Organization and Operations
Section 1. Organization. Section 2. Composition of Salvage Parties. Section 3. Task of the Salvage Group. Section 4. Duties of the Salvage Parties. Section 5. Salvage and Towing Methods. Section 6. Equipment. Section 7. Employment of Salvage Equipment. Section 8. Salvage Party Training Course. Section 9. LCM (S&R) Salvage and Repair, Organization & Operation.
Section 1. Organization
- The Salvage Group taking part in Amphibious Landing Operations will be composed of ATs, ATRs, LCM (S&R), Landing Craft and Landing Boats specially fitted for towing, fire-fighting and salvage operations. Salvage Unit Commanders and an expert fire-fighting officer will be stationed on the Attack Group Commander's Flagship for the purpose of advising the Attack Group Commander regarding salvage and fire-fighting operations, and further, to proceed to the vicinity of and take charge of the most serious salvage and fire-fighting operations; see articles 447 to 450 of F.T.P. 167.
- The Large Salvage Vessels composed of ATs, ATRs and such similar vessels will be organized into Task Units for Amphibious Landing Operations and will proceed to the Combat Area with the Attack Force. LCM (S&R) Salvage and Repair Craft will organize to operate under the cognizance of the Service and Repair Group Commander as set forth in Section 9 of this chapter.
- LCI(G) and LCI(L), accompanying the Attack Force, will be equipped with portable pumps fitted with eductors, fire hose, special fog and fire-fighting nozzles, miscellaneous equipment and at least 150 fathoms of 3/4 inch (6-19) cable on the bow Anchor Winch and will have a secondary mission of conducting fire-fighting, towing services and salvage operations.
- LANDING BOAT SALVAGE PARTIES will be organized on each APA and AP attached to the Amphibious Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, for the purpose of conducting Landing Boat Salvage Operations described in paragraph 447 of F.T.P. 167, Chapter XII of F.T.P. 211 and this transport Doctrine. The Landing Craft Salvage Parties will be embarked in LCIs, LCTs, LCMs, or such other landing craft and landing boats as may be designated by the Transport Group or Division Commander.
- While all APAs and APs of each Transport Division will be prepared to furnish Salvage Parties in any particular landing operation the APAs or APs carrying the Assault Battalion Landing Teams will not usually be called upon to furnish them. The APA or AP mounting the Headquarters Echelon will furnish the Primary and the APA or AP mounting the Reserve Battalion Landing team will furnish the Secondary Landing Boat Salvage Party.
Section 2. Composition of Salvage Parties
- The crews of ATs, ATRs and other large Salvage Vessels will be augmented by specially trained fire-fighting and salvage crews.
- LCIs, LCTs and other Landing Craft will not carry special personnel for the purpose of carrying on fire-fighting and salvage operations but their crews will be expected to understand how to operate the special equipment carried.
- LANDING CRAFT SALVAGE PARTIES organized in accordance with paragraph 1304 above will be composed of the following officers and enlisted men:
- Salvage Officer (In Command).
- Assistant Salvage Officer (Boatswain or Carpenter).
- Chief Boatswains Mate or Boatswains Mate First Class.
- One Gunner's Mate any class (Qualified in shallow diving).
- One Chief Carpenter's Mate.
- One Carpenter's Mate First Class.
- One Carpenter's Mate Second Class.
- One Ship's Fitter First Class (Qualified Acetylene Welder).
- One Ship's Fitter Second Class (Qualified Electric Welder).
- One Chief Motor Machinist's Mate
- One Motor Machinist's Mate First Class.
- One Motor Machinist's Mate Second Class.
- One Signalman Second Class.
- One Electricians Mate Second Class.
- One Radioman Third Class.
- Regular assigned Landing Boat Crew (if embarked in Landing Boat).
Section 3. Tasks of the Salvage Group
- SALVAGE VESSELS will:--
- Furnish towing services,
- Provide emergency repairs to hulls of ships,
- Provide fire-fighting services,
- Conduct salvage of stranded ships and Landing Craft, and
- Conduct Salvage of Landing Boats in deep water areas.
- LCI(G), LCI(L) and LCT Landing Craft will, when made available to Salvage Group and Unit Commanders, assist in Salvaging stranded and sunken landing craft and landing boats.
- LANDING BOAT SALVAGE PARTY will:--
- Rescue personnel from disabled boats and transfer them to other landing boats for landing on the beaches.
- Haul disabled boats, which are adrift, clear of boat lanes.
- Keep sea approaches to the beaches clear of disabled craft which may endanger landing of later LVT or Boat Waves.
- Haul stranded boats off the beach and conduct landing boat salvage operations in conjunction with the beach parties.
- Recover sunken equipment and boats.
Section 4. Duties of Salvage Parties
- PRIMARY SALVAGE PARTIES:--
- Embark in Salvage Craft or Landing Boats (LCI, LCT, LCM(3), LCP(L)) and take station in Rendezvous Area astern of leading wave.
- Follow leading wave until it is close to shore.
- Establish and maintain radio communication with the Boat Group Commander, Beachmaster and Control Vessels.
- Tow disabled craft, still adrift, clear of sea approaches and anchor them.
- Haul off all stranded boats that should and can be retracted. Boats that can be repaired will be towed clear and anchored or returned to parent vessel. Boats beyond repair will be stripped, hauled clear if possible and then sunk in deep water. When the situation permits, deliver anchored boats to the parent ships.
- Personnel of Salvage Craft must bear in mind that their task is to expedite the landing. They must use judgement and imagination to ensure that salvage operations facilitate the landing rather than hinder it. They must be alert to insure that they do not become an interference to boat waves still landing.
Note:-- These duties are covered in Chapter IV, Section VIII of F.T.P. 167 and Chapter XII, F.T.P. 211
- SECONDARY SALVAGE PARTIES will be organized and standing by with equipment ready to embark on orders from the Transport Group or Division Commander, the duties of this party will be the same as that set forth for the Primary Salvage in paragraph 1312 above.
- Salvage Craft and boats will display the SUGAR flag  by day as a means of identification and will keep the Traffic Control Boat and Beachmaster informed of his location during the night by screened signal apparatus.
- During the approach to the beach from the Rendezvous Area, the Salvage Parties following the first wave will be under the command of the Boat Group Commander, after the landing of the Assault Troops have been accomplished the control of Salvage Parties will shift to the Beachmaster and the Traffic Control Officer under the general direction of the Transport Group or Division Commander.
Section 5. Salvage and Towing Methods
- TOWING. The general principles of towing of any vessels apply to landing craft and landing boats. The method of approaching the disabled craft should take into consideration the state of the sea and the direction of the wind. Usually, in any weather, the towing craft should parallel the disabled craft to windward, and after passing the line go ahead so as to clear the disabled boat. After the line is made fast, the gradual strain should be taken. Do not attempt to tow at high speeds. Chapter XIV of this Transport Doctrine contains information regarding the method of towing landing boats including the towing gear to be employed.
- SALVAGE. Promptness in commencing Salvage Operations is of utmost importance. The Salvage Boat crew must be alert at all times to initiate action immediately without waiting for orders when any landing boat appears to be in trouble.
- Refloating Stranded Boats. Frequently landing craft become stranded through various causes and cannot back off the beach under their own power. It then becomes necessary for the Salvage Craft to pull them off.
- Salvage or towing boats, other than Primary and Secondary Boats mentioned above as furnished and equipped by APAs and APs, are usually landing craft of the LCP(L) or LCP(R) type.
- Salvage boats will normally participate in the landing of the assault echelon of troops under the direct control of the Boat Group and Wave Commanders. After the landing of the assault troops, control of the salvage boats is vested in the Beachmaster. The chain of command is from the Beachmaster to the Traffic Control Officer to the salvage Officer.
- In heavy surf the salvage or towing boats should be maneuvered stern first to a point close enough to reach the stranded boat with a shoulder line throwing gun. Towline should be passed in this manner to the stranded boat. The bow of the salvage boat should be kept normal to the sea or current. In using a line throwing gun care must be taken to see that personnel are clear of the slug. In moderate surf, the salvage boat may be backed in and a heaving line bent on to the towline, may be passed by hand
to the stranded boat. Under light surf conditions, the salvage boat may be landed on the weather side of the stranded boat and the tow line be passed by means of a heaving line. When the tow line is secured to the stranded boat, normally to the stern thereof, the salvage boat backs off the beach, paying out line as necessary to insure that the line is kept clear of the screw. When clear of breakers the salvage boat should be turned around to head into the surf and the towing line made fast to the after centerline cleat or king post.
- If the stranded boat is well up on the beach or if the efforts of one salvage boat prove unsuccessful, two towing boats in tandem may be used.
- When a stranded boat is lying at an angle to the beach it may be advisable to place a tow line on the bow of the stranded boat and to pull the bow around with the boat pivoting on its stern. In such event the tow line should be slipped completely under the stranded boat and secured to the inshore bow. When the bow is pulled loose the boat is towed out to sea bow first.
- Salvage boat should take a gradually increasing strain on the towing line, heading into the surf at all times. Do not jerk on the line as it will either part the line or cause the fittings to pull out.
- Do not be discouraged if the stranded boat does not come off with the first pull. With a steady strain on the towing line, each sea which comes partially under the stranded boat will cause it to come off a few inches.
- To assist salvage boat, stranded craft should use engines as soon as it is practicable to do so.
- In cases where a very heavy pull is going to be required, a bridle should be passed entirely around the hull of the stranded boat. Boats which were high and dry have been pulled off in this manner, using a bridle of two parts of wire of 5-inch manila and a 9-inch manila towline, and three landing craft, a patrol vessel, or a minesweeper for pulling. Bridle should be led twice around the hull from a point immediately under the beading of the bow down under flat after portion of hull, with a clamped or seized eye about 2 feet astern of and under the propeller. This lead tends to lift the stern instead of burying it. The bridle is held in position by 2-inch manila lashings passed over and under the hull. Boat must be strengthened against compressive strain by 4 x 4 timbers across ramp opening and amidships at deck level. Short pieces of 4 x 4 at the same position are used as chafing pieces between the bridle and hull. In place of the bridle, a cargo net may be thrown over the bow, pull being taken from the beckets under the stern of the stranded boat. Sand must be dug away from stern and sides, skids may be placed under the boat, and a bull-dozer or other vehicle used to push on the bow. In all cases, it is necessary to break the suction under the boat. This may be done by rocking the boat, care being taken not to break the skeg by using too much force.
- Before pulling a boat off a steep beach with high surf, or pulling off a damaged boat, it may be necessary to build an emergency docking of plank and canvas over the after compartment to prevent swamping. Holes in the boat may be patched by nailing on lead or canvas, backed up if necessary by any pieces of planking available.
- The Beachmaster is responsible for getting boats off the beach promptly, and he must keep in close communication with the salvage boats and direct their operations. If necessary he should not hesitate to assign additional boats to salvage work as required to keep the beach clear of stranded boats. If possible one or two trained salvage men should be taken from the regular salvage boat to direct operations in each emergency salvage boat.
Section 6. Equipment
- SALVAGE VESSELS. The equipment of Large Salvage Vessels is designated by the Navy Department and will be augmented by special equipment designated by the Salvage Group Commander.
- LCI, LCT Landing Craft Salvage Vessels will be equipped with two I.C.E. 500 Gallon per minute pumps fitted with eductors and spare parts. Preferably the towing equipment will include the following items:
- One coil of 6" manila (100 fathoms) with each end spliced into proper thimbles, this line to be faked down so as to be available for immediate use.
- One 6" manila bridle. Individual bridle legs should be 100' in length terminating in suitable thimbles. A wire pennant with an overall length of 12' should be spliced in each end of bridle legs, one end of pennant spliced into thimble of manila bridle leg, and the other end provided with a 2' bight.
- Suitable shackle to join bridle legs together, taking the two 3/4" wire bights and joining together with the thimble of the 6" manila line.
- Wire on both forward and after anchor winches should be equivalent to "new condition". If not of this condition, wire should be renewed.
After or forward anchor lines together with 6" line singled or doubled will be used for towing. It is considered that 8" manila is too cumbersome for handling stowage and securing. The following additional equipment in excess of the ship's allowance will also be carried:
Stock No. Description No. Weight
41-A-1310 Axes, Fire Fighting 2 6 12 33-H-273 Hose, Fire, 21/2" x 50' 20 55 1100 33-H-270 Hose, Fire, 11/2" x 50' 20 30 600 58-W-51 Washers, leather, 21/2" 20 58-W-49 Washers, leather, 11/2" 20
Stock No. Description No. Weight
33-S-79 Spanner Wrenches, Adjustable 5 1 5 33-C-586 Coupling, reducing 21/2" x 11/2" 3 2 6 33-C-476 Coupling, increaser 11/2" x 21/2" 2 2.75 5.5 33-C-396 Coupling, double female 21/2" 2 4.5 9 33-C-395 Coupling, double female 11/2" 2 2.25 5 33-C-398 Coupling, double male, 21/2" 2 2.5 5 33-C-397 Coupling, double male, 11/2" 2 1.5 3 11-C-133-60 Coupling, double female 21/2"x2" 2 3.75 7.5 11-C-133-50 Coupling, double female 11/2"x2" 2 2.5 5 58-W-4000 Coupling, Y-connection 21/2"x11/2" 5 10 50 17-B-7600 Batteries, general purpose #6 4 2.25 9 23-B-291 Breathing apparatus Type A-1 3 20 60 23-C-100 Cannisters, breathing Apparatus, Type A 18 3 54 37-M-391 Mittens, asbestos 5 1 5 51-C-1060 Charges, foam type generator Type V 50 52.25 2612.5 51-C-1054 Charges, Foam Type generator Chemical Type III 50 52 2600 22-L-100 Lines, Safety, steel 2 3 6 L58A-150 Applicators, for 11/2" Nozzle, 4' 5 4.5 22.5 L58A-160 Applicators, do, 10' 3 9 27 58-N-109-60 Nozzles, NPU 2 11 22 L58N-120-30 Nozzles, all purpose 3 way, 21/2" 2 16 32 58-N-109-58 Nozzles, 1 3/4" open (21/2") 1 8 L58A-200 Applicator, 12' for 21/2" nozzle 2 12 24 L58N-120-20 Nozzles, all purpose 3 way, 11/2" without applicators 5 9 45 58-G Generator, hopper type for chemical foam 1 40 40 58-P-435 Proportioners, port, duplex pressure 1 140 140 42-C-1010 Safety cans, 5 gallon, gasoline 5 25 125 37-G Leather gloves, various sizes 10 17-L Bulbs, spare, lantern 2 17-L-7760 Lanterns, hand 2 6 12 Suction Hose 4" for pump 10' length 4 78 312 Eductor for pump, aluminum 4" x 21/2" 1 24 24 Emergency acetylene cutting outfit pack type with 200% spare bottles 1 55 55 TOTAL 8045
- LANDING BOATS. Primary and Secondary Salvage Parties will carry the following equipment in LCM(3)s, LCP(L)s or other landing boats assigned to the Landing Boat Salvage Party.
- 300 ampere gasoline or diesel driven portable arc welding equipment.
- Oxy-acetylene welding outfit.
- Portable gasoline engine driven salvage pump.
- Shallow water diving outfit.
- Wire cutters.
- Propeller puller.
- Miscellaneous hand tools, including carpenter's hand tools.
- Miscellaneous repair and replacement parts, including:--
- Rubber hose and hose clamps.
- Solenoid switches.
- Storage batteries.
- Wire clamps.
- Sheet lead.
- White lead.
- Salt water circulating pumps.
- Injectors, etc.
- Wire straps and towing bridle.
- Towing line.
- Shoulder line throwing gun.
- Portable radio for communication with beach master and control vessel.
- Portable signal lights.
- Signal Flags.
- Portable loud speaker.
- Heaving line.
- Fire-Fighting equipment.
- Extra water.
- Extra oil.
- Any other useful gear found useful in salvage work.
Section 7. Employment of Salvage Equipment
- Employment of Equipment.
- Portable arc welding.
- Repairs to hulls of LCM(3).
- Repairs to Army equipment damaged during disembarkation.
- Repairs to small harbor craft which may be used for unloading.
- Repairs to or construction of facilities for unloading landing craft.
- Oxy-acetylene equipment.
- Burning, as required in connection with repair to damaged LCM(3) hulls.
- Expanding of propellers to facilitate removal.
- Portable Salvage Pump.
- Used in connection with keeping damaged landing craft afloat until it could be beached.
- Used to pump out landing craft where installed bilge drainage system has failed.
- Shallow water diving equipment.
- Used in connection with changing of propellers.
- Used in connection with removal of line and wire from propellers.
Section 8. Salvage Party Training Course
- The Salvage Party Boat crews will be trained in:
- Boat handling theory.
- Backing down.
- Action of rudder and propeller.
- Effect of rudder.
- Use of rudder and engine in coming alongside and approaching landing boat.
- Use of engine and rudder in beaching and retracting.
- Use of rudder and engine to avoid broaching under varying conditions of wind, sea and surf.
- Practical Boat Handling.
- Boat Control.
- Beaching and retraction.
- Surf landing and retracting.
- Boat compass and use.
- Use of Pelorus.
- Bearings, courses, measuring distance, use of charts, currents, tides and the effect of winds.
- Surf Operation.
- Effect of wind, tide, surf and current.
- The breaker line.
- Operating over sand bars and in shallow water.
- Maintaining, beaching position on beach.
- The Salvage Party Communication personnel will be trained in:
- Morse Code.
- Tactical signals.
- Boat calls.
- Boat radio circuits, circuit discipline and procedure.
- The Salvage Party Motor Machinists will be trained in the operation, maintenance and repair of:
- Diesel engines.
- The clutch and reversing gear.
- Engine installations.
- Engine adjustments.
- The cooling system.
- Venting of fresh water pumps.
- The repair of pumps.
- Lubrication systems.
- The Carpenter's mate will be trained in the maintenance and repair of
- The landing boat hull systems.
- Bilge system.
- The making of landing boat hull repairs.
- Lead or canvas hull patches.
- Rudder and stern post repairs.
- The electricians of the Salvage Party shall have a full knowledge of the electrical ignition system of all types of landing boat engines. They must be fully qualified to make minor repairs to the electrical system and have a detailed knowledge of batteries, generators and electrical wiring systems.
- The Gunner's mate assigned to the Salvage Party must not only be a practical seaman and fulfill all the qualifications of a gunner's mate, but be qualified as a shallow water diver. The Gunner's mate must be qualified to remove and install propellers underwater, and to make minor underwater repairs or patches to landing boats.
- The use of Landing Boat Salvage Equipment and Salvage Methods involves:
- Pumps and bailing.
- The handy billy.
- The power driven pump.
- Hand bailing.
- Hull repairs.
- Patching methods.
- Kapok plugs and soft patches.
- Plywood repairs.
- Lead plugs and sheets.
- Portable oxy-acetylene welding equipment.
- Engine repairs.
- Ignition system.
- Pump system.
- Cleaning of carburetor system and adjustments.
- Cleaning of fuel vents and lines.
- Installation of starter.
- Clutch adjustments.
- Use of underwater diving gear involves:
- Manning of equipment.
- Underwater repairs, including propeller shaft and hull repairs.
- Use of lines and towing equipment involves:
- Marlinspike seamanship.
- Knots and their uses.
- Splices and whippings.
- Belaying a line.
- Towing bridles.
- Construction and preparation of.
- Towing methods.
- Installation of hooks.
- Passing a towline to a stranded boat.
- Proper method of taking up slack in towline and advantage of steady pull.
- Hauling a stranded boat from beach in heavy surf.
- Strengthening stranded boat.
- Assistance in salvage from the shoreward involves:
- Use of bulldozer or tractor.
- Use of amphibian tractor or other motor vehicle.
- Method of sallying boat to break suction from underneath.
- The use of rollers.
- the use of the LeTourneau Crane.
- The Jeheemy.
- "Cherry Pickers" or "A" frame equipment.
- Practical salvage problems include:
- Salvage of landing boats dead at sea with engine failure.
- Salvage of landing boats broached on beach with little surf running.
- Salvage of landing boats broached on beach with heavy surf running.
- Salvage of landing boats with hull damage and sinking at sea.
- Salvage of landing boats swamped on beach.
- Refloating of landing boats dry on beach.
- Salvage of salvageable equipment and gear from landing boats.
- All ships and landing craft of the Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet will take advantage of every opportunity to send their personnel to fire-fighting schools provided in the immediate vicinity of most Naval ports and will keep themselves provided with Bureau of Ships Fire-Fighting and Salvage manuals for the purpose of further instructing their personnel.
Section 9. LCM (S&R) Salvage and Repair Organization and Operation
- The LCM (S&R) Salvage and Repair Sections will be an integral part of the Service and Salvage Group of the Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet and will be controlled by the Commander, Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet as follows:
- Operational assignment and administrative control will be as directed by the Commander, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, normally through the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
- Normally, during the periods when not assigned to Amphibious Groups engaged in operations, the control of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Sections will be under the cognizance of the Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, or his subordinate Command. It will be his responsibility to control the administration, training, boat upkeep and crew subsistence problems attending.
- When and as directed by the Commander, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, the Commander, Administrative Command, will temporarily assign LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties to a designated Amphibious Group for an operation and will be responsible for arranging for the transportation of the personnel and salvage craft (ordinarily on an APA or AKA) to the point designated and by the specific means directed by Commander Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
- Upon conclusion of an operation, and when directed by the Commander Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, the commander of the Amphibious Group concerned, will relinquish control upon returning the LCM (S&R) Salvage Sections to the Commander Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific fleet, for administrative control, further training, subsistence and future assignment.
- Normally, during an operation, general control of the assigned LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties will be vested in the Amphibious Group Service and Salvage Officer engaged in the operation.
- During the initial (assault) phase of the landing operation and on all other occasions when the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties are engaged in close inshore salvage operations, such as towing broached boats off the beach and when effecting emergency repairs to damaged and disabled boats, close inshore, operational control of these Parties will be delegated to the Senior Beachmaster present on the beach, who, in turn, will be responsible to the Traffic Control Officer for the profitable application of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties to assure the successful conduct of the operations.
- After the initial (assault) landing phase, when the operation has progressed to general unloading, and when, in the opinion of the Group Commander, conditions on the beach affecting salvage permit, he will direct such LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties as are not required close inshore to proceed and report to Commander Service and Salvage Group to act thereafter under his control as tenders to the latter's larger salvage vessels and to perform such diving and repair work as he may direct. Should the close inshore situation warrant the reapplication of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Party in that area of operations, control of the unit will again revert to the Senior Beachmaster on the beach.
- Basic, general doctrine governing the organization, tasks, equippage, etc., of LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties, is contained in paragraphs 447-450 inclusive, of FTP 167, Chapter XII of FTP 211, as set forth hereinafter.
- Composition of LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties.
LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties will be permanent units, organized by Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, and especially trained with these boats by that command with the view to obtaining the maximum use of all the salvage and repair facilities in these boats for the salvage and repair of ships and craft engaged in Amphibious Landing Operations. (LCM (S&R) Salvage Party complement will be as follows:
- One Salvage Officer (Ensign) in command (qualified landing boat officer).
- One Chief Boatswain's Mate.
- One Boatswain's Mate 1c or 2c (qualified in handling all types of landing boats, towing and general seamanship).
- One Shipfitter 1c or 2c (qualified in landing boat, wood and steel hull repairs, electric welding, and shallow water diving).
- One Shipfitter 1c or 2c (qualified in landing boat wood and steel hull repairs, oxy-acetylene welding and shallow water diving).
- One Motor Machinist's Mate 1c (qualified as a landing boat engineer, engine trouble-shooter and emergency repairman).
- One Motor Machinist's Mate 2c (qualified as a landing boat engineer, engine trouble-shooter and emergency repairman).
- One Radioman 2c (qualified in radio operation, voice procedure and discipline and minor radio trouble-shooting and repairs).
- One Signalman 3c (qualified in semaphore, blinker light signalling and as a relief radio operator).
- Two Seamen 1c or 2c (qualified landing boat men, and to assist in any of the above duties).
- All of the foregoing complement will be qualified in a general way in the care and operation of the equipment carried on board and in a manner to constitute a well rounded and highly competent salvage and repair crew.
- TASKS OF THE LCM (S&R). The basic tasks of the LCM (S&R) are as set forth in paragraph 447, Chapter IV, FTP 167, in paragraph 1202, Chapter XII, FTP 211, in paragraph 1309 and 1311, Section 3 of this Chapter. Specifically, the tasks of the LCM (S&R) will be:
- To furnish towing services to disabled landing boats.
- To provide emergency repair facilities to landing boats and ships.
- To provide fire fighting equipment.
- To assist in the salvage of stranded and broached landing boats and ships in conjunction with the Beach Party.
- To serve as rescue boats into which troops and their equipment may be transferred from sinking boats and transported to the beach.
- To keep afloat landing boats threatened with sinking in deep water areas and to beach them for later repair if the situation justifies such action.
- To haul disabled boats which are adrift clear of the boat lanes so as not to impede shore bound traffic.
- To recover sunken equipment and boats.
- To provide facilities to clear fouled screws of ships and boats and to change screws of small landing boats.
- To repair rudder and other underwater damage to steering gear.
- To provide facilities to aid in closing inoperative bow ramps of the smaller types of landing boats.
- To provide facilities to effect speedy, emergency engine repairs.
- Duties of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties. The basic duties of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties are enumerated in paragraphs 448-450 inclusive, Chapter IV, Section VIII FTP 167, in paragraph 1203, Chapter XII, FTP 211, in paragraph 1311 and 1312, of this chapter, and as set forth hereinafter:
- To embark in the LCM (S&R) upon arrival in the Transport Area and to take station in the Rendezvous Area astern of the landing wave.
- To follow one of the leading waves until it is close to shore.
- To establish and maintain radio communications with the Beachmaster in command on the beach being worked, the Boat Group Commanders and Control Vessels involved on the Beach being worked, and the Group Service and Salvage Officer.
- To tow disabled craft, still adrift, clear of the boat lanes and anchor them out of the way.
- To haul off stranded and broached boats that should be and are in condition to be retracted. Boats that can be repaired will be towed clear of the sea approaches to the beach and anchored until time and conditions permit attending to them, when they will be towed to their parent vessels or to the beach repair party by either other boats or the LCM (S&R) as is justified by the situation, and directed by the Beachmaster in control on the beach.
- To strip boats beyond repair when directed by the Beachmaster in control on the beach and to have them hauled clear, into deep water, and sink them.
- To, in all cases, use good judgment and imagination to expedite the landing, being sure at all times that their presence and salvage effort in the vicinity of the landing beach facilitates rather than hampers the progress and successful culmination of the landing.
- In the Rendezvous Area, and during the approach to the beach, the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties will be under the control of the Boat Group Commander and will follow a designated assault wave until close to the beach.
- After the landing of the Beachmaster on the beach, control of the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties will shift from the Boat Group Commander to the direct control of the Beachmaster on the beach and under the general supervision of the Group Service and Salvage Officer. Normally the LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties will continue to function under this command arrangement throughout the initial (assault) landing phase and as long thereafter as the close inshore salvage situation warrants in the opinion of the Group Service and Salvage Officer.
- After the initial (assault) landing phase has been completed, and when the salvage situation on the beach justifies such action, the Group Service and Salvage Officer may, at his discretion, recall any or all of the LCM(S&R)s from close inshore employment and utilize them as tenders to his larger salvage vessels, employing them to assist in general salvage and repair tasks commensurate with the ability of the personnel and the sufficiency of their equipment.
- When so directed to retire from the beach area by the Group Service and Salvage Officer, the LCM(S&R) Salvage Parties so ordered will operate under his direct control.
- Group Service and Salvage Officers shall in all cases give priority to the situation close inshore when equally important alternate applications of the LCM(S&R) Salvage Parties present themselves and will, if the beach salvage situation warrants, re-direct the LCM(S&R) Salvage Sections to the beach, relegating other applications to the category of lesser importance temporarily. In such instances, the Group Service and Salvage Officer will direct that the LCM(S&R) Salvage Parties involved report to the Senior Beachmaster on the beach, and, until further directed, operate under his control.
- Characteristics of the LCM(S&R). The LCM(S&R) is a conversion of the LCM(3) therefore, its general characteristics are the same except as modified herein. The LCM(S&R) is a Repair and Salvage boat which is a mobile unit able to beach, operate in shallow water and provide the same services, relatively proportioned to that of a large salvage and repair Vessel. It can be lifted and transported to the assault area on any vessel equipped to carry standard LCM(3)'s and will normally be transported on designated APA or AKA. Its weight is in the neighborhood of 30 tons. It is fitted out to subsist a crew of 10 men operating on a 24 hour a day basis.
- Description of the LCM(S&R). (See photographs and plans on pages XIII-38 thru XIII-45. The conversion of a standard LCM(3) into an LCM(S&R) consists of the following:
- Move the cockpit, steering and engine controls forward.
- Cut off the portion of the bow ramp extending above bulwark.
- Remove all after towing bits and cleats.
- Remove the 50 cal. mountings, as well as bow ramp mechanism and other equipment ordinarily carried by LCMs and not required for this purpose.
- Put a deck over entire tank deck at upper edge of bulwark.
- Stow the suction and discharge hose in racks along guard rails, port and starboard.
- Install a new towing bit and fair all deck edges aft of bit to prevent towline from fouling and chafing.
- Specifications of the LCM(S&R) consist of the following:
- Install a deck over tank deck at height of bulwark. Material should be of 5 pound plate with appropriately spaced deck beams. Install escape scuttle (light weight, weather proof) in deck just forward of new cockpit and vertical ladder leading to tank deck. Install a bolted deck plate aft of towing line reel large enough to receive largest piece of equipment below deck. Install two 6" vent louvers in deck, port and starboard forward.
- Weld bow ramp closed and reinforce same for pushing, by installing one 8" x 10" timber across top of ramp and four 8" x 10" vertical timbers equally spaced across the width of the ramp and tapered to the bottom as shown in plan. Secure the timbers to the ramp by welding 1/4" x 3" flat bar edgewise to the ramp around the perimeter of the timbers and securing the timbers by lag screws in the sides. This method will provide structural strength to the ramp as well as supporting the timbers.
- Install a 500 watt spot light, mounted so as to elevate, depress and train through 360° and clear of all obstructions.
- Install tow line reel; on center line just aft of cockpit. Size of reel 30" in diameter, 3 feet wide with a 6" core. This will carry 100 fathoms of 5" line.
- Install towing bit on center line 14 feet forward of stern.
- Install forward towing bit on center line 21/2 feet aft of forward edge of wooden bow fenders.
- Install hand rail 2 feet high along each side of upper deck level. Material to be of 1" pipe.
- Install a closed chock on the center line in the bow for a fair lead for the anchor line.
- Install three hose connections with outlets facing forward and above deck in general location to fit leads from fire pump below deck. One outlet to terminate with a 4" male hose connection, the other two outlets to each terminate with a 21/2" male hose connection.
- Install 5 aluminum pipe frame bunks in general location as shown in plan and about 3 feet below overhead.
- Install a 100 gallon portable water tank, 11/2' x 2' x 5' long. Locate at after end of tank deck near overhead. Provide faucet in convenient location for drawing water.
- Install a rack for securing 3 oxygen and 1 acetylene bottle as shown in plan.
- Install work bench 2' x 5' with wooden top and a 4" universal vise. Enclose space under bench and provide shelves for stowage of motor spare parts and tools.
- Install one 2' x 4' table as shown in plan to support one 610 radio.
- Install 3 shelves forward as shown in plan for stowage of gear, food and personal effects.
- Install hooks and pegs along outer bulkhead below bunk for hanging diving equipment, tackle, line and other gear.
- Install one light weight gasoline driven arc welding machine (less chassis). Locate as shown in plan, lead exhaust overboard. Specifications, reference Bureau of Yards and Docks Stock List Catalog, welder, electric, gas driven, 200 or 300 Amp. Stock No. 7B1-5 or equivalent, weight 1800 to 1900 lbs. Availability--Advance Base Construction Depot.
- Install one fire and drainage pump and locate as in plan. Provide piping from the two 21/2" discharge outlets to the outlets described in par. 1350 (a) (9) herein. Install a sea chest between inner and outer bottom with strainer for 4" suction side of pump, install a cut-out valve between sea chest and pump, extend the 4" suction line from the pump to the 4" suction fitting. When operating as a fire pump, a positive low suction will be had by blanking the 4" connection on topside and opening the valve to the sea chest. When used as a salvage pump, the 4" hose is connected to the topside connection and the other end fitted with a strainer and foot valve placed in the craft to be pumped out. The valve on the low suction can then be cracked open to prime the pump. It is desirable to lead the exhaust from the engine overboard at or below the level of the exhaust outlet at the engine, as the cooling water is discharged into the engine exhaust manifold. Pump Specifications: Pump, portable, I.C.E. driven, 500 G.P.M. at 100 p.s.i. equipped with two 21/2" discharge outlets, and one 4" suction inlet. This is a Navy Standard Stock item, class 11-P and an item of the fire fighting equipment in the Hull Allowance list of vessels. Weight of pump about 350 lbs.
- Install one light weight air compressor and pressure tank with sufficient capacity to provide air for one shallow water diver. Electric driven, 110 volts, A.C. outlet of pressure tank to be fitted with a twin gauge pressure regulator, (similar to acetylene welding gauge) one gauge showing tank pressure, the other gauge showing the pressure on diver's hose. A compressor to meet these specifications is available at the Advanced base Construction Depot.
Reference Bureau of Yards and Docks, Stock List Catalog, stock No. 6R1-2, Curtis Air Compressor, Type "V", model V885 two stage, 4.9 C.F.M. with 32 gallon pressure tank and A.C. motor, weight 400 lbs.
- Install a gas driven 3 KW A.C. generator located as shown in plan. A type to meet these specifications is available at the Advanced Base Construction Depot and listed in the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Stock Catalog, Onan Generator, 3 KVA, 115 volts, 60 cycles, single phase A.C. Model W3M-16, Stock List No. 3E9-6, net weight 555 lbs.
- Install necessary wiring from generator to air compressor spot light, radio A.C. power-pack and below deck lighting.
- Equipment and Accessories carried in the LCM(S&R) consist of the following:
- General equipment and accessories.
DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity Radio, Portable SCR 610 Set 1 Megaphone, Electric No. 1 Light, Flood 500 W. No. 1 Generator, Portable Gas, 11/2 KVA No. 1 Welder, Gas, 300 Amp No. 1 Blower, 500 CFM (Minus Hose) No. 1 Pump, Gas driven 500 gpm No. 1 Compressor, Air, Gas Driven No. 1 Bitt No. 2 Chock, Closed No. 1 Tank, F.W. No. 1 Bunks No. 5 Table, Radio No. 1 Bench, Work No. 1 Reel, Towline No. 1 Cans, Gasoline No. 10 Davit, Portable No. 1 Lockers & Misc. tool boxes, Puller wheel No. 1
- Oxy-Acetylene Cutting Equipment.
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 41T3775 Torch, Cutting, Type E, with tips No. 1 45B3530 Regulator, Oxygen Type C No. 2 45B3500 Regulator, Acetylene, Type A No. 2 51G120 Gas, Acetylene (225 cu.ft. cyl.) No. 1 51G225 Gas, Oxygen (200 cu.ft. cyl.) No. 3 37T3553 Goggle, Welding No. 2 37L244 Filter Lenses for welding goggles Shade 5 Pr. 2 37L228 Clear Lenses for welding goggles Pr. 10 33H453 Hose, Oxygen, with couplings ft. 100 33H403 Hose, Acetylene ft. 100 41150 Igniter, Oxy-Acetylene No. 1 411 Igniter tips, spare No. 6 51F685 Welding Flux, brazing lb. 1
- ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 37A450 Apron Welders, type B No. 1 38B994 Brushes, Welders cleaning No. 2 15C335 Cables, Arc Welding, Type TRF 50' length No. 4 37H1660 Helmet, Welders with filter lens and cover glass No. 1 17H5910 Holders, electrode No. 2 37J1151-420 Jacket, welders, chrome leather size 42 No. 1 37L295 Lens, cover, clear glass No. 20 37L320 Lens, filter, shade 10 No. 3 37M365 Mitts, Welders, leather gauntlet Pr. 2 46E655 Electrode, Welding, Grade 1 Class 1-1/8" lb. 100 46E657 Electrode, Welding, Grade 1 Class 1-5/32" lb. 100 46F659 Electrode, Welding, Grade 1 Class 1-3/16" lb. 100
- SPECIAL TOOLS FOR REPAIR OF LANDING BOAT ENGINES
DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity CS-1146 Governor Adjusting Wrench No. 1 J-1290 Injector Valve Spring lifter No. 1 C-600 Alemite Grease Gun No. 1 J-1238 Injector Nut Wrench No. 1 EQ-205 Cylinder Head Wrench No. 1 KMO-233B Feeler Gage No. 1 EQ-425 Fuel Line Wrench No. 1 KMO-236 Fuel and Water Pump Wrench No. 1 KMO-326A Fuel Pump Nut Wrench No. 1 EQ-203 Fuel Line Nut Wrench No. 1
- FIRE FIGHTING GEAR & PUMP ACCESSORIES
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 58E194 CO2 fire extinguisher, 15 lbs No. 2 33H273 Hose, Cotton, rubber lined, 21/2", 50' Length 2 33H270 Hose, Cotton, rubber lined, 11/2", 50' Length 4 58N109-90 Nozzles, 21/2", all purpose, 3 position No. 2 58N109-70 Nozzles, 11/2", all purpose, 3 position No. 2 33S76 Spanner, hose coupling, 21/2" No. 2 33S70 Spanner, hose coupling, 11/2" No. 2 33W76-20 Washers, Leather, hose 21/2" No. 4 33W76-10 Washers, Leather, hose 11/2" No. 8 Spanner, Adjustable No. 2 58W4000 Wye Gate, 21/2" x 11/2" x 11/2" No. 2 33C586 Coupling, reducing, 21/2" to 11/2" hose No. 2 33H599 Hose, Suction 4" 10' lengths Length 4 11E Eductor, for use with 500 g.p.m. pump. aluminum, 25 g.p.m. at 100 psi, with suction strainer and foot valve Set 2
- GENERAL TOOL
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 41B282 Bar, Pinch, 7/8" dia. No. 1 41C1052 Chisel Cape, 1/4" No. 1 41C1114 Chisel Cold, 5/8" No. 1 41C1138 Chisel, Cold 1" No. 1 41C1235 Chisel, Cold 1/4" No. 1 41C1660 Clamps "C", 41/2" No. 4 41C1691 Soldering iron, electric, med. No. 1 41O1663 Drill, breast, 1/8" to 1/2" No. 1 40D345 Drill, Electric, Portable, 1/2" No. 1 41F863 Files, 12" flat bastard No. 1 41F933 File, 12" half round, bastard No. 1 41F952 File, 8" half round smooth No. 1 41F955 File, 12" half round smooth No. 1 41F1307 File, 12" round bastard No. 1 41F1302 File, 6" round bastard No. 1 41F1365 File, 10" square bastard No. 1 41G40 Thickness gage No. 1 41H338 Hammer, Hand, 21/2" double face No. 1 41H525 Hammer, Ball Pein, 24 oz. No. 1 41H187 Hammer, Claw type D No. 1 41H2101 Hoist, Chain, 1/2 ton No. 1 1301535 Oil Can No. 2 41P1631 Pliers, 6" slip joint No. 1 41P1635 Pliers, 10" slip joint No. 1 41P1977 Pliers, 7" side cut 6" No. 1 41P3185 Punches, Center No. 2 41R2844 Rules, folding, 6' No. 2 41F3390 Saws, Hack, Frame-Minus 2 handles No. 1 41B1155 Blades, Hack Saw 12" -- 18 tooth Dz. 2 41B1167 Blades, Hack Saw 12" -- 32 tooth Dz. 2 41S188 Saw, Hand, Cross Cut, 26" No. 1 41S1104 Screw Driver, 6" No. 1 41S1110 Screw Driver, 12" No. 1 41S1116 Shears, tin No. 1 41W114 Wedges, 4" x 11/2" No. 2 41W597 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 5/16 x 3/8 No. 1 41W599 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 7/16 x 1/2 No. 1 41W601 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 9/16 x 5/8 No. 1 41W605 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 13/16 x 7/8 No. 1 41W608 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 16/16 x 1 No. 1 41W610 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 1-1/16 x 1-1/8 No. 1 41W612 Wrench, double end, box, 12 pt. 11/4 x 1-15/16 No. 1 41W910 Wrench, open end, 7/16 x 1/2 No. 1 41W915 Wrench, open end, 9/16 x 5/8 No. 1 41W920 Wrench, open end 3/4 x 13/16 No. 1 41W925 Wrench, open end, 7/8 x 15/16 No. 1
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 41W930 Wrench, open end 1 x 1-1/8 No. 1 41W935 Wrench, open end 1-1/6 x 11/4 No. 1 41W1653 Wrench, pipe, adjustable 14" No. 1 41W2356 Wrench, monkey 3" No. 1 41W2997 Wrenches, socket, 1/2" to 1" opening Set. 1 41V Vise, Bench, Swivel, 4" No. 1 M822 Hammer, 5# No. 1 41B1894 Braces, Carpenters No. 1 41B677 Bits, Auger, set 1/4" to 1" Set. 1 41C1495 Chisel, wood 3/4" No. 1 41P804 Plane, smooth No. 1 4155325 Oilstone, for wood tools No. 1 41P3602 Punch, drive pin 1/8" No. 1 41P3604 Punch, drive pin 3/16" No. 1 41S4455 Square 10", tri No. 1 41W487 Adjustable wrench 10" No. 1 42B24760 Bucket, Galv. No. 2 17F13452 Flashlights No. 4 17B7210 Flashlight batteries, spare No. 12 17B7765 Portable lantern No. 4 17B Spare Batteries for lantern No. 12 17B Spare flashlight lamp No. 3 17B Spare lantern lamp No. 3 41C2281 Bolt cutter No. 1 Caulking iron, 1/16" edge, straight No. 1 41B175 Bar, crow 1-1/4" dia., 7' long No. 1 41B620 Screw driver bit 1/2" No. 1 41B622 Screw driver bit 3/8" No. 1 43S9120 Screws, machine, brass, RH 12-23x11/2 Gross 1 43B15006 Bolt and Nut, brass 1/4" x 2" No. 25 43B15054 Bolt and nut, brass 3/8" x 21/2" No. 10 43B15083 Bolt and nut, brass 1/2" x 3" No. 10 43N Nut, brass, 10-24 Gross 1/4 43N Nut, brass, 12-24 Gross 1/4 43S20656 Screws, wood, FH brass 2" x 14 Gross 1/2 43S20596 Screws, wood, FH brass 11/2" x 12 Gross 1/2 43S20534 Screws, wood, FH brass 12 x 3 Gross 1/4 43W3000 Washers, brass #10 Gross 1/4 43W Washers, brass #12 Gross 1/4 43W3004 Washers, brass 1/4" Gross 1/4 43W3012 Washers, brass 3/8" No. 10 43W3015 Washers, brass 1/2" No. 10 42E25812 Nails, common 8D lb. 5 52E25816 Nails, common 10 d lb. 5 42E25824 Nails, common 30 d lb. 5 42C20368 Cloth, abrasive, #00 sheet 5 42T1260 Tacks, copper 3/4" lb. 3 33G Gasket Material Oil 1/16" sheet 1 33G Gasket material oil 1/32" sheet 2 33P2431 Gasket material, soft sheet rubber 1/16" Sq.ft. 12 24D493 Duck, No. 6 yd. 10
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity 21C280 Caulking cotton lb. 3 Lamp wicking, cotton lb. 2 52P20710 Putty red lead in oil lb 121/2 45S550 Solder, brazing, grade A lb. 3 52 White lead in oil lb. 121/2 52S Dope, gasket, Copaltite tube 1 Oakum lb. 10 46S569 Solder, wire lb. 1 51F660 Flux, solder, paste can 1 17T805 Friction tape, black elect. 3/4" roll 2 27C2690 rags, wiping lb. 10 38B105 broom, corn No. 1 41P150 Dust pan No. 1 29P1020 Paper, toilet roll 5 41G1160 Cup grease, mineral, soft lb. 5 41L1500 Lubricant, water pump lb. 5 14026I0 Oil, lube, symbol 2135 gal. 1 21M110 Marline, hemp, tarred lb. 5 21C790 Rope Sisal 1" cir. Fm. 20 21R388 rope, 11/2" cir. 21 thread Fm. 20 26S36700 Straps, bunk No. 5 21R468 Line, for towing, 5" Fm. 100 21C222 Sash line #7, cotton, for heavy lines lt. 300
- SPARE PARTS FOR GM6-71
Part DESCRIPTION No. per unit 5150020 Hand-hole cover gasket 4 5150045 Cyl. head gasket 2 5151159 Cyl. hd. stand. 4 5150013 Cyl. head stand. nut 4 103321 Lockwasher 5/16" 25 5150020 Hand-hole plate gasket 1 5159060 Fresh water pump assembly 1 R-130G Bilge pump assembly 1 D6-104 Bilge Pump drive belt 1 MP-0114 Packing ring set 4 D6-636C Sea water pump assembly 1 5150988 Gasket & S (Silencer to Blower) 1 5230031 Fuel pump assembly 1 5227141 Injection assembly (W/case) 6 5150237 Blower Housing to Block Gasket 1 853695 Fuel Filter assembly (T-1) 2 T11 Filter Element 6 21332 Fabric Element and Gasket 6 D6-471 Oil cooler inlet tube assembly 1 D6-472 Oil cooler outlet tube assembly 1 D6-119 Gasket, oil tube flange 6 D-6-579 Gasket, oil tube flange 6
Part DESCRIPTION No. per unit 5163580 Governor assembly 1 5150246 Governor to blower gasket 2 5150329 Gasket, rocker arm cover 2 1102956 Generator, 12 volt 1 D346-136 Generator belt 1 1118210 Regulator, voltage and current 1 1118046 Switch, solenoid 12v 1 1108705 Starting motor assembly 1 5153384 Air heater and cover assembly 1 5154066 Air heater cover gasket 2 1556410 Insulator assembly 1 A3788 Gasket, top cover plate (twin disc clutch) 2 6900 Generator regulator and terminal shield assembly 1 1500679 Ammeter 1 1506630 Gage, oil pressure 1 1511578 Oil temperature gage 1 1511579 Water temperature gage 1 1535144 Tachometer cable (14 ft.) 1 EQ-131 Sump pump and hose 1 S13 Element, lube oil filter 2 Hose, radiator 2" 11/2 Clamps, hose, adjustable 12 Hose, radiator 11/2" 3 ft. Belting, Veelos 50 ft. Jacking Ban 1
- HULL SPARES
Stock No. DESCRIPTION Unit Quantity M-115 Propeller, 22x20x2 R.H. No. 2 M-131 Propeller, 24x17x2 R.H. No. 2 M-4059 Nut, prop. shaft 11/2" No. 2 M-5019 Nut, prop. shaft Jam 11/2" No. 4 M-1057 Shaft, prop. 2"x71 3/4" No. 2 M-1058 Shaft, prop. 3"x851/2" No. 2 M-13015 Cylinder, Lucite, sand trap 6" dia x 12" long No. 1 M-17018 Wheel, steering, Higgins LCVP No. 1 M-17028 Wheel, steering, LCM No. 1 M-20017 Rudder, Chris-Craft LCVP No. 1 M-30017 Gasket, San Trap No. 10 Pin, Ramp Hinge LCM No. 2 Packing, Flax 3/8" Ft. 25 Plywood, 1/2" x 4' x 10' sheet 1 Plate, steel 3/16" x 5' x 5' sheet 1 Plate, steel 10 ga. 5' x 5' sheet 1 Ban, flat, steel 1" x 1/4" ft. 10 Ban, flat, steel 2" x 1/4" ft. 10 Ban, flat, steel 2" x 1/2" ft. 10
Part No. Description Unit Quantity Ban, Round steel 1/4" Ft. 10 Ban Round steel 3/8" Ft. 10 Ban Round steel 1/2" Ft. 10 Cable, Ramp, LVP, 1/2" No. 1 Cable, Ramp LCM 1/2" No. 1 Thimbles, for above No. 4 Cable, Steering 3/8" 50' No. 1 BOLTS -- CARRIAGE 1/4" x 3" No. 50 5/16" x 21/2" No. 20 5/16" x 41/2" No. 30 3/8" x 3" No. 25 3/8" x 4" No. 25 3/8" x 6" No. 12 1/2" x 5" No. 12 1/2" x 7" No. 12 WASHERS -- FLAT 5/16" lb. 1 7/16" lb. 1 1/2" lbs. 2 BOLTS -- MACHINE 1/4" x 2" brass No. 25 1/2" x 3" brass No. 10 5/16" x 3" steel No. 15 3/8" x 3" steel No. 10 1/2" x 31/2" steel No. 10
- MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL
Stock No. 17L12929 Multipurpose signal kit Set 1 17B7725 Spare batteries for above No. 2 17L5529 Spare lamps for above No. 2 18B1137 Binoculars, prismatic, 6x20 power No. 1 5F5110 Flags, semaphore No. 2 23D130 Diving Apparatus, shallow water less air pump Set 1 Line throwing shoulder gun with line, projectiles and charges Set 1
NOTE: The design and equipment carry in the LCM(S&R) was governed by the fact that this boat could not exceed the 30 ton limit when completed.
- Tactical Employment of the LCM(S&R). The following methods and functions shall be employed in the tactical operation of the LCM(S&R).
- Towing: The basic tasks of the LCM(S&R) as set forth in paragraph 1341 herein, include as a primary function, the towing, salvage and emergency repair of stranded landing boats, operating under the control of the Beachmaster. After the initial landing phase, when the operation has settled down to general unloading, the LCM(S&R), when not required for inshore salvage, will be placed under the control of the Commander Service and Salvage Group to act as tenders to his larger vessels and to perform such diving and emergency repairs as he may direct. In addition to the above, it may be used as directed at any time as a fire fighting boat.
- Towing forms an indispensable part of salvage operations. The general principles of towing of any vessels apply to landing craft and landing boats. The method of approaching the disabled craft would take into consideration the state of the sea and the direction of the wind. (See page XIII-46.) Usually, in any weather, the towing craft should parallel the disabled craft to the windward, and, after passing the line, go ahead so as to clear the disabled boat. After the line is made fast, a gradual strain should be taken. Do not attempt to tow at high speeds.
- It is not always possible to tow alongside. In such instances, the use of a bridle on a long tow is recommended. (See pages XIII-47 and XIII-48.) A bridle can be made up in almost any manner to bring an even pull from both sides of the bow of the towed boat.
- In rough weather, wherever there is plenty of room (if using a bridle tow) use plenty of line; it eases the strain greatly. In close quarters, keep the line short and have men constantly adjusting it. Wherever possible, however, towing alongside is the most favorable method.
- Remember that towing can be a "salvage operation" in itself. Good towing depends upon good basic boat handling, good line, good seamanship and common sense.
- Salvage: Promptness in commencing Salvage Operations is of utmost importance. The Salvage Boat crew must be alert at all times to initiate action immediately without waiting for orders when any landing boat appears to be in trouble.
- Refloating Stranded Boats: Frequently landing craft become stranded through various causes and cannot back off the beach under their own power. It then becomes necessary for the LCM(S&R) to pull them off.
- Under normal surf conditions the LCM(S&R) should land on the weather side of the stranded boat and pass the tow line to it. When tow line is secured to the stranded craft, normally on the stern, LCM(S&R)
backs off beach, paying out line as necessary to insure that line is kept clear of screw. When clear of breakers, LCM(S&R) is turned to head into surf. This can usually be most easily accomplished by taking a turn on the lee quarter cleat and taking a strain on the towing line as necessary to swing boat around.
- If stranded boat is well up on beach, or the efforts of one LCM(S&R) prove unsuccessful, two towing craft in tandem could be used. First craft passes line in normal fashion and takes station clear of breakers heading into surf. Second craft then passes line to bow of first craft and then pull in unison.
- When surf conditions make it unadvisable to beach LCM(S&R) it should come in stern first only close enough to reach stranded boat with a shoulder line throwing gun and pass tow line in this manner. If surf is too heavy for the above method the LCM(S&R) should anchor outside the line of breakers, with anchor line at the bow; it should then be dropped astern until the line can be passed with line throwing gun. While pulling, keep a strain on the anchor line to hold bow to sea.
- The practice of having members of the beach party pass tow line by wading out into the surf should be avoided whenever possible and in general personnel should be kept out of the water as much as possible.
- Under many conditions, when stranded boat is lying at an angle to the beach, it will be advisable to place tow line on bow of stranded boat, pulling bow around with boat pivoting on the stern. Line should be slipped under bow completely under boat and secured to the inshore bow. (See page XIII-49.) When bow is pulled loose, boat should be towed out to sea bow first. Rocking the boat by stationing men on both sides and having them alternately lift up and pull down on rail will aid in dislodging a badly stranded boat.
- In salvaging stranded boats LCM(S&R) should take a gradually increasing strain heading into surf at all times. Do not jerk on the line as it will either part the line or cause the fitting to pull out. On boats with quarter chocks and cleats, belay the line on the weather cleat. If the boat works up to windward excessively, shift to leeward chock occasionally, thus getting the boat down to leeward.
- Do not be discouraged if the stranded craft does not come off with the first pull. With a steady strain on the bow line, each sea which comes partially under the stranded craft will cause her to come off a few inches. From seaward, this is imperceptible. Keep pulling until advised from the beach to stop.
- Stranded craft use engines as soon as suction is obtained, if otherwise in operating condition.
- While actually towing, never attempt to make much speed. It takes longer to pass a line after it parts than the time gained is worth.
NOTE: NEVER ATTEMPT TO PULL A STRANDED BOAT OFF THE BEACH BY ATTACHING TOWING LINE FORWARD IN THE LCM(S&R) AND BACKING OUT.
- Refloating Boats Requiring a Heavy Pull: In cases where a very heavy pull is going to be required, a bridle should be passed entirely around the hull of the stranded boat. Boats which were high and dry have been pulled off in this manner, using a bridle of two parts of wire or 5-inch manila and a 9-inch manila towline, and three landing craft, a patrol vessel, or a minesweeper for pulling.
- Bridle should be led twice around the hull from a point immediately under the beading at the bow down under flat after portion of hull, with a clamped or seized eye about 2 feet astern of and under the propeller. This lead tends to lift the stern instead of burying it.
- The bridle is held in position by 2-inch manila lashings passed over and under the hull. In place of the bridle, a cargo net may be thrown over the bow, pull being taken from the beckets under the stern of the stranded boat.
- Sand must be dug away from stern and sides, skids may be placed under the boat, and in the case of an LCM(3) a bulldozer or other vehicle used to push on the bow. If such a method is used, the ample use of fending should be stressed.
- In all cases, it is necessary to break the suction under the boat. This may be done by rocking the boat, care being taken not to break the skeg by using too much force. Much emphasis should be placed on the ample use of fending in the salvage of small craft.
- In any instance when a line is passed around any part of the hull of a boat, fending and chafing gear should be used freely and wisely to prevent parting of lines and damage to boats.
- Before pulling a boat off a steep beach with high surf, or pulling off a damaged boat, it may be necessary to build an emergency docking of plank and canvas over the after compartment to prevent swamping. Holes in the boat may be patched by nailing on lead or canvas, backed up if necessary by any pieces of planking available.
- If the sea and wind are perpendicular to the beach, back in stern first, and heave the line just after the salvage craft has stopped sternway and is prepared to move out again. The Coxswain should take a gradual strain and watch the line to keep it well clear of the propeller. Pay out enough line so that the natural spring of the line will take the "jerk-strain" off the stranded boat.
- If a heavy surf is running, anchor outside the breakers and back down slowly until close enough to heave the line. Keep a steady strain on the anchor line while working out, to prevent broaching of the salvage craft.
- When wind and sea are at an angle to the beach, running the towline becomes more difficult. Allowance must be made for drift and leeway. The stranded boat should be approached from leeward, passing as close aboard her as the surf will permit. (See page XIII-50). The line should be passed when the LCM(S&R) is just to weather of the stranded boat. Continue to work up to weather as the towline is heaved aboard and made fast to the broached boat. Then, as line is payed out, the salvage craft will take a strain on the line and commence pulling into the wind and sea, insofar as is possible.
- Should the wind and sea be running in different directions, the salvage crew will be forced to rely on its own judgment. In any case, it should be remembered that the salvage craft should not become broadside to a breaking surf.
The crew of the LCM(S&R) will find it is often possible to run a towline by floating it in on five gallon buckets or on oil drums. In cases where the motor of a stranded boat is out of operation, it is possible in calm, deep water to use the following method: The LCM(S&R) should back down to the quarter of the stranded boat and pass a line which should be secured quarter to quarter. (See page XIII-51). The LCM(S&R) should then go ahead with the result that the propeller wash will wash the sand away from the rudder and skeg of the stranded boat in addition to providing flotation for the hull.
- In some instances it may be possible to free a boat that is stranded on the beach without the use of beach equipment, or in cases where "cherry pickers", angledozers, LeTourneaus, or Gilhoists may not be available. This may be accomplished by beaching two salvage craft alongside the stranded boat and in turn setting their engines in reverse. The wash produced should free her. If the two salvage craft should start to retract before the stranded craft can work out, it may become necessary to anchor them to the beach.
- In later phases of the operation, several methods may be used to float broached boats. In cases of a broached heavy craft, an angledozer may be used, pulling the bow of the broached boat on a line parallel to the beach while the LCM(S&R) pulls on a line directly to seaward. (See page XIII-52). The angledozer might also be used with a direct push on the bow of the stranded boat.
- In similar instances, a "cherry picker" or LeTourneau might be used to straighten the broached boat, prior to the pull to seaward by the LCM(S&R).
- The Gilhoist will prove even more effective as an aid to the salvage of broached boats since its dual purpose will allow it to lift LCMs as well as LCVPs.
- The personnel of the LCM(S&R) should always remember that there are many and varied aids which can be utilized in refloating broached boats. It is always worthwhile to familiarize themselves with the tide and current tables in connection with the area in which they may be working. It should be borne in mind that all excess weight such as water and fuel should be removed from the broached craft. It is possible to remove water from craft by means of the eductor pumps on the portable water pumps on the LCM(S&R).
- Repair functions of the LCM(S&R). In general the LCM(S&R) shall provide the same repair services, relatively proportioned to that of a large Salvage and repair vessel. During the earlier phases of the landing operation, the LCM(S&R) will be more concerned with rendering emergency repair services to small craft and boats involved in the actual landing.
- The magnitude of a repair which can be made to such craft will of necessity be governed by the initiative, common sense and good judgment of the crew. The salvage boat crew will have to decide whether the stranded boat may be put again into service by an emergency repair which can be expedited by the LCM(S&R) or whether the craft should be returned to the mother vessel.
- It should be borne in mind, however, that any repairs undertaken by the LCM(S&R) during the early phases of the operation, should be of the minor type which would return the boat to the operation hurriedly. Undertaking too much of a job at this point would unnecessarily tie up the salvage craft when its services might be more urgently needed at another point by the Beachmaster.
- Personnel of the salvage craft must bear in mind that their primary function during the earlier phases of the operation is to expedite the landing. They must use judgment and imagination to insure that salvage operations facilitate the landing rather than hinder it. They must be alert to insure they do not become an interference to boat waves still landing.
- Specifically, as regards repairs, it shall be the purposes of the LCM(S&R) to:
- Provide emergency repairs to hulls of large vessels where it is not necessary or desirable to bring a large salvage and repair vessel alongside.
- Provide diving services for inspecting or repairing underwater damage and clearing fouled screws of all vessels including landing craft.
- Change screws of small landing craft.
- Make minor repairs to engines of landing craft.
- Close inoperative bow ramps of small landing craft when on the beach or offshore.
- Repair damaged ramps and leaking gaskets.
- Make temporary and quick patches on hulls, including steel.
- Replace loose or broken belts in rudder stuffing box.
- Repair cooling system failures -- to salt water and fresh water pumps, piping, water strainer, heat exchanger, power bilge pump and thermostat.
- Correct electrical system failures--involving loose wiring, batteries, starter, generator, switches, blowers, heater, ammeter.
- Correct lubricating oil system failures -- involving pumps, filter, cooler, lines and gage.
- Repair ignition system failures.
- Be prepared for fuel system trouble shooting -- tanks, lines, filter, pumps, injectors, air-supply and carburetors.
- Repair failures in the steering system -- wheel, cables, sheaves, quadrant, rudder and post, stuffing box, linkage, and maneuvering rudder.
- Repair bilges -- damaged hand pumps, strainers, hand pump piping.
- As has been pointed out, the LCM(S&R) may be returned to the Commander Service and Salvage Group during the latter phases of the operation, where it will undertake larger repair jobs.
- Employing the LCM(S&R) as a Fire Fighting Boat. One of the most important functions of the LCM(S&R) is that of combating fires. Personnel aboard the LCM(S&R) shall thoroughly familiarize themselves with the functions and proper methods employed in combating each class of fire in accordance with instructions contained in
Fire Fighting Manual. (NavShips 688).
- The fire fighting equipment on board the LCM(S&R) can be used to apply water in straight streams as high velocity water fog through the tip of the all purpose nozzle, or as low velocity water fog through applicators attached to all-purpose nozzles. Periodic drills will develop efficiency in assembly the equipment and will demonstrate the characteristics of the types of water streams available.
- Whenever possible, the LCM(S&R) will approach the burning vessel to windward of the fire, for maximum safety to fire fighting personnel and to the LCM(S&R). The fire pump should be in operation and hose assemblies made sufficiently in advance of the approach to permit an early and orderly attack of the fire. The twelve foot fog applicators, supplied by 21/2" hose lines may be used to advantage when boarding the stricken vessel, by extending them over the bulwarks, extinguishing the fire in the immediate area, and cooling the structure to permit boarding.
- In general, straight streams of water are used to advantage in cooling a ship's structure and in fighting deep seated fires such as are found in mattresses, wood, and other class "A" materials, where the penetrating effect of the solid stream is desirable.
- Water fog should be used on fires in inflammable liquids, where the fine particles of water are effective in cooling the liquid surfaces and also in smothering the flame. However, it should also be remembered that water fog may be used to cool down compartments containing burning class "A" materials and also to protect personnel who may be using solid streams.
- The portable 15 lb. CO2 fire extinguishers are effective on fires in electrical equipment and in small fires involving inflammable liquids. Carbon dioxide is an excellent smothering agent but will only be effective so long as it is not dissipated by drafts, etc.
- The application of mechanical foam (Liquid Foam) is most beneficial where a volatile fire might be found in machinery spaces or any inaccessible portion of a small vessel. One N.P.U. nozzle, and at least 5 cans of mechanical foam is recommended.
- The P-500 gasoline driven fire pump should be maintained in accordance with the operating manual. In addition, the following items should be given consideration:
- A pressure of 100 lbs. should be maintained at the pump in order to produce effective water fog.
- Whenever possible, the pump should be thoroughly flushed with fresh water, immediately after use. It is suggested that a drum of fresh water be available and recirculated through the pump by taking suction from the drum and discharging the water back into the drum.
- The auxiliary 4" suction connection should not be used for salvage pumping of hazardous liquids or for water containing debris which may foul the pump. In such cases, suction should be taken from the sea chest and discharged through the eductors, which are a part of the LCM(S&R) allowance. A thorough knowledge of these eductors and their advantages is indispensable and may be obtained by practice and by study of the Fire Fighters Manual.
- Normal fire precautions and good judgment must always be followed when combating fires on larger vessels. If at all possible, know what cargo is aboard the burning vessel. If heavy explosives are aboard, stay away. In the case of small arms ammunition, which can be rendered harmless by cooling with water, it is less dangerous to go alongside.
- Training for LCM (S&R) Salvage Parties. In general, training will be given to assure workable knowledge of salvage technique utilizing the equipment of the LCM(S&R) Boat. Attainment of proficiency in the subjects listed hereinafter is the objective of all LCM(S&R) training. The LCM(S&R) Salvage Party boat crews will be trained in:
- Boat Handling Theory.
- Backing down.
- Action of rudder and propeller.
- Effect of rudder.
- Use of rudder and engine in coming alongside and approaching a landing boat.
- Use of engine and rudder in beaching and retracting.
- Use of rudder and engine to avoid broaching under varying conditions of wind, sea and surf.
- Rules of the road in landing operations.
- Practice Salvage Boat Handling of Both Single and Twin Screw Craft.
- Boat Control.
- Beaching and retracting.
- Surf landing and retracting.
- Effects of wind, tide, current and surf on salvage operations. Sea and wind perpendicular to beach, sea and wind at angle to beach, and sea and wind in opposite directions.
- Operating over sand bars and in the vicinity of rocks and coral heads.
- Towing -- side tows; stern tow; fending.
- Salvage of landing boats of all types amphibious vehicles and pontoon barges in conjunction with other salvage boats, bull dozer, LeTourneau Crane, Jeheemy.
- Basic Seamanship (see Seamanship Training for all hands).
- Stripping abandoned and unsalvageable boats.
- Salvaging swamped boats.
- Handling lines; use of Lyle gun.
- Use of sounding lead lines, poles.
- Use of grapnels.
- The LCM(S&R) Salvage Party communication personnel will be trained in:
- Ship-to-Shore communications.
- Radio nets on an organized beach -- battalion, regimental, divisional.
- Morse code.
- Semaphore and semaphore procedure.
- Ship-to-Shore tactical signals and identification markers; boat calls.
- Blinker and flashing light procedure.
- R/T procedure -- message parts, pro-words, executive method.
- Circuit discipline; voice articulation; conditions of radio silence.
- Operation, care, trouble shooting and minor repair of SCR 610 radio.
- Ship-to-Shore channel markers and navigational hazard markers.
- Ship-to-Shore beach panel markers and lights.
- Organization and functioning of the Beach Party communications section.
- Traffic control communications.
- The LCM(S&R) Salvage Party boat repair personnel will be trained in:
- Diesel engine trouble shooting and emergency repairs.
- Cooling system failures -- emergency repairs of saltwater and fresh water pumps, piping, water strainer, heat exchanger, power bilge pump and thermostat.
- Electrical system failures -- emergency repairs involving loose wiring, batteries, starter, generator, switches, blowers, heater, ammeter.
- Lubricating oil system failures -- emergency repairs involving pumps, filter, cooler, lines and gages.
- Reverse assembly breakdown -- emergency repairs to band, plates, control linkage, and reduction gear.
- Emergency repairs to ignition system failures.
- Fuel system trouble shooting -- involving tanks, lines, filter, pumps, injectors, air supply and carburetors.
- Steering system failures -- involving emergency repairs to wheel, cables, sheaves, quadrant, rudder and post, stuffing box, linkage. maneuvering rudder, loose or broken belts in rudder stuffing box.
- Ramp damage -- emergency repairs to catches, hinges, gasket, cable, sheaves, winch. Bent or damaged ramp and leaking gaskets.
- Emergency repairs to hulls, wood and steel -- emergency temporary patching of bottom, side panels and transom rudder and sternpost repairs. Lead, wood and canvas patches.
- Bilge emergency repairs -- involving damaged hand pumps, strainers and hand pump piping.
- Removing and replacing propellers.
- Welding -- electric and oxy-acetylene welding in connection with damaged metal hulls of landing boats.
- Diving -- removing wire and line fouled in propellers; surveying and reporting and repairing underwater hull damage, changing propellers, repairing damaged underwater steering gear, rigging equipment to salvage sunken boats, landing vehicles and Army gear.
- LCM(S&R) Salvage Party personnel will be trained in the following subjects of Seamanship involved in salvage work:
- Manila, from small line to 41/2" line; identification and determination of size of line; splicing and whipping.
- Wire, from 1/4" to 2-3/4" diameter.
- Landing boat nomenclature and location of parts; hull structures.
- Practical work with boat lines -- towing and salvage lines, towing pendants, heaving lines, use of the Lyle gun.
- The seven basic knots.
- Anchoring boats.
- Towing bridles -- construction and preparation of, installation of hooks.
- Passing a towline to a stranded boat:
- By anchoring salvage boat and then dropping astern until a line can be run to the stranded boat.
- By attaching a towline to a buoy and floating it down.
- Using a Lyle gun.
- Strengthening a stranded boat.
- Bow and stern methods of salvaging broached landing boats while working in surf.
- Salvaging broached boats in conjunction with Beach Parties using steadying lines, bulldozer, LeTourneau Crane, amphibious vehicles, Jeheemy, Cherry picker and "A" frame.
- Practical salvage of boats and vehicles under the following conditions:
- Dead at sea with engine failure.
- Broached on beach.
- With hull damage and sinking at sea.
- Sunken boats and vehicles. Also, salvage of sunken Army equipment.
- Refloating of landing boats dry on beach.
- Diving, in connection with salvage during amphibious operations, (shipfitters only).
- Use of power driven pumps, handy billy, hand bailing.
- All LCM(S&R) Salvage Party personnel should receive some training in first aid, including:
- Wounds in general, application of first aid dressings and splints.
- Handling of fracture cases in amphibious boats and vehicles; lifts and carries in handling the injured.
- Control of hemorrhage.
- Artificial respiration.
- Shock and unconsciousness.
- Bomb blast burns and gas casualties.
- All LCM(S&R) Salvage Party personnel should receive some training in physical conditioning, including the following:
- Life saving.
- Weight lifting.
- All LCM(S&R) Salvage Party personnel will be trained in fire fighting.
- All LCM(S&R) Salvage Party personnel will be trained in a general way in the use of all the equipment carried in the LCM(S&R) Salvage Boat, and with rated men becoming proficient in the use of equipment required by their specific duties and rates in connection with the prescribed functions of the LCM(S&R) Salvage Party.
- In connection with the training of the LCM(S&R) Salvage Party, employment of the following training films are recommended:
MN-942b Amphibious Warfare--Operating Single Screw Landing Boats -- LCPR and LCV MN-942c Amphibious Warfare--Beaching and Retracting Single Screw Landing Boats -- LCPR and LCV MN-942K Amphibious Warfare--Operating Twinscrew Landing Boats LCM-3 MN-942L Amphibious Warfare--Beaching and Retracting Twinscrew Landing Boats LCM-3 MN-942(F) Amphibious Warfare--Landing Boat Nomenclature -- The LCM(3) MN-942(N) Amphibious Warfare--Landing Boat Nomenclature -- The LCP(R) MN-4306(B) The LCVP -- Principles of Boat Handling MN-4307(A) The LCM(3) -- Description MN-4307(b) The LCM(3) -- Operation MN-4381 The LVT-A4 MN-4306(A) The LCVP (Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel) -- Part I -- Introduction and Nomenclature MN-942s Amphibious Warfare--Ship-to-Shore Movement in a Joint Amphibious Operation MN-942t Amphibious Warfare--Hydrographic and Boat Repair Sections of Naval Beach Party MN-942j Amphibious Warfare--Ship-to-Shore Movement -- Individual Training MN-942g Amphibious Warfare--The Shore Party MN-4306c The LCVP (Surf Operations) MN-4305a The Jeheemy MN-4305b The Salvage Boat MN-4305d The Caterpillars and Bulldozers MN-4305e The LVT MN-4301a Landing Boat Tactics (Attack) MN-4301b Landing Boat Tactics (Supply) MN-4311 Communications in the Ship to Shore Operation MA-2430 Learn and Live MN-61b Damage Control -- School of the Fire Fighter MA-1710 Incendiary Bombs -- Thermite and Magnesium Fighting the Fire Bomb They're Dropping Incendiaries
MA-407 First Aid -- Injuries and Accidents -- Part IV MN-386a Personal Damage Control -- Fundamentals of First Aid MN-836b Personal Damage Control -- Wounds MN-836e Personal Damage Control -- Artificial Respiration SN-222 Burns (Sound) SN-224a,b Moving the Injured -- Part I and II (Sound) SN-2655 Welding Equipment MN-105C The Techniques of Diving MN-105D Diving -- Shallow Water Diving
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