Section 1. General Section 2. Personnel Section 3. Boats and Barges Section 4. Logistics
Section 1. General
- Purpose. Boat pools are established and maintained in the areas seized during the amphibious phase of assault operations in order to provide for shore to shore movements, harbor needs for personnel, and the unloading of ships of the Garrison Echelons.
- Establishment. The Joint Expeditionary Force Commander directs the initial establishment of a boat pool by designating its source, composition and allocation in the Boat Pool Annex of the Operation Plan. Each transport group commander at an objective is charged with the immediate responsibility for organizing, equipping and establishing ashore the boat pool supplied from his command. Boat Pools are established at objectives after the initial assaults are successfully completed, and at the time the transports are withdrawn.
- Administration and Operation.
- The boat pool operation, administration and location ashore will be as directed by the Commander Naval Activities under the superior Command of the Island Commander.
- Boat pools are units of their respective bases. They will be prepared to operate on a twenty-four hour basis.
Section 2. Personnel
- Source. Boat Pool personnel may be provided by the assignment of a Standard Landing Craft Unit to each boat pool to be established, or boat pool personnel may be assigned by the Transport Group Commander responsible, from the ships under his command. Naval Construction Battalion personnel, for self-propelled barge operation, maintenance, and repair, will constitute an essential addition to boat pool complement.
- Employment of Standard Landing Craft Units.
- It is intended that wherever practicable a Standard Landing Craft Unit, (or SLCU), will be assigned to provide the personnel for each boat pool to be established during the amphibious phase of assault operations.
- Personnel of such units may be augmented or decreased in accordance with the requirements of each objective. The SLCU Commanding Officer will be the Boat Pool Commander. The SLCU Executive Officer will be the Boat Pool Executive Officer. The SLCU Flotilla Commander will be the Boat Group Commander in charge of the Boat Group. The SLCU flotilla will furnish the boat officers and boat crews for the boat pool. The officer-in-charge of the SLCU E 10 Maintenance Component will be the Boat Repair Officer and the E 10 Maintenance Component will be the repair component for the boat pool. SLCU administrative, supply, medical and other personnel will be employed as available. Such additional personnel as may be required will be ordered to the SLCU during the planning phase.
- The Standard Landing Craft Unit may be transported in its entirety in ships of the assault force, or essential components may accompany the assault force with the remainder of the personnel ultimately to be required, transported in ships of the first echelon Garrison Forces. The Boat Pool Commander together with the officers and men of the Boat Group will be transported in APAs and AKAs. The Boat Repair Officer and E 10 Maintenance Component will be transported in an LSD and during the assault phase, and until ordered ashore, will assist the LSD repair party in effecting major repairs to landing boats of the transport divisions. A supply officer and sufficient administrative personnel should accompany the assault force and be transferred ashore as early as possible to insure proper berthing and messing of boat pool personnel.
- The duties and responsibilities of SLCU personnel assigned to a boat pool will be identical with the duties and responsibilities of boat pool personnel drawn from assault transports as outlined in detail in the sections following.
- Naval Construction Battalion Personnel. In the number required, four man barge crews, with one officer for each four crews, and a barge repair component will form the barge section of each boat pool. Barge officers and barge crews will be transported in LSTs of the assault force. The barge repair component, officers and men, will be transported in ARLs of the assault force and during the assault phase and until ordered ashore will assist the ARL repair parties in effecting repairs to self-propelled barges. The barge section of the boat pool will be under the operation control of the Boat Pool Commander.
- Personnel Assigned from Assault Transports -- Assignment and Duties.
- The Boat Pool Commander, the Boat Group Commander, the Boat Repair Officer, administrative, communication and repair personnel of each boat pool will be assigned by the Transport Group Commander responsible, from the ships under his command. Boat division officers and boat crews will be assigned by the Transport Group Commander in accordance with the Boat Pool Annex of the Operation Plan.
- The Transport Group Commander will furnish the Boat Pool Commander with a list of the names of the officers and men who will be furnished by each ship for the boat pool.
- The commander of each boat pool will furnish a complete list of all personnel to be attached to the pool as initially assigned, and a corrected list of the date of establishment of the pool, to the Commander Service Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, (Advance Base Personnel Administrative Office), the Commander Naval Activities and the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
- The Boat Pool Commander will be a lieutenant or lieutenant commander, and must be experienced in landing craft operations. As soon as appointed, he should consult with the Commander Naval Activities relative to the location and operation of the boat pool when established ashore. When the boat pool is established ashore, he will report to and operate under that officer. He is also responsible for organizing, instructing and indoctrinating the officers and men who are assigned.
- The Boat Group Commander will be junior to the Boat Pool Commander, and will be executive officer of the boat pool, and in charge of the boat group.
- The Boat Repair Officer will take charge of the repair personnel landed from the transport group and the boat repair component landed as a part of the Garrison Beach Party. He will be responsible for the repair of boats of the pool, for boats operating from ships unloading Garrison troops and equipment which do not have adequate repair facilities or personnel, and for water transportation assigned for operation to the Naval or Naval Air Base Commander.
- Boat Division Officers. The number of division officers will be set forth in the Boat Pool Annex to the Operation Plan. Each Boat Division Officer will be in charge of a boat division and will perform such other additional duties as required by the Boat Group Commander. Boat Division Officers must be selected for this duty on a basis of proved ability and be satisfactory to Boat Pool Commanders.
- Boat Pool Supply Officer. An officer of the Supply Corps of the rank of ensign or lieutenant, junior grade, shall be ordered to duty with each boat pool. He shall be assigned sufficiently in advance of an operation to enable him to requisition all supplies and equipment needed for the boat pool to which he is assigned and to coordinate and supervise the assembly and packing of such supplies and equipment.
He shall also make arrangements with the Supply Officer of the transport division flagship lifting his unit for necessary concentrated and dry provisions to be landed with the unit in the advanced area. Upon arrival at such area his duties shall consist of the supply and commissary functions of the boat pool.
- Enlisted Personnel for Administration and Repair. The following enlisted personnel will be assigned to the Boat Pool Commander for administration communication and repair purposes. They should be organized and trained by him in their respective duties, and also in sanitation, setting up a camp, camouflage discipline, and safety measures. All officers and men should spend at least two nights ashore during the rehearsal.
NOTE: Commissary personnel will be assigned as set forth in paragraph 18. Mess cooks will be assigned on a basis of 1 for every 25 men attached to the pools. Hospital Corpsmen as in paragraph 19.
OPERATIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE 4 BM and Cox - 1 BM1c, 1 BM2c, and 2 Cox 2 GM - 1 GM1c, and 1 GM2c 2 Y - 1 Y2c, 1 Y3c 2 SK - 1 SK2c, 1 SK3c 8 S - 4 S1c, and 4 Sc2 2 StM - 2 StM any class 1 OC - 1 OC any class 1 OS - 1 OS any class Total 22 COMMUNICATION 1 Officer - Personnel of organized controller 5 RM - B M Communication Team 5 SM - REPAIR 1 CMoMM - 1 CMoMM or CMM 6 MoMM - 2 MoMM1c or MM1c and 4 MoMM2c or MM2c 2 CM - 1 CM1c and 1 CM2c 3 SF - 1 SF1c and 2 SF2c 4 EM - 1 EM1c and 1 EM2c, 2 EM3c Total 16
Gunners' mates should be experienced in the operation and repair of .50 and .30 caliber machine guns and small arms. Repair personnel should be fully qualified as boat repairmen and acceptable to the respective repair officers.
- Communication Section. Each Transport Division Beachmaster is provided with a Communication Team equipped to handle ship to shore traffic. When the Boat Pool is established, the Transport Group Commander responsible for establishing the pool will assign one of these teams to the Boat Pool. Each team consists of the following personnel:
1 officer Equipment for standard Beach Party plus jeep mounted SCR 608 with power unit. 5 RM 5 SM
- Boat Crews. Boat crews will be furnished from the ships which supply boats to the Boat Pool. The crews will consist of four men for each LCM, and three men for each other type. Enlisted men shall be carefully selected for this assignment. They must be experienced in landing craft operation and be men of excellent military character.
- Identification. Personnel primarily concerned with beach activities may be identified by their distinctive markings.
- Boat Pool personnel will wear markings as follows:
- Helmets -- deck blue, with a RED circle two inches in diameter, front and rear.
- Utility suits -- RED circle two inches in diameter on each shoulder.
- Boat Pool Commander's helmet -- "BP" in RED.
- Boat Group Commander's helmet -- "BG" in RED.
- Boat Division Commander's helmet -- "BD" in RED.
- Beach and shore party personnel wear distinguishing marks which are listed herewith:
- Beach Party -- YELLOW markings similar to those for boat pool.
- Beachmaster's helmet -- "BM" in YELLOW.
- Helmets of shore platoon (Army and Marine) one inch RED square front and rear.
- Trousers of shore platoon -- one by three inch, RED strip on outside leg just below the knee.
- Ship platoon -- WHITE markings similar to those of shore platoon.
- Administrative Reports. The Boat Pool Commander will submit a monthly personnel report to the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, copy to Commander Service Force, Pacific Fleet, showing all transfers and changes in the status of both officers and men of the Boat Pool. A monthly material report will likewise be submitted. This report will contain:
- Total number of boats by type.
- Number operable.
- Number which can be repaired with base facilities as existing, or to be installed.
- Non-repairable at base. Boats in this category should be surveyed or, if repairable returned to PEARL via the first available transportation.
- Number transferred -- to whom; Number received -- from whom; Boats lost -- cause.
- Estimated requirements for boats by types to maintain satisfactory service at the base.
- Comments and suggestions on adequacy of equipment and spares as initially supplied.
- Comments on operating conditions in so far as they affect material and boat replacement.
- Relief of Personnel.
- Communication personnel will be returned without relief to the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, by the first available transportation after D plus 30.
- Repair personnel will be detached and returned to the Commander, administrative Command, as soon as the Advanced Base Boat Repair Component assigned to service landing craft and water transportation at the Base has been placed in operation.
- Boat crews and Administrative personnel. At D plus 45, the requirements for water transport will be re-examined by the Naval or Air Base Commander and all personnel in excess of current needs will be released and returned to the Commander Administrative Command. One half of those remaining will be relieved at D plus 60 and the balance will be relieved at D plus 90. Boat Pool personnel will be reassigned by the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet, to ships from which they were transferred, or as the immediate requirements of the Amphibious Forces may dictate.
Section 3. Boats and Barges
- Boats for each Boat Pool will be supplied from ships of the assault echelon at the objective concerned in accordance with the Boat Pool Annex of the Joint Expeditionary Force Commander's Operation Plan. All boats left at Advance Bases will be powered by Gray Diesel engines, and boats finally assigned should be those in the best running condition. They will be inspected for engine operation and condition of hull and fittings before sent ashore.
- Barges for each boat pool will be supplied from LSTs of the assault echelon at the objective concerned in accordance with the Boat Pool Annex of the Joint Expeditionary Force Commander's Operation Plan.
- Beaching and Mooring. When in operation, the boats and barges assigned will be dispersed on the beach or anchored off shore to minimize the danger from enemy attack. The following points should be given consideration in selecting beaching and mooring areas:
- They should offer concealment from the enemy observation.
- They should be convenient to beaches at which stores and troops are to be handled.
- There should be rapid and positive communication between dispersal areas and a central control station.
- They should be protected from the weather.
- Boats and barges to be moored in a lagoon need suitable moorings with heavy cement clumps and anchors. No more than three boats or barges should be secured on one mooring. Dispersion is necessary because of rough weather, possible air attacks, and also it minimizes the wear of boats rubbing against one another. Each LCM3 and each barge will be provided with a wire mooring pendant (with an eye secured to cleat) and shackles. LCVPs should have good line and extra fenders. Fenders and Mooring pendants should be made-up before D day.
- Identification. Boats and barges will be assigned boat pool numbers for proper identification. These will be painted on each bow of the boat and barge, and in the case of boats, the ship's number will be painted out. Sufficient paint will be sent ashore for this purpose.
- Operations. As soon as possible all Boat Pool Line Officers and Naval Construction Battalion Officers should be given a list of boat and barge numbers, assigned crews, and maintenance personnel. Since personnel come from different ships and will be spread over considerable areas, such a list is necessary for proper control of men and equipment.
- A rough boat log is to be used for organizational and operational purposes. Coxswains are required to report
immediately all occurrences of damage to boats or barges to the Boat Pool Watch Officer. This information will be entered in the rough log and should be turned over to the Boat or Barge Repair Officer.
- Boats and barges going on long trips to outlying islands or on any unusual mission will be checked for flare rockets, life-jackets, and signal flags. Their departure and estimated time of return should be entered in the rough boat log.
- Although camp development is necessary, nothing is to interfere with the prime function of unloading second echelon ships. With regard to the choice of location of the repair shops and the boat pool camp, generally speaking, the nearer these facilities are to the beach or wharf where the unloading takes place the more efficient the boat pool operation.
- Regardless of minor problems that might arise, the unloading of ships is first and foremost. The Boat Pool Commander should do all in his power to expedite this important task, by keeping all boats and barges operating round the clock, carrying cargo from ship to shore.
- Proper use of the communications facilities of the ship to shore circuit should be required to get an hourly report from the different ships, telling which boats and barges by number are at particular hatches of a given ship. This information should be written down, thus enabling the Boat Pool Watch Officer and the Boat Pool Commander to have a picture of operations at all times. When traffic is heavy, a control boat with a radio tuned on the ship to shore circuit is helpful. It is essential that the Boat Pool Commander work closely with the Beachmaster for the success of operations.
- The maintenance problem becomes greater as days go by. Coxswains must be cautioned to keep a sharp lookout for coralheads. Even with vigilant crews, continued day and night operations in a coral lagoon are hard on boats, especially screws and rudders depending on conditions. It is sometimes advisable to set up a general maintenance watch crew to pump out boats, renew line, change batteries, etc. These duties should be done by men whose boats are out of commission, and are not to be confused with the regular maintenance men whose work is of major character.
Section 4. Logistics
- Officers and men transferred ashore will be equipped in accordance with Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet Circular Letter No. AL22-44 of 28 March 1944 with the exception that APAs and LSDs will maintain a stock of fifty (50) sets of the items listed in paragraph one of subject letter and AKAs will maintain a stock of twenty-five (25) sets.
- Organization Equipment and Spares
- Individual Boat Spares and Equipment. Boats transferred to Boat Pools will have equipment and spares as prescribed in Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Circular Letter No. AL29-44 of 22 April 1944.
- Boat Pool Equipment and Spares. Boat Pools established ashore
will be supplied with equipment and spare[s] in accordance with Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Circular Letter No. AL24-44 of 12 April 1944. Spares, tools and equipment will be boxed, crated and marked for ready identification. When a Standard Landing Craft Unit comprises the boat pool personnel, such spares, tools and equipment will be carried in the LSD transporting the E 10 Maintenance Component.
- Spares, tools and equipment for barges will be carried in the ARLs transporting the Naval Construction Battalion barge repair component.
- Communication equipment will be supplied in accordance with the allowance for Transport Group and Division Beachmaster Communication Teams, as contained in Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Circular Letter No. AL32-44 of 28 April 1944.
- Fueling. As practicable during operations, subsequent to the departure of the transport group, boats will fuel from LSTs or other Diesel-driven ships which may be present. Barges will be fueled by LSDs and LSTs. Thereafter, they will fuel from stations designated by the Commander Naval Activities. Equipment for fueling from drums is landed with the Boat Pool.
- Subsistence. Members of boat pools will subsist themselves during the occupation phase of the operation and until arrangements for subsistence have been made by the Commander, Naval Activities. The following list of galley gear will be included in the equipment for boat pools assembled at mounting bases. This list is based on the requirements for 100 men and shall be used as the "yard stick" for larger numbers.
1. 24-T- Tents, wall, complete with poles, pins, and stakes, large 2 No. 2. 24-T- Tents, pyramidal, 16x16, complete with poles and stakes 1 No. 3. 27-C-2630 Clothes, dish crash cotton 48 No. 4. 38-B-2980 Brushes, me. hars stl wire 12 No. 5. 41-S-4112 Sprayers, liquid, 1 qt. cap. 6 No. 6. 41-S-5350 Stone, sharpening 3 No. 7. 42-B-24760 Buckets, deck, general purpose 24 No. 8. 42-C-1260 Can, ash and garbage, 20 gal. cap. 10 No. 9. 42-W-5000 Wool, steel 25 lb. 10. 51-I-165 Insecticide, liquid, 1 gal. cans 25 Gal. 11. 51-L Lime, chlorinated, 5 lb. cans 100 Lbs. 12. 51-S-1645 Soap, Laundry, 12 oz. bars 240 Bars. 13. 51-S-1735 Soap, powder, 100 lb. bags 300 Lbs. 14. 51-S-1785 Soap, salt water 250 Lbs. 15. 57-A-830 Aprons, rubber 3 No. 16. 63-A-620 Aluminumware, pitchers, water 15 No. 17. 64-B-610 Board, carving, 1-1/8x12x18 2 No. 18. 64-B-710 Boilers, coffee, alum, 8 qt. 4 No. 19. 64-B-922 Boilers, fish tine with covers 2 No. 20. 64-C-235 Cans, milk, 61/2 qt. cap. 12 No. 21. 64-C-730 Cleavers, butcher 1 No. 22. 64-C-835-20 Colanders, alum 11 qt. cap. 2 No. 23. 64-C-1187 Corkscrews, steel 6 No.
24. 64-F-170 Forks, cook, 14" 3 No. 25. 64-K-345 Knives, boning, 6" blade 3 No. 26. 64-K-515 Knives, bread, 10" blade 3 No. 27. 64-K-575 Knives, butcher, 14" 12 No. 28. 64-K-660 Knives, paring 12 No. 29. 64-L-107-15 Ladles, C.R.S. 7 oz. 3 No. 30. 64-L-112-7 Ladles, C.R.S. 72 oz. 3 No. 31. 64-O-135 Openers, can, hand 12 No. 32. 64-O-145 Openers, mechanical, table type 1 No. 33. 64-P-344 Pans, steel, bake and roasting 18 No. 34. 64-P-586 Pans, dish, alum. large 8 No. 35. 64-P-784 Pans, fry, 8-78" dia. 24 No. 36. 64-P-789 Pans, fry, 12" dia. 12 No. 37. 64-P-1121-55 Pans, sauce, alum, 2 qt. 8 No. 38. 64-P-1121-60 Pans, sauce, alum, 31/2 qt. 8 No. 39. 64-P-1660 Plates, pie tin 24 No. 40. 64-P-2123 Pots, stock, alum. with loop 4 No. 41. 64-P-2166-175 Pots, steel with cover, 10 gal. cap. 4 No. 42. 64-S-250 Scoops, coffee or sugar 4 No. 43. 64-S-340 Scrapers, bakery 2 No. 44. 64-S-908 Spatulas, steel, 12" 6 No. 45. 64-S-779 Skimmers, perforated 6 No. 46. 64-S-936 Spoons, basting, 15" 6 No. 47. 64-S-1225 Steels, butchers, 12" long 3 No. 48. 64-S-1395 Strainers 5 No. 49. 64-T-594 Turners, cake 6 No. 50. 64-W-205 Whips, egg, wire 3 No. 51. Ranges, field, Army type 1 No. 52. Heaters, water, gasoline operated (garbage can type) 1 No. 53. Bags, Lister 2 No. 54. Net, mosquito, 52" width for screening galley and mess tents 100 Ft. per tent.
- The tents required by items one and two are specified for use as galley, provision storage and food serving station. This number of tents will be sufficient for 200 men.
- Five days' concentrated rations ("C" or "K"), and one day's "D" rations for each man attached to the pool will be provided by the ship from which he is debarked and sent ashore with the boats.
- Dry provisions for the personnel of Boat Pools for twenty days shall be furnished from transports as directed by the Transport Group Commander. Dry provisions, as well as concentrated rations transferred to Boat Pools or left in boats transferred to pools, will be invoiced on S & A Form 71 to the Boat Pool Supply Officer.
- While every effort is being made by higher authority to equip boat pools properly, the cooperation of transports, particularly the flag transport, is most necessary. For example, dunnage is needed on an advance base Boat Pool, and the source of supply for the Boat Pool is the Attack Transports.
- A Chief Commissary Steward shall be assigned to each Boat Pool. Two ship's cooks and one baker per hundred men shall be included in the complement of personnel left with Boat Pools in combat areas. The baker rating, however, shall be increased in ratio of one to every 250 men, instead of one to each 100.
- Medical. A dispensary will be set up at each Boat Pool. Equipment as for a G-10 Dispensary; personnel, 1 CPhM and 3 hospital corpsmen. A medical officer will be assigned from landing craft (LCTs) remaining in the area, if not previously assigned. The following equipment and materials will be supplied, for each 50 men landed, to provide for maintenance of satisfactory sanitary conditions for a 30 day period.
Lyster Bag (adequate for 100 men) 1 Wash basin 10 Bucket, metal, 2 gallon 10 Prefabricated knock-down latrines on a basis of 4 seats for each 50 men and officers. Calcium hypochlorite, .4-.5 grams in tube 120 Orthotolidine .1% solution in 10% HCl, ampule 60 Solution of Cresol, gallon 5 Crude oil, gallon 100 Soap, cake 150 Insect repellent, can 50 Insecticide, pyrethrum aerosol, gallon 10 Spray gun 10
- Pay accounts, records and excess personal equipment for personnel assigned boat pools in forward areas will be transferred and invoiced by individual items to the Advanced Base Personnel Administrative Officer, care of Commander Service Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor. Vessels which are not scheduled to return to Pearl Harbor will transfer excess personal equipment under government bill of lading to vessels due to return Pearl and will forward accounts and records by registered U.S. mail, for transfer to the Advanced Base Personnel Administrative Office. All vessels attached to Transport Divisions will report compliance to their Transport Division Commander, who in return will report compliance to their Task Force Commander. Ships not attached to Transport Divisions will report direct.
- If records and accounts of personnel transferred to boat pools are not carried by the ship from which they are landed, the Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces shall be advised as to their present location. The Administrative Command will take steps to have all such records and accounts forwarded to the Advance Base Personnel Administrative Office.
- Personal effects shall be carefully guarded to prevent looting. Each bag or container will be carefully marked with the owner's name, ship from which transferred, and the name
of the activity to which he has been assigned. Effects will be stored in locked store-rooms, or placed under a sentry, while on board ship; be delivered under guard to the storehouse designated by the Advanced Base Personnel Administrative Office, and carefully checked against the Government Bill of Lading, or covering invoice. The delivering ship shall take a receipt from the Advanced Base Personnel Administrative Office for items delivered and file such receipt in the ship's records.
- Before leaving the recently seized area, the Commanding Officers of the transports should turn over a list of personnel transferred to the Boat Pool to the ship's mail Orderly with the correct Navy address.
- Boat Pool personnel shall, if they desire, be paid immediately prior to transfer ashore. When the new pay system is placed in effect, pay cards, for personnel landed, will be transferred to the Officer-in-Charge of the Boat Pool.
NOTE: The following definition statement is published to clarify the organization and function of a GROPAC, one of the most recently developed advanced base units:
A GROPAC is a commissioned Naval organization designed to install and operate harbor and waterfront facilities and to provide certain harbor defenses for an advanced base. It normally provides for: the unloading of ships; installation and maintenance of navigational aids, piers, moorings, net defenses and underwater sound detection; the repair of small craft and harbor equipment; the operation of a harbor defense patrol; and the provision of a boat pool for use within the harbor. It provides, also, for its own administrative, communications, medical, and housing needs.
GROPACS vary materially from each other in size and composition since each is individually designed to meet the needs of a particular island or area.
The Commanding Officer of the GROPAC is responsible for his entire unit to the Island Commander. This responsibility includes regularly assigned components, as well as boat pool crews (supplied initially by the Amphibious Force), Construction Battalions, and Construction Battalion detachments which may be temporarily or permanently assigned to the GROPAC. The relationship of the GROPAC to other units on the island will be determined by the operations plan set up in advance of the movement. The Island Commander is responsible for decisions that will forward the completion of projects outlined for the GROPAC in the base development plan with the personnel and equipment specifically provided for that unit.
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