of Shiploading Terms
U.S. Naval Supply Operational Training Center
Bayonne, New Jersey
of Shiploading Terms
Produced for the
Bureau of Supplies and Accounts
U.S. Naval Supply Operational Training Center
Bayonne, New Jersey
Nomenclature of Naval Vessels
To the rear of, e.g. the mainmast is abaft the foremast.
Near, toward, or in the rear or stern of a vessel.
In or toward the middle of a ship.
The part of the pier or quay which is between the enclosed structure and the edge, upon which cargo is unloaded.
Across the ship, from side to side.
A rope that serves as a support to prevent the mast going forward and also contributes to its lateral support, thereby assisting the shrouds. A backstay extends from the upper part of the mast to the ship's side at some distance abaft the mast.
Heavy weights packed into the bottom of a ship to give her stability. Also, water carried in ballast tanks.
Tanks provided in various parts of a ship for introduction of water ballast when necessary to add weight to produce a change in trim or stability. They are capable of being flooded or pumped out at will.
1. Strip of wood or steel used in securing tarpaulins in place.
2. Cargo battens are wood planks or steel shapes that are fitted to the inside of the frames in a hold to keep the cargo away from the shell plating, also called sweat battens. 'Battens down' refers to closing the hatches for sea by covering with tarpaulins and securing them.
1. The extreme width of a ship.
2. Also an athwartship or longitudinal member of the ship's structure supporting the deck.
A ringed fitting that can be fastened to a beam in order to secure a block and tackle in the hold for lifting or shifting cargo.
1. An eye for securing one end of a line to a block.
2. A rope eye as on a cargo net.
1. To fasten (i.e., belay a line to a cleat.)
2. To stop.
The act of securing one linen to another.
Any designated place where a ship lies at anchor or ties up.
The space between decks. Same as 'Tween decks.
A loop or bend in a rope; though, strictly considered, any part between the ends may be termed the bight. Sometimes spelled bite.
1. The rounded portion of a vessel's shell which connects the bottom with side.
2. Also, the part of a barrel at its greatest width.
A pair of short metal or wooden posts extending up from a base plate usually fastened to a dock or deck and used for securing lines.
The name given to a pulley or sheave, or a system of pulleys or sheaves, mounted in a frame or shell and used for moving objects by means of ropes run over the pulleys or sheaves. The prefixes single, double, triple, etc., indicate the number of pulleys or sheaves in the block. The principal parts of a block are (a) the shell, or outside frame; (b) the sheave, on which the rope runs; (c) the pin, on which the sheave turns; (d) the strap, by which the hook is held in position and which provides bearing for the pin; and (e) the hook. The opening between the sheave and the shell is called the swallow, the bottom of the shell is called the breech, and the device attached to the bottom of the block opposite the hook for securing the standing part of the fall to the block is called the becket.
A steel block consisting of a sheave supported by a skeleton frame, that is, without solid sides.
A single sheave block having one side of the frame hinged so that it can be opened to allow the bight of a rope to be placed on the sheave, thus avoiding the necessity of threading the end of the rope through the swallow of the block.
The block attached to the top or head of the boom, also called the cargo block, and sometimes referred to as gin block.SLACK-LINE BLOCK
Fitting attached at the midpoint of the boom to support any slack that may develop.HEEL BLOCK
The block located at the bottom or heel of the boom.
A long pole with a hook attached to the end, used for catching, holding, and steadying small boats.
A piece of plank hung in two straps and forming a seat on which a man may be hoisted aloft or lowered over the ship's side.
A short metal column extending up from a base plate which is attached to a wharf and used for securing the lines from a ship. Also applies to timber posts extending above the level of a wharf for the same purpose.
A long, round, heavy spar, pivoted at one end, generally used for handling cargo into and out of a ship.
1. HATCH BOOM -- The boom spotted over the hatch, also called the inboard boom, amidship boom, or up-and-down boom.
2. OUTBOARD BOOM -- The boom spotted over the side of the ship, also called the burton boom or yard boom.
3. JUMBO BOOM -- A heavy-lift boom capable of handling weights up to fifty tons.
4. BOOM CRUTCH -- A structure used to support the boom when not in use.
5. BOOM TABLE -- A structure built up around a mast from the deck to support the heel bearings of the booms and to provide proper working clearances when a number of booms are installed on or around one mast. Also called mast table or tabernacle.
An outside area on a vessel's hull from bow to stern between certain waterlines, to which special air, water, and grease resisting paint is applied; also the paint applied to such areas.
The forward end of the ship.
To put cargo in step formation.
A raft-like float used to keep a vessel, while secured, away from the pier. Also called Camel.
See illustration of BLOCK.
1. A length of line with ends secured to a spar or another line. 2. An assembly of wire rope or chain, used as a sling.
The waste and loss of space caused by irregularity in the size and shape of packages or the incidence of hold pillars, frames, deck beams and other obstructions, and the failure to utilize available space.
A gangplank, usually fitted with rollers at the end resting on the wharf to allow for the movement of the vessel with the tide.
1. A term applied to any one of the partition walls which subdivide the interior of the ship. The various types of bulkheads are distinguished by the addition of a word explaining the location, use, etc., such as longitudinal, transverse, watertight.
2. A Swash Bulkhead is a non-tight bulkhead fitted in a tank to decrease the swashing action of the liquid contents. It's function is greatest when the tank is partially filled, for with it the action of the liquid against the sides of the tank would be severe.
1. A rope used for 'snaking out' cargo to the square of the hatch from the 'tween deck or lower hold, or used to work the cargo into these spaces. It is used in combination with a snatch block.
2. A rope used in connection with the topping lift. One end is secured to the topping lift and the other is wound on the drum of the winch.
The extension of the plating of the ship's side above the weather deck. It helps to keep the deck dry and serves as a guard against losing deck cargo or men overboard. Bulwarks interfere somewhat with the rapid handling of cargo, and therefore where they are removable, that section abreast of the hatch opening should be taken out.
A compartment used for the stowage of coal or fuel oil.
Same as BREASTING FLOAT.
The space or groove between two fore and aft rows of casks stowed side by side. When the bilge of one cask is laid in the cantline of the tier below and resting over the heads of four other casks, it is said to be stowed 'bilge and cantline.'
A revolving drum, with vertical axis, powered by hand nor by machine, used for handling heavy anchor chains, hawsers, etc.
To incline a ship from the upright, as by wave action, or mechanically for the purpose of making repairs.
A barge used for ferrying railroad cars.
A platform used for work alongside a ship. It is secured to two hollow floats.
An auxiliary drum usually fitted on one or both ends of a winch or windlass. Also called Drum End, Gypsyhead. It is used to haul rope or cable.
To fill in the seams with oakum or cotton to make watertight.
Planking fitted on top of the double-bottom in the hold. Also called Ceiling Floor.
CENTER OF GRAVITY
The side of a block.
The part of the cask or barrel at the end of the staves. Also spelled Chine.
1. Metal casting sometimes fitted with rollers, through which hawsers and lines are passed.
2. Blocks of wood used as dunnage, and blocks in the form of a saddle used in securing cargo such as vehicles.
Two blocks of a tackle drawn together as close as possible; this condition is also referred to as Two-blocked.
Fouled in the block, because of a kink, or because of slipping off the sheave.
1. Metal or wood fitting with arms or horns upon which to secure lines.
2. Wedge cleats are fittings on the hatch coaming. Wedges placed between these and the battens secure the battens in place.
A metal fitting used to grip and hold wire rope. Two or more may be used to connect two ropes in lieu of a short splice or an eye splice. Also called Clamp.
The side wall of a hatch projecting above the deck around the perimeter of the hatch. Forms a support for the covers, prevents water from entering the hold from the deck and is a safety feature for personnel.
Empty space separating compartments for the purpose of insulation, or to prevent the liquid contents of one compartment from entering another in the event of leakage.
Any vessel designed for the carrying of coal.
Originally one who made or repaired casks or barrels, but now applied to anyone who repairs cargo containers of any description.
A comprehensive term for all ropes of whatever size or kind.
The opening to a ventilator.
The frayed end of a rope; also called Fag.
A support of wood or metal shaped to fit the object which is stowed upon it, such as boat cradle, boom cradle, etc.
A piece of line spliced on another line to form an eye.
Beams that support the hatch covers. Also called Hatch Beams. Cross beams which support the center of the hatch covers are referred to as Blind, She, or Queen Beams, while those with vertical flanges to retain the ends of the covers in place are referred to as King Beams. Strongback is a term used synonymously with Cross Beam, but may also refer to a heavy girder extending force and aft of the center of some hatch openings.
Athwartship pieces fitted on a mast. They serve as a foundation for a platform and also are used to secure the blocks used in connection with the topping lift.
A lookout station attached to or near the top of the mast.
1. Bale cubic capacity is the space available for cargo, in cubic feet, to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams, in other words the space that can be occupied by general cargo.
2. Grain cubic capacity is the maximum space available for cargo, measured in cubic feet, the measurements being taken to the inside of the shell plating of the ship or to the outside of the frames and to the top of the beams or underside of deck plating; in other words all the space into which grain would flow.
Crane-like device used to raise and lower ship's boats or other weights.
Cargo of such a nature that a long ton stows in less than 40 cubic feet. See also Measurement cargo.
Cargo carried on deck.
The waterline at which the vessel floats when carrying the maximum allowable load.
The charge made when a ship is delayed while loading or discharging cargo.
The ship's plan for furnishing for docking purposes all necessary information concerning the underwater hull.
A short metal rod or bar fashioned to form a clamp which is used to hold watertight doors or manhole covers in place.
A small gas, steam or electric auxiliary engine set on the deck and used for lifting, etc.
1. The entire length of rope used in a tackle.
a. The end secured to the block is called the standing part.2. The cargo fall is the cargo hosting wire or rope used through blocks on booms for working cargo.
b. The opposite end, the hauling part.
a. The Burton fall, also called outboard fall, is the cargo fall suspended over the side of the ship.
b. The hatch fall, also called the up and down fall, or inboard fall, is the fall suspended over the hatch.
Open storage area near the pier entrances.
Canvas, wood or rope used over the side to protect the vessel from chafing when alongside another vessel or dock.
A pointed hard wood tool used to open strands of manila line.
Laying a floor with dunnage.
Uppermost structure on the bow.
FORE AND AFTERS
A gasoline or electric powered industrial machine equipped with two extended forks used to pick up, carry and stack supplies.
The vertical distance from the waterline to the top of the weather deck at side.
Holes in the lower portion of a bulwark which allow deckwash to drain off into the sea.
FRESHEN THE NIP
To shift the rope so as to take the wear in another place.
FULL AND DOWN
1. A ship is said to be 'Full and down' when its cargo spaces are full and it is down to its marks.
2. With an extremely light cargo, the vessel would be full but now down to its marks.
3. With a heavy cargo, such as ore, it will be down to its marks, but is total cargo spaces will not be filled.
Longshoreman who directs the winch operators.
A line passed through a single block aloft, used for hoisting or lowering rigging, a boatswain's chair, etc.
An overhead structure, such as is used to support a crane.
Seaming material such as rubber, canvas, asbestos, which insures tightness in an opening such as a door.
A general term for equipment of all types.
A portable pole rigged with tackles, which is used to handle loads where a boom is not available.
Same as GANTLINE.
GLORY HOLD OR HOLE
Space forward or aft used for storage of nondescript material. Lazarette.
A swivel fitting that connects the heel of the boom with the mast.
A line used for steadying oneself.
Consists of a hook with several prongs arranged for clutching; also known as Grappling Hook; a small anchor with several arms used for dragging.
A ring of rope used as an eye or as a gasket.
general term used for all mooring gear.
The upper edge of the rail of a ship or boat. Pronounced Gun'-el.
A rope or cradle used to swing or steady a boom.
1. Outboard Guy.
2. Midship, Schooner or Lazy Guy.
A light line used for hoisting a flag or sail.
A small block and tackle for use about the deck, resembling awning pulley.
An opening in the deck through which cargo may be handled.
Boards fitted to rest on top of hatch beams to cover a hatch opening. Also called Hatchboards or Fore-and-Afters. Pontoon Hatch Covers are large hollow metal covers, and only a few are needed to cover an entire hatch.
A large rope used for securing vessels to a pier, for towing, etc.
Upper end, as the head of a boom.
1. Lower end, as the heel of a boom.
2. See also LIST.
Method of securing a line to a hook, ring, spar, or another line.
Space below decks for the stowage of cargo.
1. CARGO HOOK -- The general name for hooks used to hoist cargo.
2. PORTLAND HOOK -- A cargo hook with no swivel.
3. LIVERPOOL OR NEW YORK HOOK -- A cargo hook with a single swivel.
4. WESTERN OR WEST COAST HOOK -- A cargo hook set on a ring which is suspended by two swivels.
5. SEATTLE HOOK -- A cargo hook on a swivel, mounted on a ring which in turn is suspended by two swivels.
6. WIRE SLING OR PEDRO HOOK -- A simple form of hook used to secure a wire rope sling to a draft of cargo, such as a box, etc.
7. LIP OR SAFETY HOOK -- A cargo hook used for added safety.
8. BURTON HOOK -- A hook used to connect one cargo fall with another in one of the methods of cargo handling.
9. BARREL OR CANT HOOK -- Used in pairs to grip the ends of a drum or cask when hoisting.
10. SISTER HOOK -- A hook made in two parts, set facing each other in such a manner that when combined they form a link.
11. BOX HOOK -- A pair of pronged hooks clamped on opposite sides of a box and drawn together by the rope which lifts the box.
12. BALE HOOK -- A hook something like an ice tongs, used in handling bales.
13. LONGSHOREMAN'S HAND HOOK OR COTTON HOOK -- The hook carried by most longshoremen, to facilitate the handling of boxes, bales, etc.
14. PLATE HOOK -- A hook used in pairs to grip and lift metal plates. The weight of the plate causes the hook to grip tightly.
15. BRIDLE HOOK -- A type of hook used in connection with wire rope bridles to secure a grip on the cargo.
PELICAN HOOK -- A quick releasing hook device.
Longshoreman who works in a hold and at the same time directs several others.
The system of cargo handling whereby a fall is passed through a block attached high on a pier structure and used in conjunction with the fall from a boom spotted over the ship's hatch. The fall passing through the block may leas either to the winch on the ship, or to a winch on the pier.
The structure on the pier to which a block is attached when using the housefall system.
The framework of a vessel including all decks, deckhouses, but not the mast rigging, engines, etc.
Toward the center of the ship.
A general term for any rope or rod used for securing purposes.
To heave goods overboard.
1. A landing wharf or pier.
2. A breakwater.
A makeshift arrangement of cargo handling gear, rigged when regular gear has broken down.
The backbone of a ship, running from stem to stern at the bottom. Some ships also have Bilge Keels, which run the length of the ship, at the turn of the bilge and contribute to stability.
Pig iron used as ballast, or as a weight for inclining a vessel.
A pair of masts used to support booms. Also called Pairmasts or Samson Posts.
1. A tie in a line.
2. A speed of one nautical mile (6080 ft.) per hour.
A heavy piece of rope attached at one end to some object, which is moving or swinging, while the other end of the rope is used for controlling purposes. Also called Tag Line, Lead Line, Guide Line.
Rope used to secure deck cargo, etc.
Direction of twist in a rope, as left lay, right lay.
Same as GLORY HOLD (used as hospital on old time sailers).
A guy that carries very little strain.
A small barge-like vessel used for loading and unloading ships from the offshore side, and for transporting cargo locally about the harbor.
A band fitted around the head of a cargo boom into which is shackled the topping lift, headblock, and boom guys.
The inclination of a vessel to one side due to the shifting of cargo or other reason. Also called Heel.
General term relating to the draft of a vessel under various conditions, such as the load line for Winter, North Atlantic. See PLIMSOLL MARK.
A storage compartment on a ship.
Man employed in the loading and unloading of cargo.
Compartment used for stowage of ammunition and explosives.
Highest complete deck extending from stem to stern and side to side.
Mast, second from the bow.
A hole cut in the deck to provide access below.
A detailed list of the vessel's cargo, showing marks, shipper and consignee.
Two-stranded tarred cord used for seizing.
See SERVING MALLET.
A pointed iron instrument used to separate the strands in splicing wire rope.
To join any two objects, usually falls. The Married Fall system consists of handling cargo by two connected falls. Also called Yard and Stay method, or Union Purchase method.
A vertical structure supporting the booms.
Same as BOOM TABLE.
A light line used for hauling a heavier rope or cable.
1. A tackle connecting the heads of the outboard and hatch booms, also called Schooner Guy.
2. The inboard guys for the booms, where these are used in place of a single midship guy connecting the heads of the booms.
A breakwater used as a loading pier.
A groove for the strap of a block. Also called Score.
Closing the end of a hook with seizing to prevent the sling from slipping off.
A pin passing through the head of a bollard to prevent hawsers from slipping off.
A worn spot in a rope.
A caulking material made of old tarred hemp rope fiber.
Toward the side of the ship.
1. The boom over the side of the ship.
2. The fall leading from the outboard boom.
3. The horizontal distance from the end of the boom to the mast.
To separate the blocks of a tackle.OVERHAULING WEIGHT
A weight used to keep the rope taut when a load is not hooked on to a tackle. Also used in cargo falls to prevent slack from developing.
The term used for ceiling aboard ship.
A metal eye attached to a deck or bulkhead through which a hook, ring or line may be passed. Also known as Lug Pads, Hoisting Pads.
See KING POSTS.
A wooden platform on which material can be stacked and hoisted aboard.
A short length of seizing at the end of a rope to prevent its unlaying.
A method of rolling an object, such as a drum, up an incline by means of a rope.
Wrapping a rope spirally with long strips of tarred canvas, overlapped, in order to shed water.
A block having roller bearings for the pin bearing.
A metal eye or socket secured to the end of a wire rope in place of a spliced eye.
Short hinged piece of metal used to engage the teeth of gear-like mechanisms so that recoil will be prevented.
To slack out on a line.
Compartments at the extreme fore and aft ends of the ship either left void or used for water ballast.
The fitting which takes the gooseneck of the jumbo boom.
A length of wire rope with a socket or an eye splice at each end.
A structure used for loading and unloading vessels, which projects into the water, usually at right angles to the shore line.
A timber driven into the bottom and projecting above water; those driven at the corners of a dock are called fender piles.
1. The axle of a block upon which the sheeve revolves.
2. A Belaying Pin is a rod of wood or metal that is inserted in holes in a rail for belaying or making fast certain gear.
A mark painted on the sides of a vessel designating the depth to which the vessel may, under the Maritime laws, be loaded in different bodies of water during various seasons of the year.
A complete mast constructed from a single spar.
Poop deck or partial deck at the stern over the main deck.
1. The left side of a ship when looking forward.
2. An opening in the ship's side.
3. A harbor.
A rope used for additional support or safety, as, a preventer guy.
A small marlinspike.
1. A tackle.
2. The mechanical advantage secured by the use of a tackle.
A wharf used for the loading and unloading of cargo, which is parallel to the shore, having water on only one side.
Joining two ropes together by seizing.
Fore and aft inclination of the masts, funnels, etc.
A circular piece of metal fitted closely on hawsers and lines to prevent rats from boarding or leaving the ship while at the wharf.
Light rope used as rungs between shrouds, for the crew to go aloft.
A ship designed for the carrying of refrigerated cargo.
To pass the end of a rope through a block.
1. A term used collectively for all the ropes and chairs required to support the masts, yards, and booms of a vessel and to operate the moveable parts.
2. The act of handling and placing heavy weights and machinery.
The enlarged terminal on the suction end of a pipe which forms a strainer to prevent the entrance of material liable to choke the bilge suction pipe. Also called Strum Box.
To bring the blocks of a tackle closer together.
Three-stranded rope used for fine seizings.
See as FALL.
That part of the ship's rigging that is movable, running through blocks.
SAFE WORKING LOAD
The maximum weight which a boom, fall, tackle, hook, etc., will safely support. Abbreviated SWL. The breaking strength divided by the SWL is known as the Safety Factor.
The platform of a platform sling.
Same as KING POSTS.
A net spread from the ship's rail to the wharf to catch any cargo falling from slings during loading and unloading operations.
Groove in the cheek of some types of blocks, to take the strap.
Drains from decks to carry off accumulated rain or sea water. They connect to pipes leading overboard.
1. Light cordage used to bind a cut or spliced rope or cable. Also used to make an eye without splicing.
2. The act of applying seizing.
Same as SEIZING.
Hammer used to serve marline. Same as Marline Hammer.
A U-shaped piece of iron or steel with eyes in the ends, closed by a shackle pin. Used as a connector for wire rope and such parts and fittings as hooks, blocks, padeyes, etc., and as a connector for chain.
Waste rope, canvas, etc.
The wheel of a block.
A knot used to shorten a rope.
The casing of a block.
A temporary bulkhead in a hold lto prevent the shifting of cargo.
A temporary wooden brace or prop used to support cargo.
Fifteen fathoms (90 feet) of cable or anchor chain.
A rope extending from a mast head to the vessel's side to afford lateral support for the mast.
Rope made of fibre of the henequin plant.
A shell with two sheaves, each of which hold a line, and these lines lead in opposite directions
The inside or outside of a ship's plating.
Type of sling. Also called Ammunition Scow.
That part of a rope hanging loosely. The opposite of taut. Also, to pay out a line.
A pallet on runners so that the load can be drawn along the ground.
Rope, chain, or other gear used to suspend a draft of cargo.
The space between two piers for berthing a vessel.
To unstow specific items of cargo, particularly by dragging to the square of the hatch.
SNORTER OR SNOTTER
Length of rope with eye splices at each end, used as a cargo sling.
To check suddenly, as a line from running out.
Wire rope fitting attached to the end of the rope and secured by molten metal which has hardened. Also called speltered socket.
A rope with both ends secured and a purchase attached to the bight.
A wire stay connecting two Kingposts.
A mast, boom, yard, or any wood or metal pole used for similar purposes.
Same as LINKBAND.
To join the ends of two lines by tucking the strands of each into the other.
To swing a boom to any desired position by means of the boom guys and topping lift. Also called Trimming.
A horizontal iron or wooden bar used to spread the legs of a sling or bridle and to keep them that way while the cargo is suspended. The bridle is thus prevented from cutting into the upper containers in the draft.
SQUARE OF THE HATCH
The space directly under the hatch opening, extending from the opening itself down to the bottom of the hold.
The tendency which a vessel has to return to the upright position.
The following are terms relating to stability:
CENTER OF GRAVITY -- The point at which the combined weight of all the individual items going to make up the total weight of the vessel may be considered as concentrated.
CENTER OF BUOYANCY -- The point at which the buoyant force of water on the immersed portion of the ship's hull may be considered as concentrated. The position of this point changes as the vessel is inclined.
METACENTER -- The point where the vertical center line of a heeling vessel is intersected by the vertical line through the center of buoyancy. The position of the metacenter remains fairly constant for small angles of heel of the ship.
METACENTRIC HEIGHT -- The distance between the Center of Gravity (G) and the Metacenter (M), usually called (GM). The greater this distance, the greater is the tendency of the vessel to right itself from any position of heel.
RIGHTING MOMENT -- The numerical measure of the ship's tendency to right itself from a given angle of heel. This varies with the angle of heel.
Wooden or metal uprights used as supports.
Rigging that is permanently secured, as opposed to RUNNING RIGGING.
The right hand side of the ship when looking from aft forward.
A rope or cable running fore and aft from a mast to support it. See definition of BACKSTAY.
To set a mast, gin pole, etc., in place.
The rear of a vessel.
A person who contracts to load or unload a vessel, and employs longshoremen for this purpose.
A vessel is stiff when its center of gravity is low, making it careen with difficulty. It returns rapidly to the upright position, with greater force. Opposite of TENDER.
A platform in the hold, in which cargo is landed. It may consist of planking, a heap of sacks, etc.
A piece of rope or chain used to hold rope under load while being transferred from drum end of the winch to a cleat or vice versa.
A continuous row of steel plates running the length of the ship.
A number of yarns or wires twisted together and which in turn may be twisted into rope.
1. The heavy square timber laying along the top of the piles forming a dock front or timber pier.
2. A small apron between the edge of the pier and the transit shed which is wide enough for passage but not for cargo operations.
Same as ROSE BOX.
The opening in a block in which the sheave is located.
A watertight structure for stowing gear and housing winches. Also, a boom table.
An assembly of ropes and blocks, (pronounced take'-l). Tackles are used to secure a mechanical advantage--that is, to enable the lifting of a heavy object by the exertion of a force considerably less than the weight of the object.
1. SINGLE WHIP -- Has a mechanical advantage of one (one pound force lifts one pound weight, disregarding loss due to friction). A single fixed block.
2. GUN-TACKLE PURCHASE -- Has a mechanical advantage of two (one pound force lifts two pound weight, disregarding friction). A single fixed block and a single movable block.
3. LUFF-TACKLE -- Has a mechanical advantage of three. A fixed block and a movable single block.
4. TWO-FOLD PURCHASE -- Has a mechanical advantage of four. A fixed double block and a movable double block.
5. DOUBLE LUFF -- Has a mechanical advantage of five. A fixed treble block and a movable double block.
6. THREE-FOLD PURCHASE -- Has a mechanical advantage of six. A fixed treble block and a movable treble block.
7. RUNNER -- Has a mechanical advantage of two. A single movable block.
8. WHIP AND RUNNER -- Has a mechanical advantage of two. A whip hooked to the hauling part of a runner.
The weight of containers, strapping, etc. Net weight plus tare equals gross weight.
Heavy canvas used as a protective covering over the hatches.
A vessel is tender when its center of gravity is high, making it careen easily, i.e., it is topheavy. It returns slowly to the upright position, with relatively little force. The opposite of STIFF.
A pear-shaped metal ring, grooved on the outside to take rope around it. It protects the inside of an eye-splice from wearing out.
To stack. Also, a horizontal layer of cartons, cases, etc.
Shoring which forces cargo down against the deck.
1. The short or net ton is 2000 pounds.
2. The long ton is 2240 pounds.
DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE (LIGHT)
The weight of the ship itself, empty. (Long tons).
DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE (LOADED)
The weight of the ship including the cargo, stores, fuel, dunnage, water, and other items necessary for use on a voyage, when the ship is loaded down to its maximum draft. This weight is equal to the weight of water displaced by the ship when in the above condition. (Long tons).
The displacement loaded minus the displacement light. In other words, it is the carrying capacity of the ship. (Long tons).
DEADWEIGHT TONNAGE or
CARGO CAPACITY TONNAGE
The deadweight tonnage minus items which are not part of the cargo, such as fuel, water, stores, dunnage, etc. The cargo deadweight is the maximum amount of cargo, in long tons, which the ship is able to carry.
This is a measure of volume, rather than weight. The internal space of the ship, including the holds and erections on the hull but not including certain exempt spaces, is measure in terms of cubic feet; this cubic feet figure is converted to 'gross tons' on the basis of one ton for each hundred cubic feet.
This differs from gross tonnage in that certain additional spaces have been deducted, such as crew's spaces, etc.
To raise or lift up the boom.
A tackle by which a boom is raised or lowered to the desired angle and held there in place.
Enclosed structure on pier or quay, protecting cargo.
Position in the water, relative to the horizontal place. A vessel 'Trims by the hed' or 'Trims by the Stern' when it inclines forward or aft.
A link with two threaded bars inserted in opposite ends. Twisting the link draws the bars together. Used for tightening purposes, such as the securing of deck cargo, or securing standing rigging to dock.
Space between decks, usually that space between the main deck and the lower hold. Same as Between Decks.
What a case or tank lacks of being full.
To move a vessel by means of a line or anchor.
Plates fitted fore and aft to check the rush of bilge water from side to side when the ship is rolling.
Same as FREEING PORT.
Filled or soaked with water but still afloat.
Uppermost decks which are exposed to the weather.
Place for loading or unloading vessels.
Charge for the use of berthing space.
Any tackle used for hoisting light weights; usually only a single fixed block.
Turns of small cord wound around the end of a rope to prevent its unlaying.
The large toothed wheel of the windlass that catches the anchor chain and carries it over the windlass.
An engine usually electric or steam driven, secured on deck, and fitted with drums on a horizontal axis which are used for hoisting or lowering cargo.
The powered apparatus used for handling heavy anchor chains, hawsers, etc. It may be either vertical or horizontal like a winch.
The part of the hold or 'tween deck which is to port or starboard of the square of the hatch.
The laying of a small rope or worm along the lay of a larger rope to bring the surface of the rope more nearly round for the purpose of parceling or serving.
An athwartships spar attached at its midpoint to a mast.
Outer end of a yard.
Twisted fibers which may be twisted further into strands.