Chapter IX. Hydrographic and Beach Markings
- The following system of hydrographic and beach markings is prescribed as standard and should be thoroughly familiar to all land craft personnel.
- Hydrographic markings.--
- Rocks, shoals, and submerged obstructions.--
Day--A red and black vertically striped pennant on buoy or stake.
Night--Shielded blue light over red light.
Figure 1.--Rocks, shoals, etc.
- Boat channel.--
- Right side of channel (from seaward)--
Day--Red pennant on buoy.
Night.--Shielded red light.
- Left side of channel (from seaward)--
Day--Black pennant on buoy.
Night--Shielded white light.
Figure 2.--Channel markers.
- Beach markings.--The markings described herein are to be of the same color as the name of the beach. The examples below are for Beach Red and Beach Red Two.
- Left flank (from seaward):
Day--A solid color rectangular panel mounted horizontally. A suitable size for a single panel has been found to be approximately 12 feet long by 21/2 feet wide.
Night--A single colored light and a steady white light, mounted horizontally, the colored light to be inboard (toward the center of the beach).
Figure 3.--Left flank, Beach Red.
- Right flank (from seaward):
Day--A solid rectangular panel, the same as the left flank panel, mounted vertically.
Night--Two steady colored lights, mounted horizontally.
- The following examples indicated the use of the markers when the color name of the beach is duplicated.
- Beach center marking.--When it is desired to mark the center or other interior point of a beach, the following markings (of the same color as the beach) are to be used, either alone or in conjunction with the flank markings:
Day--A solid color square panel.
Night--A single steady colored light.
Figure 8.--Center, Red Beach Two.
- Landing point markings.--Landing points are marked on the beach as required in order to indicate to coxswain the points at which boats should land according to the load which is carried. The prescribed markings are shown below. A suitable size for landing point panels has been found to be approximately 6 feet square.
- Improved--The beach inland from the point so marked is passable for wheeled vehicles. If desired, this marking may be combined on the same standard with any other landing point marking.
e. Gasoline and oil.--
f. Tracked vehicles.--
g. Miscellaneous supplies.--
h. Medical.--Medical supplies
landed or casualties evacuated.
- Ranges.--In case the negotiation of a seaward approach makes the establishment of a range practicable or desirable, ranges will be established by the erection of a duplicate landing point marker at the proper elevation and direction to landward of the landing point involved.
Chapter X. Landing Boat Material
Section 1. General Information
- Correspondence.--All correspondence regarding landing equipment shall be classified "RESTRICTED."
- Operator's manual, engine parts and instruction books.--Parts and instructions books for the engines of all landing boats as well as an operator's manual for Higgins Eureka boats, are available for issue by the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot. Vessels may obtain these books by submitting a request direct to the Commander appropriate Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot.
- Engine records.--
- Log books have been provided for the engines of landing boats. These books contain detailed instructions for the entries required to be made therein.
- Upon removal of an engine from a boat, an appropriate entry shall be made in the log book giving the reason for its removal. When engine changes occur, a report shall be submitted to the Bureau of Ships, with copies to Commander transports, Commander Amphibious Force, and Commander appropriate Naval Landing Force Equipment depot, giving serial number of the hull; Bu. Ships and manufacturer's serial number of the engine removed; Bu. Ships and manufacturer's serial number of the engine installed, and the disposition of the engine removed.
- When engines are transferred from one ship to another, or from a ship to the depot, or vice versa, a report shall be made to the Bureau of Ships with a copy to Commander transports, Commander Amphibious Force, and Commander appropriate Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot.
- Whenever a boat or engine is transferred from one ship to another or is returned to a Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot, the log book shall be completed, signed, and forwarded to the ship or activity receiving the boat or engine.
- Spare parts procurement.--
- Commanders Naval Landing Force Equipment Depots are responsible for the procurement of all spare parts and equipment required for the maintenance of all special landing boats for vessels of the Amphibious Forces.
- Material obtained from the Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot for the repair and maintenance of landing boats will be invoiced to the requisitioning vessel or activity as a charge against that vessel's Bureau of Ships general order allotments.
- Requisitions will be submitted on S & A Form 44 and addressed to the appropriate Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot, and not to a Naval Supply depot, as the latter activity has no connection with the procurement and issue of this material.
- In the preparation of requisitions, part numbers or catalogue numbers will be given. In the absence of this information, a full description of the item desired should be given for identification.
- The commanding officer of each APA or AKA will initiate the necessary action to obtain and maintain sufficient spare parts for equipment assigned to his command.
- Do not submit requisitions to Naval Landing Force Equipment Depots for material obtainable from standard stock.
- Original boat equipage.--
- The issuing Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot provides the initial outfit of equipage for issue with each boat. Replacement of lost or damaged equipage thereafter is the responsibility of the vessel to which the boat is issued.
- When boats are being returned to the Base for exchange or repairs, outfits of equipage will be removed prior to the return of the unit to the Depot, and will be retained on board for reinstallation upon the return of the unit to its ship.
- Spare engines.--
- It is the policy of the Bureau of Ships to provide 1 spare engine for every 10 units carried on board all vessels equipped with landing boats. In the case of those vessels having more than 10 units assigned, 1 spare engine will be provided for each 10 units or major portion thereof.
- Each APA and AKA will procure and maintain its quota of engines.
- Engines will be issued on written request to the appropriate Commander Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot. It is understood that there will be no charge to the ship's allotment for the cost of these engines.
Section 2. Repair and Maintenance Facilities
- The repair and upkeep of landing boats regularly assigned to a vessel is the responsibility of the commanding officer. The Bureau of Ships has directed that repairs beyond the capacity of the ship's force be accomplished at the several Naval Landing Force Equipment Depots, where repair facilities have been established for this purpose. Requests for repairs, beyond the capacity of the ship's force, will be submitted to the Commander of the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment Dept, on a standard Navy Yard Repair request, Form N. S. O. (105). Requests for repairs to landing craft shall be forwarded via the chain of command. This article shall not be construed as prohibiting the accomplishment of emergency repairs by activities other than the depot, the necessary parts or equipage being provided by the ship or obtained from the depot by the activity accomplishing the repairs.
- Cost of repairs.--The cost of material or equipage, expended by the Commander Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot, in effecting repairs to landing craft regularly assigned to a vessel, will be invoiced as a charge against that vessel's general order allotment.
- APA and AKA ship facilities.--
- Boat engine repair shop.--
- Set valve refacing equipment.
- Set valve seat grinding equipment, with grinding wheels for each type engine carried.
- One 9- by 3-inch bench lathe with collect chucks (may be provided in machine shop).
- Bench milling machine (may be provided in machine shop).
- Bench grinder.
- Sensitive drill, column bench (may be provided in machine shop).
- Champion spark plug cleaning equipment.
- Electric tachometer.
- Two 11/2 ton chain falls.
- Nozzle test (for GM, etc., Diesel engines).
- Two propeller pullers, one large and one small.
- Hydraulic arbor press, minimum capacity 5 tons (to be provided in machine shop).
- Power hacksaw (to be provided in machine shop).
- Engine compression gage.
- Vacuum gage.
- Set copper tube flaring tools.
- Set dies and taps (SAE).
- Set die nuts (SAE).
- Cylinder hone for each type engine carried.
- One 1/4-ton chain fall.
- Vise, pipe.
- Vise, 4-inch.
- Key seating machine.
- Carpenter-shipfitter shop.--
- Arc welding machine, 300 ampere (portable gasoline or Diesel drive one preferred).
- Drill press, 1/2-inch, Jacobs chuck.
- Circular saw, 12-inch blade.
- Sheet metal brake, 48-inch, 16-gage capacity.
- Band saw, 14-inch wheels.
- Two oxyacetylene cutting torches, with tips and one spare tip.
- Two oxyacetylene welding torches, with tips and one spare tip.
- Four regulators and gages for above.
- One portable sander, 10-inch disk type.
- Two woodworker's vises.
- Power joiner, planer, 6-inch blades.
- Bench grinder, 3/4 by 1 by 10 inches.
- Hand shears, capacity 1/8-inch metal.
- One 30-pound riveting hammer, pneumatic.
- One 60-pound riveting hammer, pneumatic.
- Two dolly bars, for riveting.
- One air jam.
- Air hose, 200 feet.
- Two jacks, hydraulic, 2-ton.
- Blacksmith's anvil, 240-pound.
- High-speed portable grinder (only part of propeller reconditioning outfit required on individual ships).
- Additional allowances for division flagships.--
- Electric oven, sufficient capacity to accommodate generators in tank lighters.
- Commutator undercutter.
- Armature rewinding machine.
- Propeller reconditioning equipment, consisting of the following items:
Note 1.--Propeller reconditioning equipment may be supplied by the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment depot.
- Pitch block base.
- Pitch block for each type of propeller.
- Polishing wheel.
- Two portable high speed grinders.
- One propeller balancing stand, Sundstrand No. 2.
Note 2.--All other equipment is obtainable only if on bureau of Ships Hull or Machinery Allowance Lists.
- Special engine tools.--Requisition from the nearest Landing Force Equipment Depot (Catalog 41, Landing Force Supply Catalog). Recommended in addition to special tools furnished in parts boxes:
- Gray Diesel marine engine.--
Stock No. Item Specification Unit of
B-1425/GD Blocks, injector valve lapping J-1330 No. 2 C-2110/GD Cleaner, spray tip driver and injector bushing J-1291A No. 2 C Cleaner, valve guide KMO-122 No. 4 C-2220/GD Compressor, piston ring KMO-231 No. 1 E-250/GD expander, oil seal, flywheel housing J-1359 No. 1 F Fixture, connecting rod and piston bushing reaming J-1506 No. 1 F-2000/GD Flange and driver, injector tube J-1229 No. 1 G Gauge set, feeler J-1523 No. 1 G Gauge, timing, fuel injector J-1564 No. 2 G Gauge, valve lash feeler KMO-233 No. 1 H Hone, cylinder, 1/2-inch drive KMO-1000-D No. 1 I Installing set, connecting rod needle bearing J-1235 No. 1 J-200 Jaws, injector, body vise (with popping tool) J-1261A No. 2 L-400/GD Lapper, valve KMO-239 No. 1 L-1460/GD Lifter, spring injector valve J-1290 No. 1 P-2800/GD Protector, camshaft oil seal J-1509 No. 1 P Puller, blower, rotor gear J-1228 No. 1 P-2940/GD Puller, main bearing cap J-1472 No. 1
Gray Diesel marine engine.--Continued.
Stock No. Item Specification Unit of
P Pyrometer, exhaust manifold heat KMO-328 No. 1 R-2300/GD Reamer set, injector tube J-1231 No. 1 R-2303 Reamer set, valve seat KMO-234 No. 1 R-2305/GD Reamer, valve stem guide finishing J-192-2 No. 2 R-2310/GD Reamer, valve stem guide roughing, .341 J-714 No. 2 R Reaming fixture, connecting rod and piston bushing J-12-1506 No. 1 R-2400/GD Remover, broken push rod and cam follower J-1244 No. 1 R Remove, injector tube J-1232 No. 1 R Remover, and replacer, piston pin cam and rod checking valve J-1234 No. 1 R-2410/GD Remover, push rod J-1245 No. 1 R-2420/GD Remover, and replacer, piston ring KMO-232 No. 1 R Remover and replacer cylinder sleeve, hand operated J-1479 No. 1 R-2425/GD Remover and replacer set, piston pin bushing J-1513 No. 1 R Remover, valve spring compressor and injector J-1227 No. 1 R-2430/GD Remover and replacer, valve stem guide J-1233 No. 2 S Service set, injector J-1241 No. 2 S Socket, 11/4-inch SW-40011/2 No. 1 S-4150/GD Spreader, blower drive gear, flexible coupling spring J-1471 No. 1 T-3140/GD Tool, flaring, fuel line J-978 No. 1 T-3175/GD Tool set, fuel pump J-1508 No. 2 W-651 Wrench, box, open end 15/16-inch No. 1 W Wrench, fuel pump KMO-326 No. 1 W-1380 Wrench, governor adjusting CS-1146 No. 1 W-1400 Wrenches, injector filter cap KMO-240 No. 1 W Wrench, injector nut J-1238 No. 1
- Hall-Scott gasoline engine.--Any general automotive tools. (Plomb Tool Co. Catalogue.)
- Hand tools for boat engine repair shop.--
1 oil stone.1 12 blades, hack saw.1 1-14 file, coarse.1 2 handles, file.1 3 files, half round, small, medium and large.1 3 files, rat-tail, small, medium and large.1 3 files, mill, small, medium and large.1 6 wedges, steel, small, medium and large.1 1 valve guide puller set.2 1 brush, small wire.1 1 set punches, gasket, from 1/8 inch to 1 inch.1 5 wrenches, monkey, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-inch.1 1 compressor, ring.2 1 mallet, raw hide.1 1 maul, copper.1 1 scraper, carbon.3 1 scraper, gasket.3 1 set of easy outs, 9 pieces.3 1 tube cutting and bending set.3 2 pullers, propeller, large and small.4 1 indicator, dial.3 1 set wrenches, Allen set screw for 1/8. To 3/4-inch, No. 2381 and No. 2383.3 2 sets scraper, bearing, small and large.1 1 file card.1 1 valve spring compressor, large.1
1. Obtained from standard stock.
1 100-piece socket set.1 1 punch and chisel set, 12 piece.3 1 wrenches, crescent adjustable, 4-, 8-, 10-, and 12-inch.3 1 wrenches, pipe, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-inch.1 1 drill, breast, straight shank to 1/2-inch.1 1 gage, thickness, 0.002 to 0.025.3 1 tap and die set, SAE, Fulton 12-piece,1/2-inch to inch.1 1 ignition set, 10 piece, 3,200 C. Plomb.3 1 lifter, valve.2 1 twist drill set, 1/16- to 1/2-inch by 64ths.1 1 drill, electric, up to 1/2-inch.1 1 spark plug set, Plomb 5 piece, deep 5,300 C.3 1 stud puller.3 1 grinder, valve, hand, oscillating.3
2. Obtained from engine manufacturer through Naval Supply Depot.
3. Obtained locally from dealer through Naval Supply Depot.
4. Manufacture on board.
- Material for maintenance of landing boats.--
- Experience indicates that a variety of material, in addition to spare parts for engines, is required for the maintenance of landing boats. The following general list is promulgated for information and guidance:
Anchors (for boats and tank lighters).1. For boats manufactured by Higgins Industries Inc.
Batteries, storage (one spare for each three installed).
Bearings, stern tube (50 percent spares).
Cable, electric, rubber insulated.
Cable, flexible (for wheel ropes, anchor cable and ramp cables).
Cylinder, vacuum, power.1
Cylinder, vacuum, storage.1
Glass cylinders (for sand traps).2
Hose, rubber, water, various sizes.
Lights, running, port and starboard.
Oil, neat's-foot (obtained in 5-gallon cans--standard stock).1
Packing, waterproof (for pumps).
Propellers (two spares for each shaft).
Pumps, fresh water.
Pumps, gasoline or fuel oil.2
Pumps, lubricating oil.
Pumps, magnetic (autopulse).1
Pumps, salt water.
Quadrant, rudder (50 percent spares).2
Skegs (one for ramp boats and one for landing boats.)2
Tools, Craftsman master set (at least two sets, and preferably four sets for large vessels).
Traps, sand (one complete trap for each type of boat.)2
Tube fittings, various.
Tubing, copper, various sizes.
Valve, vacuum, remote control.1
2. This equipment varies with type of engine and manufacturer of boat.
- The information given is not sufficient for the purpose of preparing requisitions, but is intended to direct attention to various items which should be obtained and carried aboard APAs and AKAs.
- Material other than standard stock can be obtained from the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot.
Section 3. Special Directives
- Engine speeds.--
- For normal operations, engine speeds of 1,700-1,800 r.p.m. are authorized, except when boats pass near ships, other boats, in the vicinity of docks, landings, or in restricted channels. Under these conditions, engine speeds shall be limited to 800 r.p.m. When LCVP and LCV are used as ship's running boats, engine speed shall be limited to 1,500 r.p.m., due to poor visibility ahead at high speeds.
- During landing operations, maximum engine power shall be available, therefore, no throttle-limiting stops shall be employed on gasoline engined boats and governors of Diesel engines shall be set to permit maximum r.p.m. during these periods.
- The above does not prohibit the commanding officer of any vessel from placing restrictions upon the operation of engines, which may, in his judgment, be necessary in order to conform to good engineering practices, at times other than during actual or practice landing exercises.
- Use of propeller reconditioning equipment.--
- Each division flagship should be provided with equipment necessary for reconditioning of all landing craft propellers. It is intended that division flagships recondition the propellers for the landing craft of all vessels assigned to that division. In order not to place an undue hardship on the personnel of the division flagship, vessels sending propellers to division flagships for reconditioning shall detail personnel to assist. In order that personnel may become proficient in the reconditioning of propellers, all damaged propellers of landing craft assigned to transports of the Amphibious Forces shall be reconditioned in accordance with the procedure outlined herein. Vessels not having personnel trained in the reconditioning of propellers shall arrange with the Commanding Officers, Naval Landing Force Equipment depot, for the training of such personnel.
- Measures to insure easy removal of propellers.--In order to insure easy removal of propellers during an operation, all propellers installed on landing craft shall be removed periodically, the shaft shall be cleaned and coated with a mixture of white lead and oil prior to reinstallation of the propeller.
- Emergency tiller.--The emergency tiller provided with each boat shall be available and readily accessible at all times. The protective deck plate (installed over top of rudder post and removed when emergency tiller is shipped) shall be removed before all landing exercises in order that the emergency tiller may be readily installed, should such be necessary.
- Ramp operating gear.--
- A number of failures of ramp cables and hoisting gear of landing boats have occurred during landing exercises. If, after unloading at the beach, the crew is unable to hoist the ramp of a boat, the problem becomes a serious one, inasmuch as the boat may be swamped if headed into a sea with the ramp down.
- All APAs and AKAs shall take action to equip LCM(3)s and vehicle ramp boats with a positive means for the manual operation of ramps. Two wire pendants and two jiggers are suggested, as these have worked well during past exercises.
- The Landing Force Equipment Depot is authorized to provide 1 spare set of ramp hoisting gear, complete, for each 10 (or fraction thereof) of LCVP, and LCM(3) issued to APAs and AKAs. Such issue will be considered as part of the boat equipment and not as part of the ship's allowance list.
- Ramp and ramp operating windlass--LCV and LCVP.--
- The ramp and ramp operating windlass of LCV and LCVP must be kept in excellent mechanical condition and well lubricated at all times.
- Prior to lowering ramp, for debarkation of troops, or vehicles, on the beach, remove hand crank from windlass. If it is necessary to regulate speed at which ramp is being lowered,
use windlass brake. The above precaution is necessary to obviate injury to personnel. In order that the hand crank will not be lost overboard it shall be secured to the windlass with a suitable lanyard.
- Emergency equipment.--Each boat shall carry:
- One 5-gallon can of lubricating oil of correct viscosity. (This lubricating oil should be carried for emergency use only, and should not be the can from which oil to replenish that consumed is to be taken.)
- One 5-gallon can of fresh water, for emergency use. (This item will be carried, without fail, in those boats where the salt water systems are not arranged in such a manner that the two systems can be cross-connected).
- Tiller, for emergency use, stowed where readily accessible.
- Clutch lever, or section of pipe, for use in event of casualty to remote control system.
- A tool kit containing sufficient tools for effecting emergency repairs.
- At least six spark plugs (in gasoline engined boats).
- One roll of friction tape.
- One bucket.
- Notes on operation and maintenance--Fresh water cooling systems.--
- Unsatisfactory operation of the fresh-water cooling system has, in a number of cases, been traced to the fact that the system becomes air-bound during filling, and that after the engine has been started, circulation of the water permits the air to escape, resulting in the system being only partially filled.
- To guard against unsatisfactory operation from this cause, it is directed that the following procedure be observed during the period the fresh water system is being filled:
- If practicable, keep the engine turning over during this period.
- If impracticable to keep engine turning over during the filling period, immediately after the boat is hoisted out for operations, start the engine and recheck the quantity of fresh water after the engine has been turning over for a few minutes.
- Antifreeze solution.--An approved antifreeze solution shall be used in the fresh-water system. Alcohol shall not be used for this purpose.
- Heat exchangers.--Heat exchangers become filled with sand, and the tubes become fouled by oil deposits, etc., in service. As this results in a reduction of the heat-transfer capacity of the exchanger, it is necessary to withdraw the tube nests at periodic intervals and remove sand, etc. After the foreign matter has been removed, it will be necessary to remove the oil and other deposits from the tubes by the best method available. While immersing the tube nests in a strong solution of boiling water and boiler compound or lye will probably be effective, the best procedure is to clean the tubes in a diluted solution of muratic (hydrochloric) acid, where facilities are available.
- Vee-belt adjustment.--In many cases the cause of unsatisfactory operation of a cooling water system may be traced directly to an improper adjustment of the V-belts used on all landing force equipment. Should the cooling system be giving trouble, the adjustment of V-belts should be checked.
- Magnetic switches.--Much trouble has been experienced with the magnetic switches, due to the fusing of the points of these switches. One of the causes of this trouble has been attributed to the use of storage batteries having an insufficient number of plates. This condition results in a pronounced initial voltage drop which subsequently results in a weak magnetic field for the switch. This causes chattering and pitting of the points, resulting in the fusion and welding of these points. Coxswains and engineers shall be carefully indoctrinated in the correct procedure to be observed when operating magnetic switches.
- Cold weather precautions.--
- It is impracticable to drain a gear pump. However, they may be filled with a dense solution of calcium chloride, through fittings to be installed by ship's force, in order to prevent the freezing up of these pumps in subfreezing weather.
- Keep storage batteries fully charged.
- Use appropriate antifreeze preparation, such as "Prestone," in the fresh water cooling system. Obtain and use a suitable hydrometer to determine proper specific gravity of solution.
- Use appropriate grade of lubricating oil.
- Starting will be improved by applying steam to engine compartment and heating circulating water.
Section 4. Lubricating Oils
- Variety required.--As APAs and AKAs may be required to operate on short notice, under climatic conditions varying from those encountered in Arctic regions in the winter to those encountered along the Equator in summer, it is of the utmost military importance that each vessel be provided at all times with the necessary variety of lubricating oils to enable it to be self-sustaining in any area or under any climatic conditions. Based upon experience, the following lubricating oils are recommended:
1 The Bureau of Ships has directed that only these oils be used in Gray Diesel engines. This oil is especially designed for heavy duty service encountered in high-speed diesels. Use of an oil other than the above will result in unsatisfactory engine operation, due to carbon deposits, sticking rings, etc.
Operating conditions Gasoline
For heavy duty and high temperatures 3080 9370 40W For medium duty and temperatures 3065 9250 30W For temperatures below freezing 3050 9170 20W For extremely low temperatures 1042
- Identification.--The following symbol system is employed in the naval service for identification of lubricating oils: A four-digit identifying symbol is used in all cases, the first digit indicating the class of oil and the last three digits indicating the viscosity. viscosity at 130° F. is used for class 2 forced-feed oils, and for compounded air-cylinder oils. Viscosity at 210° F. is used for class 1 aviation oils, for class 3 forced-feed oils, for compounded marine-engine and cylinder oils, and for mineral marine-engine and cylinder oils.
- Classes.--The classes of oils indicated by the first digit are as follows:
- Forced-feed oils, high V.I. (aviation) (1).
- Forced-feed oils, low V.I. (2).
- Forced-feed oils (medium V.I.) (3).
- Compounded marine-engine oils (4).
- Mineral marine-engine and cylinder oils. (5).
- Compounded steam-cylinder oils (tallow) (6).
- Compounded steam-cylinder oils (lard or tallow) (7).
- Compounded air-cylinder oils (8).
- Diesel engine oil (heavy duty) (9).
- For the benefit of those desiring to use oil obtained under Navy Department contracts for the lubrication of equipment manufactured by commercial concerns, where reference is made to S.A.E. lubricating oil specifications, the following table shows the Navy symbol for lubricating oil corresponding approximately to the various S.A.E. numbers.
S.A.E. rating | S.A.E. rating specified: Use Navy symbol | specified: Use Navy symbol 10W 1042. | 40 3080, 1080, or 9370. 10 2110. | 50 3100 or 1100. 20W 1047. | 60 3120 or 1120. 20 3050 or 9170. | 70 1150. 30 3065, 1065, or 9250. | 600W 5150 or 5190.
- Attention is invited to specifications for lubricating oils of classes Nos. 1 and 3, which require that these oils maintain their viscosity at 210° F., whereas class No. 2 oil is only required to maintain this viscosity at 130° F. Therefore, except in an emergency, class No. 2 lubricating oils will not be used in landing boats except where a lubricating oil having a viscosity of 10W is required. In the event that delivery of class No. 3 or No. 9 lubrication oil cannot be obtained, class No. 1 of the equivalent viscosity will be substituted.
- Much of the bearing trouble encountered in the operation of internal-combustion engines can be attributed to the use of a lubricating oil which does not meet the load and temperature conditions under which the engines are operating. Boat maintenance and operating personnel will be carefully indoctrinated in the selection of the correct class of lubricating oil to meet the requirements of the conditions under which the engines are being operated.
NOTE:--Bureau of Ships Pamphlet NBS No. 341 covers the properties of the various Navy symbol lubricating oils in detail. Vessels not having a copy of the pamphlet will obtain one, by letter, from the Bureau of Ships.
Section 5. Engine Operating and Maintenance Instructions
- All boat operating personnel including boat officers and coxswains shall become proficient in the following:
- All safety precautions.
- Preparation of the engine for starting.
- Starting of engine.
- Know location of and be able to clean:
- Gasoline or fuel strainers.
- Lubricating oil purifier.
- Sand traps.
- How to change from fresh to salt water cooling.
- Shift the clutch from vacuum to manual.
- Vent fresh-water pump, to free it of air.
- Start engine when starter solenoid switch has failed.
- Make necessary adjustments to clutch in both ahead and astern positions.
- Normal operating temperatures and pressures to be expected.
- Minor casualties to electrical system and corrective action, including connection of batteries in series.
- Purge Diesel fuel-oil system of air.
- Replenish oil in an emergency.
- Effecting emergency repairs to lubricating oil system, cooling system, and electrical system, as a result of damage sustained under combat conditions (such as repairs to piping by using rubber hose, replacement of damaged sections of tubing, repairs to fuel tanks and cooling water system by use of plugs, repairs to electrical and ignition systems, etc.). Ships will provide in each boat or lighter, a supply of rubber hose, hose clamps, hacksaws and blades, tapered wooden plugs, etc., for this purpose.
- Routine engine inspections.--
- Prior to being hoisted out.--
- Inspect for gasoline or fuel-oil leakage.
- Inspect bilges to see that they are dry and free of gasoline or gasoline vapor.
- Operate the hand bilge pump for at least 5 minutes after it has ceased to discharge water.
- Inspect electrical system for grounds, short circuits, chafing, or other defects which may result in a spark.
- Raise the cowl on the engine hood prior to starting. Keep cowl raised until engine is operating satisfactorily.
- See that flame arrestors are in place, properly secured.
- Check wheel rope for adjustment. Adjust as found necessary.
- Recheck the following:
- Lubricating oil.
- Gasoline or Diesel oil.
- Fresh water.
- Sand traps for cleanliness.
- Start the engine room exhaust blower and operate for at least 5 minutes.
- After hoisting out.--
- Before starting engine:
- Open necessary valves in fuel and cooling systems.
- Prime the engine.
- Turn switch on position marked "Engine and Blower."
- Press starter button.
- After engine has started, haul away from ship's side as directed and lay-to for a period of 5 or 10 minutes. Keep engine idling at approximately 400 r.p.m. until engine has warmed up. During this period, check the following for satisfactory operation:
- Cooling water for temperature and volume.
- Lubricating oil temperature and pressure.
- Electrical system.
- Ignition system.
- Remote control system.
- Operation of boat steering gear.
- Turn ignition switch to position marked "Engine."
- During operation.--
- Keep a constant check on the following items:
- Operating r.p.m. of engine.
- Charging rate of generator.
- Lubricating oil for pressure and temperature.
- Cooling water temperature.
- Volume of salt cooling water.
- Sand traps (for cleanliness).
NOTE.--Sand traps should be tended constantly during landing exercises. As soon as there is any indication of a deposit of sand in the trap, the cooling water suction should be shifted and the fouled trap cleaned. There is no acceptable excuse for shifting to a clean strainer and failing to clean the fouled strainer immediately.
- At the end of each period of operation.--
- Check and replenish as necessary:
- Lubricating oil.
- Gasoline or diesel oil.
- Fresh water.
- Effect any repairs required, or report list of needed repairs to boat repairmen.
- Take necessary action to replenish any material, normally carried in the boat, which may have been expended during the day's operations.
- Whenever freezing temperatures are expected, drain all fresh water from the engine cooling system, unless protected by antifreeze or other approved methods. When temperatures below 27° F. are predicted, carefully drain all of the salt-water system, including bilge drainage system.
- Gasoline or fuel-oil strainers.
- Lubricating-oil purifiers.
- Sand traps.
- Test battery electrolyte for condition of charge. (This is of particular importance during low temperatures. It is of the utmost importance that storage batteries be kept fully
charged, in order that there be sufficient energy to turn the engine over on a cold morning. There is also danger of the battery solution freezing if the state of charge is low.)
- Lubricate all working parts of the remote control system; fill all other oil and grease cups and set up on grease cup caps. Inspect and set up on packing gland nuts where necessary.
- Inspection prior to an amphibious operation.--In order to insure that landing craft will be ready when required, commanding officers shall insure that the following directives are accomplished:
- Remove deck plate over rudder posts and stow.
- Insure that all storage batteries installed are kept fully charged (test daily).
- Insure that all ramps operate. Free up and lubricate hinge pins, ramp cable sheaves, ramp windlass, etc.
- Insure that hand crank for ramp windlass, emergency tiller, hand crank for anchor windlass (where installed) and clutch control lever for manual operation of clutch of engine in Higgins type boats (in event of failure of vacuum clutch control) are in landing craft and stowed where readily accessible when boats are loaded.
- Remove all propellers and lubricate shafts with mixture of white lead and lubricating oil to insure easy removal in an emergency.
- Insure that life rings are not stowed in LCV where they will foul ramp cable sheaves.
- Insure that anchors are shackled to anchor lines, and are stowed where they can be used when boat is loaded.
- Check steering gear controls to insure that rudder travel is equalized. In some of the Chris-Craft boats the gears in the rudder control system have been meshed without the rudder first being placed in the midposition. Adjustment of the rudder control cables in other boats may have resulted in a similar condition.
- Insure that all available items of emergency equipage, specified in paragraph 1018, are placed in the boat.
- Place a quantity of tapered wooden plugs, about the size of .30-caliber or .50-caliber machine-gun bullets, in each boat.
- Check bilge drainage system.
- Tests and inspections.--
- Periodic material inspection of landing craft.--
- The systematic inspection and maintenance of landing craft is mandatory.
- It is a well-recognized fact that internal-combustion engines will deteriorate, mechanically, while idle. The only criterion of the performance of an internal-combustion engine is actual operation. In order to insure that the engines of assigned landing craft are, in all respects, ready for service, commanding officers shall require such landing craft to be placed in the water periodically, whenever practicable, for test. The check-off list is an outline of the items which have given trouble heretofore.
- Daily boat check.--Coxswains will check following items when preparing boat for service, and on completion of day's operations. Place check mark on the left to indicate items checked. Note any defective operation on back. Date, sign, and turn in to boat officer.
- Fuel.--Be sure tanks are full.
- Lubricating oil.--Level on oil stick should show full in crank case. Also, in supercharger for superior engines. Check oil in Diesel fuel pumps.
- Cooling system.--Fresh water in surge tank should be filled approximately 1 inch from top. (Add antifreeze as necessary.)
- Fuel- and lubricating oil strainers.--Clean and change elements if necessary.
- Sandtraps.--Clean and prime.
- Leaky lines.--Check oil and fuel lines for leaks.
- Bilges.--Check all compartments for water.
- Stuffing boxes.--Check rudder post and propeller shaft for leaks.
- Packing glands.--Check for leaks on all pumps, salt and fresh water.
- Water pumps.--Screw down one turn on grease cups.
- Bilge pump suction.--Clean strainers.
- Remote control.--Check forward and reverse operation. (Always use canvas cover actuator control unit when not in use.)
- Blowers.--Check operation before starting engine.
- Steering apparatus.--Check cables and tighten quadrant bolts.
- Turn engine over with starter (switch off), thereby checking batteries.
- V-belts.--See that all belts are tight.
- Lights.--See that all lights operate.
- Emergency equipment.--Check if aboard.
Life preservers.--One per person.
Fire extinguishers.--Two for gas boats, one for Diesel.
Fresh water.--Five-gallon container.
Lubricating oil.--Five-gallon container.
Emergency clutch arm.
- Propeller and rudder.--Check for damage.
- Be sure clutch is in neutral position before turning off ignition switch and closing vacuum control valve.
- Weekly boat check.--In addition to daily boat check, coxswains will check following items. Place check mark on left to indicate items checked. Note any defective operation on back. Date, sign, and turn in to boat officer.
- Fuel strainers.--Clean all fuel strainers, change elements if necessary.
- Crankcase.--Change oil if necessary. Check oil level in transmission (Gray Diesels).
- Oil.--All engine fittings, starters, generators, etc.
- Carburetors.--Drain water.
- Auxiliaries.--Check, oil and or grease anchor and ramp winches, ramp cable, shieves, and auxiliaries.
- Remote control actuator unit.--Put oil (30-40 SAE) in top groove.
- Batteries.--Clean and tighten connections and grease, check batteries with hydrometer. Put in sufficient amount of distilled water.
- Lights.--Check switches for corrosion, see that al lights operate.
- Ignition system.--Check, including distributor contact points, and rotor.
- Bilges.--Clean and dry.
- Strut bearing (rubber cutless bearing).--Check for excessive wear.
- Lifesaving equipment.-- Dry and check all equipment.
- Fire-fighting equipment.--Weigh CO2 bottles, check all others to see if they are full charged.
- Vacuum control power cylinder.--Add neat's-foot oil (1 teaspoonful) to both ends of power cylinder. Oil power cylinder release valves (30-40 SAE).
- Tighten all loose bolts and nuts.
- Check clutch.
When indicated by propeller damage or by excessive vibration, break engine-shaft coupling and check engine alignment and straightness of shaft.
Every boat should be operated in the water once each week if operating schedule permits.
Section 6. Special Equipment and Instructions
- Tanks, water, portable, 600-gallon capacity.--
- Commanders Amphibious Forces procure and allocate two of the subject tanks to each APA.
- When tanks are received they will be painted as follows:
- Inside surfaces: Two coats of metallic brown.
- Outside surfaces (engines excepted): Two coats of red lead or zinc chromate, and two coats of ocean gray.
- Portable fresh water tanks are used to supply water to troops on shore after original supply (landed in water carts) has been consumed.
- Tanks are filled on board, or in boats alongside, from ship's fresh water mains. When landing boats are beached, water tank remains in boat while water is pumped to empty water carts or other receptacles provided by the shore party.
- In connection with above paragraph, commanding officers are directed to install filling connections suitably located and to provide necessary hoses to insure rapid filling of tanks. The size of filling connection and hose is limited to approximately 3 inches (diameter of each of the two filling holes in portable tanks.).
- Tanks will be stowed where they will be accessible during the early part of an operation.
- Upon return from an operation, should APA's be assigned to convoy loaded operations, tanks will be delivered to the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment depot.
NOTE.--Information on procurement of these tanks may be obtained from the Matériel Officer, Staff, Commander Amphibious Force, United States Atlantic Fleet.
- Hall-Scott engines--Special precautions.--Salt- and fresh-water cross connections.-- on the earlier cooling systems of the Hall-Scott engines installed in the Higgins Eureka landing boats, the salt- and fresh-water systems were so arranged that the two systems could be cross-connected. It is the intention that these systems be operated with fresh water in the cooling systems at all times, and that the cross-connection valves (which permit the salt water to flow through the engine water jackets) be opened only in an emergency, i.e., failures of the fresh-water system. It is therefore directed that, where such valves are installed, they be sealed by the use of a railroad-type car seal, or other appropriate measure. Bureau of Ships directions require that notation be made in the engine log book whenever these seals are broken; giving the reason therefor, and that a report of the serial numbers of the engines on which seals are broken be reported to the Bureau.
- Gray Diesel engines-Special precautions.--
- Cooling water: Regulation of temperature.-- The Diesel cycle depends upon the heat generated during the compression stroke for ignition of the fuel oil when it is injected into the cylinder. Therefore, if the quantity of heat lost to the cooling water is excessive, combustion of the fuel may be unsatisfactory, resulting in a loss of power. Thermostats are installed in the cooling water system for the purpose of regulating the temperature of the cooling water circulating through the cylinder jackets; however, frequent trouble is experienced with the operation of these thermostats. If, due to unsatisfactory operation, thermostats are removed, and replacements are not available, the temperature of the fresh water can be readily controlled by regulating the quantity of salt cooling water flowing through the heat exchanger by operating the valve in the salt cooling water suction pipe. Should trouble be experienced with the combustion of the fuel when operating without thermostats under conditions where the temperature of the air and water is low, the operation of the engine may be improvised by following above procedure. When this procedure is employed, personnel will be cautioned that complete stoppage of the salt water will result in damage to the rubber gears of the salt circulating pumps, and overheating of the exhaust pipe, All landing craft repair and operating personnel, including boat officers, shall be instructed accordingly.
- Lubricating oil cooler--failure of.--
- Failure of the cooling elements of the lubricating-oil coolers was of frequent occurrence in the earlier engines. This is not considered to be of major importance however, as, when the engine is in operation, the lubricating-oil pressure is greater than the cooling water pressure. Under these conditions, lubricating oil will leak into the cooling water. If operating conditions do not permit the disabling of an engine for repair, or replacement cooling elements are not available:
- Check lubricating oil frequently. Replenish as required.
- Drain and flush fresh water system when contamination becomes excessive.
- The earlier gray engines were equipped with only one lubricating-oil cooler element, while the latest engines are equipped with two elements. If failure of these elements occur proceed as follows:
- If engine is equipped with only one element, remove one element from an engine having two elements and blank off connections to the element removed.
CAUTION: With only one element in use, lubricating oil temperatures of 235° to 245° may be expected under high temperature conditions.
- On an engine having two lubricating-oil cooling elements, remove defective element and blank off connections to element removed.
- An emergency repair to these elements is practicable. To accomplish this: Remove element, Remove cooling portion adjacent to plate. Install copper pipe between inlet and outlet elements, reinstall.
- Fuel-injection pumps.--Fuel injectors require special equipment and especially trained technicians for effecting repairs. Therefore, if this item gives trouble it will be replaced and, if experienced repairmen or repair equipment is not available, the defective unit shall be returned to the nearest Naval Landing Force Equipment Depot for repairs or for return to the manufacturer for repairs.
- Salt water (raw water) circulating pumps.--
- The present salt-circulating water pumps are unsatisfactory and early failure is the general rule. Each vessel having boats powered by this engine should obtain at least one spare pump for each engine installed.
- Circulating pumps are driven, through gears, by the engine, and therefore function whenever the engine is running. The impellers of this pump are composed of synthetic rubber.
- In order to conserve the rubber impellers, adhere strictly to the following directive:
- Do not run Gray Diesel powered boats in the skids.
- When boat is water-borne, if circulating water suction is lost, stop engine immediately.
- If suction cannot be restored and no replacement pump is available:
Connect discharge from bilge pump to inlet side of heat exchanger.
Admit water into boat bilges by removing one of the sand trap elements.
Regulate entrance of water to insure that bilge pump suction in immersed.
NOTE.--Commanding officers shall insure that boat repair officers and boat repairmen are familiar with the above.
Chapter XI. Landing Craft Operating Instructions
- LCP(L) and LCP(R).
- The handling of LCP(L) and LCP(R) boats is, in general, similar to the handling of any standard Navy boat. These boats are steered by means of a small steering wheel located forward. An emergency tiller is provided as a secondary method of steering in case of casualty to the primary method. The emergency tiller is attachable directly to the rudder head.
- A feature of some of these boats, not found in any standard Navy boat, is the vacuum remote clutch throttle control. By means of a single lever, the clutch can be engaged in the ahead or astern position and the engine speed regulated. This feature greatly simplifies the duties of the coxswain inasmuch as the boat can be steered with one hand and the engine entirely controlled with the other hand.
- When moving slowly astern, these boats can be steered the same as any other craft. When going astern rapidly, this is not the case. As long as the rudder is kept exactly amidships when the boat is moving astern rapidly, the boat will move astern on a substantially straight course. When the rudder is moved slightly from the center position, it will be thrown hard over by the force of the water acting against it, and the boat will spin around in its own length. When this occurs, the steering wheel, if in use, spins rapidly. If the auxiliary tiller is in use under this condition, it will be thrown rapidly across the stern. Regardless of the steering method in use, all personnel must be cautioned to stand clear in order to avoid injury when the boat is being moved astern rapidly.
- Landing on a beach.--
- These boats are designed primarily for landing on sand beaches. When properly beached, the center line of the boat is at right angles to the surf and the keel of the boat is grounded throughout its entire length. In this position, the boat will not broach while being loaded or unloaded.
- The type of beach and the number of outer bars off the beach combined with sea conditions determine the type, height, and condition of the surf to be encountered. Unless surf conditions have been accurately predetermined, the coxswain, on approaching a beach, should regulate the speed of the boat so that the bow will be riding on the back of a wave and the boat will ride into the beach with the wave.
- If the boat should ground on an outer bar the engine should be kept running ahead slowly. When the next wave comes under the boat and the boat gains partial flotation, the engine should be accelerated and the boat moved nearer the beach. The ability of these boats to get over shallow places is outstanding, but coxswains must remember to wait for a wave to give the boat partial flotation and then to apply the power. It will cause damage to the engine by uselessly racing it while waiting for flotation from succeeding waves. If the boat strikes an inner bar and grounds, the same procedure should be followed in crossing this bar.
- After clearing all bars, the boat should be run under full power up and onto the beach. As soon as the boat has grounded, the engine should be idled with the clutch engaged in the ahead position. As each succeeding wave gives partial flotation to the boat, the engine should be accelerated and the boat driven farther up on the beach. This should be continued until the full length of the keel is well grounded and there is not possibility of broaching.
- While loading or unloading on the beach, the centerline of the boat must always be kept normal to the surf. This is very important. The coxswain must maintain his station at all times while the boat is being loaded or unloaded at the beach. Depending upon the length of time the boat is to remain on the beach, vigilance must be exercised by the operator to back the
boat down with the water if the tide is ebbing so that the boat will not be left stranded. With a flooding tide, the coxswain must see that the boat is constantly driven higher on the beach so that the full length of the keel will remain well grounded, thus preventing the boat from broaching.
- It is important that the rudder be amidships before any attempt is made to retract the boat from the beach. It is only when the rudder is amidships that the propeller has full effect. This position of the rudder can be determined by removing hands from the steering wheel and running the engine about half-speed ahead. The wash from the propeller will force the rudder into the amidships position.
- With the rudder held in the amidships position, the engine should be engaged in the reverse position at idling speed. As succeeding waves come under the stern of the boat, the engine should be accelerated sharply. The boat will retract a short distance, depending upon the amount of water and the length of time the water is under the boat. As each wave recedes, the engine should be slowed to idling speed but kept engaged in the reverse position. The boat will retract some distance with each succeeding wave until complete flotation is obtained. As soon as complete flotation is obtained, the engine should be slowed and the boat moved slowly out to sea stern first. LCP(L) and LCP(R) boats can be steered under these conditions. When moving rapidly astern, control is lost and the boat will spin. In addition, no damage will result if the stern strikes an outer bar while the boat is moving slowly astern. Should the stern strike an outer bar while the boat is moving astern rapidly, the steering quadrant will probably be broken.
- If a high sea is running with large breakers, the boat should be moved stern first out to sea beyond the breaker line. Immediately after getting through the breakers stern first, and on the crown of a wave, the rudder should be put hard over and the engine accelerated full-speed astern, causing the boat to swing end-for-end in time for the bow to be headed out to sea by the time the next wave reaches the boat. Between waves while headed out to sea, good speed should be maintained. But, upon approaching the crest of a large wave while in close to shore, the speed should be reduced to a minimum. This procedure should be followed until the boat is well clear of the shore line and out to sea.
- In the event little or no surf is running, the boat, upon reaching flotation after retraction from the beach, can be turned immediately and headed out to sea without danger. If the beach has one or more outer bars, upon which the boat would be grounded, there is not much possibility that the seas, after passing over such shallow bars, will be of any consequence. Under this condition the boats, after retracting from the beach, can turn immediately and jump the bars bow first.
- In the event there are bars on which the water is not shallow enough to ground the boat, the waves passing over these bars will probably hold force and height up to the beach. In this case, it is best to steer the boat out to sea stern first as previously described.
- Use of anchors by landing craft.--
- On most landings, stern anchors should not be used as it has been proved by experience that the anchor and anchor line are a hindrance to successful retraction, as the anchor line from either the same boat or from other boats offers a source of danger in that they become entangled in the propeller and underwater assembly of the boat and further, that the boat must be maneuvered exactly over the anchor for its recovery. As the engines powering these boats have ample power with which to retract themselves from the beach, it is not necessary that an anchor be utilized for this purpose. In addition, the use of a stern anchor will hold the stern down, and prevent the stern from rising as the anchor line is always under tension, thus destroying to a very great extent the inherent ability which is built into the boat to retract itself under its own power from any beach.
- Anchors are carried and must be used on steep hard beaches on which it is impossible to ground boats sufficiently to prevent broaching.
- Towing and hauling off stranded boats.-- See chapter XII, Salvage Craft and Operations.
- The LCV.--
- The LCV is steered by means of a small steering wheel located on the after deck of the boat. An emergency tiller is provided as a secondary method of steering in case of casualty to the primary method. In case of necessity, this emergency tiller is attached directly to the rudder head.
- Like the LCP(L) and LCP(R), some LCV are equipped with the vacuum remote clutch throttle control. The steering wheel and engine control is mounted on the center line of the after deck.
- When moving astern, the LCV behaves in the same manner as do the LCP(L) and the LCP(R). That is, when moving slowly astern, the LCV can be steered the same as any other small boat. When going astern rapidly, this is not the case. So long as the rudder is kept exactly amidships, the boat will move astern on a straight course. When the rudder is moved slightly from the amidships position, it will be thrown hard over by the force of the water acting against it, and the boat will spin around in its own length. Coxswains must be warned of the danger of being struck by the spinning steering wheel or the auxiliary tiller when the boat is moving astern.
- Landing on a beach.--
- The methods followed in getting the LCV over outer bars and in landing it on a beach are, in general, the same as described for the LCP(L) and LCP(R).
- The LCV is designed to transport small and medium-size vehicles. Should the LCV, carrying a vehicle, become grounded on an outer bar, the vehicle can be used to assist the boat in crossing the bar. This is accomplished by moving the vehicle all the way forward in the boat and then all the way backward under its own power. This results in a change of trim and, with engine going ahead and advantage taken of partial flotation gained from succeeding waves, the boat may be moved over outer bars.
- Prior to beaching an LCV, the cargo being carried should be moved well aft. This facilitates beaching the boat throughout the entire length of the keel.
- When properly beached, the LCV should be kept on an even keel while troops are being debarked and material unloaded over the ramp.
- Retracting from the beach.--
- The method followed in retracting an LCV from a beach is, in general, the same as that employed in retracting LCP(L) and LCP(R). Due, however, to the fact that this boat normally will trim well down by the stern, two important performance differences have been noted during landing exercises between the LCV and the LCP(L) and LCP(R).
- Due to the trim of the LCV, the stern is much more easily damaged should the boat strike an outer bar while backing off the beach. It is, therefore, important that the speed of this boat be reduced to bare steerageway as soon as the boat has gained complete flotation during retraction.
- Due to the normal trim of the boat, experience has shown that it will retract much more readily from a beach if embarked personnel and/or material are moved well forward in the boat before commencing to back off.
- Operation of ramp.--
- The ramp on the LCV is raised and lowered by means of a hand-operated windlass located on the starboard quarter of the boat.
- Great care must be exercised to avoid lowering the ramp while there is still headway on the boat. Experience has shown that a loaded LCV will swamp if the ramp is lowered all the way down while there is headway on.
- LCM(3).--[See also Skill in the Surf, a training manual for LCM(3)/LCVP crews.]
- Power plant.--
- The LCM(3) are equipped with two Gray marine Diesel engines, developing 225 horsepower each and attached to separate propellers.
- In all of the LCM(3)s, the engines are cooled by fresh water. The fresh water is cooled in a heat-exchanger through which salt water is circulated.
- The LCM(3) has a fuel capacity of 210 gallons of Diesel oil. The oil is carried in two tanks located in the after end of the engine room. Consumption of fuel is estimated to be 10 gallons per hour per engine at full speed.
- Each engine drives three centrifugal bilge pumps located in the engine room. Two of these pumps (one per engine) take suction from the engine room bilges. The other pumps take suction, through manifolds, from the voids on each side of the cargo space and from the double-bottom compartments below the cargo space. Water entering the cargo space drains into a well at the after end of the cargo space from which a suction can be taken by any or all of these pumps. This drainage system enables the LCM(3) to ship a great deal of water and still remain afloat. With the drainage system functioning as designed, this boat can be moved ahead with the ramp down. However, the failure of the drainage system under this condition would probably result in the loss of the tank lighter. Therefore, this boat must never be moved ahead until the ramp has been properly hoisted and secured. While making landings on a beach, the ramp must never be lowered until the boat has been properly beached.
- Steerage and control.--
- The LCM(3) is equipped with two rudders. These rudders are synchronized by a suitable linkage. The lighter is steered by a wheel located on a stand on top of the engine room. This wheel is connected to the rudder posts by tiller ropes. There is no auxiliary method provided for steering in the event of a casualty to the primary steering gear.
- Starting switches, throttle controls, and instruments are located near the steering wheel at the coxswain's station. Clutches are controlled through mechanical linkage, and are operated from the coxswain's station.
- The ramp is raised and lowered by a small hand windlass located on the port side of the after deck near the coxswain's station.
- There is no alternate means of hoisting the ramp, therefore LCM(3), like the LCV, must be equipped with tackles for use in hoisting the ramp when the primary system fails.
- LCM(3) are provided with a preventer which is used to lock the ramp in the closed position and to take the strain off the ramp cables.
- Landing.--The method to be followed in landing these boats on beaches does not differ from that described for the LCP(L), LCP(R) and LCV. Stern anchors are not necessary and this boat should be driven up on a beach in the same manner as is the LCV. When carrying vehicles, these boats can be forced across outer bars in the same manner as the LCV, that is, by changing the trim of the boat by moving the vehicle forward or aft under its own power.
- Retraction.--The method to be followed in retracting LCM(3) from a beach is in general the same as that described for LCV, considering the availability of twin propellers which should be employed in the usual manner peculiar to twin screw craft.
- Other types.--Other types of landing boats which may at this time be in use or which may at some future date be developed should be operated in the general manner described in the preceding paragraphs, taking into account any peculiarities in the type.
Chapter XII. Salvage Craft and Operations
- The tasks of the salvage craft are outlined briefly in paragraphs 203(a)(9), and 447 to 450, inclusive, of FTP 167. the following instructions are intended to supplement the above references.
- Salvage units are primarily composed of landing boats (LCP(R) or LCVP) equipped by the APA or AKA for salvage operations, and manned by specially qualified boat crews. In addition, when available, heavier nonlanding craft should be detailed to assist in the later stages of the landing. These latter types may be minesweepers, tugs or similar vessels equipped for salvage operations, available on call to the beachmaster or to the traffic control officer.
- The salvage units composed of landing boats from APA's and AKA's will normally participate in the landing of the assault echelon of troops under the direct control of the boat group and wave commanders. After the landing of the assault troops has been accomplished the control of these boats will shift to the beachmaster and the traffic control officer. Additional boats will be made available by APA's and AKA's for salvage duty on call from the beachmaster.
- Salvage boats should preferably be boats powered with either Hall-Scott or Gray Diesel engines. The crew should be experienced seamen with special training in salvage work and should include men skilled in line handling. Crews should be required to wear life jackets throughout salvage operations.
- Such heavier craft as minesweepers and tugs will normally be held in reserve under order of the Commander transports who will allocate craft where needed as the landing develops.
- Tasks.--Salvage units will perform the following tasks:
- Transfer troops and equipment from disabled boats to the beach.
- Keep sea approaches clear of disabled boats which may endanger later boats and delay the landing.
- Duties of salvage units.--
- Take station in the rendezvous area astern of the leading wave.
- Follow the leading wave until close to shore.
- Establish and maintain radio communication with the beachmaster and control vessel.
- Tow disabled boats, still adrift, clear of sea approaches and anchor them.
- Haul off all stranded boats that should and can be retracted. Boats that can be repaired will be towed clear and anchored or returned to parent vessel. Boats beyond repair will be stripped, hauled clear, and sunk in deep water.
- When the situation permits, deliver anchored boats to the beach boat repair station or to the parent ship.
- Salvage and towing methods.--
- Towing.--the general principles of towing with any vessel apply to landing craft. In taking another boat in tow, the towing craft should parallel close aboard the one to be towed; and, after passing the line, go ahead so as to be clear. After the line is made fast a gradual strain should be taken.
- Promptness in commencing salvage operations is of utmost importance. The salvage boat crew must be alert at all times to initiate action immediately without waiting for orders when any landing craft appears to be in trouble.
- With a light surf, the salvage boat may back in far enough to pass the towline to members of the crew of the stranded boat, who may have waded out to received it. If other surf boats are available, a better way is for the salvage boat to remain outside the surf, pass a towline to any available boat, which proceeds to make a landing close aboard the stranded boat. The
towline is then passed to the stranded boat by hand or heaving line. The free boat may then retire.
- With a heavy surf the use of a line throwing gun may be required. If a number of boats are stranded at once, considerable time will be saved if a heaving line is kept bent to the towline and tended on the beach so that as soon as one boat is towed clear, the towing line can be hauled in for the next stranded boat. Another method of saving time is to have any boat going out carry the anchor line of the stranded boat and pass it to the salvage boat to be used for hauling the towline back to the beach.
- The towline is made fast to center-line towing bollards on both salvage and stranded boat. If no center-line bollard is available on stranded boat, then a bridle should be used, made fast to the two Samson posts on the quarters of the stranded boat. The practice of towing from one quarter fitting is dangerous as well as inefficient.
- In cases where a current runs parallel to the beach it may be advisable to have an additional boat aid in keeping the salvage boat headed to seaward. This is accomplished similar to towing in tandem, the assisting boat taking an occasional strain to keep the salvage boat on the proper heading and aiding with a steady strain during the final effort.
- In cases where a very heavy pull is going to be required, a bridle should be passed entirely around the hull of the stranded boat. Boats which were high and dry have been pulled off in this manner, using a bridle of two parts of wire or 5-inch manila and a 9-inch manila towline, and three landing craft, a patrol vessel, or a minesweeper for pulling. Bridle should be led twice around the hull from a point immediately under the beading at the bow down under flat after portion of hull, with a clamped or seized eye about 2 feet astern of and under the propeller. This lead tends to lift the stern instead of burying it. The bridle is held in position by 2-inch manila lashings passed over and under the hull. Boat must be strengthened against compressive strain by 4x4 timbers across ramp opening and amidships at deck level. Short pieces of 4x4 at the same position are used as chafing pieces between bridle and hull. In place of the bridle, a cargo net may be thrown over the bow, pull being taken from the beckets under the stern of the stranded boat. Sand must be dug away from stern and sides, skids may be placed under the boat, and a bulldozer or other vehicle used to push on the bow. In all cases, it is necessary to break the suction under the boat. This may be done by rocking the boat, care being taken not to break the skeg by using too much force.
- When surf is heavy, it may be desirable to salvage boat to anchor outside the line of breakers, with the anchor line at the bow. The boat should then be dropped astern until a line can be run to the stranded boat. While pulling, a strain on the anchor line will hold the bow to the sea. Under usual conditions an anchor is not required, and little difficulty should be experienced in controlling the salvage boat by use of the rudder. The salvage boat must always be headed seaward. Never attempt to tow by backing out with the towline led from the bow of the salvage boat.
- With the salvage boat outside the line of breakers a gradual strain is taken on the towline. Take up slack without jerking and keep line from under the stern. Full throttle should ordinarily not be used, but a steady strain must be maintained. With this steady strain, each sea will lift the stranded boat and allow her to come off a few inches. From seaward, the movement may be imperceptible. Do not be discouraged if the boat does not come off on the first few pulls. Keep pulling until directed from the beach to stop.
- Before pulling a boat off a steep beach with high surf, or pulling off a damaged boat, it may be necessary to build an emergency decking of plank and canvas over the after compartment to prevent swamping. Holes in the boat may be patched by nailing on lead or canvas, backed up if necessary by any pieces of planking available.
- The general principles of towing apply in all salvage operations. Do not waste time, but do not attempt to make too much speed. It takes longer to pass a line after it parts than to slow down a little in the towing. Care must be exercised to ease the tow when towed craft
meets incoming breaker. Failure to observe this precaution may result in a parted towline or a swamped boat.
- The following equipment, in addition to regular equipment, is considered essential for a salvage boat:
150 fathoms 5-inch manila line with wire bridle attached.
One line throwing gun with spools.
Three heaving lines.
One portable radio equipment.
Two sets semaphore flags.
Three extra buckets.
- The beachmaster is responsible for getting boats off the beach promptly, and he must keep in close communication with the salvage boats and direct their operations. If necessary he should not hesitate to assign additional boats to salvage work as required to keep the beach clear of stranded boats. If possible one or two trained salvage men should be taken from the regular salvage boat to direct operations in each emergency salvage boat.
Chapter XIII. Evacuation and Handling of Casualties
- The Navy is responsible for medical care to all personnel of all services between port of embarkation and high-water mark on overseas landing beaches, including evacuation and hospitalization afloat.
- Wounded will not be evacuated until the assault troops have been landed.
- Beach masters attached to the shore parties will be responsible for moving the wounded from the beach evacuation stations and placing them in the boats, assisted by the medical section of the shore parties.
- A landing boat carrying casualties will return them to its parent transport.
- Advantage will be taken of the opportunity to place wounded directly on ships berthed at the docks to the limit of their capacity to care for wounded.
- Transports and such other vessels as designated will be prepared for automatic exchange of litter units with the Army.
- Ships will provide eight bunk straps per litter, metal pull type, to the Medical Department for landing operations. Bunk straps may be used to secure patients to litters while being hoisted aboard.
- Handling of casualties.--The shore to ship evacuation of casualties in amphibious operations presents certain problems hereinafter discussed:
- Any boat used in landing operations may be utilized for embarking casualties at the beach. When practicable, boats with bow ramps should be used.
- In accordance with present practices, specially designed ambulance boats, or boats converted for exclusive use as ambulance boats will not be available.
- All landing boats will carry sufficient first-aid matériel in addition to the medical boat boxes to effect emergency first aid.
- Casualty estimates show approximately 50 percent of the casualties to be litter cases. However, future experience may necessitate revision of this figure.
- Ineffectives resulting from casualties occurring in the boats during any phase will be retained in the boats until they can be evacuated to the ship.
- Boat crews of landing boats will be responsible for casualty handling and emergency first aid in their boats.
- Standardization of equipment and methods of handling casualties as described herein will decrease confusion and increase the efficient consummation of this phase.
- Removal of casualties from boats.--
- Hoisting landing boat with casualties therein and unloading at the rail or on deck of ship.
- Hoisting casualties from boat alongside ship:
- Litter cases.--
Litters, Army type.--Secure patient with bunk straps and use Milles-Harris dual litter sling.
Litters, Stokes.--Hoist by means of suitable slings.
- Ambulatory cases:
- Methods and equipment for casualty handling.--
NOTE.--All reference to "corrosion-resisting metal" may be interpreted to mean--corrosion-resisting metal or metal treated to resist corrosion.
- Landing boats--Litter capacity.--The litter capacity of all landing boats at present in use may be augmented by sets of cables as follows:
1 Types illustrated.
Boat Total load Number
LCP(L)--Personnel, 36-foot 6 3 LCP(R)--Personnel ramp1 7 3 LCV--Vehicle ramp1 14 6 LCM(2)--Tank ligher 45-foot 24 9
Since all boats to be outfitted to carry casualties are of two basic designs, one of each was used as test models: the LCV--vehicle ramp, and LCP(R) personnel ramp. Adaptation of this plan to other types of boats may be made but must be similar in the final accomplishment. As an example, where armor plate is contacted to suspend the cables, a corrosion resisting metal plate of sufficient thickness and surface, bored and threaded to receive the eye bolt must be welded to the inboard surface instead of the method used in the LCV as hereinafter explained. Each set of cables must be as nearly 58 inches apart (center to center) as possible to accommodate the various types of litters as the distance between litter legs vary (figs. 2 and 3).
- LCV--vehicle ramp--14 litters.--This type boat is well suited to be an "ambulance boat" and needs little alteration. On the working model used, it was found that the metal angle braces were well situated to take the cables. In the test, the braces were drilled in exact center, as may be seen in all side view pictures of this boat, placing the cables 60 inches apart. As shown in figure 1, if the holes are offset 1 inch from center of each brace, the better distance of 58 inches will be obtained. The center braces are also well placed, leaving a "walking space" between the ends of the two sets of suspended litters (fig. 14), a point that must be allowed for in other type boats that will accommodate more than one set of suspended litters. The forward brace on the boat is not correctly spaced to take the forward cable and another brace, of suitable metal and similar design to those already on the boat, must be manufactured and installed at the proper distance (figs. 5, 6, 7).
The corrosion resisting metal eye bolt (fig. 1) is removable in that the brace is first bored and the nut, also of corrosion resisting metal, is welded to the outside of the brace (fig. 1), thus when the eye bolt is removed, the clearance of the boat is retained and the nut remains in place.
The cable assembly (figs. 4, 5, and 6) consists of a turnbuckle, wire pennant and shackle. the entire assembly should be long enough to insure easy installation and when in place, i.e., hooked in both eye bolts, to have adequate space in the turnbuckle for adjustment. Caution must be exercised in that the cables, when in place but without a load, should have a slight degree of slack to prevent excess stress on the securing points.
Stowage of litters is essentially a plan designed to place the most litters in the least space with an eye for ease in handling (figs. 6 and 7), the aftermost litters being the first to be lifted (figs. 14, 15, and 17). Space around the engine is left to accommodate ambulatory casualties.
- LCP(R)--Personnel ramp--7 litters.--The pictures of this boat are self-explanatory, the only added feature being a set of check lines (for both tiers) to prevent the litters from sliding over and interfering with the coxswain. The litters should be stowed as far aft as practicable and the eye bolts, which are not necessarily removable, should be installed in the double thickness portion of the coaming (figs. 8, 9 and 10).
- Hoisting aboard.--Four methods of hoisting casualties aboard the ship must be considered, namely:
- Hoisting landing boats with casualties.--By this procedure, the boat is hoisted aboard and casualties are unloaded on deck. Directives from the Bureau of Ships give the following instructions:
- Safe to hoist with 8,100-pound load (on triple bank Welin davits only).--
LCP(L) (No ramp). All--except the below serial numbers:
LCP(R) (Personnel ramp).--All.
- Safe to hoist with 7 litter cases only.--
LCP(L) (No ramp).--All.
LCV (Vehicle ramp).--All.
- Litter cases--Hoisting aboard from boat alongside.--The Milles-Harris litter sling meets the following specifications: (a) Simple design; (b) can be made aboard ship; (c) safe; (d) ease of manipulation; (e) applicable to present needs.
Litter sling.--Milles-Harris type (double and single):
Construction: A six-legged sling as per figures 11, 12, and 13, of 21/2-inch manila and whose center legs have an additional leg splice in. The leg eyes must be just large enough to allow them to slip over the litter legs in a tight fit. These eyes may be served to prevent wear. It is essential that the legs of this sling be of such length as to insure a level lift. (The center legs will be a few inches shorter than the outer legs.)
Use: This sling as shown in figures 12 and 16 may be used to raise a double or single load of litters. Due to the split center leg, it will carry evenly litters whose legs are different distances apart (figs. 3 and 13), however, the same method of securing the sling to the litter must be used on each load to insure an even lift. Two methods of securing the legs are shown in inserts 1 and 2A-2B of figure 11.
When used as a single litter lift, any combination of legs may be used. The most even lift will be accomplished by using both sets of outer legs, the center (spliced) legs being left unused.
In lifting, there is some danger of a sling leg slipping off a litter leg. This can be avoided by inspecting the security of each sling leg as the hoisting lines are slowly drawn taut.
- The sling may be loaded for lifting with patients head-to-head or head-to-feet.
As illustrated in FTP-167, figure 11, page 233, bunk straps used to secure the patient in the litter not only increases his sense of security but greatly facilitates handling (figs. 14, 15 and 16). Ships will provide a minimum of 500 bunk straps to the medical department for landing operations.
- Ambulatory cases--Hoisting aboard from boat alongside.--It is virtually impossible for ambulatory casualties to come aboard via debarkation nets. Captain Forster, U.S.N., U.S.S. Harris, suggested the salmon board as a simple lift. This was modified by the Destroyer Base, San Diego, Calif., and has proven to be safe and satisfactory.
Salmon board sling.--
Construction: The salmon board may be any type of standard design. The working model used in tests was 5 by 6 feet with the usual corner eye bolts. The sling (figs. 18 and 19) is of conventional design with life line and grab ropes added as a safety factor.
Use: Use of the salmon board (figs. 20, 21 and 22) is indicated where ambulatory cases are to be lifted. The size of the board allows easy access to any type boat and when possible, the
board may be lowered on the boat's engine hood and loaded in that position. The sister hooks should be moused when in use with the board (insert 1, fig. 18.)
- Individual cases.--
One man sling--Schmahl type--Modified parachute lift.--
Construction: A 21/2-inch manila strap as per figure 23. Eyes in the securing lines should be large enough to insure easy travel along the larger line.
Use: This sling is intended primarily to lift one man vertically, allowing the lift to be made through the smallest possible opening. It is simple in design and use and is easy to construct. It is versatile in that it is adaptable to lift casualties whether wounded above or below the waist. (figs. 25 to 29). In use as the arm lift, it has been found that the securing line should be placed just above the elbows and, for maximum comfort, the arms bound tightly to the body. In use as the body lift, one securing line forms the leg loops at pocket level on both sides while the arms are extended through the upper portion of the large loop thus forming a body brace (figs. 25 to 27.) The remaining securing line may be used to encircle the body at breast level or may be used as a guide line.
As an emergency lift, periods of contact with the body will be short, therefore padding the sling was not considered necessary.
Figure 2.--Showing relation of 58" cable placement to litter legs.
Figure 3.--Types of litters.
Figure 4.--Cable construction.
Figure 5.--Cables in place LCV (note added forward brace).
Figure 6.--Litter stowage, LCV, lower tier.
Figure 7.--Litter stowage, LCV, suspended tier.
Figure 8.--Cables in place, LCP(R) (note check lines).
Figure 9.--Litter stowage, LCP(R), lower tier.
Figure 10.--Litter stowage, LCP(R), suspended tier.
Figure 11.--Construction sketch.
Figure 12.--Lifting 2 litters of like type.
Figure 13.--Lifting 2 litters of unlike type.
Figure 14.--Lifting 2 litters from suspended tier, aft.
Figure 15.--Lifting 2 litters from suspended tier, aft.
Figure 16.--Lifting one litter.
Figure 17.--Lifting 2 litters from bottom tier.
SALMON BOARD SLING
Figure 18.--Construction sketch.
SALMON BOARD SLING
Figure 20.--Board lowered in place for loading.
Figure 21.--Lifting feet outboard.
Figure 22.--Lifting feet inboard.
ONE MAN SLING
Figure 23.--Construction sketch.
Figure 25.--Body lift--front view.
ONE MAN SLING
Figure 26.--Body lift--rear view.
Figure 27.--Body lift--side view.
Figure 28.--Arm lift--front view.
Figure 29.--Arm lift--rear view.
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