Beach Parties -- Organization and Function
Section 1. General Section 2. Transport Beach Party Section 3. Transport Beachmaster Section 4. Transport Division Beachmaster Section 5. Transport Squadron Beachmaster Section 6. Amphibious Force or Group Beachmaster Section 7. Communication Section Section 8. Training Section 9. Garrison Beach Party Section 10. Organizational Diagram
Section 1. General
- The basic organization and tasks of Naval Beach Parties are defined in Chapter II, Section 2 of FTP 167. Chapter VII of FTP 211, covering the Ship to Shore Movement of Amphibious Forces, contains further instructions supplementing the provisions of FTP 167.
- Due to the increase in the scope of amphibious operations and the improved methods of conducting this type of warfare, it has been found necessary to amplify Beach party Instructions in the following paragraphs.
Section 2. Transport Beach Party
- Each Transport, Attack, of the Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, is provided with a Beach Platoon, composed of three officers and forty-five enlisted men for large APAs and two officers and twenty-three enlisted men for small APAs (APA 58-88 inclusive), organized and equipped as indicated in Chapter VII of FTP 211 and Section 7 of this Chapter. The officers and men composing the Beach Platoon will be officers and men having previous training and experience in amphibious landing operations insofar as practicable. The Beach Platoon is a permanent organization and although a unit of ships company, a separate complement is established for the Beach Platoon, and due to the specialized training of this personnel, they are not interchangeable with regular ship's company personnel.
Section 3. Transport Beachmaster
- The senior officer assigned to each ship's Beach party will be in command of the Beach Party and will be known as the Transport Beachmaster. The Transport Beachmaster will be of the rank of Lieutenant or above and his line assistant will be of the rank of Lieutenant (jg) or above.
- The duties of the Transport Beachmaster are laid down in Chapter VII of FTP 211. They will be sent ashore during the assault by the transports to which they are attached. The boat places and equipment spaces in the boats required for the Ship to Shore Movement will be worked out with the Battalion Landing Team Commander and the Commanding Officer of the Transport in a manner similar to that employed for the Ship to Shore Movement of the Shore party. A special detachment of the Beach Party in charge of an officer should land early in the assault, preferably in the third to sixth wave, depending on troop landing priorities and the Tactical Plan. This detachment will have signal and radio personnel and equipment needed to establish early visual and radio communication with control afloat. Sufficient personnel of the hydrographic section will be included for preliminary investigation and marking of beach approaches. The balance of the Beach Party will remain boated and "on call" at the Line of Departure.
- The landing Attack Orders of Transport Squadron Commanders will contain directives determining which Assault Beach Parties will take part in the Landing Attack and which are to remain on board ship in reserve. Normally, one Assault Beach party will land on each battalion beach immediately following the initial attack.
Section 4. Transport Division Beachmaster
- Attached to the Staff of each Transport Division Commander will be a Transport Division Beachmaster of the rank of Lieutenant Commander or above.
- The Transport Division Beachmaster will have the following duties:
- Prior to the assault, he will embark in the Transport Division Control Vessel. He will assist the Transport Division Control Officer in the regulation of the Ship to Shore Movement.
- He should land and establish headquarters on the Transport Division beach when beachheads have been secured to an extent which will permit him to function efficiently on shore. Initially, his communication section and headquarters should be near an APA beachmaster headquarters to take advantage of the communication section guard on Boat Control and Ship-Shore circuits.
- He will keep his Transport Division Commander and Control afloat informed of the needs of the troops ashore regarding ammunition, rations, water, medical supplies, arms, etc., and all conditions affecting the landing of additional troops, supplies, and equipment.
- He will correlate the activities of the Beach Parties landed from his division and will inform the Transport Squadron Beachmaster, as well as forces afloat, of conditions on the beaches for which he is responsible which may affect reinforcement and supply within the sector of responsibility of the Transport Squadron Beachmaster.
- He will continue to exercise his functions until final withdrawal of the Transport Division.
Section 5. Transport Squadron Beachmaster
- A Transport Squadron Beachmaster will be attached to the Staff of each Transport Squadron Commander. He will usually be an officer of the rank of Commander.
- The Transport Squadron Beachmaster will have the following duties:
- Prior to the assault, he will embark in the Transport Squadron Control vessel. He will assist the Transport Squadron Control officer in regulating the Ship to Shore Movement.
- When lateral communication has been established between the beaches for which his squadron is responsible and beachheads have been secured to an extent that will permit him to control the operations on squadron beaches more effectively ashore than afloat, he shall land and establish his headquarters near the center of greatest activity within his sector of responsibility.
- He will act as "trouble shooter" for the Transport Squadron beaches and will direct the unloading of the craft assigned to the Transport Squadron during the unloading phase, through his respective Transport Division Beachmasters and Transport Beachmasters.
- He will supervise the activities of Underwater Demolition Teams assigned to clearance of beach approaches in his area to secure minimum interference with traffic and maximum effect from their operations and will arrange with the Shore Party Commander for necessary assistance from Shore Party personnel and equipment in this work. He will assist in the placement and operation of pontoon structures to secure maximum benefit from their use.
- He will keep the Transport Squadron Commander and the Squadron Control Officer appraised of the situation on all beaches operating under his supervision and shall make his recommendations for improvement in unloading and traffic control to these officers. He shall constantly inform the Force or Group Beachmaster on all matters which affect the overall unloading picture and he is directly responsible to this officer for conditions on the Squadron beaches.
- He will continue to exercise his functions until capture of the position or final withdrawal of the Transport Squadron.
Section 6. Amphibious Force or Group Beachmaster
- An Amphibious Force or Group Beachmaster will be attached to the staff of each Amphibious Force or Group Commander. He will usually be an officer of the rank of Captain or Commander.
- The Amphibious Force or Group Beachmaster will have the following duties:
- At the beginning of the Ship to Shore Movement, he will embark in the control vessel assigned for his use or in the Amphibious Force of Group Control Vessel. He will remain afloat during
the assault and until beachheads are established in order that he may observe conditions on all the beaches for which he is responsible. As early as practicable, his headquarters will be established ashore at a central location where he can best supervise the entire unloading operation. The Shore Party Commander will usually be embarked with the Force of Group Beachmaster and they will land together and should establish their headquarters at points immediately adjacent.
- He will establish and maintain communications directly with the Force or Group Commander, the Force or Group Control Officer, and the Transport Squadron, Transport Division and Transport Beachmaster. He will remain in constant touch with the Shore Party Commander.
- He will coordinate and supervise, through his Squadron and Division Beachmasters, the work of all beach parties landed upon beaches supported by his Force or Group. He will correlate the activities of all Underwater Demolition Teams working these beaches and will arrange for joint operations with the Shore Party. He will keep the Force and Group Commanders and the Force or Group Control Officer constantly advised of conditions affecting the operation as a whole.
- He will continue to exercise his functions until capture of the objective or final withdrawal of the Amphibious Force or Group.
- Prior to, and throughout the operation, each officer of the Beachmaster Organization will maintain the closest possible liaison with his opposite number in the Shore Party Organization. It is essential that each officer know the individual with whom he must work to a common end, his plans and his problems.
Section 7. Communication Section
- The organization and duties of the Communication Section of the Transport Beach Party are generally described in Chapter VII of FTP 211 but detailed duties and specific circuits to be manned will be in accordance with this Transport Doctrine and the Pacific Fleet Communications Plan currently effective.
- Transport Commanding Officers are directed to form a Beach Party Communication Section and shall be responsible that it is equipped with, and trained in the use of, communication equipment listed in paragraph 1222 of this section, plus such other equipment as a particular operation may require. This supercedes the list of equipment in FTP 211. All surplus equipment remaining after equipping teams in accordance with paragraph 1222 of this section should be turned in to the nearest Radio Pool of Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
- A standard Transport Beach Party Communication Section shall be composed of five radiomen and five signalmen, similar to that provided by the Naval Component of a Joint Assault Signal Company. This represents an increase of two signalmen over the communication section of the Beach Party as specified on page 20, FTP 211.
- In addition to the Transport Beach Party Communication Section supplied by each transport, each Transport Division, Transport Squadron, Amphibious
Group and Amphibious Force will be assigned a Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Team to provide communications for the Division, Squadron, Group and Force beachmasters. These teams shall each normally consist of one officer, five radiomen and five signalmen. They shall be supplied with the communication equipment listed in paragraph 1222 of this section plus the equipment listed in paragraphs 1223 and 1224 of this section.
- The Transport Beach Party Communication sections will be responsible for establishing and operating radio sets ashore for the TBX Ship to Shore circuit and the SCR-608/610 boat control circuits. These sections will be under the direction of the transport Beachmasters. The Shore Party will supply a telephone service ashore to the Beachmaster and will maintain message centers for encoding and decoding messages under the supervision of the Shore Party Commander. The Shore Party will also establish lateral communications between beaches, by radio and wire.
- The Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Teams will normally be responsible for establishing communications with Control vessels and Commanders of higher echelons to expedite and coordinate unloading operations, and should set up near a Transport Beach Party Communication Section during the early stage of a landing. During the consolidation phase Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Teams should be placed at the discretion of the Division Beachmaster and may be used to furnish boat pool communications or to render communication service to Landing Force or Garrison Force Commanders as may be required.
- Personnel of the Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Team should assist the ship's complement when embarked, but integrity as a team or unit and training for use ashore during operations will be maintained. Naval Components of JASCO's may be used to form individual Transport Beach Party Communication Sections, Control vessel Communication Teams and transport Division Beachmaster Communication Teams in accordance with CinCPOA Sec. ltr. Pac-35-af/A6-3(1), Serial 00988 of 24 March 1944.
- In addition to publications listed in paragraph 1222 of this section, the Transport Beachmaster and OinC of each Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Team should be supplied with an envelope containing such cryptographic instructions as the OTC and Transport Division, Squadron, Group or Force Commander consider necessary. Depending on circumstances, this may include Shackle Code, Authenticators, and an Amphibious Force Code.
- The standard Transport Beach Party Communication Section equipment shall consist of the following:
1 Radio Set, TBX, consisting of:
1 transmitter - receiver unit.
1 accessory box containing:
1 canvas carrying case.
1 pair headphones.
1 battery cable.
1 generator cable.
1 hand microphone.
1 antenna lead in.
2 cranks for hand generator.
1 telegraph key.
1 large antenna and counterpiece.
3 sets 45 volt "B" batteries.
18 1.5 volt "A" batteries.
2 sets 7.5 volt "C" batteries.
1 DC hand generator with canvas case.
1 small antenna assembly with canvas case.
1 set station spares.
1 gasoline driven generator in shipping chest serial containing:
1 gas can.
1 oil can.
1 tool kit.
1 set station spares for gas engine.
1 Radio Set, SCR 610, complete with spares consisting of:
2 rubber bags, BG-159 to contain radio SCR 610 and spare batteries.
1 alignment tool TL-150 (60338-150).
3 batteries BA-39* (3A39), transmitter, 1 in use, 2 spare.
4 batteries BA-40* (3A40), receiver, 1 in use, 3 spare.
2 batteries BA-41* (3A41), 1 in use, 1 spare.
2 antenna AN-29-C (2A229C), 1 in use, 1 spare.
2 books instruction, for radio sets, SCR 610A.
1 box, BX-32-A (2Z1132A), for holding 120 quartz crystals (crystals not in use to remain on board the transports).
1 case CS-79-B (3B879B), for battery power supply.
1 chest CH-72A (2Z2572A), for hand sets TS-13-A antenna. AN-29-C, spare tubes, instructions books, box BX-32-A.
2 handsets TS-13-A (4B1113A), 1 in use, 1 spare.
1 radio receiver and transmitter BC-659-A (2C5379A).
2 straps, ST-10-A (2Z9019A).
3 sets tubes (2C5379A), vacuum, complete, for radio receiver and transmitter BC-659-A, 1 set in use, 2 sets spare.
4 packs desiccants, silica gel 1/2# packs, 1 in use in each rubber bag when needed, other 2 spare.
1 wooden packing and operating chest.
1 canvas cover for transreceiver.
* Additional batteries to be carried aboard transports as follows and supplied as needed:
10 batteries, BA-39.
15 batteries, BA-40.
1 battery, BA-41.
The transports should have two 6 volt storage batteries available on call to send to the beach if necessary for continued operation. 1 Radio Set SCR 610 (when available), with accessories, and spare tubes and batteries.
3 Radio Sets, SCR 536, each set consisting of:
2 rubber bags BG-169 to contain the 3 radios, SCR 536, and extra batteries.
4 batteries BA-37* (3A37), 1 in use, 3 spare.
8 Batteries BA-38* (3A38), 1 in use, 7 spare.
1 book instruction, for radio set SCR 536A.
1 coil antenna.
1 coil, tank.
4 crystal holders FT-243 (223543), complete with crystals, 2 in use, 2 spare (crystals not in use to remain on board the transport).
1 radio transmitter-receiver unit BC-611-A (2C5351A).
1 strap 3T-38.
2 tubes VT-171 (2T171), 1 in use, 1 spare.
2 tubes VT-172 (2T172), 1 in use, 1 spare.
2 tubes VT-173 (2T173), 1 in use, 1 spare.
4 tubes VT-174 (2T174), 2 in use, 2 spare.
1 rubber case for each SCR 536.
4 packs desiccants, silica gel 1/2# packs, 1 in use in each rubber covered bag when needed, other 2 spare.
* Additional batteries to be carried aboard transports as follows and supplied as needed:
10 batteries BA-37.
20 batteries BA-38.
1 light, signalling, 8 inch complete with gas engine generator, tripod, and spares.
4 spare lamps for above signal light.
2 signal lamps Aldis EL-84, or multipurpose signalling.
2 sets semaphore flags.
1 highly portable loud speaker (Newcomb or better).
1 pair binoculars 6 x 30.
2 watches, wrist, waterproof (one for radio team, one for signal team).
3 flashlights, 12 batteries BA-30 spares for flashlights.
1 "Q" signal book.
2 lists of call signs.
4 pads despatch blanks.
10 sheets carbon paper.
The standard Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Team equipment shall consist of the following:
All equipment listed in paragraph 1222 (this section) and 1 radio set SCR-608 mounted in a 1/4 ton 4 x 4 reconnaissance car or similar vehicle.
1 portable loudspeaker (U.S. Army PA-5 or similar) shall be supplied in addition to the highly portable loud speaker.
1 pair binoculars 7 x 50, or a long glass 16 power, shall be substituted for 1 pair of binoculars 6 x 30.
1 additional watch, wrist, waterproof, for Communication Officer (total of 3) shall be supplied.
A standard Transport Division Beachmaster Communication Team, when assigned to a Squadron, Group or Force Beachmaster, should be provided with additional equipment, such as semi-portable MPA-1 loud speaker, as necessary for the particular operation.
Section 8. Training
- The basic training of Transport Beach Parties will be under the direction of Commanding Officers of Transports. The training in the Ship-to-Shore movement and the duties of Beach Parties on the landing beaches will be carried out by the Transport Squadron and Division Commanders. The Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, will arrange schedules of training of Beach Parties with the Army and Marine Shore Parties.
- It is incumbent upon Transport Commanding Officers to see that the Communication Sections of their Beach Parties are trained in the use of the Communication equipment listed in paragraph 1222 and in the proper procedures. The Communication Officers of the Force, Group, Transport Squadron and Transport Division Beachmasters will provide for the monitoring of Beach Party nets.
- Commanding Officers of Transports will arrange with Troop Commanders of embarked troops for the instruction and training of Transport Beach Parties in:
- Field Service
- Making up full field pack complete with equipment.
- Care and use of field equipment.
- Establishment of bivouac including:
- Tent pitching and ditching.
- Field sanitation.
- Outposts guard.
- Preparation of food.
- Water discipline.
- Local Defense and Security
- Digging of foxholes and slit trenches.
- Beach defense (Use of cover and concealment).
- Patrols and countersigns.
- Outpost guard and challenges.
- Cleaning equipment and care of arms.
- Self Defense
- Use of weapons (to include firing practice).
Section 9. Garrison Beach Party
- The Garrison Beach Party will be embarked in an Attack Transport Division. It will be landed when directed by the Amphibious Force of Group Commander to report to the Force or Group Beachmaster for assignment of duty in preparation for taking over from the Assault Beach Parties. The Garrison Beach Party will include as many standard APA and Division Beachmaster Communication Teams as required by the size of the operation. The Garrison Beach Party will be given ample opportunity to become familiar with the beaches, equipment and loading situation before being called upon to relieve the Assault Beach Parties. The Assault Beach Parties will be withdrawn when directed by the Amphibious Force or Group Commander. At this time responsibility for the operations of the Garrison Beach Party will pass to the Commander Naval Activities.
Section 10. Organization Diagram
- The Organizational Diagram of the Beach Parties, Figure 1, indicates the chain of command from the Amphibious Force or Group Commander through the Beachmaster Organization to the individual Transport Beach Parties. It also shows the chain of command through the Commander Naval Activities to the Garrison Beach Party.
ORGANIZATION DIAGRAM OF BEACH PARTIES
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