should be provided near the bridge. The necessity for machine gunners being berthed near their guns is not as urgent as the anti-submarine gun crews. The commanding officer of the Armed Guard should be quartered close to the bridge.
5906. It is desirable, but not urgent, that the radio room be located in close proximity to the wheel house and in the same structure.
5907. On those ships where a general alarm system is installed it should be so fixed that the alarm may be sounded from either the forward or after lookout stations at the guns and from the crow's nest.
5908. In view of the critical shortage of electrical equipment and wiring, the ship's general alarm bell system should be used to call the Armed Guard and the ship's crew to their battle stations. Separate bell circuits to individual berthing accommodations are not authorized.
5909. A minimum of four life rafts of about 18 men capacity each, to accommodate all persons on board (including Armed Guard) on a cargo vessel or tank ship will be installed. Life rafts should be so arranged that they may be quickly and easily detached by one man by means of an automatic tripping device. The rafts must also be arranged to float free of the ship in case the ship sinks.
5910. Cameras aboard ship. The following instructions concerning the possession of cameras and taking of photographs by naval personnel is quoted for the information of Armed Guard officers:
DEC. 23, 1943 From: The Secretary of the Navy. To: All Ships and Stations. Subject: Possession of Cameras and Taking of Photographs by Naval Personnel. Reference: (a) General Order No. 179.
(b) ALNAV 212 dated 30 September 1942.
- Paragraphs 3(a) and 3(b) of reference (a) provide as follows:
- Subject to these instructions and orders from higher naval authority, commanding officers of naval vessels, naval inspectors, commandants of navy yards, and commanding officers of other shore stations shall have full cognizance of and responsibility for the making of photographs within their naval jurisdiction whether by naval personnel or by other than naval personnel.
- The taking of all photographs within naval jurisdiction shall be supervised by those in authority at the place where the photographs are taken. However, commanding officers are directed to obtain photographs at times of emergency, disaster, and combat action. Security shall be maintained by proper handling of negative material in accordance with current instructions regarding the disposition of classified matter.
- Paragraph 4(b) of reference (a) provides:
- Privately owned cameras. Cameras are permitted to naval personnel on board naval ships for taking pictures outside naval jurisdiction. While on board cameras will be in custody of the commanding officer. Under no circumstances will they be used aboard ship without official permission and competent supervision. (Paragraph 3(g) (2))1. Use of or the possession of privately owned cameras at shore stations shall be in accordance with such local regulations as may be prescribed. (See par. (5) (b) (2).)2
- Acting under the authority quoted in paragraphs 1 and 2, personnel are taking an excessive volume of photographs, within naval
---------------- 1. Paragraph 3 (g) (2): "Unofficial pictures taken outside naval jurisdiction by Naval Personnel do not require review by Naval authority."
2. Paragraph 5 (b) (2): "All unofficial photographs, still or motion picture, taken by naval personnel within naval jurisdiction with their own equipment shall be subject to review. If, in judgment of the reviewing authority, such photos are of public interest, prints or copies shall be released as "Official Navy Photos" without recompense to the photographer. However, the unclassified portions of the original film may be returned to the owner, at the discretion of the reviewing authority, for his unrestricted use. Classified portions which may be of use to the naval establishment will be turned over to the cognizant bureaus for their noncommercial use."
jurisdiction, which are of no value to the U. S. Navy nor to the prosecution of the war. It is apparent that the taking of these photographs persists only to serve the personal interests of the individuals who take the pictures. The results of this photographic activity consistently reveal such subjects as: ships in foreign and domestic ports, the coastal areas of neutral and allied ports, vessels in convoy, and naval personnel aboard ships and ashore.
- Because this extravagant expenditure of scarce materials includes these views of naval subjects, they are apparently classed as official naval photographs. Thus considered as "official", a worthless accumulation of films are submitted for processing under naval supervision. Representatives of naval districts are being subjected to the unnecessary burden of developing, printing, and censoring these films, both still and motion-picture. Facilities afloat are likewise being imposed upon and are diverting their supplies and equipment to the processing of personal films.
- Unless specifically authorized by a responsible commander, the taking of personal, unofficial photographs within naval jurisdiction is forbidden.
- Photographs not taken at times of emergency, disaster, combat action, or for official purposes, shall not be processed under naval supervision nor at the expense of the U. S. Navy. Personnel submitting film for naval processing which reveals that the photographs were taken as a personal venture do so at the risk of violating references (a) and (b), the instructions contained herein, and other naval directives.
- Officers in charge of Armed guard units are considered to be "Commanding Officers" within the purpose and intention of reference (a) and such officers are amenable to the instructions herein contained.
- Photographs taken at times of emergency, disaster, combat action, or for official purposes, should be submitted to an available Public Relations Officer. This officer will arrange for the developing and printing of such photographs and will ensure appropriate disposition thereof in accordance with reference (a).
- The foregoing is not intended to apply to the taking of photographs by official Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard photographers wherever assigned.
/s Frank Knox
5911. ALNAV 212 of 30 September 1942, reference (b) to SECNAV letter contained in paragraph 5910 above, is quoted herewith for information:
ALNAV #212 30 September 1942 L Z SNOW 031909/212 RAFT D ZRK GR 85 The keeping of personal diaries by personnel of the Navy is hereby prohibited for the duration of the war. Personnel having diaries in their possession are directed to destroy
them immediately. Diaries are used in this dispatch includes any private notes or memoranda of any description whatsoever which (50) indicates in any manner the location or activities of personnel, ships, aircraft, or equipment of the armed forces of the United States or any nation allied with the United States in the present war.
5912. Notes on darkened ships.
- There is little use in darkening a ship if only halfway measures are taken. The order, if issued, must be wholly observed, and it is up to the Armed Guard complement to see that there are no infractions. The order applies to everyone aboard ship including officers and passengers. The master is held accountable and responsible for the complete darkening of the ship.
- There shall be no smoking or lighting of matches except in closed compartments. The momentary flare of a lighted match may be visible from a distance of 5 miles, and the light of a match burning steadily may be easily seen at a distance of 2 miles. Even the glow from a puffed cigarette would be visible up to 500 yards.
- All windows or ports shall be painted dull black, both on the outside and the inside. If any of these are seen to be open, and disclosing light, they must be immediately closed and afterward the violation must be reported to the officer of the watch, the master, and the Armed guard officer. If the paint is wearing off and cracks are visible, the lights shall be turned off until the glass is repainted.
- No light from the interior of the ship shall be disclosed; so, all hatches, ports, skylights, or doors shall be kept closed as much as possible. When it is necessary to open them, the compartment immediately inside shall be first darkened. The apertures of compartments containing lights necessarily in use shall be covered on the inside by a dark curtain.
- If the Merchant marine crew will not cooperate fully in observing darkened ship, the master of the vessel shall be promptly advised, and steps taken by disciplinary action, or otherwise, to obtain complete cooperation.
- No use, except with permission of the master or the Armed Guard commander, shall be made of flashlights on top side, or in any exposed place. All those violating this rule shall have their flashlights confiscated.
- The use of colored lights for dim illumination is most deceptive. A blue light of the same intensity as a weak white (yellowish) light has three times the intensity of the white light at one-half mile. Therefore, since blue lights are very visible to distant observers accustomed to the dark, and yet are relatively ineffective illuminants aboard ship, they shall not be used. The use of colored lights of any kind during darkening is prohibited.
- Any surface or brightwork on the ship that reflects in the sun or moonlight shall be painted. Ammunition boxes on machine guns fall into this category.
- Except in daylight, special precautions shall be observed concerning galley fires. No galley fires should be allowed without concealment. This precaution requires particular attention during early morning hours.
- A darkened ship can be greater protection than accurate gunfire. See that this protection is yours by observing all the rules yourself, and requiring all others to observe them.
5913. An important subject is the disposal of floatable refuse while in the war zone. If all ships, passing over a certain route, throw overboard boxes, barrels, and other articles, it is an easy matter for a submarine to determine the route vessels are following. This matter should be taken up with the master and, if possible, the floatable refuse should be burned or saved to throw overboard outside the war zone or when near port. If possible, thrown overboard 1 hour after sunset. Ships must steam smokeless.
5914. It is important that fresh water, both drinking and washing water, be conserved aboard ship. Additional crewmen, Armed guards, and passengers put an added burden on the already overtaxed fresh water facilities on the average merchant vessel. Many ships have had to go without fresh water or ration it severely at times due to showers being left on or other gross waste. The Armed Guard personnel should be cautioned not to waste fresh water.
5915. Disposition of unauthorized firearms and ammunition aboard Armed Merchant Vessels. -- Armed Guard officers shall inform all members of the Armed guard and Communication Liaison group aboard armed merchant vessels and transports that the possession of firearms and ammunition, other
than that specifically authorized for the defense of the vessel, is not approved. This includes all firearms and ammunition such as souvenir machine guns, rifles, pistols, hand grenades, bombs, mines, shells, cartridges, etc., taken from enemy forces or secured from any other source, or purchase. Armed Guard officers shall order that all such aforementioned firearms and ammunition found in the possession of Naval Armed guard or Communication Liaison personnel, other than that specifically provided for use in the defense of the ship be thrown overboard.
Sound Powered Phones
5916. As their name implies, sound powered telephones generate their own power when you talk into the transmitter. In order to accomplish this, these units are constructed much differently than the commercial type of telephones. Each sound powered transmitter and receiver in made up of many delicately machined parts, carefully assembled with great precision. This type of construction is necessary because these phones are precision instruments designed for a definite job. They should receive the same care you would give a good pair of binoculars.
5917. When you go aboard ship, make the inspection of the battle circuit one of your first duties. To do this, put a member of the gun crew with a telephone at each station, and conduct a 5 to 10-minute talker drill. Have these talker drills often -- they will result in a more efficient handling of information, and the talkers will learn the proper method of procedure which will eliminate interference between stations.
5918. To operate the phones, plug the jack into the connection box. Be sure the jack is seated as far as it will go, and screw the lock bushing down tight -- being careful not to damage the threads.
5919. To talk from your station to another, press the button located on the top of the transmitter. When you are not talking release this button, so that your transmitter will not cause unnecessary noise in the system.
5920. Talk directly into the transmitter holding the mouthpiece about 1 inch from your lips. Use an ordinary tone of voice and talk slowly and distinctly.
It is better to speak slowly than to have to repeat.
5921. Never hang your headphones around your neck. Wear them at all times. A few seconds lost in making a report may result in a casualty.
If you are on watch -- wear your phones constantly.
5922. Communication failures. -- Their cause and remedies.
Failure -- Station unable to hear or talk to other station. Cause Phone plug not all the way into jack. Remedy See that the threaded cap is screwed on tight. Cause Switch not in at junction box. Remedy Be sure all the switches are closed. Cause Cord broken between breast plate and plug. Remedy Repair cord -- This should be done by a competent electrician. Failure -- Station can hear other station, but can not talk to other station. Cause Defective transmitter. Remedy Remove one earphone from headset and use as a transmitter. The button on the defective transmitter does not have to be depressed when this emergency system is used. Failure -- The entire system goes "dead" or inoperative. Cause One branch of the circuit has been shorted due to damage or failure. Remedy Go to the junction box and pull one switch. Should this fail to remedy the condition, close the switch again. Repeat with each switch until one is found, that, when pulled the circuit again operates. Leave this switch open as the branch from it is no longer effective.
5923. What to do.
- Have frequent talker drills.
- Speak slowly and distinctly.
- Wear your phones when on watch.
- Stow phones properly when they are not in use.
- Pick up the phones at the headset and breast plate.
- If possible, rotate phones, using one pair on watch while another is below in a warm, dry place. This helps to keep interior of phones and transmitter dry. It is very important to keep the phones as dry as possible.
5924. What not to do.
- Do not drop the phones on deck or hang them against the bulkhead. To do so weakens their power.
- Do not leave phones in the weather when not in use.
- Do not pick phones up by the cord.
- Do not use the cord to practice knot tying.
- Do not blow into the transmitter -- this causes condensation, which is harmful.
- Do not tilt the transmitter unnecessarily.
- Do not open the units for any other reason than repair. Unscrewing the caps serves no useful purpose, and can harm the units.
Remember -- these phones may save your life.
5925. Gas attacks -- Decontamination. -- The following information with respect to gas attacks against merchant ships and decontamination is furnished for the guidance of the Armed Guard officers. The Masters of all merchant ships and transports are provided with a copy of Air Raid Precautions Handbook No. 7 (2nd Edition) Anti-Gas Precautions for Merchant Shipping, 1938, (reprinted by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, Washington, D. C., with the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office), by the Bureau of Marine Inspection U. S. Coast Guard. These instructions cover gas attacks and subsequent decontamination. The decontamination of ships, after gas attacks, both at sea and in port, is the Master's responsibility.
5926. Risk of chemical attack against merchant vessels at sea and consequent contamination of material is believed to be low and must be accepted in view of difficulty in providing the great quantity of decontaminating chemicals necessary to outfit merchant vessels. If a merchant vessel is attacked in a port controlled by the United Nations, it is assumed that all possible decontamination would be carried out by the authority in control of the port, in order to restore the vessel to serviceable condition.
5927. The Navy furnishes Navy type gas masks for the Armed Guard and civilian type gas masks for the crews on U. S. flag and U. S. owned foreign flag merchant ships. The Army authorities furnish gas masks for the crews of Army transports.
5928. The decontamination of the vessel is not the responsibility of the Armed Guard officer.
5929. Slop Chest. -- The Masters of U. S. merchant ships are required by law to provide a slop chest containing a complement of clothing for the intended voyage for each seaman employed, including boots and shoes, hats or caps, underclothing and outer clothing, oiled clothing and everything necessary for the wear of a seaman; also a full supply of tobacco and blankets. While the clothing is required for the merchant seamen in the employ of the vessel, the master is not required to supply such clothing for the Armed Guard. It is customary to sell slop chest cigarettes and tobacco to the Armed Guard personnel insofar as the supply warrants. However, this is a privilege and a courtesy extended to the Armed Guard but not a right upon which they may insist. The Armed Guard personnel should provide, on their own account, insofar as practicable, all necessary so-called sea stores.
5930. PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN THE EVENT OF FALLING INTO THE HANDS OF THE ENEMY.
Information that should be given
According to the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929, signed by all the great powers, a prisoner of war MUST give his name and rank, or his identity number. In practice, all three should be given.
NO FURTHER INFORMATION WHATSOEVER SHOULD BE GIVEN.
When you have given your name, rank, and number, you are required to give no more. Remember that the enemy dares not carry threats into execution, and a prisoner who systematically refuses to give information is respected by his captors.
What the enemy will try to find out
- Any information about any unit of the Air Force, Army or Navy.What is your ship?
What is your squadron number?
Where is your ship or squadron stationed?
What is its strength?
Where are other forces stationed?
What have been other recent movements?
Are there any rumors as to future movements?
What do you know about casualties suffered?
- Information concerning types of ships, types of aircraft, performance, new designs, armament, armor, other ships or planes building, and similar facts.
- Information about bases and facilities in the United States and overseas.
- Information about training and tactics, both American and Allied.
- Information about how much we may know of enemy strength and tactics.
- Information about damage to United States of Allied ships, aircraft, industrial plants, etc., either at home or abroad, either by enemy action or by sabotage.
- Meteorological information: Anything about the weather, recent or forecast; methods of getting forecasts and reports.
- Information concerning home conditions, politics, food supply, civilian and service morale, and labor difficulties.
- Information concerning defense organization and antiaircraft facilities at home or at overseas bases.
- Information concerning all types of technical equipment. REMEMBER THAT THE MEN TALKING TO YOU ARE THE ENEMIES.
Sources and methods the enemy may employ to gain information
(These notes are based on fact. They represent the actual experience of men who have been prisoners of war and who know what they are talking about.)
- Captured material and markings.
- Papers found.
- By repeated interrogation; by professing sympathy; by stimulating professional or technical interest; or by threats.
- Notebooks and diaries, personal letters, and effects.
- Letters written by and to prisoners of war.
- By impersonating American or Allied prisoners and mixing with genuine prisoners.
- By using agents such as hospital nurses for attendants who will profess to sympathize.
REMEMBER THAT THE PERSON TALKING TO YOU MAY BE AN ENEMY. THE ONLY MAN YOU CAN BE SURE IS A FRIEND, IS A MAN YOU KNEW AND WERE SURE OF BEFORE CAPTURE.
- By use of microphones, which must be expected may be in every room, at every stage of imprisonment.
BECAUSE YOU CAN'T FIND A MICROPHONE DON'T THINK THERE ISN'T ONE. WE KNOW THERE IS, AND THAT THE ENEMY WILL BE LISTENING. SO -- NEVER TALK SHOP.
- By suggesting that another officer or man has talked freely, giving the impression that silence is no longer valued.
- By friendly reception and good treatment on capture, such as being offered drinks.
- By renewed interrogation long after capture, not necessarily by direct inquiry, but by casual and seemingly friendly interest.
SAY NOTHING AND GO ON SAYING IT.
- Don't carry or allow anyone to carry any papers, official or private, when in a position where capture is even remotely possible. An envelope may give away information. Everything gives some information, even old tickets, bills, etc. As a matter of routine, turn out your pockets when you go aboard ship or prepare for flight, and put no papers of any kind in them until your next liberty.
- Don't allow your clothing or personal effects to bear any markings, tabs, or indication of your ship or station other than those officially required.
- Don't add anything to the information officially placed on your identity disk.
- Don't give any information other than your name, rank and number. If you stick to this the interrogator will be completely defeated.
- Don't refer in any circumstances to your ship's movement or your units position. A careless word may cost others their lives.
- Don't forget that there are expert interrogators who will obtain information from you if you enter into conversation with them on even seemingly unimportant subjects. Silence alone is safe.
- Don't try to be clever and invent false information. The interrogators have had great experience and will soon find you out.
- Don't talk shop. If you have plans to discuss, do it in the open air, and even then be careful, as the trees may have ears.
- Don't jump to conclusions that your room is free from microphones because you can't find one. The enemy has had years of experience at concealment.
- Don't believe anything you are told from enemy or possible enemy sources.
- Don't address letters so as to indicate the whereabouts of your station or any unit of any service. Letters to shipmates, other officers or men should be addressed to their homes or to the Navy Department.
- Don't broadcast. It helps the enemy and is contrary to orders.
- If while flying you are brought down in enemy territory, make every effort to destroy your aircraft, its equipment, maps, etc., by fire. You have instructions, but DON'T forget the imperative necessity of giving effect to them. Likewise, while in flight, DON'T make any notes on performance or shortcomings of the aircraft, armament, or equipment.
- Don't under any circumstances neglect to make every possible effort to destroy all papers and equipment, and anything that may be used by the enemy.
- Don't be downhearted if captured. Opportunities for escape will present themselves. It is the duty of prisoners to make such attempts which in themselves have a very appreciable nuisance value. In accordance with the custom of the service, a U. S. naval officer should not accept liberty on parole.
- Don't forget to keep your eyes and ears open. We want information useful to others wishing to escape.
- If you escape and succeed in arriving in friendly territory, don't discuss your experience with anyone at all, whether in the service or otherwise, and don't under any circumstances mention the name of any person who may have helped you to escape, until you have been interviewed by proper authorities.
- Don't carry these instructions on your person or in aircraft. They are to help you and not the enemy.
Rights of prisoners
- The rights of prisoners of war are fully safeguarded by the Geneva Convention of 1929. A copy of this should be displayed in every camp. Insist on this being done.
- There is a neutral protecting power to whom all serious complaints can be addressed through the camp commandant.
- If you escape to a neutral country, claim your freedom and report to nearest American representative.
Excerpts from Navy Regulations
5931. The following excerpts from Navy Regulations are quoted for the information of the Armed Guard commander.
"Art. 76 1/2.
- Every officer of the Navy and Marine Corps shall make himself acquainted with, observe, obey, and so far as his authority extends, enforce the laws and regulations for the government of the Navy and the provisions of all orders and the circulars emanating from the Navy Department. In the absence of instructions officers will conform to the usages and customs of naval service." * * *
- In the event of a riot or quarrel between persons belonging to the Navy, it shall be the duty of the senior line officer present to suppress the disturbance, and, if necessary, to arrest those engaged in it even though they be his superiors in rank; and all persons belonging to the Navy who may be present shall render prompt assistance and obedience to the officer thus engaged in the restoration of order." * * *
- Officers shall avoid any unnecessary expenditure of public money or stores and, so far as may be in their power, prevent the same in others. Officers shall be held accountable for any wasteful or improper expenditure that they may direct, authorize, or knowingly permit." * * *
- Officers serving afloat shall, before leaving port, pay, provide for paying, any debts they may have incurred. No officer shall at any time place contract debts without a reasonable expectation of being able to discharge them.
- It is enjoined upon all officers that failure to discharge their just indebtedness brings discredit not only upon themselves but upon the naval service."
"Art. 90. All persons in the Navy are required to obey readily and strictly, and to execute promptly, the lawful orders of their superiors."
"Art. 104. Officers shall not borrow money nor accept deposits from nor have pecuniary dealings with enlisted men, except as provided in article 1779, for deposits with the supply officer."
- Applications for orders to duty, or for the revocation or modification of orders, shall be made by the officer himself in an official form and through official channels and shall state the precise reason for making the application." * * *
"Art. 106. An officer shall not, without authority from his commanding officer or other superior, absent himself from his duty or exchange duty with another."
"Art. 117. The religious institutions and customs of
foreign countries visited by ships of the Navy must be respected.
"Art. 118. * * *
- No person in the naval service shall possess or use any narcotic substances on board ships or aircraft of the Navy or within navy yards, marine barracks, naval stations, or other places under the jurisdiction of the Navy Department, except as authorized for medical purposes."
- All persons belonging to the Navy must strictly conform to such regulations for uniforms as may be published from time to time by the Navy Department.
- The clothes, arms, military outfits, and accoutrements furnished by the United States to any enlisted person in the Navy or Marine Corps, or required by such person as a part of their prescribed uniforms or outfits, shall not be sold, bartered, exchanged, pledged, loaned, or given away, except by competent authority therefore.
- Enlisted personnel are forbidden to have in their possession without permission from proper authority any article of wearing apparel or bedding belonging to any person in the Navy other than themselves."
- The making, for other than official use, of photographs, photographic plates or films, or moving-picture films of naval vessels or parts thereof; of navy yards and stations or of any establishments under the jurisdiction of the Navy; or of any device belonging to the Navy or intended for use thereof, shall be governed by such detailed instructions as may be issued by general order." * * *
"Art. 174. * * *
- Other officers embarked as passengers, senior to the commanding officer, shall have no authority, but those junior to him, if not on a flag officer's staff, may be assigned to duty when exigencies of the service render it necessary, for which necessity the commanding officer shall be the sole judge. Passengers thus assigned shall have the same authority as though regularly attached to the ship, but shall not displace any officer belonging to the regular complement of the ship in his quarters."
"Art. 181. * * *
- Officers intrusted with the command of vessels of war or naval stations, or with the command or direction of any military expedition or duty, whatever their rank, must, while properly in such command or direction, have full command, authority, and precedence over all officers and persons, of whatever rank, serving in such vessel, station, or expedition, or in the execution of such duty. This authority and precedence will descend to the officer or person on whom such command or direction may devolve by reason of the death, disability, or absence of the person otherwise in command or direction. * * *
- No officer of any grade of the Navy is authorized by virtue of his own mere rank and authority to give any order or grant any privilege, permission, or liberty to his senior in rank of any corps; nor is any senior officer required to receive such order, privilege, permission, or liberty from his junior, unless such junior is at the time in command of the vessel of war or naval station to which the senior is attached, or in command or direction of the military expedition or duty on which such senior is serving, as is, as aid or executive, executing such order of the commanding officer; and no commanding officer is authorized to delegate to any junior the authority to grant any permission, privilege, or liberty to his senior, but must himself receive and hear, under proper regulations, any request therefore from such senior, satisfying himself as to its propriety, and deciding the matter in the exercise of his own authority. Any officer on shipboard, however, who is intrusted by general provision or special order of proper authority with any duty, the present performance of which may involve the movements of the ship itself, or the attitude of the ship's company as a whole, represents the commanding officer for that purpose, and is intrusted, for the time, with all the authority necessary for the proper performance of such duty; and all officers, of whatever rank, are required to assist in carrying out such duty, and to receive and execute his orders for that purpose; nor will he be interfered with therein, unless by the commanding officer,
or the aid or executive, who are entitled to relieve him in the performance of such duty."
- The gunnery officer shall be held responsible for the efficiency of the armament and of all appurtenances connected therewith; and for the cleanliness and good condition of all ammunition stowage spaces and ordnance workshops, and of all ordnance storerooms not turned over to the supply officer of the ship.
- He shall supervise and be responsible for the proper stowage and care of all explosives on board ship, and shall make or cause to be made such inspections, examinations, and tests thereof as may be prescribed.
"Art. 964. * * *
- When a gunnery officer is relieved his orders of detachment shall not be delivered until he has made a detailed inspection of the armament for which he is responsible in company with his successor, and has turned over to such successor all orders and instructions relating thereto."
"Art. 966. * * *
- When fitting out, the gunnery officer shall make a careful inspection of the battery and its appurtenances, and all of the arms, equipments, and other material belonging to the ordnance equipment; of the ammunition stowage spaces and passages, flood cocks, sprinkling systems, outlet and overflow pipes, hose, hoisting and transporting gear, and all other appurtenances connected with the stowage, care, preservation, and service of the ammunition of the ship.
- He shall, during his inspection, ascertain whether the ammunition stowage spaces are dry and their linings tight, the means for flooding, sprinkling, and draining efficient and in order; the arrangement for ammunition stowage spaces in order and of ample power; and the means for supplying ammunition to the battery safe, efficient, and ample. * * *"
"Art. 967. The gunnery officer shall be responsible for the instruction of the officers and crew in the safety orders, and all regulations regarding the care, stowage, handling
and examination of explosives as laid down in the Navy Regulations and in the Ordinance Manual."
"Art. 1459. * * *
- Officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps who embark for passage in vessels operated by the Army, or by the Navy, shall be quartered and messed in accordance with their seniority in rank, but they shall not displace the officers regularly attached to the vessel as part of the complement. Similarly, enlisted men shall be messed and quartered in accordance with their ratings or ranks insofar as their assignment in units makes this procedure suitable."
"Art. 1707. * * *
- All acts of gallantry or extraordinary heroism shall be promptly reported to the Secretary of the Navy."
(Send copy of this report to the Chief of Naval Operations.)
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